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BTE3233/SEM I 1718



1. If a frequency modulator produces 5 kHz of frequency deviation for a 10-V modulating

signal, determine the deviation sensitivity. How much frequency deviation is produced
for a 2-V modulating signal?
0.5 kHz/V, 1 kHz

2. For an FM modulator with deviation sensitivity K1 = 4 kHz/V and a modulating signal

vm(t) = 10 sin (22000t), determine
a. the peak frequency deviation
b. the carrier swing and,
c. the modulation index
40, 80, 20

3. Determine the percent modulation for a television broadcast station with a maximum
frequency deviation ∆f = 50 kHz when the modulating signal produces 40 kHz of
frequency deviation at the antenna.

4. From the Bessel table, determine the number of side frequencies produced for the
following indices : 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 5.0, and 10.
1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 12

5. For an FM modulator with modulation index m = 2, modulating signal vm(t) = Vm sin

(22000t), and an unmodulated carrier vc(t) = 8 sin (2800kt),
a. determine the number of sets of significant sidebands
b. determine their amplitudes
c. draw the frequency spectrum showing the relative amplitudes of the side
d. determine the bandwidth
4 sets, Jn = 0.22, 0.58, 0.35, 0.13, 0.03,
Vn = 1.76, 4.64, 2.80, 1.04, 0.24
16 kHz

6. For a given input signal, an FM broadcast-band transmitter has a frequency deviation

∆f = 20 kHz. Determine the frequency deviation if the amplitude of the modulating signal
increases by a factor of 2.5.
∆f = 50 kHz

7. For an FM modulator with an unmodulated carrier amplitude Vc = 20 V, a modulation

index m = 1 and a load resistance RL = 10 Ω, determine the power in the modulated
carrier and each side frequency, and sketch the power spectrum for the modulated
11.858 W, 3.87 W, 0.247 W, 0.008 W

8. For the FM modulator with a modulation index m = 1, vm(t) = Vm sin (21000t), an

unmodulated carrier vc(t) = 10 sin (2500kt), and load resistance RL = 50 Ω, determine
a. the unmodulated carrier power.

BTE3233/SEM I 1718

b. the total power in the angle-modulated wave.

1W, 1.0051 W

9. If a phase modulator produces 1.5 rad of phase deviation for a 5-Vp modulating signal,
determine the deviation sensitivity.
0.3 rad/V
10. Determine the peak phase deviation for a PM modulator with deviation sensitivity K =
2 rad/V ad a modulating signal vm(t) = 4 sin (21000t).
8 rads

11. For an FM transmitter with an 80 kHz carrier swing, determine the frequency deviation.
If the amplitude of the modulating signal decreases by a factor of 4, determine the new
frequency deviation.
40 kHz, 10 kHz

12. For an FM modulator with 50 kHz of frequency deviation and a modulating signal
frequency fm = 8 kHz, determine the bandwidth using both the Bessel table and
Carson’s rule.
144 kHz, 116 kHz

13. For a Crosby direct FM transmitter similar to the one in lecture note, with a total
frequency multiplication of 20 and a transmit carrier frequency ft = 88.8 MHz, determine
a. master oscillator canter frequency.
b. frequency deviation at the output of the modulator for a frequency deviation of
75 kHz at the antenna.
c. deviation ratio at the output of the modulator for a maximum modulating-signal
frequency fm = 15 kHz.
d. deviation ratio at the antenna.
4.43 Hz, 3750 Hz, 0.25, 5
14. For an angle-modulated carrier Vc = 6 cos (2π 110mHz t) with 75 kHz frequency
deviation due to the information signal and a single-frequency interfering signal Vn =
0.3 cos (2π 109.985 MHz t), determine
a. Frequency of the demodulated interference signal
b. Peak phase and frequency deviations due to the interfering signal
c. Voltage signal-to-noise ratio at the output of the demodulator
15 kHz,
0.05 rad, 750 Hz,
Ratio = 5, SNR = 14 dB

15. Given FM and PM modulators with the following parameters:

FM modulator PM modulator
K1 = 1.5 kHz/v K = 0.75 rad/v
fc = 500 kHz fc = 500 kHz
vm = 2 sin (2π 2kt) vm = 2 sin (2π 2kt)

a. Determine the modulation indexes and sketch the output spectrums for both
FM : m = 1.5, PM : m = 1.5

BTE3233/SEM I 1718

b. Change the modulating signal amplitude for both modulators to 4Vp and
repeat step a.
FM : m = 3, PM : m = 3

c. Change the modulating signal frequency for both modulators to 1 kHz and
repeat step a.
FM : m = 3, PM : m = 1.5


1. Define angle modulation.

2. Define frequency modulation.
3. Define phase modulation.
4. Compare angle modulation with amplitude modulation.
5. Describe the relationship between the instantaneous carrier frequency and the
modulating signal (for FM) and between the instantaneous carrier phase and
modulating signal (for PM).


1. List the components needed in FM receiver.

2. Describe the function of frequency discriminator.
3. List the types of detector using as demodulator in FM receiver.
4. What is the purpose of limiter in an FM receiver?
5. Describe the differences between AM receivers and FM receivers.