0 Голоса «за»0 Голоса «против»

Просмотров: 812 стр.This paper presents the computational modelling of welding phenomena within a versatile numerical
framework. The framework embraces models from both the fields of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and computational solid mechanics (CSM). With regard to the CFD modelling of the weld pool fluid dynamics, heat transfer and phase change, cell-centred finite volume (FV) methods are mployed. Additionally, novel vertex-based FV methods are employed with regard to the elasto-plastic deformation associated with the CSM. The FV methods are included within an integrated modelling framework, PHYSICA, which can be readily applied to unstructured meshes. The modelling techniques are validated against a variety of reference solutions.

Jan 31, 2018

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT или читайте онлайн в Scribd

This paper presents the computational modelling of welding phenomena within a versatile numerical
framework. The framework embraces models from both the fields of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and computational solid mechanics (CSM). With regard to the CFD modelling of the weld pool fluid dynamics, heat transfer and phase change, cell-centred finite volume (FV) methods are mployed. Additionally, novel vertex-based FV methods are employed with regard to the elasto-plastic deformation associated with the CSM. The FV methods are included within an integrated modelling framework, PHYSICA, which can be readily applied to unstructured meshes. The modelling techniques are validated against a variety of reference solutions.

© All Rights Reserved

Просмотров: 8

This paper presents the computational modelling of welding phenomena within a versatile numerical
framework. The framework embraces models from both the fields of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and computational solid mechanics (CSM). With regard to the CFD modelling of the weld pool fluid dynamics, heat transfer and phase change, cell-centred finite volume (FV) methods are mployed. Additionally, novel vertex-based FV methods are employed with regard to the elasto-plastic deformation associated with the CSM. The FV methods are included within an integrated modelling framework, PHYSICA, which can be readily applied to unstructured meshes. The modelling techniques are validated against a variety of reference solutions.

© All Rights Reserved

- Multiscale Modelling of Tunnel Fires (Plenary, Valencia, 2011)
- Tutorial on 2d Hybrid Meshing in ICEM CFD for 2d Airfoil
- ASME B31.3,341.3.4
- ParCFD_07_1146
- Water Flow Over an Ogee Profile Report
- Ansa for Automatic Meshing
- AIAA-2009-1221-908
- Computational Aerodynamics
- AE2402-QB
- y4-cfd
- Surface mapping for visualization of wall stresses during inhalation ina human nasal cavity
- Radiation Model - Spectral Model -- CFD Online Discussion Forums
- Comparison of Orificemeter
- List of Journal Pts
- Evaluating Tsynami Wave Forces on Structures
- Lincoln Serial Numbers
- mini project on heat exchangers with baffels
- Ada 425027
- RoadMap_CAE_CFD.pdf
- CFD Project#1

Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 12

www.elsevier.com/locate/apm

modelling of welding phenomena

Gareth A. Taylor b, Michael Hughes a, Nadia Strusevich a, Koulis Pericleous a,*

a

Centre for Numerical Modelling and Process Analysis, School of Computing and Mathematical Sciences,

University of Greenwich, Wellington Street, London SE18 6PF, UK

b

Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, Brunel University, London, UK

Received 1 December 1999; received in revised form 1 January 2001; accepted 24 April 2001

Abstract

This paper presents the computational modelling of welding phenomena within a versatile numerical

framework. The framework embraces models from both the ﬁelds of computational ﬂuid dynamics (CFD)

and computational solid mechanics (CSM). With regard to the CFD modelling of the weld pool ﬂuid

dynamics, heat transfer and phase change, cell-centred ﬁnite volume (FV) methods are employed. Addi-

tionally, novel vertex-based FV methods are employed with regard to the elasto-plastic deformation as-

sociated with the CSM. The FV methods are included within an integrated modelling framework,

PH Y S I C A , which can be readily applied to unstructured meshes. The modelling techniques are validated

against a variety of reference solutions. Ó 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Welding phenomena; Fluid dynamics; Solid mechanics; Finite volume methods

1. Introduction

Essential to the concept of a welding process is the application of a localised heat source in

order to minimise the size of the heat aﬀected zone (HAZ) and hence reduce unwanted eﬀects such

as distortion and residual stress [7]. Traditionally, when modelling welding phenomena there is a

choice, ﬁrstly it is possible to focus on the complex ﬂuid and thermo-dynamics local to the weld

pool [13,18,21] and secondly it is possible to model the global thermo-mechanical behaviour of the

weld structure [10,12]. In the former case only the local geometry of the weld pool and HAZ is

*

Corresponding author. Tel.: +44-208-331-8732; fax: +44-208-331-8925.

E-mail address: k.pericleous@gre.ac.uk (K. Pericleous).

0307-904X/02/$ - see front matter Ó 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

PII: S 0 3 0 7 - 9 0 4 X ( 0 1 ) 0 0 0 6 3 - 4

310 G.A. Taylor et al. / Appl. Math. Modelling 26 (2002) 309–320

considered [13,18,21] and in the latter case a simpliﬁed heat source model is employed with heat

transfer by conduction only [7,10,12]. Both choices are reasonable as the length scales involved

can diﬀer by several orders of magnitude when application areas such as ship construction are

considered [6,7].

A variety of simpliﬁed heat source models are now frequently employed in the simulation of

welding processes, but they are totally reliant on the accuracy of the model parameters which

describe the weld pool size and shape [7,12]. The parameters are obtained from a combination of

experimental and calculated data.

The scientiﬁc and engineering software PH Y S I C A [15] is a three-dimensional numerical mod-

elling framework which can be employed in industrial and environmental applications. The nu-

merical framework consists of both cell-centred and vertex-based ﬁnite volume (FV) methods

[3,17], which are employed to model problems in computational ﬂuid dynamics (CFD) and

computational solid mechanics (CSM), respectively. These procedures can be readily applied to

problems involving complex interactions of physical behaviour over arbitrarily unstructured

domains and detailed descriptions of their implementations are available [3,17,20]. For these

reasons, the comprehensive modelling of welding phenomena is ideal for demonstrating the

versatility of the modelling framework.

The ultimate aim of this research is the estimation and veriﬁcation of the parameters associated

with the simpliﬁed heat source models in order to achieve consistency between the predictions of

the two modelling approaches. It may then be possible to transfer thermal data between analyses

of the weld pool and the welded structure via the model parameters.

In this paper we will brieﬂy present the modelling of physical phenomena using both ap-

proaches. With regard to the thermo-dynamics of the weld pool, surface tension will be accounted

for via the inclusion of Marangoni eﬀects [18] and with regard to the thermo-mechanical be-

haviour of the welded structure, the thermo-elasto-plastic distortion of a girth weld will be

considered [9,12].

2. Model descriptions

The models available in PH Y S I C A are organised in a modular fashion as illustrated in Fig. 1 and

the relevant models for the simulation of welding processes are now described.

The governing equations for the incompressible ﬂuid ﬂow and heat transfer that can occur in

the weld pool are deﬁned as follows:

Mass conservation,

r u ¼ 0;

momentum conservation,

ou

q þ qr ðuuÞ ¼ rp þ r lru þ Su ; ð1Þ

ot

G.A. Taylor et al. / Appl. Math. Modelling 26 (2002) 309–320 311

oT

qCp þ qCp r ðuT Þ ¼ r ðkrT Þ þ ST : ð2Þ

ot

The Darcy and bouyancy source terms are included in Eq. (1), respectively, as follows:

l

Su ¼ u þ q0 a gðT T0 Þ;

K

where K is calculated from the Karman–Kozeny equation [13], q0 is the reference density, a is the

thermal expansion coeﬃcient, g is the gravity and T0 is the reference temperature.

The latent heat source terms are included in Eq. (2) as follows [13]:

oðfl LÞ

ST ¼ q qr ðufl LÞ;

ot

where fl is the liquid metal fraction and L is the latent heat of fusion.

The above models are included with the ﬂow, heat and solidiﬁcation modules of PH Y S I C A as

illustrated schematically in Fig. 1.

The top surface of the weld pool is subjected to the following ﬂow boundary condition [13,20]:

os

s n ¼ rs s ¼ rs T ;

oT

where s is the ﬂow stress tensor, n is the unit normal of the liquid metal surface, s is the tem-

perature dependent surface tension and rs is the surface gradient operator [20]. In this research

the gradient of surface tension with respect to temperature is speciﬁed as a model parameter and

the curvature eﬀects are neglected as a ﬂat weld pool surface is assumed. The surface tension

boundary condition is included within the modular design of PH Y S I C A via user access to the

sources as illustrated in Fig. 1.

312 G.A. Taylor et al. / Appl. Math. Modelling 26 (2002) 309–320

LT ðDrÞ þ b ¼ 0;

where L is the diﬀerential operator and b is the body force. The incremental stress–strain rela-

tionship is deﬁned as follows:

Dr ¼ DDee ;

where D is the elasticity matrix. For the deformation of metals the von-Mises yield criterion is

employed and the elastic strain is given by

Dee ¼ De Devp DeT ;

where De, Devp , and DeT are the total, visco-plastic and thermal strain, respectively. The visco-

plastic strain rate is given by the Perzyna model [14]

d req 3

evp ¼ c 1i1=N s;

dt ry 2req

where req , ry , c, N, and s are the equivalent stress, yield stress, ﬂuidity, strain rate sensitivity

parameter and deviatoric stress, respectively. The mathematical operator is deﬁned as follows:

0 when x 6 0;

h xi ¼

x when x > 0:

The total inﬁnitesimal strain is De ¼ LDd, where Dd is the incremental displacement.

The above solid mechanics capabilities are included within PH Y S I C A via the EVP module as

illustrated in Fig. 1 and are coupled with the heat transfer modules in a staggered incremental

fashion [17].

The simpliﬁed heat source models that are employed in this paper are as follows:

Firstly, the Gaussian heat source over a surface in the y-plane [12]

3Q 2 2

qðx; z; tÞ ¼ 2 e3ðDxvx t=rÞ e3ðDzvz t=rÞ ; ð3Þ

pr

where Q, r and v ¼ ðvx ; vz Þ are the heat input, characteristic length and velocity weld parameters,

respectively. Secondly, the double ellipsoidal heat source over a volume [7]

pﬃﬃﬃ 2 2

6 3fw Q 3 Dxvx t=a 3 Dyvy t=b 3ðDzvz t=cÞ2

qðx; y; z; tÞ ¼ pﬃﬃﬃ e e e ; ð4Þ

abc p p

where fw are weighting fractions associated with each ellipsoid, a, b and c are the axes of the

ellipses. In both cases Dx ¼ x x0 , Dy ¼ y y0 and Dz ¼ z z0 are coordinates relative to the

original location of the heat source, which is moving with a constant weld velocity (vx ; vy ; vz ). Both

models are also included within the modular design of PH Y S I C A via user access to the sources, as

illustrated in Fig. 1.

G.A. Taylor et al. / Appl. Math. Modelling 26 (2002) 309–320 313

3. Results

various problems employ the models deﬁned in the previous section.

The residual eﬀective stress ﬁeld as calculated for a girth welding process of a thin pipe is il-

lustrated in Fig. 2. Assuming symmetry along the weld line, only half the structure is modelled.

The residual stress contours (MPa) are plotted on the deformed shape (Mag. 100) after 1000 s

and are in good agreement with the original analysis [12]. The girth welding sequence involved one

pass, starting and ﬁnishing at the 12 o’clock position, and lasted 89 s [9,12]. In this case, the

moving heat source can be modelled as a point source moving on the external surface of the pipe

[12]. For this analysis a cylindrical polar mapping of Eq. (3) was employed. The thermo-elasto-

plastic analysis was performed in a staggered incremental fashion [17]. Equivalent spatial and

temporal discretisation was employed to that of the original analysis [12]. The temperature

dependent material properties for the thermal and mechanical analyses are equivalent to those

314 G.A. Taylor et al. / Appl. Math. Modelling 26 (2002) 309–320

used in the original analysis [12]. However, for the simulation presented in this paper the eﬀects of

metallurgical phase transitions were neglected. The temperature proﬁles at locations on the outer

surface of the pipe are illustrated in Fig. 3 and are in reasonable agreement with the experimental

measurements of Jonsson and Josefson [9]. The hoop stress proﬁle at a location close to the weld

path is illustrated in Fig. 4 and is in good agreement with the calculations of Lindgren and

Karlsson [12] with regard to the initial thermal response. However, the predicted residual stress is

approximately 30% greater, this may be attributable to the neglection of phase transformations

and the use of eight noded brick elements as opposed to shell elements.

Results obtained using the simple heat source models described by Eqs. (3) and (4) are illus-

trated in Fig. 5. When they were proposed, both these models were originally compared against

the experimental data of Christensen et al. [2]. The temperature proﬁles illustrated in Fig. 5 are

plotted perpendicular to the direction of the weld line, 11.5 s after the heat source has passed.

With regard to the heat sources, a transformation of the reference frame is employed as opposed

to the translation of the previous analysis [7]. The results obtained from PH Y S I C A are in close

agreement with the original results obtained for both models and illustrate again the closer

agreement of the ellipsoidal model proposed by Goldak et al. [7] with regard to the experimental

results. The lack of accuracy of the surface model employed by Krutz and Segerlind [11] has been

G.A. Taylor et al. / Appl. Math. Modelling 26 (2002) 309–320 315

316 G.A. Taylor et al. / Appl. Math. Modelling 26 (2002) 309–320

demonstrated with regard to certain welding applications, i.e. deep penetration electron or laser

beam welding [7], where the digging action of the heat source is not captured.

It is important to note that both models require a modiﬁed value of conductivity in the weld

pool during the liquid phase [7,11]. This is to account for the possible transfer of heat by con-

vection. The accuracy of the numerical analyses employing these models is very sensitive to the

conductivity and therefore a thorough understanding of the weld pool thermo-ﬂuid dynamics is

required in order to modify the conductivity values correctly.

The ultimate aims of this research are to determine heat source model parameters and modiﬁed

values of conductivity that are consistent with the predicted thermo-ﬂuid dynamics of particular

weld pools.

Two problems will be considered. The ﬁrst case is the motion of a liquid resulting from a free

surface, where the surface tension is quadratically dependent on temperature [8]. The second case

is the inclusion of Marangoni eﬀects [18] in the axisymmetric modelling of weld pools. In both

cases reference solutions are available.

3.3.1. Case 1

The thermo-capillary motion of an idealised liquid with surface tension as a quadratic function

of temperature is considered. The boundary conditions required for the thermo-capillary analysis

are illustrated in Fig. 6. In this analysis a 10 0:4 aspect ratio is employed with regard to the

geometry, thus permitting the application of a symmetry condition at a ﬁnite distance from

the region of interest. The region of interest is deﬁned by the cross-section x–s, which is close to

the boundary T ¼ T0 as illustrated in Fig. 6.

The constants b and a of Fig. 6, deﬁne the quadratic relationship of surface tension s to

temperature T, and the linear variation of temperature and spatial coordinate X, respectively. The

resultant velocity component proﬁles are plotted in Figs. 7 and 8, along the cross-section x–s il-

lustrated in Fig. 6.

As illustrated the results are in good agreement with the analytical solution [8].

G.A. Taylor et al. / Appl. Math. Modelling 26 (2002) 309–320 317

3.3.2. Case 2

The stationary and steady-state fusion of an aluminium plate by a heat source deﬁned over a

surface is considered. The model for the steady-state heat source distribution is obtained from Eq.

(3) as follows:

318 G.A. Taylor et al. / Appl. Math. Modelling 26 (2002) 309–320

pﬃﬃﬃ

3Q 2

qðxÞ ¼ pﬃﬃﬃ e3ðx=rÞ : ð5Þ

pr

An axisymmetric approximation is assumed, and convective and radiative heat loss boundary

conditions applied on remainder of the surface, x > r. To enable a localised analysis, it is assumed

that the boundary conditions away from the axis and surface can be derived from the analytical

solution for an equivalent point heat source [16].

The results from the numerical analysis are illustrated in Figs. 9(a) and 10(a) with regard to a

negative and positive surface tension gradient, :35 103 and þ:1 103 kg/(s2 K), respectively.

The diﬀerent gradient values represent types of alloy and illustrate the diﬀerent alloy-related

Marangoni eﬀects on the velocity and temperature ﬁelds. The temperature ﬁelds are contoured in

degrees celsius and as illustrated by Fig. 9(a) the shape of the weld pool is ﬂatter for the negative

gradient case. The change in weld pool shape is related to the diﬀerent ﬂow patterns that occur in

each weld pool, as illustrated in Figs. 9(a) and 10(a). For the negative or positive gradient case the

predominant ﬂow is away from or towards the heat source, respectively. In this way the con-

vective heat transport is directed towards or away from the axis, resulting in either a deeper or

ﬂatter weld pool shape, respectively.

The results are in good agreement with those obtained by Tsai and Kou [18], which are rep-

resented in Figs. 9(b) and 10(b). The results for the negative case are in general agreement with

regard to weld pool shape, temperature ﬁeld and ﬂow ﬁeld as illustrated in Figs. 9(a) and (b).

Additionally, the results for the positive case are also generally in good agreement as illustrated in

Figs. 10(a) and (b). Although it should be noted that in the positive case PH Y S I C A predicts a

slightly deeper weld pool shape.

Fig. 9. (a) Negative: Temperature and ﬂow ﬁelds; (b) Negative: Temperature and ﬂow ﬁelds [18].

Fig. 10. (a) Positive: Temperature and ﬂow ﬁelds; (b) Positive: Temperature and ﬂow ﬁelds [18].

G.A. Taylor et al. / Appl. Math. Modelling 26 (2002) 309–320 319

4. Further research

Currently, there are a number of methods for modelling welding processes depending upon the

reference frame associated with the heat source. Essentially, the methods are Eulerian, where the

heat source is stationary [1,6], or Lagrangian, where the heat source is moving [4,19]. The methods

employed in this paper for welding processes involving a moving heat source are variations of the

Lagrangian approach, such that the heat source is translated or transformed as a function of time.

This approach is reasonably accurate for simpliﬁed heat sources moving with a constant velocity

[5], but it is not suitable when modelling the ﬂuid dynamics of a weld pool associated with a

moving heat source. Therefore, further research will involve the development of Eulerian tech-

niques within PH Y S I C A , which will facilitate the localised modelling of the ﬂuid dynamics asso-

ciated with a moving weld pool. Additional further research will involve the inclusion of Lorentz

eﬀects, which are necessary for modelling arc welding processes, where electro-magnetic ﬁelds can

exist and interact with the ﬂuid dynamics of the weld pool. With regard to global thermo-

mechanical analyses of a welded structure, further research will involve the three-dimensional

application of simpliﬁed heat sources associated with a Lagrangian reference frame [4,19]. It

should be noted that thermo-mechanical analyses have been performed using Eulerian and

Lagrangian frames of reference for the heat source and mechanical behaviour, respectively [6].

However, this approach is not generally suitable for the welding of large structures, particularly

when welding sequences are involved. This is because the local mechanical constraints do not

necessarily reﬂect the global mechanical behaviour. For these reasons most thermo-mechanical

analyses of the welding of large structures involve the former technique [4,19].

5. Conclusion

In this paper we have demonstrated the versatility of PH Y S I C A with regard to the compre-

hensive modelling of welding phenomena and investigated the two standard approaches to the

modelling of welding.

Based on the results obtained, it is now possible to draw a number of conclusions with regard

to our original aims. Focussing on the modelling of the distortion that can occur in the welding

of large structures [19], when a simpliﬁed heat source model is employed, a number of required

parameters must be determined accurately. These parameters mainly depend upon the welding

process employed and the material that is being welded. For laser or electron beam welding a

digging phenomena is observed with regard to the weld pool [7,19]. This digging eﬀect has been

modelled successfully using simpliﬁed heat source models. This has been achieved either by using

a conical heat source model with a modiﬁed isotropic conductivity for the liquid region [5] or a

surface model with a modiﬁed orthotropic conductivity in the liquid region [19]. The accuracy of

both methods is therefore dependent upon the modiﬁcations to the conductivity in the liquid

region and this dependency was observed for the simpliﬁed heat source models studied in this

paper. Indeed, it is possible to view the modiﬁcation of the conductivity in the liquid region as an

additional data ﬁtting exercise when using simpliﬁed heat source models [5]. However, it is im-

portant to note that the modiﬁcations to the liquid conductivity are intended to account for the

redistribution of heat by convection. Therefore, a future aim of this research is to establish

320 G.A. Taylor et al. / Appl. Math. Modelling 26 (2002) 309–320

modiﬁed values of conductivity and associated model parameters that are consistent with an

analysis of the ﬂuid dynamics of the weld pool.

References

[1] X. Chen, M. Becker, L. Meekisho, Welding analysis in moving coordinates, in: H. Cerjak (Ed.), Mathematical

Modelling of Welding Phenomena, vol. 4, 1998, pp. 396–410.

[2] N. Christensen, V. Davies, L. De, K. Gjermundsen, Distribution of temperatures in arc welding, Br. Weld. J. 12

(1965) 54–75.

[3] T.N. Croft, Unstructured mesh – ﬁnite volume algorithms for swirling, turbulent, reacting ﬂows, Ph.D. thesis, The

University of Greenwich, 1998.

[4] Z. Feng, W. Cheng, Y. Chen, Development of new modeling procedures for 3D welding residual stress and

distortion assessment, Coop. Res. Prog. SR9818 (1998).

[5] J. Goldak, M. Bibby, J. Moore, R. House, B. Patel, Computer modelling of heat ﬂow in welds, Met. Trans. B 17B

(1986) 587–600.

[6] J. Goldak, V. Breiguine, N. Dai, Computational weld mechanics: a progress report on ten grand challenges, in:

H.B. Smartt, J.A. Johnson, S.A. David (Eds.), Trends in Welding Research – IV, 1995, pp. 5–11.

[7] J. Goldak, A. Chakravarti, M. Bibby, A new ﬁnite element model for welding heat sources, Met. Trans. B 15B

(1984) 299–305.

[8] Y.P. Gupalo, Y.S. Ryazantsev, Thermocapillary motion of a liquid with a free surface with nonlinear dependence

of the surface tension on the temperature, Fluid Dyn. 23 (5) (1989) 752–757 (English translation).

[9] M. Jonsson, B.L. Josefson, Experimentally determined transient and residual stresses in a butt-welded pipe,

J. Strain Anal. Eng. Des. 23 (1988) 25–31.

[10] S.N. Kiselev, A.S. Kiselev, A.S. Kurkin, V.V. Aladinskii, V.O. Makhanev, Current aspects of computer modelling

thermal and deformation stresses and structure formation in welding and related technologies, Weld. Int. 13 (4)

(1999) 314–322.

[11] G.W. Krutz, L.J. Segerlind, Finite element analysis of weld structures, Weld. Res. Suppl. 57 (1978) 211s–216s.

[12] L.-E. Lindgren, L. Karlsson, Deformations and stresses in welding of shell structures, Int. J. Num. Meth. Eng. 25

(1988) 635–655.

[13] K. Pericleous, C. Bailey, Study of Marangoni phenomena in laser-melted pools, in: J. Campbell, M. Cross (Eds.),

Modeling of Casting Welding and Advanced Solidiﬁcation Processes – VII, 1995, pp. 91–100.

[14] P. Perzyna, Fundamental problems in visco-plasticity, Adv. Appl. Mech. 9 (1966) 243–377.

[15] PH Y S I C A , MPS Ltd., 5 The Priors, Harriots Lane, Ashtead, Surrey, UK.

[16] D. Rosenthal, The theory of moving sources of heat and its application to metal treatments, Trans. ASME 68 (11)

(1946) 849–866.

[17] G.A. Taylor, A vertex based discretisation scheme applied to material non-linearity within a multi-physics ﬁnite

volume framework, Ph.D. thesis, The University of Greenwich, 1996.

[18] M.C. Tsai, Sindou Kou, Marangoni convection in weld pools with a free surface, Int. J. Num. Meth. Eng. 9 (1989)

1503–1516.

[19] O. Voss, I. Decker, H. Wohlfahrt, Consideration of microstructural transformations in the calculation of residual

stresses and distortion of larger weldments, in: H. Cerjak (Ed.), Mathematical Modelling of Welding Phenomena,

vol. 4, 1998, pp. 584–596.

[20] D. Wheeler, C. Bailey, M. Cross, Numerical modelling and validation of Marangoni and surface tension

phenomena using the ﬁnite volume method, Int. J. Num. Meth. Fluids 212B (1999) 1021–1047.

[21] T. Zacharia, S.A. David, J.M. Vitek, H.G. Kraus, Computational modelling of stationary gas-tungsten-arc weld

pools and comparison to stainless steel 304 experimental results, Met. Trans. B 22B (1991) 243–257.

- Multiscale Modelling of Tunnel Fires (Plenary, Valencia, 2011)Загружено:Guillermo Rein
- Tutorial on 2d Hybrid Meshing in ICEM CFD for 2d AirfoilЗагружено:Israa Yheaa
- ASME B31.3,341.3.4Загружено:mzarei_1982
- ParCFD_07_1146Загружено:Erdal Oktay
- Water Flow Over an Ogee Profile ReportЗагружено:sandigric
- Ansa for Automatic MeshingЗагружено:Ranjit Rajendran
- AIAA-2009-1221-908Загружено:raashid83
- Computational AerodynamicsЗагружено:Chintu Kishen KM
- AE2402-QBЗагружено:renjithrenju
- y4-cfdЗагружено:Sıddık Sarıcalar
- Surface mapping for visualization of wall stresses during inhalation ina human nasal cavityЗагружено:kiaoi
- Radiation Model - Spectral Model -- CFD Online Discussion ForumsЗагружено:MechWell
- Comparison of OrificemeterЗагружено:chirag sanghani
- List of Journal PtsЗагружено:Varun Kumar
- Evaluating Tsynami Wave Forces on StructuresЗагружено:Any Nurhasanah
- Lincoln Serial NumbersЗагружено:oldtrukluvr
- mini project on heat exchangers with baffelsЗагружено:Phanindra Kumar
- Ada 425027Загружено:GCVishnuKumar
- RoadMap_CAE_CFD.pdfЗагружено:Sandeep Gahlawat
- CFD Project#1Загружено:Alikhan Shambulov
- ie901424gЗагружено:rmehta26
- yutongЗагружено:mortezagashti
- Ship Science Report 148Загружено:Milad Naderi
- ExercisesЗагружено:juchaca36
- G0519Загружено:Carlos Manuel Salcedo
- Featool Matlab Cfd Toolbox 170831102755Загружено:FEATool Multiphysics
- PartA sol.pdfЗагружено:Vishakha Gaur
- COMBI AdapterЗагружено:Özkan Iyi
- En Wps ÖrnekЗагружено:Ferhat Kahveci
- Computational Fluid DynamicsЗагружено:Riswan Riswan

- Numerical Methods in Heat, Mass, And Momentum TransferЗагружено:Pallabi Mitra
- A Novel Thermal Model for HEVEV Battery Modeling Based on CFDЗагружено:al-masri
- New Fuel Cell ModelЗагружено:al-masri
- An Easy-To-Approach and Comprehensive Model for SOFCЗагружено:al-masri
- Prediction of Weld Bead Parameters TransЗагружено:al-masri
- Extension of the Double-ellipsoidal Heat Source Model Tonarrow-groove and Keyhole Weld ConfigurationsЗагружено:al-masri
- 1-s2.0-S0307904X10002751-mainЗагружено:Babu Narayanan
- Meshless Local Petrov-galerkin Method for Elasto-static Analysis of Thick-walled Isotropic Laminated CylindersЗагружено:al-masri
- Meshfree Approximation With MATLAB LectureЗагружено:al-masri
- IterativeMethods for ApproximateSolution of InverseProblems.pdfЗагружено:al-masri
- Nonlinear Theories for Multiscale Modeling of Heterogeneous MaterialsЗагружено:al-masri
- A Commentary on Computational MechanicsЗагружено:al-masri
- Analysis of Contact Problems in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stacks Arising from Differences in Thermal Expansion CoefficientsЗагружено:al-masri
- ACTIVE INSULATION – VARIATION OF TROMBE WALLЗагружено:al-masri
- Heat Gain Through Trombe Wall Using Solar Energy in a Cold Region of TurkeyЗагружено:al-masri
- PREDICTION OF HYGROTHERMAL ENVIRONMENT OF BUILDINGSЗагружено:al-masri
- Cengel_Cimbala_Solutions_Chap14Загружено:api-19800460
- Introduction to the Mechanics of a Continuous MediumЗагружено:Victoria Maciel
- Thermal Loading in Multi_layered_materialsЗагружено:al-masri

- Wake Effect of a WT Wind TurbulenceЗагружено:jslr
- Kinetic modelling of heterogeneous catalytic systems.pdfЗагружено:Vnomiks
- B Tech Mechanical Sem. VII and VIII Full Syllabus-3Загружено:Shwetal Shah
- NIT SyllabusЗагружено:Divya Khan
- Air Box DesignЗагружено:Shailendra Singh
- least squre gradientЗагружено:fengwang2102
- Parametric Study to Understand Pressure Distribution Around Differential Height Structure Ijariie1651Загружено:Satyen Ramani
- Clanak Zakucac Dobre SlikeЗагружено:Marija Šiško Kuliš
- Bigger Sims Win the RaceЗагружено:antonioulbra
- TOSCA FLUID Product PresentationЗагружено:Luis Paladines Bravo
- V3I7-IJERTV3IS070121Загружено:Việt Toàn Đỗ
- Mke BuretnoЗагружено:Malik Abdurrahman
- Flow Wizard Rotating Turb Flow Mixing TankЗагружено:Satish Kumar Bonthu
- Asymmetric Behavior of Propeller–Rudder SystemЗагружено:sumardiono10
- ppt-Aero-7sem-CFDЗагружено:Giang Nguyễn Trường
- Experimental and CFD for Heat Tranfer P.K. Vijayan BARC DocumentЗагружено:lram70
- Etc8 2011 Numeca Nlh Nacelle to DistortionЗагружено:Lam Trinh Nguyen
- Solar StorageЗагружено:Andre Wirawan
- icwe15 wind energyЗагружено:api-457792987
- Gurney Flap Aerodynamic UnsteadinessЗагружено:Vyssion
- IAS Book List Mechanical EngineeringЗагружено:SachinSharma
- MhdЗагружено:Rehman Ullah
- Ben Parslew MSc, Low Order Flap ModelЗагружено:Sergei Mikhalchuk
- 3D Wing-shape Morphing with SculptorЗагружено:gosculptor
- AAPL Capability StatementЗагружено:jsmnjasmines
- Bulb Turbine AltonЗагружено:Guilherme
- 1551Загружено:Malav Mehta
- Computational Fluid Dynamics CFD Simulations of Jet Mixing in Tanks of Different ScalesЗагружено:LTE002
- icem cfdЗагружено:Prabhat Singh
- New Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger With S-shaped Fins for Hot Water Supplier_Yasuyoshi KatoЗагружено:AB Devilier

## Гораздо больше, чем просто документы.

Откройте для себя все, что может предложить Scribd, включая книги и аудиокниги от крупных издательств.

Отменить можно в любой момент.