Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 14

ANOD 5.

2
ANOD SIZE DETERMINATION - ANOD

THEORETICAL MANUAL

COPYRIGHT NOTICE

Copyright © Penspen Limited 1987-2001

This document refers to proprietary computer software which is protected by


copyright. All rights are reserved. Copying or other reproduction of this manual
or the related module is prohibited without prior written consent of Andrew
Palmer and Associates, Penspen Limited, Darpen House, Citadel Place, Tinworth
Street, London SE11 5EF.
Table of Contents

Table of Contents

1. Introduction .................................................................... 1

2. Module Overview ............................................................. 2


2.1. Objective............................................................................................. 2

2.2. Operation and Theory .......................................................................... 2

2.3. Limitations .......................................................................................... 2

3. Theoretical Basis ............................................................. 3


3.1. Satisfying Current Output Requirements................................................ 3

3.2. Satisfying Mass Requirements............................................................... 4

3.3. Design Optimisation ............................................................................. 5

4. Calculation Procedure...................................................... 7

5. Module Operation ............................................................ 8

6. Module Output................................................................. 9

7. References..................................................................... 10

Penspen Andrew Palmers PLUS••ONE ANOD 5.2


Chapter 1 Introduction 1

1. Introduction

The program module ANOD is part of a computerised pipeline design system,


called PLUS•ONE, developed by Andrew Palmer and Associates. The PLUS•ONE
system comprises a number of program modules as follows:

PROP Flow properties


2PHF Two phase flow analysis
LIQF Liquid flow analysis
GASF Gas flow analysis
HYDR Hydrate formation analysis
HEAT Heat transfer analysis
WALL Wall thickness sizing
STAB Stability evaluation
STB2 Dynamic stability evaluation
XPAN Expansion analysis
SPAN Dynamic span evaluation
ANOD Anode size determination
CLAY Catenary evaluation
LAYS Lay stress evaluation
QLAY Quick lay stress evaluation
REEL Reeling analysis
UPBK Upheaval buckling check
MATS Materials selection
LAYR Lay rate estimation
BUCK Bending buckling
GRID Coordinate conversion

Each program module can be used as a stand alone design module or can be
combined with other modules to form part of an integrated design system. This
manual describes the calculations carried out by the module ANOD.

For operation and validation of the ANOD module the user is directed to the
ANOD validation manual.

Penspen Andrew Palmers PLUS••ONE ANOD 5.2


2 Chapter 2 Module Overview

2. Module Overview

2.1. Objective

The external surface of a submarine pipeline is generally protected from corrosion


by a combination of a corrosion coating and a cathodic protection (CP) system.
The ANOD module is used to design a CP system using sacrificial anodes, to
account for the gradual breakdown of the corrosion coating and exposure of the
surface of the steel, over the design life of the pipeline.

2.2. Operation and Theory

ANOD is based upon the guidelines given in DnV RP B401 (1993).

The designer of a CP system has to satisfy the following criteria:

- The system needs to be able to deliver the maximum current required to


protect the subsea pipeline, whenever that maximum might occur during
design life. This is the current output (or surface area) requirement.

- The system needs to have sufficient consumable material to enable the


required protective current to be delivered throughout the design life. This
is the anode material mass requirement.

The ANOD module is used to select suitable anode dimensions and spacing to
satisfy the above criteria.

2.3. Limitations

The calculations are based on the geometry of a half-shell bracelet anode. Other
types of anode such as stand-off anodes are not applicable, although segmented
bracelet anodes may be modelled by using a suitable value for the ‘gap between
half-shells’ input variable.

Penspen Andrew Palmers PLUS••ONE ANOD 5.2


Chapter 3 Theoretical Basis 3

3. Theoretical Basis

This section is split into three sections covering ‘current output’ requirements,
‘mass’ requirements, and calculation of an optimised solution.

3.1. Satisfying Current Output Requirements

The pipeline coating deteriorates with time, exposing an increasing area of bare
metal, so that the maximum current to be delivered by the CP system occurs at
the end of the design life of the system. This final current If is,

I f = C f bf Apipeline (3.1.1)

where
Cf = the final current density for protection of bare steel
bf = the final coating breakdown factor
Apipeline = the area of coated steel, i.e.,

Apipeline = π D Lpipeline (3.1.2)

where
D = pipe outer diameter
Lpipeline = the length of the pipeline

From Ohm’s Law,

(V p − V a )
If = N (3.1.3)
Ra

where
Vp = the design protection potential
Va = the design closed circuit anode potential
N = the number of anodes along the pipeline
Ra = the anode resistance
For bracelet type anodes, DnV RP B401 (1993) recommends the use of McCoy’s
formula for anode resistance,

0.315 ζ
Ra = (3.1.4)
A

where ζ is the resistivity of the anode surroundings, and A is the exposed anode
surface at the end of the design life.

Penspen Andrew Palmers PLUS••ONE ANOD 5.2


4 Chapter 3 Theoretical Basis

Combining equations (3.1.1) to (3.1.4) gives the following formula for the spacing
required to satisfy the current output requirement:

(V p − V a ) A
SI = (3.1.5)
0.315 ζ C f b f πD

Where A, the final exposed surface area of the anode, is

A = ( π ( Do + 2 ( 1 − u ) t ) − 2 x ) l a (3.1.6)

and where
Do = inner diameter of the anode (i.e. the outer pipe diameter over
coatings (except concrete)
u = design utilisation factor
t = anode thickness
x = the gap between anode half-shells
la = length of the anode

3.2. Satisfying Mass Requirements

The average (maintenance) current demand is used to calculate the minimum


mass of anode material necessary to maintain CP throughout the design life. The
average current requirement is,

I m = C m b m Apipeline (3.2.1)

where Cm is the average current density requirement, and bm is the average


coating breakdown factor.

The total mass of anode material required to satisfy the above current demand
over the design life is,

ImT
W = (3.2.2)
εu

where T is the design life, and ε is the design electrochemical efficiency of the
anode material.

Combining the previous two equations gives the following formula for the spacing
required to satisfy the mass requirement:

wεu
SM = (3.2.3)
π DC m b m T

where w is the mass per anode, i.e.,

Penspen Andrew Palmers PLUS••ONE ANOD 5.2


Chapter 3 Theoretical Basis 5

π
( 
)
w =  (D o + 2t ) − D o − 2 x t  l a ρ
2 2
(3.2.4)
4 

and ρ is the density of the anode material.

3.3. Design Optimisation

Equations (3.1.5) and (3.2.3) define the anode spacing required to satisfy current
output and mass requirements respectively, in terms of the anode thickness t and
length la. Assuming the anode thickness is known, then the spacings SI and SM
are functions of a single variable la, and it is possible to plot a graph of spacing
versus length as shown in Figure 3.1.

Anode Requirements
Anode thickness = .04 (m)
15

12
Anode spacing (joints)

Weight of material is
minimised if chosen
9 solution lies between
these points

3
Feasible Solution Area

0
0 .3 .6 .9 1.2 1.5
Anode Length (m)

Figure 3.1 : ANOD GRAPHICAL OUTPUT

The chosen combination of spacing and length must lie on or below both the
curved (final current requirement) and straight (mass requirement) lines, and left
of the vertical line (maximum length allowed by manufacturer).

If the solution lies on the straight line, the chosen solution is governed by the
mass requirement, and the total mass of anode material is being minimised.
Although this is desirable, it may not be practical in some cases, or in other cases
the designer may wish to choose as large a spacing as possible to minimise
fabrication/installation costs: in such cases the chosen solution lies on the curved
line and the solution is then governed by the final current requirement.

Penspen Andrew Palmers PLUS••ONE ANOD 5.2


6 Chapter 3 Theoretical Basis

In the latter case, there is more mass of anode material than required to satisfy
the mass requirement. Therefore at the end of the design life, the anode will not
be utilised to its full design utilisation (e.g. 80%), but will only be used by, say,
70%. The actual final surface area will therefore be larger than calculated using
the design utilisation factor. For such cases, the ANOD module has an option to
allow calculation of the final anode surface area using the effective anode
utilisation factor, ueff, calculated as follows:

ImT
u eff = (3.3.1)
ε W eff

where Weff is the actual total mass of anode material based on the chosen
dimensions and spacing of the anodes. The calculations for the current and mass
requirements presented in the previous two sections are then repeated, using the
effective utilisation factor, until equations (3.1.5), (3.2.3), and (3.3.1) are
simultaneously satisfied.

Penspen Andrew Palmers PLUS••ONE ANOD 5.2


Chapter 4 Calculation Procedure 7

4. Calculation Procedure

The program calculation procedure is as follows.

1. The diameter over coatings is calculated.

2. Suitable combinations of anode length and spacing are calculated to


satisfy both the current output and the mass requirements. A graphical
file showing feasible and non-feasible solutions is generated.

3. If the anode length is an input variable, the required spacing to satisfy


both current output and mass requirements is calculated.

4. If the anode spacing is an input variable, the required length to satisfy


both current output and mass requirements is calculated.

5. If both the anode length and spacing are input variables, the actual final
output current and total mass of material are calculated and checked
against the required values.

Penspen Andrew Palmers PLUS••ONE ANOD 5.2


8 Chapter 5 Module Operation

5. Module Operation

The ANOD module works in different ways, depending on the combination of


values input for the three variables, thickness, length and spacing.

If only the thickness is input, suitable combinations of length and spacing are
calculated.

If the thickness and length are input, the required spacing is calculated.

If the thickness and spacing are input, the required length is calculated.

If all three variables are input, the validity of the chosen solution is checked.

Of the three possible input variables - thickness, length, and spacing - only the
thickness is obligatory. Although the thickness may not be known in advance, it
is the most easily estimated of the three unknowns (typical values range from 40
mm to 80 mm). Sometimes the thickness is known, for example, in cases where
the pipe is concrete coated the anode thickness is usually taken equal to the
concrete thickness. Where the thickness is not known in advance, subsequent
runs with different values of thickness, allow the selection of an optimum
thickness.

Penspen Andrew Palmers PLUS••ONE ANOD 5.2


Chapter 6 Module Output 9

6. Module Output

The printed output from the module consists of:

1. An echo of the input data.

2. The required anode length and/or spacing to satisfy the design


requirements.

3. The mass per anode, and the total number of anodes required.

4. The required and actual final current output, and total mass of anode
material.

5. The effective utilisation factor (if this option is selected).

The graphical output consists of a plot of anode length versus spacing, showing
the length/spacing combinations required to satisfy current output and mass
requirements. The chosen/calculated combination of length and spacing is
highlighted.

Penspen Andrew Palmers PLUS••ONE ANOD 5.2


10 Chapter 7 References

7. References

1. Recommended practice RP B401 - Cathodic Protection Design. Det


norske Veritas Industri Norge AS. (1993).

Penspen Andrew Palmers PLUS••ONE ANOD 5.2

Оценить