Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 193
MILITARY HANDBOOKS aM e es baa SUBuLLIIES ul) | ality we) Twenty-First Century Submarines and Warships is a compendium of the world’s most important and technologically advanced military surface and undersea vessels. Surface combatants include cruisers, destroyers and frigates - ships that are tasked with combat operations against hostile submarines, surface ships, aircraft, missiles and targets ashore. The book also contains the massive nuclear-powered aircraft carriers currently in service around the world: the French carrier Charles de Gaulle, the British HMS Illustrious and the giant carriers of the US Nimitz class, such as the USS George Washington. Twenty-First Century Submarines and Warships also contains the most potent submarines in service with the world’s navies. These include the massively powerful Ohio class ballistic submarines and the Seawolf class attack submarines. The text entries in the book discuss the capabilities of modern naval vessels, such as the ability of ballistic missile submarines to target and destroy every capital city in the northern hemisphere using independently targetable nuclear warheads. In addition, the book also discusses the attributes of the weapons equipping today’s naval vessels. These include the Sea Sparrow surface missile system and the Phalanx close-in weapons system. Each vessel featured in the book is illustrated by a full-colour photograph and accompanied by a specifications table, with the following categories (all weights and measures in metric and imperial): type, crew, length, beam, draught, displacement, range, speed, ‘operating depth, powerplant, missiles, guns, sonar, radar and navigation. £1495 \ rrmeeern hs aga PETER DARMAN holds a postgraduate degree in military history from the University of York. He has written a number of books on military subjects, including A-Z of the SAS, SAS: The World's Best, The Survival Handbook and Uniforms of World War Il. He currently lives in London. Front Jacket: ‘Main image: Ohio class SSBN (US National Archives). Inset image: HMS Norfolk (Royal Navy). Printed in China TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY SUBMARINES “N° WARSHIPS General Editor: Peter Darman This edition published in 2004 by Grange Books Grange Books ple The Grange 4-6 Kingsnorth Estate Hoo Near Rochester Kent ME3 9ND_ ‘www-grangebooks.co.uk © 2004 The Brown Reference Group ple All rights reserved. This book is protected hy copyright, No part of it may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or ‘transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior permission in writing of the Publisher, nor be otherwise circu- lated in any form of binding or cover than that in which it is Published and without a similar condition including this con. dition being imposed on the subsequent publisher. ISBN 1840136782 Printed in China Editorial and design: The Brown Reference Group plc 8 Chapel Place Rivington Street London EC2A 3DQ UK ‘wwwbrownreference.com TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY SUBMARINES ARGENTINA AUSTRALIA . BRAZIL .... DENMARK FRANCE .. GERMANY GREECE INDIA ITALY . JAPAN .. NETHERLANDS NORTH KOREA NORWAY PAKISTAN RUSSIA SOUTH KOREA SWEDEN TAIWAN TURKEY ........0+0+ UNITED KINGDOM UNITED STATES ..... TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY WARSHIPS AUSTRALIA BRAZIL CANADA CHINA FRANCE . GERMANY ..... GREAT BRITAIN INDIA ... ITALY NETHERLANDS RUSSIA SPAIN .. UNITED STATES INDEX .... . 101 . 103 8 TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY SUBMARINES AND WARSHIPS, SAN JUAN he San Juan is one of ewo Santa Cru class attack Ti in service withthe Argentine Navy, The TRI700 design, upon which the Santa Cruz class is based, comes from the Thyssen Nordscewerke shipbuilders. ‘The original contract ws for six boats to be delivered to Argentina. The frst two were delivered complete and the subsequent vessels were to have materials supplied so that they could be buil indigenously in Argentina's dockyards, thereby creating valuable jobs in an economy that needs such boosts desperately, However, all has not gone according to plan for the Armada Axgentina. Two of the additional boats P a being builtin Argentina, it is almost certain, will not be completed. Furthermore, the equipment procured for the fifth and sixth units of the class is being used for spares since Argentina cannot afford to buy spares direct from the contractor, Thyssen Nordscewerke, Without doubt, the Fragile nature of Argentin’s economic situation coupled with the internal political turmoil, has directly Jed to the drastic cutbacks being seen in its armed forces, With the future still looking uncertain for the recoxery of Argentina's precarious circumstance, the two Santa Cruz submarines ‘could well be the only attack submarines available to the Argentine Navy for some time to come, and may well serve long beyond their original service lives Buller Thyssen Nordscewerke Chass Santa Cruz R170) Number: 5.42 Mission attack submarine Length: 65.9 (2170) Bear: 7.3m (24ft) Displacement: 2264 tonnes (2300 tons) Speed: 25knots Operating Depth: 250m (825%) Maximum Depth Crow: Nuclear Weapons: none Conventional Weapons: 533mm (21in) torpedo, mines Sonar: Krupo-Atfos CSU-83 Navigation ankrnown Powerplant: dhesel-electrc, 6000 sho Date Commissioned; 1985 AUSTRALIA 9 HMAS WALLER anderen Al adi y re service, Its capable of both short-duration coastal missions in littoral ¢ duration ow water} environments, and long. ‘open-sea defensive and offensive operations. This makes the Collins class a very flexible weapons platform, and well suited to the demands of modern conflict and international peacekeeping or peace-enforcement, The Collins class has a patrol endurance of more than two months, and can spend most ofthis time submerged. However, as with all diesel electric submarines, it needs some time on the surface 10 dlischarge exhaust fumes whilst rec of over 3000 tonnes (3048 tons), the Collins class boats are some of the largest conventionally powered urging its batteries, With a displacement submarines in the world, on a similar scale to the Russian Kilo class. The project has not been cheap to implement however, nor has it heen without eriticism, as the number of Collins class submarines to enter into Australian service totals six at present, at an estimated cost of over fixe billion Australian dollars (three billion US dollars). Builder Class: Number Mission: Leoath: Beam: Displacement: Speed: Operating Depth Maximum Depts Crem: Nuclear Weapons: Conventional Weepons Sonar: Navigation: Powerplant Date Commissioned! Kockums ASC Colins 75 attack submarine 78m (25740) 8m (6rt) 3350 tonnes (3403 tons) 20 knots 250m (825F0) 300m (2508) a2 one ‘533mm (21n) torpedo, Harpoon Thomson Sintra Seylla sonar suite eh tha PETER diesel-electric, 5000 shp 1999 10 TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY SUBMARINES AND WARSHIPS he Brazilian Navy's submarine farce is bused at Base across the bay tothe east of Ri de Janeiro, The force ‘operates fou Tupi class vessels and plans to have two Improved Tapi or Tikuna class submarines in service by the year 2005, The first-al-class submarine, Tupi (S30), was designed and builtin Kiel, Germany, by Howaldtswerke Deutsche Werft (HDW) and commissioned into the Brazilian Navy in 1989. As soften the case with military foreign contract sales, the following vessels were built indigenously to the specification ofthe original. The Arsenal de Marinha naval shipyard in Rio de Janeiro has constructed three subsequent submarines over ao extended period of 10 years, with the Tamoio commissioned in 194, the Tina Commissioned in 1996 and the Japajo commissioned in 1999..The Tuna, an nproved Tupi class submarine, js tuner construction ani is scheduled to conumission in 2008, followed by the Tipuia im 2005,"The submarine is equipped with quite sophisticated electronics, including two Mod 76 periscopes supplied by Kollmorgen, the Calypso fl -band navigation radar from Thales, andthe submarine’ ull nounced sonar isthe CSU-83/ from STN Atlas Electron {cis armed with eight worpedo tubes rom sshich can launch 533mm (21in) torpedoes, or mines. SPECIFICATIONS Builder Class: Number Mission Length Beam, Displacement: Speed! Operating Depth: Maximum Depth: Crow: Nuclear Weanons Conventional Weapons: Sonar Nevigation: Powerplant: Date Commissioned. Arsenal de Marinha Tupi (ype 209/1400) 530 attack submarine 61m (201ft) 6.2m of) 1440 tonnes (1463 tons) 24 knots 270m (891) 350m (11554) 30 533mm (2tin) torpedo, mines STW Atlas Blectronik CSU-23/1 Thales Calypso diesel-electric, 2400 shp 1989 CHINA 14 CHANGZHENG 5 _ se cmpled 1874 be i on ome al cpa ctl he 98s dc her as nuclear power plant and the lack of a suitable torpedo weapons system. Itis believed that the French were heavily involved in aiding the upgrading of the Type 091, including help with a modified nuclear reactor with a much-reduced acoustic signature the addition ofa French-esigned intercept sonar set, and the replacement of the original Soviet ESM equipment with an unknown French design From the third ship (403) the submarine was lengthened by Su (26ft to be ited with theY} 2 anti-ship missile, All six ships are reportedly based at fianggevhuang (Qingelae) Navy Base in the People’s Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) North Sea Fleet, though other reports claimed that some of these ‘outh Sea Fleet ships may be temporarily assigned to the The first two ships (401, 402) were vefitted in the late 1980s, and back in service in the mid-1990s, Numbers $03 and 404 started mid-life refits in 1998 and were hack in service in 2000. As sith 2 gre eal of Chinese equipment, unanswered questions hang over the Type 091, and it remains to be seen whether the Han class is a truly worthy attack submarine, able to stand against modern US boats, SPECIFICATIONS Bilder: Clas Number: Mission Length Beam: Displacement: Speed: Operating Depth Maximum Depth: Crew ‘Nuclear Weapons: Conventional Weapons: Sonar Nevigtion: Powerplant: Date Commissioned: Huludao Shipyard Han (ype 091) 404 attack submarine 98m 24M) 10m (36) '5500 tonnes (5588 tons) 25 knots unknown unknown oe ‘533mm (21in) torpedo, ¥i-82 Tout Cheek sonar suite Snoop Tray ‘nuclear reactor, shp unknown 1990 12 TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY SUBMARINES AND WARSHIPS, CHANGZHENG 6_ he"Type 092, also known as the Xia class, is China’s ist and only ballistic missile nuclear submarine (SBN), Its derived from the'Type 091 Han class, with the hull lengthened to accommodate the 12 missile tubes, The first ship, Chazgzheng 6, was launched in 1981 and became operational in 1983, though the JL-1 missile slid not conduct a successfal test launch until 1988 due to problems with its fire-control system. A second ship was reportedly constructed, but was later lost in an accident in 1985. The first test launch of the JL-1 submarine-hunched ballistic missile (SLBM) took place in 1984."The first launch from a'Type 092 was in 1985 but was unsuccessful, delaying the vessel's entrance into operational service. ft was not until 1988 that a satisfactory launch took place, Currently the People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) has only onc boat, Changrheng 6, which is deployed! with the North Sea Fleet, The submarine has recently undergone an extensive refit with the upgrades reportedly including replacement of the original JL-1 missle with the improved JL-1A, which has an extended range of 4000km (2500 miles). Operations have been limited and the Type 092 has never sailed beyond Chinese regional waters, Despite a potential for operations in the Pacific Ocean, capabilities would be very limited against modern Western or Russian ASW capabilites SPECIFICATIONS Builder: Class: Number Mission: Length Beam Displacement Speed Operating Depth: Maximum Depth: Crew: Nuclear Weapons! Conventional Weapons: Sonar Navigation: Powerplant: Date Commissioned Hiuludeo Shipyard Xa (Type 092) 406 ballistic missile submarine 120m (396F) 10m 3h) £6500 tonnes (6604 tons) 2 knots unknown unknown 140 12 x Ju Lang-7A StBts 533mm (21in) torpedo, mines unknown Snoop Tay ruclear reactor 1986 CHINA 13 YUANZHANG 67_ hina ordered twvo Kilo class diesel-electric submarines from Russia in 1996, andl they were delivered in 1998, These two boats are the standard export version Kilo, Type 877EKM. China also ordered another two Improved Kilo, Type 636 version of the Kilo class submarines, which were delivered in 2000.The Kilo clas is undoubtedly the most capable submarine in service with the People’s Liberation Army Navy (PLAN). Once their crews are fully trained, these new diesel submarines will provide a substantial improvernent i China's attack submarine capability. They will enhance China's capability to interdict commercial oF naval shipping, and hence deny sca control to potentially hostile forces operating, in China's coastal areas.Currently all four Kilo vessels are deployed as part of the East Sea Fleet and « CChina’s most important naval assets well into the twenty ight to remain as one of first century. Reportedly, however, the first two Kilo submarines have engaged in only Limited sea operations duc ‘0 engine problems. Latest rep ts appear to confirm that China has recently ordered another eight Type 636 Improve Kilo class submarines from Russa, for a total of 12 boats in service by 2005. These submarines may be Fitted with an Air Independent Propulsion (AIP) system anxl carey the Klub submerged-launch anti-ship missiles. SPECIFICATIONS Builder: Class Number ‘Mission Length Bear: Displacermen Speed Operating Depth Maximum Depth: Crew: Fiuclear Weapons: Conventional Weapons: Navigation Powerplant Bate Commissioned Huluda0 Shipyarct Kio 367 attack submarine 73m (ath) 918m 023} +3000 tons (2048 tons) 20 knots 300m (990%) 400m (1320%%) 52 ‘533mm tin) torpedd, Klub. M@K-400M diesel-electric, 6000 she 1991 14 TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY SUBMARINES AND WARSHIPS, HMS KRONBORG he original HMS Nckon was launched in 1978 as the lead submarine in the Nacken clas for the Swedish Navy, a clss consisting of three submarines. However, TIMS Nucken has recently been extensively modernized svas the test platform for the Air Independent Pray (ALP) system built into the new Gotland class and the refitted Sodermanland clas. On the strength of its performance in these trials, and the fact that it would remain fitted with the AIP system, it was a very attractive prospect for purchase. Thus the Danish Navy stepped in with a bid to buy it, and in 2001 the Nacken was commissioned into service with the Danish Navy and renamed HMS Kronforg, The purchase of this vessel marked a significant upgrading of the Danish Navy's war-fighting capabilities, Its existing leet of Tumleren class bo ‘of the Nacken, and the Danish Navy found itself less able to ‘cooperate with its allies, With the introduction of HMS lacked the technology Kronborg, however, the technology gap between the Danish Navy and her Scandinavian neighbours has now been plugged until the pan-Seandinavian Viking project comes into service. In addition to the improvement in capability, HMS Krontowy provides Danish crews with vital experience ‘of a modern vessel, which will be invaluable when the next, generation beats enter Danish service. Builder Kockums Class Kronborg Number: ss Mision attack submarine Length: 57.9m (191%) Beam: 5.7m (198) Displacement 9218 tonnes (1237 tons) Speed BDierots ‘Operating Depts 250m (025i) ‘Maximum Depths 350m (1155f) ‘Crew: 19: Nuclear Weapons... none Conventional Weapons: 533mm (tin) torpedo mines Sonar Alls Electron CSU-83 sonar Navigation Teena radar Powersant dlesehelecvc Ai, 1500 sho Date Commissioned 2001 HMS SALEN DENMARK 15 he three submarines of the Tunleren class are of the German Type 207 design. In 1964-66 they were built at the Rheinstahl-Nordscewerke in Germany for the Norwegian Navy as part of the 15 units of the Kobben class. In 198991 thrce units of the Kobben class were purchased and taken over by the Royal Danish Navy from Norway Following an extensive refit they were renamed HAS Timiren, HMS Salen and HMS Springeren and replaces the four boats of the older Danish-designed and built Delfinen class: The Danish submarines are equipped and trained for an emphasis on littoral operations. This reflects the geography of Denmark and its historieal and strat gle position of controlling the entrance to the Baltic Sea. Since the birth of the Danish submarine force in 1909, the ability to operate in shallow and confined waters has been of prime importance. Inadlition, the more traditional open-water operations in the North Atlantic region are exercised routinely by participation in NATO's Standing Naval Force Atlantic Following the end of the Cold War and NATO's new strategic concept, the tasks of the Danish armed fires have been redirected towards international operations such as peacekoeping and peaee-enforcement, Such operations will typically require enhanced littoral capabilities encompassing all the different kinds of submarine warfare me aia Displacement 524.tonnes (532.t0ns). soe La gt Opevatiog Depth OR ett aia A. Saanimum Desi 27mm SHR, crew: Nuclear Weapons: Conventional Weapons: 533mm (informed, ries Sonar: | PSUS Navigation: - unknown Powerplant senior ais Date Commissioned: 1990 he French Navy's Améthyste class attack submar «follow-on development from the successful Rubis class SSN, It has been designed for littoral anti-submarine operations, but like most modern submarines can perform a varied nutmber of jobs with efficiency, including anti-shipping, reconnaissance and power-projection missions. The Améthyste class incorporates ‘many improvements on the original Rubis design to make it a more capable machine. These include a slightly longer hull to incorporate a quieter propulsion system, and a much Improved electronics suite, In addition to the 533mm (21in) torpedoes, the Améthyste class can launch the ship-killing Exocet missile, The missile is del hy target range and bearing data from the submarine’ tactical data system al sweapons contral system, which is downloaded into the Exocet’s onboard computer. The missle approaches th target area ina sea-skimming fashion using inertial navigation to avoid detection, and then uses active radar asit nears the target, The missile approaches the t speeds of over Mach 0.9 (1170 kin/h) and the range Is SOkm (31.25 miles), The Exocet is armed with a 165ky (363Ib) high-explosive shaped charge and is utterly deadly. Exocet missiles sank the British ships HMS Shefil and Avlancic Comeyor during the 1982 Falklands War 16 TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY SUBMARINES AND WARSHIPS, AMETHYSTE SPECIFICATIONS Builder: GW International Class: Améthyste Number: 5-605 Mission: attack submarine Length 73.6m (241ft) Beam 7.6m 05h) Displacement: 2730 tonnes (2774 tons) Speed 25 knots ‘Opecating Depth: 200m (660) Maximum Depth: 300m (090) Crew 70 533mm (21in) torpedo, Exocet Nuclear Weapons, Conventional Weapons Sonar Thomson Sintra MUX 20 Navigation Thomson-CSF DRUA 33 Powerplant rucleor reactor 9500 shp Date Commissioned: 1992 FRANCE 17 | EMERAUDE_ sematelise jhe French Navy has modified four of its older Rubis T lass attack submarines, to bring them up to a similar SPECIFICATIONS standard to the more modern Améthyste class SSNs, The resulting hybrid class is known as the Rubis-Améthyste, Builder: DCN international The French Navy operates its Rubis-Améthyste clas Clas Rubis-Améthyste submarines from the naval base in Toulon.‘The frst batch of Number 5-604 Rubis class submarines was initially equipped For an anti ec a eine surface role, but since hecoming the Rubis-Améthyste class ; F z Lenath 72.1m (23680) they have been re-equipped to the same standard as the later # Améthyste submarines, giving them the capability to a pec perform both anti-surlace and anti-submarine warfare mis Displacement 12670 tonnes (2712'tons) sions. This has been achieved by the addition of two extra Speed knots torpedo tubes, and improved sonar, radar and navigation Operating Deg Sere Dan) systems The submarine has the epscty to carry 8 mis. lg = and torpedoes in a mixed load. The four 533mm (21in) Crow. 70 torpedo tubes are equipped with « pneumatic ram system for discharging torpedoes from the tubes. he Rubis NucledrWeapons: none Améthyste is armed with two types of torpedo, One isthe Conventional Weapons: 533mm (21in) torpedo, Exocet ECAN LS Mod 3 torpedo, This is equipped with active and! Sona Thorson Sintra DMUX 20, passive homing and has a range of 9.5km (6 miles). The ‘Naboo REE CHAS. torpedo has a speed of 35 knots and delivers a 50kg os et (3301b) warhead to a depth of 550m (181 5f¢), The ECAN ne uaceat Cy Sa FIT Mos 2 torpedo is wire guided torpedo with range of Date Commisioned; 1988 fecommisioned 196) ner 20km (125 mils) ana depth of upto 6m (1980), 18 TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY SUBMARINES AND WARSHIPS. L'INDOMPTABLE he French Navy's EIndompeable vessel has been retained in service despite being slated far decommissioning in the 1990s, andl is expected to sec 2 jal 2004s vr] cuba enor’ of Tonimicy scuba ts ae tesa a tbe AS rg) ane), who bop conta 24-howr watch, This means that the vessel ean react to & order immediately, rather than having to prepare. The ability tw carry out emergency orders immediately is a key part of strategie deterrence, since any potential aggressor must be aware that attack will be met with an immediate response The French Navy's SSBNs have not seen as much active service as the US of British flects, but they continue to patrol the world’s aceans protecting France's interests, ‘Whereas the British SSBN submarine fleet takes response orders and targeting parameters from the US, the French president re ins the sole right to give the order to Taunch France's nuclear weapons, In reality, however, France is unlikely to act alone in any’ given international crisis where the threat of nuclear force is prosent, The M4 submarine launched ballistic missile (SLBM) that is earried by the Lilnflexible class is capable of hitting six different targets up to 4000km (2500 miles) away: SPECIFICATIONS Builder Class: Number Mision Length Beant Displacement Speed: ‘Operating Dent Maximuni Bt Crew Nuclear Weapons Conventional Weapons: Sonar: Navigation, Powerplant Date Commissioned: 2c femational inflexible 5613 balistic missie submarine 128m (42089 105m(a5H) 000 tonnes (Std tons) 25 knots 260m (924f) 350hm (1455) 130 16 x Ma Sit 533mm (21in) torpedo, ExBeBE Thomson Sintra OSUX 21 Thiomson-CSF ORUA 33 uclear reactor, 16,000 shp 1876 (recommissioned 1969) FRANCE 19 L'INFLEXIBLE he inflexible class ballistic missile submarines were Tints deg Redoubtable class SSBNs launched in the early 1970s, The French have traditionally developed their ews nuclear technology, which meant that their sca-based nuclear deterrence was lagging far behind the US and US-aided British SSBNs, When the original Le Redoubtable clas was launched it was already behind the times, and thus a modernization plan brought the class up to L'Inflexible standards, When the vessel bearing the name Le Radowktable vwas decommissioned in 1991, all remaining boats became known as L'nflexible class, irespective oftheir original pre-overhaul configuration, This vessel is part of France's Strategic Oceanic Force (FOST), but it is due to retire from active duty in the next few years as the Le Triomphant class ing Le ‘Triomphant class vessels means that the L'Inflexible class begins to enter service. Delays with the rem: boats will stay in service longer than the original 2003 retirement date, The last remain the o tro-fitted with the M45 SLBM to reflect the fact that it will be in service longer than expected. Though no match far the most vessel of nal 'Inflexible class has heen recently modern SSBNs around the world, they are still eapable vesels and maintain France’s nuclear deterrence SPECIFICATIONS Builder Chass Number: Mission: Length: Beam Displacement: ‘Speed: Operating Depth Maximum Depth; Crow Nuclear Weapons Conventional Weapons Sonar Navigation: Poweiplant Date Commissioned DEN International Uiflexbte S615 ‘alse missle submarine Bam (2000) fobm ast) 8000 tones (9144 tons) 25 knots 280m @24%) 350m (115540 130 16 x Ni SLana '533%m (tin) torpedo, Bxocet Thamson Sintra DSU 21 Thomson-CSF DRUA 33 ‘nuclear reactor, 16,000 sh 1985 20 TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY SUBMARINES AND WARSHIPS LE TEMERAIRE he new Le'Teiomphant class of ballistic missile submarine isan integral part of France's Strategic Oceanic Force (FOST), Much like the United doctrine demands that at least fone SSBN be on patrol at any given time, able to launch a retaliatory second-strike in the event ofan attack on France itself or any of her NATO allies. Though the world isa very different place since the collapse of communist in Russia, Erance still sees a necessity to develop and maintain an SSRN fore a6 well as keeping a nuclear bombing capability. The ‘modern Le Triomphant class takes advantage of many ind materials developments in computer technology advances to keep it ahead of ts predecessor, the L'nilexible class SSBN which entered service in the 1980s, It boasts 3 sophisticated sensor array that gives a very extensive detection range, and has @ modern steel structure composed of US equivalent HY 130 stecl. This gives the clas the ability to dive much deeper than its prestocesso, thus making it more flexible and stealthy. Le Fimézir isthe second vessel ina batch of four LeTriomphant class sulbmarines to be hunched, and by 2008 all four shosld be in service. Under the SNLE-NG (Sous-Marins Nuclires Lanceurs Engins Nouvelle Génération) programme, each Le Triomphant SSBN costs 5.5 billion Euros. Builder: Class: Number: Mission: Length Beam Displacement: ‘Speed Operating Depth: Maximum Depth: Crew: Nuclear Weapons: ‘Conventional Weapons: ‘Sone Navigation Powerplant Date Commssione DEW international Le Tromphat 5617 ballistic missle submarine 138m (as2tt) 125m (41h) 14,520 tonnes (14,345 tons) 25 knots 300m (890) 4000 (1320) 110 18x MAS ballistic avsios ‘533mm in) torpedo; Broce DMUX 80 sonar suite Racal 1229 DREN 324A nuclear reactor, 41,000 shp 1997 LE TRIOMPHANT FRANCE 21 he French Navy's Le Triomphant class ballistic missile submarine isthe replacement for the L'Inflexible M4 class SSBNs, The submarine was designed and built at DCN’s (Direction des Constructions et Armes Navales) (Cherbourg shipyard, and the First-of-class submarine was Taunched in July 993 and entered service in 1997. There Tony missiles with a warhead of six multiple re-entry vehicles (MBYs). Each MRV has the explosive power equivalent to 147,638 tons (150,000 tons) of TNT, making it 10 tim o be four submarines in total inthis clas The Fe hane carries 16 vertically launched M45 ballistic tan the A-bomb dropped on Hiroshima. The missile has a range of 6000km (3750 miles). A new enhanced MSI ballistic missile is due to enter service in 2008, and this will carry a warhead with 12 multiple independently targetable re-entry vehicles (MIRVS), and have an inereased range of 8000km (5000 miles). Aside from its ballistic missles, Le Tiomphane carries the Exooet surface-to-surface anti-shipping missile, as well as a variety of torpedoes fred from its four 533mm (2 in) torpedo tubes, France has invested lar e sums of money in modernizing and maintaining its strategie nuclear deterrence, alin Le Triomphane it has a vessel to take their nuclear capability into the twenty-first century Number ission: Length. u Beam. Displacement Speed: Operating Deptt ‘Maximum Depth: Crewe Nuclear Weapons: Conventional Weapons Sonar: Navigation: Powerplant: Date Commissioned: DOW International Le Triomphant 5-616 ballistic misie submarine 138m (as2t) 125m (fe) 14,120 tonnes (14,345 tons) 254 knots 300m (990%) 400m (1320) 110 16 x Mas balistic misses 533m 21in) torpedo, Exocet DMUX 80 sonar suite Racal 1229 DRBN 348 fhuclesr reactor, 4,000 shp 1997 22 TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY SUBMARINES AND WARSHIPS U18 This modernization was geared chielly towards the introduc: tion of an tegrated computer-based! combat and sonar sys tem, and was completed in 1992. The Type 206A benctits from excellent manoeuvrability and depth-keeping capabil ties, which enables it to operate submerged! in water depths of just 18m (60), This isa great advantage in littoral ‘operations where the seafloor often hinders larger submarines. Due to its small size, the Type 206A is quite an clusive target, both in terms of initial detection, and then tracking once found. The complement of 25 consists of 6 officers, 6 chief petty officers and 13 petty officers, The ‘weapons control system is, among other features, capable of tracking several targets fully automatically and can handle a maximum of three wire-guided torpedoes simultaneously: ‘When approaching the targets, the torpedoes will gain contact and lock their homing heads onto the target, but do not attack unless ordered ta do so by the operator of the control system. Fitted with eight sophisticated torpedo tubes, for use against surface and sub-surface vessels, the 206A has considerable firepower for its relatively diminutive size bulder oat Deache Werk Class: ‘Type 2064 ub: 517 ison stock stl Length: 48.6m (159%) Beam aymasty! | 6 Displacement: $0 tonnes (528 tons) £ Spee ih) Hiasiarhihe ig Operating Depth: |) 180m Ble Maximum Den 306m 9049 : Powerplant: Date Commissioned: 19050 Rp GERMANY 23 he Type 212 class attack submarine is the latest in a Jong and illustrious line of German diesel-electric Jbmarines from the HDW shipyard. The German in the world, and the Type 212A has already been ordered b a number of different countries including Italy and Norway The new Type 212A wa Jesigned for the German Navy st others, with the faults of the Type 206 class vessels jn mind, and the improvements in the new class attempt t adress these. The modifi tions include a greater long-range reconnaissance and detection capability, a well as the introduction of a satellite communications system for a fa and secure means of exchanging information, Other include a further improvement om the of the submarine, faster and longer-range torpedoes, a high degree of automation, an improvement of living conditions onboard, and an improved environmental protection system. The mi the Air Independent Propulsion (AIP) system, In this system, oxygen and hydrogen are combined in a catalytic way to release electrical energy (to power the vessel) and the w products, This remarkable technology makes the Type 212A, dass exceptionally quict, robust and thas more deadly Builder ‘Class: Number: Mission Length Beam Displacetients Speed: Operating Depth Maxienum Depth Coon Nuclear Weapons: ‘Comventional Weapons Sonar: Navigation: Powerplant c Date Commissioned “SPECIFICATIONS Hovaldtswerke-Deutsche Wertt Type 2124 $181 attack submarine 56 (185A) 7 (23h) 1830 tonmes (1828 tons) 20 knots 300m (990f8) 400m (1320) D7 me ci one ‘533mm tin) torpedo, mines 905-40 sonar sue Kelvin Hughes Type 1007 “heseh electric Ale 4243 sho 2003 24 TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY SUBMARINES AND WARSHIPS PONTOS nal peas oe te T Gideon ple qulirGeoes ante SPECIFICATIONS 209 class, The Hellenic Navy was the first in the ‘world to order this class of submarine, and the fist vessel Huis ‘Howaletswerke-Deutsche Werft entered service in 1971, There are eight individual boats, in Class: Glavkos (ype 20911200) two variations in service with the Hellenic Navy. The first Number: si19 four boats of the class are Type 1100 and the last Four are Mission patroatack submarine Type 1200, of which the Pontos is one, Despite the different , Lenath 55.91 (18st designations, they are considered to he the same elas, The i mean Glaykos clas isa relatively simple design, and is only Beare coma moderately automated, making it somewhat outdated in the Displacement: 1285 tonnes (1306 tons) modern era, The Greek Government has sought to remedy Speed! 22 knows this technological shortcoming by ordering the new Type Seine Soomipbo0ry 214 submarine from the German HDA shipbuilding aR ir company. The first four boats of the class have been overhauled in the last few years, giving them the capability sang zt to launch the Sub Harpoon anti-shipping missile. This has Nuclear Weapons: none ‘greatly increased their war-fighting ability, In addition to the Conventional Weapons: 533mm (21in) torpedo, Harpoon Sub Harpoon surface-to-surface missile, the Glavkos class 8 Sona ‘tog 3-4 actvelos3SV6 soni ‘equipped with eight torpedo tubes capable of firing 533m regain SiRaT ae: (Zin) torpedoes. The Glavkos class is due to remain in ae Deane aorn service until the Hellenic Navy has completed its masieiens eee procurement of the enhanced Type 214 class submarines, Date Commissioned: 1980 also from the same Ge wn shipbuilder. INDIA 25 INS SHANKUL fier several years of discussion with, Howaldiswerke-Deutsehe Werlt (HDW), the Indian Navy came to an agreement in December 1981 10 purchase a number of the popular Type 2089/1500 attack submarines for its Hleet. The agreement clavified that the building in West Germany of two HDW 209 class vesse would be Fallawed by a supply of packages for building two ‘more at Mavagon Dockyards Ltd. In addition, HDW agreed tosupply training to various groups of specialists for the design andl construction of the last Oo submarines in the hutch. The first two submarines sailed for India in February 1987, having been commissioned into Indian service the year before, In 1984 it was announced that two more submarines would be built at the Mavagon Dockyard Lte (MDL) in Mumbai, but this was overtaken by events during the Kashmiri insurgency of 1987-88 and the agreement with HDW w: than the origi ‘gain in 1997, but no orders have yet been placed. The Shishumar elass began an extensive refit during 2000, which is thought to include improvements to the electronies suite, terminated at just four submarines, rather | six. This was reconsidered in 1992 and plus other minor improvements, The class can expect to be in service until the depending on certain cetnemic andl political factors Builder: Class: Number: Mission: Length: Beam: Displacement: Speed: Operating Depth: ‘Maximum Depth: Crewe ‘Nuclear Weapons: Conventional Weapons Sonat: Navigation: Powerplant: =! Date Commissioned: Mazagon Dockyard tao Shishumar (ype 20911500) S47 attack submarine 644m (2134) 6.5m (22h) 1850 tonnes (1880 tons) 22 knots 260m (6633) 250m (1155F) ae - ore |) 533mm (tin) torpedo, mines Electronik: CSU-83 sonar suite “_ThamsonSE Calypso. -dieselelectric, 4600 shp 1994 26 TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY SUBMARINES AND WARSHIPS INS SINDHUVIJAY total of 10 diesel-powered Kilo project 877EKM submarines, known in India as the Sindhugosh class, have been built under a contract between Russian shipbuilder Roswooruzhenie and the Indian Defence Ministry. Kilo class submarines have been nicknamed “Black Hole” by NATO for their silent operation whilst on ‘perations, In January 1997 two Improved Kill class boats, also known as Kile Type 636, were orrlered by the Indian Navy and the first, INS Sindburalshak, was commissioned in December 1997 at St Petersburg, Russia, This submarine ‘77EKM hull built for the Russian Navy but was never purchased. The second, INS Sindhusbasera, was ‘commissioned in July 2000, The remaining Sindhugosh ck vessels are the standard export versions of the 877EKM Kilo. The Sindhugosh classi fitted with six 533mm (21in) torpedo tubes, carrying 18 heavyweight torpedoes (6 in the tubes and 12 on the racks). It uses an automatic rapid Inader which is remotely controlled from the main control panel or by the controls in the launch station, Two of the tubes can fire wire ied torpedoes, whilst the other four have automatic reloading. Torpedo types include the Type 53-65 passive wake-homing torpedo, and the TEST 71/76 anti-submarine active and passive homing torpedo, It can also launch mines as well as shoulder-launched SAMs. Buide Aainialy Shipyard Sudomeky hss Sinahugash (ko 8776KM) Number $62 Mision: T_attack suborine Length Zam arty Beam: Bar9 Displacement ar (2125 ons) Speed Operating Depts een Maximum Depth a= cov. eae Nuclear Weagenss none af a Conventional Weapons: 533mm (2tin) torpedo, SSM . MIGK400 Shark Teeth Navigation: ~MG-519 Snoop Tray Powerplant: iesel-electric, 6800 shp Date Cominissoned: 1991 Sonar’ ITALY 27 PRIMO LONGOBARDO Tet ul nly pds of Meilno e Sa Sepa mar of cpa ec 198 her hy ne ben pel clog MiM/BN 16 an he ch nd i ance conte (FED sk 2) tem ve nen rome and pe ye IS 90-2, a mgr yet can ne ce Feel ttn rege ie TUS90 20ghs abo eue eur canpeing femelle Wie roe norte sel aivmag ohne site's The SUS em ue targets, whilst also managing mines and countermeasures, SPECIFICATIONS Builder: Class: Number Mission Length Beam Displacement Soved: Operating Depth Maximum Dept: Crew: Nuclear Weapons: Conventional weapons: Sonar: Navigation Powerplant Date Commissioned! Italcantien, Monfalcone Primo Longobardo 5524 coastal patrol submarine 66 3m (279K) 6.8m (22h) 4862 tonnes (1891 tons) 19 knots 20040 (660%) 300m (9904) 50 ‘none 533mm (OHA) torpedo, mines 5 90.20 sensor suite unknown diesel-electric, 3650 shp 1993 28 TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY SUBMARINES AND WARSHIPS SALVATORE TODARO _ Te me tssbleciantaaetce SPECIFICATIONS submarine. This class is based on the German designed Type 212A, and the Halian version dlrs litle bl ee farcan ier, from the German Navy's The introduction of the Salvatore | CLs Type 212A Vndaro class into the Kalan Navy will bea ant step Number: E526 Forward for the fect, The Type 212A isa state-ofthe-art = Bact LoS. diesel submarine, and its capabilities far outreach the Sauro 1 ssperaton of bots The Sahatore Tar lvl a me Bin BSP replace the Sauro generation; indeed, some of the Sen mete technology from the'Type 212A boats will be added to the Displacement 1830 tonnes (1828) newest Primo Longobardo class vessels, thus upgrading their Sp 20 knot attack submarine Length: 7am @saty. Beam: ton GR Displacement: | 5 (2794 tons) Se SS a0 rates) (Opefating Depth ‘Manimum Dept Crew: Re Nudear Weapons: none Conventional Weapons: 533m fia) fxpedo, Harpoon Sonar HuughestoKi 20058 soni ute Navigation’ SRE ESCR Powerplant Date Commis . 30 TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY SUBMARINES AND WARSHIPS MAKISHIO he new Oyashio class attack submarine is an indigenously designed and built vessel that sliffers from previous submarines of the Japanese Maritime Self Defense Force (JMSDF). Like most submarines, a traditional tear-drop shape hull was the previously preferred design, but the latest and most powerful submarine in the JMSDF inventory has been designed with a leaf coil” hull form, It incorporates not only a diferent hull form, but it ‘eanploys a double-hull system, much like Russian submarines, The design of the Oyashio was built around the arrangement of the sensors first and foremost, after which the entire layout was then built, The traditional method of arrangement placed the most powerful sensors in the bow but the Oyashio clas uses its entire hull as part of the sensor array. In addition, the combat intelligence processing system of the new vessel also improses its attacking capabilities, The position of the torpeda tubes also differs from other similar submarines, with the hove torpede shes placement influenced by the arrangement of the sensors. The hhull has been improved by installing anechoie rubber tiles on the hull. High levels of automation throughout the vessel has allowed the number of crew needed to be around 75, thus saving on manpower and the logisties required to support a larger crew, SPECIFICATIONS Builder: Class Number: Mission Length Beam: Displacement Speed ‘Operating Depth: Maximum Depth: Crew: Nuclear Weapons: Conventional Weapons: Sonar Navigation Powerplant: Date Commissioned ‘MitsubishiKowasaki Oyeshio 58-593 attackipatral submarine B1.7m (268) 89m 29%) 3600 tonnes (3657 tons) 20 knots 00% (es0%) 400m (13208) 5 ‘none 533mm @in) torpedo, Harpoch 200-58 hullflank arrays srband radar system diesebeleciric, 7700 sh 2001 JAPAN 31 SACHISHIO he Yushio class attack submarine represented an TT oisenstitnnecnn cri Ui i vessels that el preceded it when it was launched in the mi-1970s, 4 total of 10 were built starting in 1975, and it was the largest lass of submarines built far the Japanese Maritime Sell Defense Farce (JMSDF) atthe time, Although it was launches! as a seconchgeneration vessel, because the peripheral technology progressed massively over the decade during which they were under construction, the earliest unit and the liter units were almost different types of ships, with the later submarines technologically fr superior Gradual improvements were made over the construction period, and from the fifth boat onward these improvements included the ability ta Taunch the Sub Harpoon missle, anel in later units the control navigation system was improved Type NS8O steel was adopted! for the pressure:resistant boat hull, allowing for operations to be carried out safely at Aepths of approximately 450m (485K), though this is unconfirmed offically: Other improvements over its predecessor included the adoption of seven-bladedl propellor, which gave the submarine a rechiction in noise emissions, The increase of eruising power, periscope depth range and the large-sized computer conversion of the direction device resulted in a greater war-fighting ability SPECIFICATIONS. Builder: Clas: Number Mission Length Beam: Displacement: Speed! Operating Depth: Maximum Depth: Crow Nuclear Weapons Conventional hieapans: Sonar Navigation: Powerplant: Date Commissioned: KowasakiMitsubishi Yoshio $5582 attack submarine 76m (25110 2.9m aa10 2500 tonnes (2540 tons) 20 knots 300m (980%) 400m (120%) 75 533m Qin) torpedo, Haipooe 200-4 Sonar suite 25-5 radar diesel-electric, 7200 sho 1989