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Present Simple

Remember the rules for Present Simple:

→ In the 3rd person singular -s (or -es/-ies) is added to the verb
→ do is used with the pronouns: I, you, we, they;
→ does is used with the pronouns: he, she, it (3rd person singular)
Negative sentences
→ don’t/do not is used with the pronouns: I, you, we, they;
→ doesn’t/does not is used with the pronouns: he, she, it (3rd person singular)

The Present Simple tense is also used for something that is true in general (a
general truth).
Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius.
It doesn’t rain much in summer.
The sun rises in the east.
actions that happen repeatedly.
We use the Present Simple tense (I do) to describe

Present Continous
actions that are happening now .
We use the Present Continuous tense (I’m doing) for:

The Present Continuous tense is also used for something that is happening in a period of
time around now, but not at the moment of speaking.
I’m working this week.
I’m doing the housework today.
Josh is studying a lot this week.

Grammar 1: Stative and dynamic

In Unit 1 you learned how to use two different present tenses, the Present Simple and the
Present Continuous, for different kinds of actions. However, there are some verbs
(called stative verbs) that are not used in continuous tenses because they express a
permanent state rather than an action.
There are various types of stative verbs:
 verbs of senses:
feel, hear, see, smell, taste
 verbs describing feelings:
dislike, like, love, forgive, hate, prefer
 verbs expressing opinion:
believe, understand, agree, suppose, think, know
 other verbs:
appear, seem, belong, depend, have (meanig to possess), mean, own, want,

Study the rules and the examples.

Some stative verbs can have continuous forms, but they are only used to express different
meanings. For example, when you say: You look great!, you are talking about a state and
the verb is not used in a continuous form, but when you say: I’m looking at a timetable
now., you are talking about an action and you can use it in Present Continuous if it is
happening now.
In Polish you usually use different verbs to express these two different meanings.
Grammar 2: The verb look
Read dialogues A and B below.
- What does he look like?
- He looks great!
- What is he looking at?
- He’s looking at you.
The verb look is used in two different tenses: Present Simple in dialogue A and Present
Continuous in dialogue B. But does it have the same meaning?

Present Perfect
Mrs. Williams uses the Present Perfect tense (I’ve made..., I’ve taken..., Have you
actions from the past that have a result now
closed... etc.) because she is talking about
Study the rules and the examples.
In this dialogue, the Present Perfect tense is used to talk about a period of time from the
past until now. To say what period of time you have in mind, you may use the expressions
recently/lately, in the last few days, so far, this week, for two weeks, since
You use for when you mean a period of time (for two days) and since when you're
referring to a particular moment in the past (since Sunday).
Look at some more examples.
I have never had my own car.
Have you ever eaten sea food?
I haven't eaten anything since lunch.
I haven't seen him for a long time.
Have you heard from Kate recently?
Remember the rule.
To build sentences in the Present Perfect tense, we use have/has + past participle (verb
+ -ed or irregular).