Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 6

Medium-voltage series

Principles of medium-voltage switchgear testing:


Functional tests
Sunday, November 26, 2017,

10:13:18

After visual inspection

After the visual inspection has been performed, the next step in the site

acceptance tests is to execute the functional tests. The main purpose of the

functional tests is to make sure that the control circuitry is functioning properly and

as requested. The functional tests cover many aspects of the switchgear design,

because they include checking that the control devices like pushbuttons and

miniature circuit-breakers (MCBs) are working properly, making sure that the signal

devices like the pilot lamps, alarms or horns are working as requested. Functional

tests do not include the testing of the protection relay functions, because they

have their own tests. It is a custom practice to do the functional and mechanical

tests together, because the mechanical motions involve some indication signals.

Preparation for the functional tests

The first step to do after safety precautions, is to supply the auxiliary (control

voltage) necessary to energize the control circuitry. The supply voltage can be 220

l Dr.Zakir Hussein street, 42 - 11471, 7th district, Cairo, Egypt l ' +20 100 166 1137
l ' +49 157 586 32 990l* ahmedhandoussa@hotmail.com l http://energy-
1/6
technik.com l https://www.linkedin.com/in/ahmed-handoussa-b56412140/
l https://www.xing.com/profile/Ahmed_Handoussa?sc_o=mxb_p
Medium-voltage series

Principles of medium-voltage switchgear testing:
Functional tests
Sunday, November 26, 2017,

10:13:18
Vac or dc, 110 Vac or dc, 24 Vdc, 60 Vdc or another special supply voltage. It can

be provided directly from the mains, supplied through a control potential

transformer or provided by a battery bank, but in case of a direct-current supply,

one should take care that the polarity is correct before energizing the control

circuitry. The necessary hand tools for the functional tests are the digital

multimeter and the control screw driver.

Application example: Functional test for a medium-voltage circuit-breaker

(CB) cubicle

In this example, it is intended to give a taste of the functional tests by looking at an

outgoing medium-voltage cubicle equipped with a SF6 circuit-breaker. The circuit-

breaker cubicle is usually equipped with some signalling and control devices to

allow proper operation and monitoring. In the following figure number 1 is a

schematic of a medium voltage outgoing cubicle and figure 2 is the same with

special focus on the low voltage compartment (Highest compartment).

l Dr.Zakir Hussein street, 42 - 11471, 7th district, Cairo, Egypt l ' +20 100 166 1137
l ' +49 157 586 32 990l* ahmedhandoussa@hotmail.com l http://energy-
2/6
technik.com l https://www.linkedin.com/in/ahmed-handoussa-b56412140/
l https://www.xing.com/profile/Ahmed_Handoussa?sc_o=mxb_p
Medium-voltage series

Principles of medium-voltage switchgear testing:
Functional tests
Sunday, November 26, 2017,

10:13:18


Figure 1 Schematic of a medium-voltage outgoing cubicle equipped with an SF6 crcuit-breaker.

l Dr.Zakir Hussein street, 42 - 11471, 7th district, Cairo, Egypt l ' +20 100 166 1137
l ' +49 157 586 32 990l* ahmedhandoussa@hotmail.com l http://energy-
3/6
technik.com l https://www.linkedin.com/in/ahmed-handoussa-b56412140/
l https://www.xing.com/profile/Ahmed_Handoussa?sc_o=mxb_p
Medium-voltage series

Principles of medium-voltage switchgear testing:
Functional tests
Sunday, November 26, 2017,
10:13:18


Figure 2 Low voltage compartment of an outgoing cubicle equipped with a circuit-breaker.

Before applying the control voltage, the commissioning engineer should make

sure that all MCBs are turned OFF and the fuses are removed. Following the

control wiring, the engineer should start by switching ON the MCB that supplies

control power to the cubicle and observe the relevant indication LEDs.

The circuit-breaker in the example in the figure should be switched ON upon

pressing the CB ON pushbutton, but 1st the MCB for the spring charging motor

must be turned ON to supply it with the necessary voltage. The red pushbutton

should turn OFF the CB. The circuit breaker internal circuit is built with switch-over

contacts that indicate the level of the SF6 gas, so the cubicle is designed to display

the gas level on the low voltage compartment using the relevant LEDs. Another

important design feature is the CB position inside the cubicle, which is indicated

by the CB SERVICE LED, so when the commissioning engineer rotates the crank

and withdraws the CB to the SERVICE position (CB moves outside for

maintenance) the LED indicates it is not connected to the main busbar.


l Dr.Zakir Hussein street, 42 - 11471, 7th district, Cairo, Egypt l ' +20 100 166 1137
l ' +49 157 586 32 990l* ahmedhandoussa@hotmail.com l http://energy-
4/6
technik.com l https://www.linkedin.com/in/ahmed-handoussa-b56412140/
l https://www.xing.com/profile/Ahmed_Handoussa?sc_o=mxb_p
Medium-voltage series

Principles of medium-voltage switchgear testing:
Functional tests
Sunday,
In the same cubicle, there are other important functions to test,November 26, 2017,
like the space
10:13:18
heater (figure 3), which should start heating the cubicle upon switching ON the

relevant MCB. Another important feature to test is the flipper circuit, which

depends on a limit switch placed on the cubicle roof, in a circuit loop designed to

trip the circuit-breaker when a short-circuit occurs and blows the roof of the cubicle

consequently, to direct energy upwards.


Figure 3. Space heater placed inside the cubicle to reduce vapour and decrease the risk of an arcing hazard

In the same cubicle, there are signalling LEDs on the mimic diagram that indicate

the CB and earthing switch (ES)1 positions visually. To test the signalling function,

the CB and the ES positions can be switched mechanically using their relevant

cranks.


1
The earthing switch is a safety feature to de-energize the cables connected in the cable
compartment of the cubicle to allow operating inside it safely.
l Dr.Zakir Hussein street, 42 - 11471, 7th district, Cairo, Egypt l ' +20 100 166 1137
l ' +49 157 586 32 990l* ahmedhandoussa@hotmail.com l http://energy-
5/6
technik.com l https://www.linkedin.com/in/ahmed-handoussa-b56412140/
l https://www.xing.com/profile/Ahmed_Handoussa?sc_o=mxb_p
Medium-voltage series

Principles of medium-voltage switchgear testing:
Functional tests
Sunday, November 26, 2017,

10:13:18


Figure 4 The signalling LEDs indicate that the CB is ON and the ES is OFF, they are both displayed in red to emphasize the
hazard, in the opposite positions the LEDs will turn green to indicate safety.

From this application example, it becomes obvious that the functional tests are

basically the same, but might vary a lot in the amount of control and its complexity

from one switchgear configuration to another.

Other functional tests

In the same cubicle, there are many functional tests and these tests are replicated

in the same substation, so a good commissioning plan should be discussed in the

meeting before the tests to avoid time loss. Furthermore, the different cubicles,

which are electrically interconnected with control wiring perform certain functions

together, like interlocking for example. In more complex configurations, the

substation might be connected with another remote substation, or a control room

with control wiring, Ethernet cables or fiber optic communication cables and all of

those functions indicated in the control wiring must be tested.

Conclusion

In this article, functional tests where introduced and presented briefly to give the

reader a taste of the amount of work involved in tests and their nature. An

application example was demonstrated as a practical example and a guide for

testing a medium-voltage CB outgoing cubicle.

l Dr.Zakir Hussein street, 42 - 11471, 7th district, Cairo, Egypt l ' +20 100 166 1137
l ' +49 157 586 32 990l* ahmedhandoussa@hotmail.com l http://energy-
6/6
technik.com l https://www.linkedin.com/in/ahmed-handoussa-b56412140/
l https://www.xing.com/profile/Ahmed_Handoussa?sc_o=mxb_p