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ASME 631.

8-1888 Edition
(Revision of ASME B31.8-1995)


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ASME B31.8-1999Edition
(Revision of ASME 631.8-1995)

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Date of Issuance: June 5 , 2000

The 1999 Edition of this Code is being issued with an automatic update service that
includes Addenda, Interpretations, and Cases. The next Edition is scheduledfor publication
in 2002.
The use of an Addenda allows revisions made in response to public review comments
or committee actions to be published on a regular basis; revisions published in Addenda
will become effective 6 months after the Date of Issuance of the Addenda.
ASME issues written replies to inquiries concerning interpretationsof technical aspects
of the Code.
Periodically certain actions of the ASME B31 Committee will be published as Cases.
While these Cases do not constitute formal revisions of the Code, they may be used in
specifications, or otherwise, as representing considered opinions of the Committee. The
Cases are not part of the Codeor the Addenda and are published ina separate supplement.

ASME is the registered trademark of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

This code was developed under procedures accredited as meeting the criteria for American National Standards.
The Standards Committee that approved the code or standard was balanced to assure that individuals from
competent and concerned interests have had an opportunity to participate. The proposed code or standard was
made available for public review and comment that provides an opportunity for additional public input from
industry, academia, regulatory agencies, and the public-at-large.
ASME does not “approve,” “rate,” or “endorse” any item, construction, proprietary device, or activity.
ASME does not take any position with respect to the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with
any items mentioned in this document, and does not undertake to insure anyone utilizing a standard against
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Participation by federal agency representative(s) or person(s) affiliated with industry is not to be. interpreted
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ASME accepts responsibility for only those interpretations issued in accordance with the established ASME
procedures and policies, which precludes the issuance of interpretations by individuals.

No part of this document may be reproduced in any form,

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without the prior written permission of the publisher.

Copyright Q 2000 by
Three Park Avenue, New York, New York, 10016-5990
All Rights Reserved
Printed in U.S.A.

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Foreword ....................................................................................... vii

Personnel ....................................................................................... ix
Introduction .................................................................................... x111
Summary of Changes ............................................................................ xv
General Provisions and Definitions
80 1 General ......................................................................... 1
802 ScopeandIntent ................................................................ 1
803 PipingSystemsDefinitions ...................................................... 2
804 PipingSystemsComponentDefinitions ........................................... 4
805 Design.Fabrication.Operation.andTesting Tenns ................................ 6

Chapter I MaterialsandEquipment
810 MaterialsandEquipment ........................................................ 9
81 1 Qualification of Materials andEquipment ......................................... 9
812 MaterialsforUse inColdClimates .............................................. 10
813 Marking ........................................................................ IO
814 MaterialSpecifications ........................................................... 10
815 EquipmentSpecifications ........................................................ 11
816 Transportation of LinePipe ..................................................... 11
817 ConditionsfortheReuseofPipe ................................................ 11

Chapter II Welding
820 Welding ........................................................................ 15
82 I General ......................................................................... 15
822 PreparationforWelding ......................................................... 15
823 Qualification of ProceduresandWelders ......................................... 16
824 Preheating ...................................................................... 16
825 StressRelieving ................................................................. 16
826 WeldingandInspectionTests .................................................... 17
827 Repair or Removal of DefectiveWelds in PipingIntendedtoOperate at 20%
or MoreoftheSpecifiedMinimumYieldStrength ............................. 18

Chapter III PipingSystemComponentsandFabricationDetails

830 PipingSystemComponentsandFabricationDetails ............................... 19
83 1 PipingSystemComponents ...................................................... 19
832 ExpansionandFlexibility ........................................................ 26
833 CombinedStressCalculations .................................................... 27
834 SupportsandAnchorageforExposedPiping ..................................... 27
835 AnchorageforBuriedPiping .................................................... 28

83 1.42 Reinforcement of WeldedBranchConnections,SpecialRequirements .............. 24
832.2 ThermalExpansion of PipingMaterials .......................................... 26


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ChapterIV Design.Installation.andTesting
840 Design.Installation.andTesting ................................................. 29
84 1 SteelPipe ...................................................................... 31
842 OtherMaterials ................................................................. 41
843 CompressorStations ............................................................. 49
844 Pipe-TypeandBottle-TypeHolders .............................................. 52
845 ControlandLimiting of GasPressure ............................................ 53
846 Valves ......................................................................... 61
847 Vaults .......................................................................... 62
848 Customers’MetersandRegulators ............................................... 63
849 GasServiceLines .............................................................. 64
841.1 14A BasicDesignFactor. F .......................................................... 33
841.1 14B DesignFactors for SteelPipeConstruction ....................................... 34
841.115A LongitudinalJointFactor. E ..................................................... 35
841.1 16A TemperatureDeratingFactor. T. forSteelPipe ................................... 35
841.322(f) TestRequirements for Pipelines andMainstoOperateatHoopStressesof
30% orMoreoftheSpecifiedMinimumYieldStrengthofthePipe ............ 40
841.33 MaximumHoopStressPermissibleDuringTest .................................. 40
842.214 StandardThicknessSelectionTable for DuctileIronPipe ......................... 42
842.32(c) WallThicknessandStandardDimensionRatioforThermoplasticPipe ............. 44
842.33(c) Diameter andWallThicknessforReinforcedThermosettingPlasticPipe ........... 44
842.396(c) NominalValuesforCoefficientsofThermalExpansion of Thermoplastic Pipe
Materials ..................................................................... 46
Chapter V OperatingandMaintenanceProcedures
850 Operating and MaintenanceProceduresAffectingtheSafetyofGas
Transmission andDistributionFacilities ........................................ 69
85 1 PipelineMaintenance ............................................................ 71
852 DistributionPipingMaintenance ................................................. 74
853 MiscellaneousFacilitiesMaintenance ............................................. 77
854 LocationClassandChanges in Number of BuildingsIntended for Human
Occupancy ................................................................... 80
855 Concentrations of PeopleinLocationClasses 1 and 2 ............................ 81
856 PipelineServiceConversions .................................................... 82
854.1 (c) LocationClass .................................................................. 81
Chapter VI CorrosionControl
860 CorrosionControl ............................................................... 85
86 I Scope .......................................................................... 85
862 ExternalCorrosionControl ...................................................... 85
863 InternalCorrosionControl ....................................................... 89
864 Pipelines in ArcticEnvironments ................................................. 90
865 Pipelines in High TemperatureService ........................................... 92
866 StressCorrosion and OtherPhenomena ........................................... 92
867 Records ........................................................................ 92
ChapterVI1 Miscellaneous
870 Miscellaneous ................................................................... 93
87 1 Odorization ..................................................................... 93
872 LiquefiedPetroleumGas(LPG)Systems ......................................... 93
873 PipelinesonPrivateRights-of-way of ElectricTransmissionLines ................. 94

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Chapter VI11 Offshore Gas Transmission
A800 OffshoreGasTransmission ...................................................... 95
A80 1 General ......................................................................... 95
A802 Scope and Intent ................................................................ 95
A803 OffshoreGasTransmissionDefinitions ........................................... 95
A81 1 QualificationofMaterialsandEquipment ......................................... 96
A8 14 MaterialSpecifications ........................................................... 96
A8 I6 TransportationofLinePipe ..................................................... 97
A820 WeldingOffshorePipelines ...................................................... 97
A82 I General ......................................................................... 97
A823 Qualification of ProceduresandWelders ......................................... 97
A825 StressRelieving ................................................................. 97
A826 WeldingandInspectionTests .................................................... 97
A830 PipingSystemComponents andFabricationDetails ............................... 98
A83 1 PipingSystemComponents ...................................................... 98
A832 ExpansionandFlexibility ........................................................ 98
A834 Supports andAnchorageforExposedPiping ..................................... 98
A835 Anchorage for BuriedPiping .................................................... 98
A840 Design.Installation.andTesting ................................................. 98
A84 1 DesignConsiderations ........................................................... 99
A842 StrengthConsiderations .......................................................... 100
A843 CompressorStations ............................................................. 103
A844 On-BottomStability ............................................................. 104
A845 ControlandLimitingofGasPressure ............................................ 105
A846 Valves ......................................................................... 105
A847 Testing ......................................................................... 105
A850 OperatingandMaintenanceProceduresAffectingtheSafety of Gas
TransmissionandDistributionFacilities ........................................ 106
A85 1 PipelineMaintenance ............................................................ 106
A854 LocationClass .................................................................. 107
A860 CorrosionControl of OffshorePipelines .......................................... 107
A86 1 Scope .......................................................................... 107
A862 ExternalCorrosionControl ...................................................... 107
A863 InternalCorrosionControl ....................................................... 109
A842.22 DesignFactorsforOffshorePipelines.PlatformPiping.andPipelineRisers ........ 101
Chapter IX SourGasService
B800 SourGasService ............................................................... 111
B80 1 General ......................................................................... 111
B 802 ScopeandIntent ................................................................ 111
B 803 Sour Gas Tenns andDefinitions ................................................. 111
B813 Marking ........................................................................ 112
B814 MaterialSpecifications ........................................................... 112
B820 Welding Sour GasPipelines ..................................................... 112
B82 1 General ......................................................................... 112
B822 PreparationforWelding ......................................................... 112
B823 Qualifications of Procedures andWelders ......................................... 112
B824 Preheating ...................................................................... 112
B825 StressRelieving ................................................................. 113
B826 WeldingandInspectionTests .................................................... 113
B830 PipingSystemComponentsandFabricationDetails ............................... 113

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STD-ASME B31-8-ENGL L999 m 0759b70 Ob27050 235


The need for a nationalcodeforpressurepiping Because of the wide field involved, between 30 and
becameincreasinglyevident from1915to1925. To 40 different engineering societies, government bureaus,
meetthisneed,theAmericanEngineeringStandards tradeassociations,institutes,andsimilarorganizations
Committee (later changedtotheAmericanStandards have had one ormore representatives onthe sectional
Association, now the American National Standards Insti- committee, plus a few “members at large” to represent
tute) initiated Project B31 in March 1926 at the request general interests. Code activities have been subdivided
of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and according to the scope of the several sections. General
withthatSocietyassolesponsor.Afterseveralyears direction of Code activities rested with theStandards
of work by Sectional Committee B3and 1 its subcommit- Committee officers and an executive committee, mem-
tees, a firstEdition waspublished in 1935 as an bership ofwhich consistedprincipally of Standards
American Tentative Standard Code for Pressure Piping. Committeeofficersandsectionchairmen.
A revisionof the originaltentativestandardbegan Following its reorganization in 1948, Standards Com-
in 1937.Severalmoreyears of effort weregiven to mittee B31 made an intensive review of the 1942 Code
securing uniformity among sections, eliminating diver- that resulted in
gent requirements and discrepancies, keeping the Code (a) a general revision and extension of requirements
abreast of current developments in welding technique, to agree with present day practice
calculating stress computations, and including reference (b) the revision of references to existing dimensional
to new dimensional and material standards. During this standards andmaterialspecificationsandtheaddition
period, a new sectionadded on refrigerationpiping of references to the new ones
was prepared in cooperation with the American Society (c) theclarification of ambiguous or conflicting re-
of Refrigeration Engineers and complemented the Amer- quirements
ican Standard Code for Mechanical Refrigeration. This
A revisionwaspresentedforletterballotvoteof
work culminated in the 1942 American Standard Code Standards Committee B3 l . Following approval by this
for Pressure Piping. body, the project was approved by the sponsor organiza-
Supplements1and 2 of
1942 Code, which tionand by theAmericanStandardsAssociation. It
appeared in 1944and1947,respectively,introduced wasfinally designatedas an AmericanStandard in
new dimensional and material standards, a new formula February1951, with thedesignationB31.1-1951.
for pipewall thickness, andmore comprehensive re- StandardsCommitteeB31 at itsannualmeetingof
quirementsforinstrument andcontrolpiping.Shortly November 29, 1951, authorized the separate publication
after the 1942 Code was issued, procedures were estab- of a section of the Code for Pressure Piping addressing
lishedforhandlinginquiresrequiringexplanation or gas transmission and distribution piping systems, to be
interpretation of Code requirements and for publishing complete with theapplicableparts of Section 2, Gas
such inquiries and answers in Mechanical Engineering and Air Piping Systems, Section 6, Fabrication Details,
for the information ofall concerned. andSection 7, Materials - TheirSpecifications and
By 1948,continuingincreases inthe severity of Identification. The purpose was to provide an integrated
service conditions combinedwith the development of document for gas transmission and distributionpiping
new materials and designs to meet these higher require- that would not require cross-referencing toother sections
mentswarrantedmoreextensivechangesintheCode of the Code.
thancouldbeprovidedfromsupplements alone. The The first Edition of this integrated document, known
decision was reached by the American Standards Associ- as American Standard Code for Pressure Piping, Section
ation and the sponsor to reorganize the sectional commit- 8, GasTransmissionandDistributionPipingSystems,
teeanditsseveralsubcommitteesandtoinvitethe waspublished in 1952 and consistedalmostentirely
various interested bodiesto reaffirm their representatives ofmaterialtakenfrom Sections 2, 6, and 7 ofthe
or to designate new ones. 1951EditionofthePressurePipingCode.


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A new section committee was organized in 1952 to tionwasalsochangedtoANSVASMEB31.
update Section 8 as necessary to address modem materi- The1989Edition of theCodewasacompilation
als andmethods of construction andoperation. of the 1986 Edition and the subsequent addenda issued
Afterareview by
B31 ExecutiveandStandards tothe1986Edition.
Committees in 1955,adecisionwasmadetodevelop The1992Edition of theCode wasacompilation
andpublishindustry sections as separateCodedocu- of the 1989 Edition, the subsequent three addenda, and
ments of the American Standard B31 Code for Pressure thetwospecialErrataissued to the1989Edition.
Piping. The 1955 Edition constituted a general revision The1995Edition of theCodeisacompilation of
of the1952Editionwithconsiderably
a expanded the1992Editionandthesubsequentthreeaddenda
scope. Further experience in the application of the Code issuedto the 1992Edition.
resultedinrevisions in 1958,1963,1966,1967,1968, The1999Edition of theCode is acompilation of
1969,1975,and1982. the1995Editionandtherevisionsthathaveoccurred
In December 1978, the American National Standards since theissuance of the1995 Edition. ThisEdition
CommitteeB31wasreorganizedastheASMECode wasapproved by theAmericanNational Standards
for Pressure Piping, B3 1 Committee. The code designa- Institute onJune24,1999.


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L. E. Hayden, Jr., C h i r
B. P. Holbrook, Vice Chair
J. Yarmush, Secretory

H.A. Ainsworth, Sudbury, Massachusetts
R. J. T. Appleby, Exxon Mobil Upstream Research Co., Houston, Texas
K. C. Bodenhamer, Williams Energy Service, Tulsa. Oklahoma
P. A. Bourquin, Pleasantville. New York
J. D. Byers, Mobil E&P Technology, Dallas, Texas
J. S. Chin, ANR Pipeline, Detroit, Michigan
P. D. Flenner, Consumers Energy Co., Covert, Michigan
D. M. Fox, TXU-Pipeline Services, Dallas, Texas
J. W. Frey, Reliant Energy Co., Houston, Texas
D. R. Frikken, Solutia, Inc., Gerald, Missouri
P. H. Gardner, Wilmington, Delaware
R. W. Haupt, Pressure Piping Engineering Associates, Inc., Foster City, California
L. E. Hayden, Jr., Victaulic Company of America, Easton, Pennsylvania
R.R. Hoffmann, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Washington, District of Columbia
B. P. Holbrook, Babcock Borsig Power-D .B. Riley, Worcester, Massachusetts
G. A. Jolly, Edward Vogt Valve Co., Jeffersonville, Indiana
W. J. Koves, UOP LLC, Des Plaines, Illinois
K. K. Kyser, York Refrigeration-Frick, Waynesboro, Pennsylvania
W.B. McCehee, Houston, Texas
J. E. Meyer, Middough Association, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio
E. Michalopoulos, Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Co.. Hartford, Connecticut
A. D. Nance, A. D. Nance Associates. Inc.. Evans, Georgia
W. V. Richards, William V. Richards, Inc., Lincolnshire. Illinois
E. H. Rinaca, Virginia Power Company, Glen Allen, Virginia
M. J. Rosenfeld, Kiefner and Associates, Worthington, Ohio
R. J. Silvia, Process Engineers and Constructors, Inc., Warwick, Rhode Island
W. J. Sperko, Sperko Engineering Service, Inc., Greensboro, North Carolina
G . W. Spohn III, Coleman Spohn Corp., Cleveland, Ohio
R. W. Straiton, Spring, Texas
A. L. Watkins, Perry Nuclear Plant, Perry, Ohio
R. B. West, State of Iowa, Des Moines, Iowa


W. B. McCehee, Chair, Houston. Texas
F. S . Fitzgerald, Secretary. ASME, New York, New York
D. D. Anderson, Columbia Gas Transmission Corp., Washington. Pennsylvania
R. J. T. Appleby, Exxon Mobil Upstream Research Co., Houston, Texas
G. Aragon, EI Paso Natural Gas, EI Paso, Texas

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STDaASME B31.8-fNGL L999 M 0759b70 Ob17053 T V 4 m

J. Barna, Columbia Gas Transmission, Charleston, West Virginia

R. C. Becken, Pacific Gas and Electric Co., Walnut Creek, California
L. M. B u m , Coloradofinterstate Gas Co., Colorado Springs, Colorado
J. S. Chin, ANR Pipeline Co., Detroit, Michigan
S. C. Coffman, KN Energy, Lakewood, Colorado
R. L. Dean, ConReg Associates, Houston, Texas
A. J. Del Buono, League City, Texas
J. C. Devore, Gas Engineering and Operations, Green Valley, Arizona
J. A. Drake, Duke Energy, Houston, Texas
J. J. Fallon, Jr., Public Service Electric and Gas Co., Newark, New Jersey
R. Favila, EI Paso Natural Gas Company, EI Paso, Texas
J. W. Fee, Kellogg-Brown and Root, Inc., Houston. Texas
F. R. Fleet, Consultant, Westmont, Illinois
M. A. Francis, LTV Steel Tubular Products Co.. Youngstown, Ohio
E. N. Freeman, T. D. Williamson, Inc., Tulsa, Oklahoma
L. M. Furrow, U. S. Department of Transportation, Washington, District of Columbia
J. E. Hansford, Consultant, Houston, Texas
J. B. Harns, Jr., Phillips Driscopipe, Richardson, Texas
M. E. Hovis, CMS Panhandle Pipeline Co., Houston, Texas
M. D. Huston, Oklahoma Natural Gas Co., Tulsa, Oklahoma
D.L. Johnson, Enron Pipeline Group, Houston, Texas
E. A. Jonas, Consultant, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania
K.B. Kaplan, Brown and Root Energy Service, Houston, Texas
J. M. Kelly, Willbros Engineers, Inc., Tulsa, Oklahoma
S. J. LeBlanc, Exxon Mobil Development Co.. Dallas, Texas
R. D. Lewis, H. Rosen USA, Inc., Houston, Texas
A. 1. Macdonald, Consultant, Upland, California
A. J. Maghes, Duke Energy, Massillon, Ohio
W. J. McCowan, Southern Cross/West Corp., Hayward, California
M. J. Mechlowin, Southern California Gas, Los Angeles, California
C. J. Miller, Gulf Interstate Engineering, Houston, Texas
D. K. Moore, Tennessee Gas Pipeline. Houston, Texas
R. A. Mueller, Dynegy Midstream Services, Houston, Texas
R. S. Neuman, Williams Gas Pipelines-Transco, Houston, Texas
A. C. Newsorne, Jr., Tennessee Gas Pipeline, Houston. Texas
A. T. Richardson, Richardson Engineering Co., Marble Falls, Texas
C. G. Roberts, Fluor Daniel, Sugar Land, Texas
M. J. Rosenfeld, Kiefner and Associates, Inc.. Worthington, Ohio
L. A. Salinas, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Co., Houston, Texas
R. A. Schmidt, Trinity-Ladish Co., RusseIlville, Arkansas
B. T a b , Gulf Interstate Engineering, Houston, Texas
C. J. Tateosian, Gas System Engineering, Inc., Walnut Creek, California
A. T. Tyler, Consultant, Durango, Colorado
P. L. Vaughan, ENRON, Houston, Texas
F. R. Volgtadt, Perfection Corp., Madison, Ohio
E. L. Von Rosenberg, Materials and Welding Technology, Inc., Houston, Texas
D. Wilson, Consultant, Plano, Texas
R. A. Wolf, Willbms Engineers, Tulsa, Oklahoma
K. F. Wrenn, Jr., Consultant, Charleston, West Virginia
C. C. Wright, Jr., Paola, Kansas
D. W. Wright, Sun Pipe Line Co., Tulsa, Oklahoma
D.B. Yardley, Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, Oklahoma
J. S. Zurcher, Columbia Gas Transportation Co., Charleston, West Virginia


W. B. McCehee, Chair. Houston, Texas
F. S. Fitzgerald, Secrerury, ASME, New York, New York
J. S. Chin, ANR Pipeline Co., Detroit, Michigan
J. C. Devore, Gas Engineering and Operations, Green Valley, Arizona
F.R. Fleet, Consultant, Westmont, Illinois

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STD.ASME B31.8-ENGL 1999 m 0759b70 Ob17054 980 m

K. B. Kaplan, Brown and Root, Inc., Houston, Texas

J. M. Kelly, Willbros Engineers. Inc., Tulsa, Oklahoma
A. J. Maghes, Duke Energy, Houston, Texas
D. K. Moore, Tennessee Gas Pipeline, Houston, Texas
A. T. Richardson, Richardson Engineering Co., Houston, Texas
A. T. Tyler, Consultant, Durango, Colorado
D. W h n , Consultant, Plano, Texas


L. E. Hayden, Jr., Chair, Victaulic Company of America, Easton, Pennsylvania
B. P. Holbrook, Vice Chair, Babcock Borsig Power-D. B. Riley, Worcester, Massachusetts
J. Yarmush, Secretory, ASME, New York, New York
K. C. Bodenhamer, Williams Energy Service, Tulsa, Oklahoma
J. D. Byers, Mobil EBrP Technology, Dallas, Texas
P. D. Flenner, Consumers Energy Co., Covert, Michigan
A. D. Nance, A. D. Nance Associates, Inc., Evans, Georgia


P. D. Flenner, Chair, Consumers Power Co., Covert, Michigan
J. Yarmush, Secrerary, ASME, New York, New York
J. P. Ellenberger, WFI International, Inc., Houston, Texas
D. J. Fetzner, ARCO-Alaska, Inc., Anchorage, Alaska
E. Michalopoulos, Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Co., Hartford, Connecticut
W. G. Scruggs, DuPont, Wilmington, Delaware
R. 1. Seals, Berkeley. California
R. J. Silvia, Process Engineering and Constructors, Inc., Warwick, Rhode Island
W.J. Sperko, Sperko Engineering Services, Inc., Greensboro, North Carolina
E.F. Summers, Jr., Babcox and Wilcox, Barberton, Ohio


R. W.Haupt, Chair. Ressure Piping Engineering Associates, Inc., Foster City, California
J. Yarmush, Secretary. ASME, New York, New York
G . A. Antaki, Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, South Carolina
C. Becht IV, Becht Engineering Co., Liberty Comer, New Jersey
J. P, Breen, Pressure Sciences, Inc., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
J. P. Ellenberger, W H International, Inc., Houston, Texas
D. J. Fetzner, ARCO-Alaska, Inc., Anchorage, Alaska
J. A. Graziano, Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, Tennessee
J. D. Hart, SSD Engineering Consultants. Walnut Creek, California
B.P. Holbrook, Babcock Borsig Power-D. B. Riley, Worcester, Massachusetts
W.J. Koves, UOP, Inc.. Des Plaines, Illinois
G. Mayers, Naval Sea Systems Command, Arlington, Virginia
T. Q. McCawley, Charlotte, North Carolina
E. Michalopoulos, Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Co., Hartford, Connecticut
J. C. Minichiello, JC Minichiello Consulting, Inc., Lake Bluff, Illinois
A. D. Nance, A. D. Nance Associates, Inc.. Evans, Georgia
T. J. O’Grady II, ARCO-Alaska, Inc., Anchorage, Alaska
A. W. Paulin, Paulin Research Group, The Woodlands, Texas
P. S, Rampone, Hart Design Group, Greenville, Rhode Island
R. A. Robleto, Kellogg, Brown, and Root, Inc., Houston, Texas
E.C. Rodabaugh, Dublin, Ohio
M. J. Rosenfeld, Kiefner and Associates, Inc., Worthington, Ohio
G . Stevick, Berkeley Engineering and Research. Inc., Berkeley, California
Q. N. Truong, Kellogg, Brown, and Root, Inc., Houston, Texas
E.A. Wais, Wais and Associates, Inc., Norcross, Georgia
G . E. Woods. Houston, Texas


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STD-ASME B3L.B-ENGL 1999 E 0759670 Ob17055 ,817


T. A. Bell, Pipeline Safety Engineer, Utilities Engineer, Olympia, Washington
G . Bynog, Texas Department of Labor and Standards, Austin, Texas
M. Crawford, Weston Resources, Topeka, Kansas
R. Coomes, Department of Housing/Boiler Section, Frankfort, Kentucky
J. W. Greenawalt, Jr., Oklahoma Department of Labor, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma
H. D. Hanrath, North Carolina Department of Labormoiler Safety Bureau, Raleigh, North Carolina
C. J. Harvey, Alabama Public Service Commission, Montgomery, Alabama
D. T. Jagger, Ohio Department of Commerce, Reynoldsburg, Ohio
M. Kotb, Regie du Batiment du Quebec, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
K. T. Lau, Alberta Boiler and Pressure Vessel Safety, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
R. G. Marini, New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission, Concord, New Hampshire
I. W. Mault, Manitoba Department of Labour, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
A. W. Meiring, Department of Fire Prevention and Building Safety, Indianapolis, Indiana
R. F. Mullaney, Boiler and Pressure Vessel Safety Branch, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
W. A. Owen, North Dakota Public Service Commission, Bismarck, North Dakota
W. M. Picardo, Department of Consumer and Regulatory Affairs, Washington, District of Columbia
P. Sher, Department of Public Utility Control, New Britain, Connecticut
H. E. Shutt, Illinois Commerce Commission, Springfield, Illinois
M. E. Skarda, Department of Labor, Little Rock, Arkansas
D. A. Starr, Department of Labor, Lincoln, Nebraska
D. Stursma, Iowa Utilities Board, Des Moines, Iowa
R. P. Sullivan, National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors, Columbus, Ohio
J. E. Troppman, Division of Labormoiler Inspection, Denver, Colorado
R. W. Vindich, Department of Labor and Industry, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania
C. H. Walten, National Board, Columbus, Ohio
W. A. West, AC1 Central, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada
T.F. Wickham, Department of Labor, Providence, Rhode Island


H. G. Anderson, Parker-Hannifin Corp., Columbus, Ohio
W. C. Carnell, American Institute of Chemical Engineers
A. Cohen, Arthur Cohen & Associates, Albuquerque, New Mexico
..: R. Fletcher, Peabody Engineering Corp., Shelton, Connecticut
D. R. Frikken, Solutia. Inc., Gerald, Montana
R. A. Handxhumacher, Handschumacher Associated. Saunderstown, Rhode Island
J. Hansmann, National Certified Pipe Welding, Rackville, Maryland
J. M. Hdleran, Consultant, Westlake, Ohio
L. Katz, Consultant. Bronx, New York
H. R. Kornblum, Consultant, Great Neck, New York
T. C. Lemoff, National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, Massachusetts
M. F. Melchioris, Praxair Inc., Tonawanda, New York
R. A. Schmidt, Trinity-Ladish, Frederick, Maryland
D. W. Snyder, MS Public Service Commission, Jackson, Mississippi
T. F. Stroud, Ductile Iron Pipe Research Association, Birmingham, Alabama
H. Thielseh, Thielsch Engineering Inc., Cranston, Rhode Island
G. M. von Bargen, International District Heating & Cooling, Franklin, Wisconsin
R. E. White, Richard E. White & Associates PC, South Bend, Indiana
R. L. Williams, Duke Power Co., Charlotte, North Carolina

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STD-ASME B3L-B-ENGL 3999 m 0759670 0637056 753 m


The ASMECodeforPressurePipingconsists of before the original contract date for the first phase of
many individually published sections, eachan American activitycovering a pipingsystem or systems shall be
NationalStandard.Hereafter, in this Introductionand the governing document, unless agreement is specifically
in the text of this Code Section, B31.8, when the word made between contracting parties to use another issue,
“Code” is used without specific identification, it means or unlesstheregulatorybodyhavingjurisdictionim-
thisCodeSection. poses the use of another issue or different requirements.
The Code sets forth engineering requirements deemed Users of this Code are cautioned against making use
necessary for the safe design and construction of pres- of revisions without assurance that they are acceptable
sure piping. Although safety is the basic consideration, to any authorities of jurisdiction wherethepipingis
thisfactoralone willnotnecessarilygovernthefinal tobeinstalled.
specifications of any pipingsystem.Thedesigneris The Code is under the directionof ASME Committee
cautioned that theCodeisnot a designhandbook; it B31, Code for Pressure Piping, which is organized and
does not eliminatetheneed for thedesigner or for operates under procedures of The American Society of
competent engineering judgment. Mechanical Engineers that have been accredited by the
To thegreatestpossible extent, Coderequirements American National Standards Institute. The Committee
for design are stated in terms of basic design principles is a continuing one and keeps all Code Sections current
andformulas.Thesearesupplementedasnecessary withnew developments in materials, construction, and
with specific requirementsto ensure uniform application industrialpractice.Addendaareissuedperiodically.
of principles and to guide selection and application of New editionsarepublished at intervals of 3 yearsto
piping elements. The Code prohibits designs and prac- 5 years.
tices known to be unsafe and contains warnings where Whenno Section oftheASME CodeforPressure
caution, butnot prohibition, is warranted. Pipingspecificallycovers a pipingsystem,theuser
ThisCodeSectionincludes hasdiscretion to selectanySectiondetermined to
( a ) references to acceptablematerialspecifications be generallyapplicable;however,itiscautionedthat
andcomponentstandards,includingdimensionaland supplementary requirements to the Section chosen may
mechanicalpropertyrequirements be necessary to providefor a safepipingsystem for
(b) requirementsfordesigningcomponents andas- theintendedapplication.Technicallimitations ofthe
semblies various Sections, legal requirements, and possible appli-
(c) requirements and datafor evaluating and limiting
cability of other Codes or Standardsaresome of the
factorsto be considered bytheuserin determining
stresses, reactions, and movements associated with pres-
sure, temperaturechanges,andotherforces the applicability ofany Section of thisCode.
(d) guidance and limitations on selectingand
applyingmaterials,components,andjoiningmethods InterpretationsandRevisions
(e) requirements for fabricating, assembling, and in- The Committee has established an orderly procedure
stallingpiping to consider requests for interpretation and revision of
0 requirements for examining, inspecting, and test- Code requirements. To receive consideration, inquiries
ingpiping must be in writing and must give full particulars. (See
(g) procedures for operationandmaintenancethat Appendix O covering preparationof technical inquiries.)
areessentialtopublicsafety The approved reply to an inquiry will be sent directly
(h) provisions for protecting pipelines from external to the inquirer. In addition, the question and reply will
andinternalcorrosion be publishedaspartofan InterpretationSupplement
It is intended that this Edition of Code Section B31.8 to theCodeSection,issuedwithAddenda.
andany subsequentaddenda not be retroactive.The Requests for interpretation and suggestions for revi-
latesteditionandaddendaissuedatleast 6 months sion should be addressed to the Secretary, ASME B31


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Committee, careof The American Societyof Mechanical tive on the original contract date or was adopted before
Engineers, Three Park Avenue, NewYork,NewYork completion of thework,andthecontractingparties
10016. agreetoitsuse.
Materialsarelisted in theStressTablesonly when
sufficient usage in piping within the scope of the Code
Cases hasbeenshown.Materials maybe covered by acase.
Requests for listing shall include evidence of satisfactory
A Case is the prescribed form of reply to an inquiry usageandspecificdatatopermitestablishment of
whenstudyindicatesthattheCodewordingneeds allowablestresses or pressurerating,maximumand
clarification or when the reply modifies existing require- minimum temperaturelimits,andotherrestrictions.
mentsoftheCode or grantspermissiontouse new Additionalcriteriacan be found in theguidelinesfor
materials or alternativeconstructions.ProposedCases addition ofnew materials in the ASMEBoilerand
arepublished in Mechanical Engineering forpublic PressureVesselCode,Section II andSection VIII,
review. In addition, the Case will be published as part Division I , AppendixB. (To developusageandgain
ofan InterpretationSupplementissuedwithAddenda experience, unlisted materialsmay be used in accordance
to the applicableCodeSection. withpara.811.22.)
A Case is normally issued for a limited period, after
which it mayberenewed,incorporated in theCode,
or allowed to expire if there is no indication of further EffectiveDate
needfortherequirementscoveredbytheCase.The This Edition, when issued, contains new Code provi-
provisions of aCase,however,maybeusedafterits sions.Itisacompilation of the 1995 Editionand
expiration or withdrawal, provided the Case was effec- revisionstothe1995Edition.


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Revisions,additions,deletions,anderratatotheASMEB31.8-1995Editionareincluded in this
edition. A margindesignator, (W), isused to identify the affectedmaterialandcorresponds to the
items listed in the Summary of Changes pages. The margin designators will remain on the pages until
the2002Edition of B31.8ispublished.
Page Change

xiii, xiv Introduction Revised

1-8 andProvisions
General 806 deletedandincorporatedintotheIndex
1 80 1.2 Revised
802.1 Revised
2 Added
803.18 Added
803.2 1 Revised
3 803.22 Revised
803.254 Added
803.255 Added
4 803.42 Revised
5 804.224 Added
9 8 1 I .222 Editoriallyrevised
IO 81 1.24 Editoriallyrevised
814.14(a) Editoriallyrevised
11 817.12 Editoriallyrevised
15 821.1 Titleadded
17 825.2 Revised
19 830.l(b)(6) Added
29 840.1(c) Revised
32 841.1 1 (c)(3) “Caution”statementrevised
35 841.23 1(b) Revised
37 84 I .244 Revised
38 841.272(b) Editoriallyrevised


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Page Location Change
41 84 1.4 Added
45 842.396 Footnote2revisedtoreflectdocument
47 842.432(0(2) Editoriallyrevised
842.432(0(3) Editoriallyrevised
50 843.43 Editoriallyrevised
51 843.48 Added
52 844.32 Editoriallyrevised
58 845.41 1 Editoriallyrevised
845.42 1 Editoriallyrevised
59 845.61(~)(3) Revised
71 851.1 Revised
85 1.4 Revised
74 85 1.9 Editoriallyrevised
77 853.16 Added
80 854.1 (a) Revised
854. I (c) Revised
854.1 (d) Added
854.2 Revised
81 855.1(a)(l> Revised
82 856.3(c)(1) Revised
856.3(~)(3) Revised
87 862.2 Revised
94 873.2 Revised
95-109 Chapter VI11 Thefollowingparagraphsweredeleted:
A810,A812, A815, A822,A823.3, A824
95 A80 I Revised
96 A81 I Revised
A814 Redesignated from A81 3; former A814
A8 14.I Redesignated from A813. I andrevised
A814.2 Redesignated from A8 13.2


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97 A816 Revised
A821.1 Revised
A825 Revised
A826.2 RedesignatedfromA826.1
A826.2 1 Redesignated from A826.1 I
98 A826.22 RedesignatedfromA826.12
A826.23 RedesignatedfromA826.13
A83 1 Revised
A832 Revised
A835 Revised
AMO. 1 Revised
A840.2 Added
100 A842.18 ReferencetoAPIRP 17B added
101 A842.222 Variabledefinitionsadded
A842.223 Variabledefinitionsaddedandrevised
103 A842.3 1 ReferencetoAPIRP 17B added
A843 RedesignatedfromA844
A843.1 RedesignatedfromA844.1andrevised
A843.11 RedesignatedfromA844.2
A843.12 RedesignatedfromA844.21
A843.13 Redesignated from A844.2 1
A8432 RedesignatedfromA844.3
A843.4 RedesignatedfromA844.4
A843.43 RedesignatedfromA844.43
A843.43 1 Redesignated from A844.43 1
104 A843.44 RedesignatedfromA844.44andrevised
A843.443 RedesignatedfromA844.444
104,105 A844 RedesignatedfromA843 in itsentirety
106 A850. L Revised
A850.3 Revised
A85 1.2 Revised
107 A854 Revised
A86 1 Revised


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Page Location Change

A862.1 Titlerevised
108 A862. I 1 Added
A862.12 RedesignatedfromA862.2andrevised
A862.13 Redesignatedfrom A862.4
A862.14 RedesignatedfromA862.5
109 A862.15 RedesignatedfromA862.6andrevised
A862.16 Added
A862.2 RedesignatedfromA863.1andtitlerevised
A862.2 1 Added
A862.2 14 Revised
A862.2 15 RedesignatedfromA863.4andtitlerevised
A862.216 RedesignatedfromA863.3andtitlerevised
A862.25 RedesignatedfromA863.6
A863 Redesignatedfrompara.A864and title
A863.1 Redesignatedfrompara.A864.1andrevised

I l 1-1 17 Chapter IX Added

119-121 Appendix A (1)Editionyearsdeletedfromreference
(2) API RP 17Band NACE MROl75added
(3)InformationfromAppendix B
123 Appendix B InformationincorporatedintoAppendix A
129-133 Appendix E ( I ) Notes,descriptions, and titlesrevised
135-140 Appendix F Variables,illustration,andexamplesrevised
141 Appendix G Revised
145-151 Appendix I Illustrations and textrearranged
161-167 Appendix M Revised
169,170 Appendix N Revised
173 Appendix P Added
175-178 Appendix Q CreatedfromaportionofAppendix I
179-188 Index Revised;informationfrom 806 incorporated


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ASME 8318-1999 Edition 801-802.21


801GENERAL 802.12 ThisCodedoesnotapply to

(a) design and manufacture of pressure vessels cov-
ered bytheBPV Code’
801.1StandardsandSpecifications ( b ) pipingwithmetaltemperaturesabove 450°F or
801.11 Standardsandspecificationsapprovedfor
covered by this Code, see para. 8 12.)
useundertheCodeandthenamesandaddresses of
( c ) piping beyond the outlet of the customer’s meter
the sponsoringorganizationsareshown inAppendix
A. It is not considered practicable to refer to a specific
editionofeachofthestandardsandspecifications in ( d ) piping in oil refineries or natural gasoline extrac-
theindividualCodeparagraphs. tionplants,gastreatingplantpipingotherthanthe
main gasstreampipingindehydration,andallother
801.12Use of StandardsandSpecifications processing plants installed as part of a gas transmission
Incorporated by Reference. Some standards and speci- system, gas manufacturingplants,industrialplants,or
ficationscited in AppendixAaresupplemented by mines.(SeeotherapplicablesectionsoftheASME
specific requirements elsewhere in this Code. Users of Code for Pressure Piping, B31 .)
this Code are advised against attempting direct applica- (e) vent piping to operate at substantially atmospheric
tion of any of these standards without carefully observ- pressuresforwastegases ofanykind
ingtheCode’sreferencetothatstandard. wellheadassemblies,includingcontrolvalves,
flow lines between wellhead and trap or separator, off-
(991 801.2
Dimensions shore platform production facility piping, or casing and
tubingingas or oilwells.(Foroffshoreplatform
Adherence to American National Standards Institute productionfacilitypiping,seeAPIRP14E.)
(ANSI) dimensions is strongly recommended wherever (g) the design and manufacture of proprietary items
practicable.Paragraphs or notationsspecifyingthese of equipment, apparatus, or instruments
and other dimensional standards in this Code, however, (h) thedesignandmanufactureofheatexchangers.
shallnot be mandatory,providedthatotherdesigns (Refer to appropriate TEMA2 Standard.)
of atleastequalstrengthandtightness,capable of (i) liquidpetroleumtransportationpipingsystems.
withstanding the same test requirements, are substituted. (Refer to ANSVASME B31.4.)
(i) liquid slurry transportation piping systems. (Refer
801.3 SI (Metric)Conversion toASMEB31.11.)
Forfactorsused in convertingEnglishunitsto SI (k) carbondioxidetransportationpipingsystems
units,seeAppendix J. (i) liquefiednaturalgaspipingsystems.(Referto
NFPA 59AandASME B31.3.)

802.21 The requirements of this Code are adequate
for safetyunderconditionsusuallyencounteredinthe
(99) 802.1
Scope gasindustry.Requirementsforallunusualconditions
802.11 ThisCodecoversthedesign,fabrication,
installation, inspection, and testing of pipeline facilities
’ BPV Codereferenceshereandelsewhere in thisCodeare to the
ASMEBoilerandPressure VesselCode.
safety aspects Of the Operation and * Tubular
Association, 25 North
those of Tarrytown, NY 10591.

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STDOASME B3L-B-ENGL L999 E 0757b70 06370b3 993

802.21-803.212 ASME B31.8-1999 Edition

of engineering and constructionprescribed;therefore, 803.13 Private rights-of-way, as usedinthisCode,

activities involving the design, construction, operation, are rights-of-way not located on roads, streets, or high-
or maintenance of gas transmission or distribution pipe- waysusedbythe public, or on railroad rights-of-way.
lines should be undertaken using supervisory personnel
803.14 Parallel encroachment, as used in this Code,
having the experience or knowledge to make adequate
istheportionoftheroute of apipelineor mainthat
provision for such unusual conditions and specific engi-
lieswithin,runs in agenerallyparalleldirectionto,
neeringandconstructiondetails. All workperformed
and doesnotnecessafilycrosstherights-of-wayof a
within the scopeofthisCodeshallmeet or exceed
road,street,highway, or railroad.
thesafetystandardsexpressed or impliedherein.
803.15 Hot tups are branch piping connections made
802.22 ThisCodeisconcernedwith
tooperatingpipelines,mains, or otherfacilitieswhile
( a ) safetyofthegeneralpublic theyare in operation. The branch piping is connected
(b) employee safety to the extent that it is affected totheoperatingline, andthe operatinglineistapped
by basic design, quality of materials and workmanship, while it isundergaspressure.
nanceofgastransmissionanddistributionfacilities. 803.16 Vault is an undergroundstructurethat may
Existing industrial safety procedures pertaining to work be enteredandthatisdesignedtocontainpiping
areas,safetydevices, and safe work practicesarenot andpipingcomponents(such as valvesorpressure
intendedto be supplanted by thisCode. regulators).
802.23 It isnotintendedthatthisCodebeapplied 803.17 Transportation of gas is gathering, transmis-
retroactively to such aspects of existing installations as sion, or distribution of gas by pipeline or the storage
design, fabrication, installation, and testing at the time of gas.
ofconstruction.Further, it isnotintendedthatthis 803.18 Pipeline isallpartsofphysicalfacilities
Codebeappliedretroactivelytoestablishedoperating throughwhichgasmovesintransportation,including
pressures of existinginstallations,exceptasprovided pipe,valves,fittings,flanges(includingbolting and
for in Chapter V. gaskets), regulators, pressure vessels, pulsation dampen-
802.24 Provisions of thisCodeshallbeapplicable ers,reliefvalves,andotherappurtenancesattached
tooperating andmaintenanceproceduresofexisting topipe,compressorunits,meteringstations,regulator
installations, and when existing installations are uprated. stations, and fabricated assemblies. Included within this
802.25 Qualification of Those Performing Inspec- including appurtenances, that are installed offshore for
tions. Individualswhoperforminspectionsshallbe transportinggas fromproductionfacilitiestoonshore
qualified by training andor experiencetoimplement locations and gas storage equipment of the closed pipe
theapplicablerequirements and recommendations of type, which is fabricated or forged from pipe or fabri-
thisCode. catedfrompipe andfittings.

803.21 Transmission system is one or more segments
of pipeline, usually interconnected to form a network,
803.1GeneralTerms which transports gas from a gathering system, the outlet
803.11 Gus, as used in thisCode, isanygas or of a gas processing plant, or a storage field to a high-
mixtureofgasessuitablefordomestic or industrial orlow-pressuredistributionsystem,alarge-volume
fuel and transmitted or distributed to the user through customer,oranotherstoragefield.
apipingsystem.Thecommontypesarenaturalgas, 803.211 Transmission line is a segmentof pipeline
manufactured gas, and liquefied petroleum gas distrib- installed in a transmission system between storage fields.
uted as a vapor, with or without the admixture of air.
803.212 Storage field isageographicfieldcon-
803.12 Operating company, as usedherein,is the tainingawellorgroupofinterconnectedwellsthat
individual,partnership,corporation,publicagency,or are completed for and dedicated to subsurface storage
other entity that operates the gas transmission or distri- of large quantitiesof gas for later recovery, transmission,
butionfacilities. andenduse.

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~ -

S T D a A S M E 831.8-ENGL 1999 W 0759670 0617064 82T m

ASME B31.8-1999 Edition 803.22-803324

(99) 803.22 Distribution System 803.254 Production fuciliry is piping or equipment (99)

803.221 Low-pressure distribution system is a used in production, extraction, recovery, lifting, stabili-
gas distribution piping system in which the gas pressure zation, separation, treating, associated measurement, and
in the mains and service lines is substantially the same fieldcompression,gaslift,gasinjection, or fuelgas
as that delivered to the customer’s appliances. In such supply.Thepiping or equipment mustbeused in
asystem,aserviceregulatorisnotrequired onthe extractingpetroleumliquids or naturalgasfromthe
individualservicelines. ground and preparing it for transportation by pipeline.

803.222 High-pressure distribution system isa 803.255 Gas processing plant is afacilityused (99)

gas distribution piping system that operates at a pressure forextractingcommercialproductsfromgas.

the customer. In suchasystem,aserviceregulatoris 803.3 Meters, Regulators, and Pressure Relief
requiredoneachservicelinetocontrolthepressure Stations
deliveredtothecustomer. 803.31 Meters
803.223 Gas main or distribution main is a 803.311 Customer’s meter isameterthatmea-
segment of pipeline in adistributionsystempipe in-
sures gas delivered to a customer for consumption on
stalled to conveygastoindividualservicelines or thecustomer’spremises.
803.312 Meter set assembly isthepipingand
803.224 Gas service line isthepipinginstalled
fittings installed to connect the inlet side of the meter
betweenamain,pipeline, or othersource of supply
to the gas service line and the outlet side of the meter
tothecustomer’s fuel line.
803.23 Guthering system isone or moresegments
of pipeline,usuallyinterconnectedtoformanetwork, 803.32 Regulators
that transports gas from oneor more production facilities 803.321 Service regulator is a regulatorinstalled
totheinlet of agasprocessingplant. If no gas on agasservicelinetocontrolthepressureofthe
processingplantexists, the gasistransportedtothe gasdeliveredtothecustomer.
mostdownstreamof (1) thepoint of custodytransfer
ofgassuitablefordeliverytoadistributionsystem, 803.322 Monitoring regulator is a pressure regula-
or (2)thepointwhereaccumulationandpreparation torinstalled in series with anotherpressureregulator
of gasfromseparategeographicproductionfields in that, in an emergency,automaticallyassumescontrol
reasonableproximityhasbeencompleted. of the pressure downstream of the station, in case that
803.231 Gathering line is asegment of pipeline
installed in agatheringsystem. 803.323 Pressure regulating station consistsof
equipment installed for automatically reducing and regu-
803.24 Gas storage line is pipeline
a usedfor lating the pressure in the downstream pipeline or main
conveying gas between a compressor station and a gas to which it isconnected.Includedarepipingand
wellused forstoringgasunderground. auxiliarydevicessuchasvalves,controlinstruments,
803.25 Miscellaneous Systems control lines, the enclosure, and ventilation equipment.

803.251 Instrument piping isallpiping,valves, 803.324 Pressurelimitingstation consists of

and fittings used to connect instruments to main piping, equipmentthatunderabnormalconditionswillactto
tootherinstrumentsandapparatus, or tomeasuring reduce,restrict, or shutoffthesupplyofgasflowing
equipment. into a system to preventthe gas pressure from exceeding
a predetermined value. While normal pressure conditions
803.252 Control piping isallpiping,valves,and prevail, the pressure limiting station may exercise some
fittingsusedtointerconnectair,gas, or hydraulically degree of control of the flow of the gas or may remain
operatedcontrolapparatus or instrumenttransmitters inthewideopenposition.Included in the stationare
and receivers. pipingandauxiliarydevices,suchasvalves,control
803.253 Sample piping isallpiping,valves,and instruments, control lines, the enclosure, and ventilating
fittingsusedtocollectsamples of gas,steam,water, equipment,installed in accordance withthepertinent
or oil. requirementsofthisCode.

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‘STD-ASME B3L.B-ENGL L994 I0759b70 ObL70b5 7bb

803.33-804.212 ASME 831.8-1999 Edition

803.33 PressureRelief 804 PIPING SYSTEMS COMPONENT

803.331 Pressure relief station consists of equip-
ment installed to vent gas from a system being protected 804.1 General
to prevent the gas pressure from exceeding a predeter-
mined limit. The gas may be vented into the atmosphere 804.11 PlasticTerms
or intoalowerpressuresystemcapableofsafely 804.111 Plastic (noun) is a material that contains
absorbingthegasbeingdischarged.Included in the as an essential ingredient an organic substance of high
station are piping and auxiliary devices, such as valves, toultrahighmolecularweight,issolid in itsfinished
controlinstruments,controllines,theenclosure, and state,and,atsomestage of itsmanufacture or pro-
ventilating equipment, installed in accordance with the cessing, can be shaped by flow. The two general types
pertinent requirements of thisCode. of plasticreferred to in thisCodearethermoplastic
803.4 Valves 804.112 Thermoplastic is a plastic that is capable
803.41 Stop valve isavalveinstalledforstopping of being repeatedly softened by increase of temperature
theflowof gas in apipe. andhardenedby decrease of temperature.
804.113 Thermosetting plastic isplasticthat is
(99) 803.42 Service line valve is stop
a valve
readily capable of being changed into a substantially infusible
operable and accessible for the purpose of shutting off or insolubleproduct when curedunderapplicationof
thegastothecustomer’sfuelline.Thestopvalve heat or chemical means.
should belocated in theservice line ahead of the
804.12 Ductile iron, sometimes called nodular iron,
service regulator or ahead of the meter, if a regulator
is acastferrousmaterial in whichthefreegraphite
present is in a spheroidal form, rather than a flake form.
lineshutoff,aservicelinecock, or ameterstop.
The desirable properties of ductile iron are achieved by
chemistry and afemtizing heat treatmentof the castings.
803.43 Curb valve is astopvalveinstalledbelow
grade in aservice line at or nearthepropertyline, 804.13 Theunqualifiedterm cast iron shallapply
accessible through a curbbox or standpipe, and operable tograycastiron,whichisacastferrousmaterialin
by a removable key or wrench for shutting off the gas which amajorpartofthecarboncontentoccurs as
supplytoabuilding.Thisvalveisalsoknown as a free carbon in the form of flakes interspersed throughout
curbshutoff or a curb cock. themetal.
804.14 Proprietary items areitemsmadeandmar-
Check valve is designed
a to permit keted by company
a having
exclusive or restricted
flow in onedirectionandtocloseautomaticallytoright to manufacture and sell them.
preventflow in thereversedirection.
804.15 Pipe container is a gas-tight structure assem-
803.5 Storage
GasEquipment bled in
shopa or inend
803.51 Pipe-type holder isanypipecontainer or
group of interconnectedpipecontainersinstalledatone 804.2 Pipe
locationandusedonly forstoringgas.
804.21 PipeandPipingTerms
803.52 Bottle, as used in thisCode, is agas-tight 804.211 Pipe isatubularproductmadeforsale
structure completely fabricated from pipe with integral as a productionitem.Cylindersformedfromplate
drawn, forged, or spunendclosuresandtested in the duringthefabricationofauxiliaryequipmentarenot
manufacturer’splant. pipeasdefinedherein.
804.212 Cold expanded pipe is seamless or welded
803.53 Bottle-type holder isanybottle or groupofpipethatisformedandthencoldexpandedwhile in
interconnectedbottlesinstalled in onelocationandusedthepipe mill so thatthecircumferenceispermanently
ds.storing for only leastby at 0.50%.

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ASME 831.84999 Edition 804.2x304.242

804.22 DimensionalTerms specificationsunder whichthematerial is purchased

fromthe manufacturer.
804.221 Length is a pieceofpipeofthelength
delivered from the mill. Each piece is called a length, 804.24 Steel Pipe
regardless of its actualdimension. This is sometimes
804.241 Carbon Steel.3By common custom, steel
called “joint,” but‘‘length’’ is preferred.
is considered to be carbon steel whenno minimum
804.222 Nominal wall thickness, t. is thewall content is specified or required for aluminum,boron,
thickness computed by or used in the design equation chromium,cobalt,molybdenum,nickel,niobium, tita-
inpara. 841.11 or A842.221 in Chapter VIII. Under nium, tungsten,vanadium,zirconium, or anyother
this Code, pipe may be ordered to this computed wall element added to obtain a desired alloying effect; when
thickness without adding allowance to compensate for thespecified minimum for copper does notexceed
the underthickness tolerance permitted in approved spec- 0.40%; or whenthemaximum contentspecified for
ifications. anyofthe followingelementsdoes not exceedthe
804.223 NPS (nominal pipesize) is a dimen-
sionless designator of pipe. It indicates a standard pipe copper 0.60%
size when followed bythe appropriate number(e.g., manganese I .65%
silicon 0.60%
NPS 1V2, NPS 12).
804.224 Diameter or nominal outside diameter In all carbon steels, small quantities of certain residual
istheas-produced or as-specified outside diameter of elementsunavoidablyretainedfrom raw materials are
thepipe,notto be confused withthe dimensionless sometimes found but are not specified or required, such
NPS. For example, NPS 12 pipe has a specified outside ascopper,nickel,molybdenum,chromium, etc. These
diameter of 12.750 in., NPS 8 has a specified outside elements are considered as incidental and are not nor-
diameter of 8.625 in., and NPS 24 pipe has a specified mally determined or reported.
outside diameter of 24.000 in. 804.242 Alloy Steel? By commoncustom, steel
is considered to be alloysteelwhenthemaximumof
804.23 MechanicalProperties
therangegivenforthecontent of alloying elements
804.231 Yield strength, expressed in poundsper exceeds one or moreofthe following limits:
square inch, is the strength at which a material exhibits
a specified limiting permanentset or producesa specified copper 0.60%
manganese 1.65%
totalelongationunderload.Thespecifiedlimitingset silicon 0.60%
or elongation is usuallyexpressedas a percentage of
gagelength. Its values are specifiedin thevarious or in which a definiterangeor a definiteminimum
materialspecificationsacceptableunderthisCode. quantity of anyofthe following elements is specified
804.232 Tensile strength, expressed in pounds or required within the limits of the recognized field of
per square inch,is the highest unit tensile stress (referred constructionalalloy steels:
tothe original cross section) a materialcansustain (a) aluminum
beforefailure. (b) boron
(c) chromium (up to 3.99%)
804.233 Specified minimum yield strength (SMYS), ( d ) cobalt
expressed in poundspersquareinch, is the minimum ( e ) columbium
yieldstrengthprescribed bythespecificationunder
If) molybdenum
whichpipe is purchasedfromthemanufacturer.
(g) nickel
804.234 Specijìedminimumtensile strength, ex- (h) titanium
pressedinpoundspersquareinch, is theminimum ( i ) tungsten
tensilestrengthprescribed by thespecification under
whichpipe is purchasedfromthemanufacturer.
From SteelProducts Manual, Section 6, AmericanIronand Steel
804.235 Specijied minimum elongation is the mini- Institute.August 1952, pp. 5 and 6.
mum elongation(expressed in percentofthegage From SteelProducts Manual, Section 6, American Iron and Steel
length) in thetensiletestspecimen,prescribed bythe Institute.January 1952. pp. 6 and 7.

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804.242-805.111 ASME 831.8-1999 Edition

(j) vanadium areASTM A 671andASTMA672,whichrequire

(k) zirconium bothinsideandoutsideweldsandtheuse of filler
or anyotheralloyingelementaddedtoobtaina metal.
desiredalloyingeffect. Spiral-welded pipe isalsomade by theelectric-
Small quantities of certain elements are unavoidably fusion-weldedprocesswitheitherabuttjoint,alap
present in alloy steels. Inmany applications, these are joint, or alock-seam joint. Typicalspecificationsare
notconsideredtobeimportantandarenotspecified ASTM A 134, ASTM A 139 (butt joint), API 5L, and
or required. When not specified or required, they should ASTM A 21 1 (butt joint, lap joint, or lockseam joint).
notexceedthefollowingamounts: ( d ) Electric-jlash-welded pipe is pipe having a longi-
chromium 0.20% simultaneously over the entire area of abutting surfaces
copper 0.35% by theheatobtainedfromresistanceto the flowof
molybdenum 0.06%
nickel 0.25%
electriccurrentbetweenthetwosurfaces, andbythe
application of pressureafterheatingissubstantially
completed. Flashing and upsetting are accompanied by
804.243PipeManufacturingProcesses. Types
expulsion of metal from thejoint. A typical specification
and names ofwelded joints are used herein according
isAPI 5L.
to their common usage as defined in ANSIIAWS A3.0,
( e ) Double submerged-arc-welded pipe is pipe hav-
or asspecificallydefined as follows:
ingalongitudinalbutt joint produced by at least two
( a ) Electric-resistance-welded pipe is pipe produced
passes,one ofwhichisontheinsideofthepipe.
in individuallengths or in continuouslengthsfrom
Coalescence isproducedbyheatingwithanelectric
arc or arcs between the bare metal electrode or electrodes
jointwhereincoalescenceisproduced bytheheat
of granular,fusiblematerialonthework.Pressureis
obtainedfromresistance ofthepipe totheflow of
electric current in a circuit of which the pipe is a part,
weldsisobtainedfromtheelectrode or electrodes.
and by the application of pressure. Typical specifications
Typicalspecificationsare ASTM A 381andAPI 5L.
are ASTMA53,ASTMA135,andAPI 5L.
cf) Seamless pipe is a wrought tubular product made
(6) Furnace Butt-weldedPipe withoutaweldedseam.Itismanufactured by hot-
( I ) Bell-welded isfumace-weldedpipeproduced workingsteeland, if necessary, by subsequentlycold-
in individual lengths from cut-length skelp. The pipe’s finishingthehot-workedtubularproducttoproduce
longitudinal butt joint forge welded by the mechanical the desiredshape,dimensions,andproperties.Typical
pressureisdeveloped in drawingthefurnace-heated specificationsareASTMA53,ASTMA106,and
skelp through a cone-shaped die (commonly known as API 5L.
a “welding bell”), which serves as a combined forming
andweldingdie.TypicalspecificationsareASTMA 804.25 For plasticpipe, seepara.805.13.
53 andAPI 5L.
(2) Continuous-welded is fumace-welded pipe pro-
duced in continuouslengths fromcoiledskelpandis 805DESIGN,FABRICATION,OPERATION,
subsequentlycutintoindividuallengths.Thepipe’s ANDTESTINGTERMS
longitudinal butt joint is forge-weldedby the mechanical
pressuredeveloped inrollingthehot-formedskelp 805.1General
specificationsare ASTMA 53 andAPI 5L. 805.11 Area
( c ) Elecrric-jììsion-welded pipe is pipe having a lon- 805.111 Location class is a geographic area along
gitudinal butt joint wherein coalescence is produced in thepipelineclassifiedaccordingtothenumberand
thepreformedtube bymanual or automaticelectric- proximity of buildingsintendedforhumanoccupancy
arcwelding.Theweldmaybesingleordoubleand and other characteristics that are considered when pre-
may be made with orwithouttheuseoffillermetal. scribing design factors for construction, operating pres-
Typical specifications are ASTM A 134andASTM A sures,andmethods of testingpipelinesandmains
139, which permit singleor double weld with or without located in theareaandapplyingcertainoperatingand
the use of filler metal. Additional typical specifications maintenancerequirements.

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ASME B31.8-1999 Edition 805.12-805.233

805.12 For definitions of leakage

investigation 805.213 Maximum operating pressure (MOP),
terms, see M. sometimes
to as maximum
pressure,isthehighestpressure at which apiping
805.13 PlasticTerms
system is operatedduringanormaloperatingcycle.
805.131 Plastic Joint Nomenclature 805.214 Maximum allowable operating pressure
(a) Solvent cement joint is a Joint made in thermo- (MAOP) isthemaximumpressureatwhichagassystem
plastic piping by the Of a or
solvent cefl'lent
may be operated in accordance with
provisions of
a bond
mating this code.
805.215 Maximum allowable fest pressure isthe
( b ) Heat fusion joint is a joint made in thermoplastic
piping by heating the parts sufficiently to permit fusion maximum internal fluid pressure permitted by this Code
of the materials whenthepartsarepressedtogether. for a pressure test based upon the material and location
(c) Adhesive joint is a joint made in plastic piping
by theuseof an adhesivesubstancethatformsa 805.216 Standard service pressure, sometimes
continuous bondbetweenthematingsurfaceswithout called the normal utilization pressure, is the gas pressure
dissolving either one of them. a utility undertakes to maintain at i t s domestic custom-
805.132 Standard dimension ratio istheratioof
outside pipe diameter to wall thickness of thermoplastic 805.217 Overpressure protection isprovidedby
pipe. It is calculated by dividing the specified outside adevice or equipmentinstalledforpreventingthe
diameter of thepipe by thespecifiedwallthickness pressure in a pressure vessel, a pipeline, or a distribution
in inches. systemfromexceedingapredeterminedvalue.This
protection may be obtained by installingapressure
805.133 Long-term hydrostatic strength is the reliefstation or apressurelimitingstation.
estimatedhoopstress inpoundspersquareinchina
plasticpipe wall that willcausefailureofthepipeat 805.218 Standup pressure test demonstratesthat
an average of 100,OOO hr when subjected to a constant apipe or pipingsystemdoesnotleak, as evidenced
hydrostaticpressure.(SeeAppendix D.) by thelackofadrop in pressureoveraspecified
period of timeafterthesource of pressurehasbeen
805.14 Fabrication isolated.
805.141 Cold-springing, where used
the Code, 805.22 Temperature Terms
is the fabrication of piping to an actual length shorter
thanitsnominallengthandforcingitintoposition 805.221 Temperature expressed
is in degrees
is so
stressed it that erected
in thus
the (OF) 'med.
compensating partially
effectsproduced by the 805.222 Ambient temperature is the temperature
expansiondueto an increase in temperature.Cold- of
the surroundingmedium,usually used to refer to
springfactoristheratio of theamount of coldspringthetemperatureoftheair in which astructure is
providedtothetotalcomputedtemperatureexpansion.situated or adeviceoperates.
805.15 Uprating is the qualifying of an existing 805.223 Ground temperature the
pipelineormainforahighermaximumallowable Of the earth at Pipedepth.
operatingpressure. 805.23 StressTerms

805.2 Design 805.231 Srress, expressed in poundspersquare

inch,is the resultantinternalforcethatresistschange
805.21 Pressure Terms in thesize or shape of a bodyactedonbyexternal
805.211 Pressure, unlessotherwisestated,isex- forces. In this Code, "stress" is often used synonymously
pressedinpounds per squareinchaboveatmospheric with unit stress, whichisthestress per unitarea,
pressure (¡.e., gage pressure) and is abbreviated as psig. 805.232 Operating stress isthestress in apipe
805.212 Design pressure is the maximum pressure or structural member under normal operating conditions.
permitted by thisCode, as determined bythedesign 805.233 Hoop stress, SH, is the stress in apipe
proceduresapplicabletothematerials and locations of wall thickness, r, acting circumferentially in a plane
involved. perpendicular to thelongitudinalaxisof the pipe,

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produced by the pressure, P. of the fluid in a pipe of

diameter, D, and is determined by Barlow’sformula:

805.234 Maximum allowable hoop stress isthe

maximumhoopstresspermitted by this Codeforthe
design of apipingsystem.Itdependsonthematerial
used, the location of the pipe, the operating conditions,
and other limitations imposedby the designer in confor-
805.235 Secondalystress is stresscreated inthe
such as backfill loads, trafficloads,loadscaused by
naturalhazards(seepara. 841.13), beam action in a
span, loads at supports, and at connections to the pipe.

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ASME 83181999 Edition 810-811.23


810 MATERIALSANDEQUIPMENT 811.21 Items that conform to standards or specifica-

tionsreferenced in thisCode[para. 81 l.l(a)] may be
810.1 used forappropriate applications, asprescribedand
limited by this Code without further qualification. (See
It is intendedthatallmaterialsandequipmentthat para.814.)
willbecome a permanentpartofanypipingsystem
constructed under this Code shall be suitable and safe
for the conditions under which they are used. All such 811.22 Important items of a type for which standards
materialsandequipmentshall be qualified for the orspecifications are referencedinthis Code,such as
conditions oftheiruseby compliance with certain pipe,valves,andflanges,butthat do notconformto
specifications,standards,andspecialrequirements of standards or specifications referencedin this Code [para.
this Code, or otherwiseasprovidedherein. 8 1l . 1(b)] shall be qualified as described
in para. 8 1 1.221
or 8 1 1.222.
811.221 A material conforming to a written speci-
811 QUALIFICATION OF MATERIALSAND ficationthatdoesnotvarysubstantiallyfrom a refer-
EQUIPMENT encedstandardorspecificationandthatmeetsthe
minimumrequirementsofthisCode with respectto
811.1 quality ofmaterialsandworkmanshipmaybeused.
This paragraph shall not be construed to permit devia-
Materials and equipment fall into the following six tions that wouldtendto affect weldability or ductility
categories pertaining to methods of qualification for adversely. If thedeviationstend to reducestrength,
use under this Code: full allowancefor thereductionshallbeprovided for
(u) items that conform to standards or specifications inthe design.
referenced inthisCode
(b) items that are important from a safety standpoint, 811.222 When petitioningtheSectionCommittee 199)
of a type for which standards or specifications are for approval, the following requirements shall be met.
referenced in this Code but specifically do not conform If possible,thematerialshallbeidentified with a
to a referenced standard, e.g., pipemanufacturedto a comparablematerial, and it should be statedthatthe
specification notreferenced in theCode material will comply with that specification, except as
(c) items of a type for which standards or specifica- noted. Complete information as to chemical composition
tions are referencedinthis Code,butthatdonot and physical properties shall be supplied to the Section
conform to the standards and are relatively unimportant Committee, and their approval shall be obtained before
from a safetystandpointbecauseoftheirsmall size thismaterialisused.
or because ofthe conditions under whichthey are to
be used 811.23 Relativelyunimportantitemsthat do not
(d) items of a type for which no standard or specifi- conform to a standard or specification [para, 81 1.l(c)]
cation is referenced in this Code, e.g., gas compressor may be used,provided that
(e) proprietaryitems (see definition,para.804.14) (u) they are tested or investigated and found suitable
(j) unidentifiedorusedpipe for theproposedservice
(b) theyareusedat unit stressesnot greater than
811.2 50% ofthoseallowedbythis Code for comparable
Prescribedprocedures for qualifyingeach of these materials
six categories aregiven in thefollowingparagraphs. (c) their use is not specifically prohibitedby the Code

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811.24-814.14 ASME B31.8-1999 Edition

(991 811.24 Itemsofatypeforwhich no standards or 814.1GeneralRequirements

Pipethatisqualifiedunderpara.81 l. ¡(a)maybe
81 l.l(d)] andproprietaryitems[para.81 l . l(e)] may
bequalified by the userprovided
(u) the userconductsinvestigationandtests (if 814.11
Steel Pipe
needed)thatdemonstratethattheitem of materialor (a) Steelpipemanufacturedinaccordancewiththe
equipment is suitable and safe for the proposed service followingstandardsmaybeused:
(b) themanufactureraffirmsthesafety of theitem
recommendedforthatservice(e.g.,gascompressors API 5L LinePipe
andpressurereliefdevices). ASTMA 53 WeldedandSeamlessPipe
ASTMA 106 SeamlessPipe
811.25 Unidentified or usedpipe[para.81 1.l(f)] ASTM A 134 Electric-Fusion(Arc)-WeldedPipe
may be used except for subsea applicationand is subject ASTMA135 Electric-Resistance-WeldedPipe
totherequirements of para.817. ASTMA139 Electric-Fusion(Arc)-WeldedPipe
ASTMA333 Seamless andWeldedPipefor
ASTMA381 Metal-Arc-WeldedPipe
812MATERIALS FORUSE IN COLD ASTMA 671 Electric-Fusion-WeldedPipe
CLIMATES ASTMA672 Electric-Fusion-WeldedPipe
Some of thematerialsconformingtospecifications ( b ) Coldexpandedpipeshall meetthemandatory
referencedforuseunderthisCode maynothave requirements ofAPI 5L.
properties suitable for the lower portionof the tempera-
ture band covered by this Code. Engineers are cautioned 814.12 Ductile Iron Pipe. Ductile iron pipe manufac-
to give attention to the low-temperature impact proper- tured in accordance with ANSI A21.52, titled Ductile-
ties of the materials used for facilities to be exposed to Iron Pipe, Centrifugally Cast, in Metal Molds or Sand-
unusually low ground temperatures or low atmospheric LinedMoldsforGas,maybeused.
temperatures. 814.13PlasticPipeandComponents
(a) Plasticpipe and componentsmanufacturedin
accordance with the following standards maybe used:
ASTM D 2513ThermoplasticGasPressurePipe,
Tubing, and Fittings
813.1 ASTMD2517ReinforcedEpoxyResinGas
Pressure Pipe-andFittings
All valves, fittings, flanges, bolting, pipe, and tubing
shall be markedin accordance with the marking sections (b) Thermoplastic pipe, tubing, fittings, and cements
of the standards and specifications to which the items conformingto ASTM D 2513shallbeproducedin
weremanufactured or in accordancewiththerequire-
recommended in Appendix A4 of thatspecification.
mentsofMSS SP-25.
814.14Qualification of PlasticPipingMaterials
813.2 ( a ) In additiontocomplyingwiththeprovisionsof (99)
Die sumping, if used,shall
dies para.814.13,theusershallthoroughlyinvestigatethe
havingblunt or roundededgestominimizestress specificplasticpipe,tubing,orfittingtobeusedand
concentrations. shall determine material serviceability for the conditions
anticipated.Theselectedmaterialshall beadequately
may beencountered.
814MATERIALSPECIFICATIONS (6) When plastic pipe, tubing, or fittings of different
For a listing of all referenced material specifications, material specifications are joined, a thorough investiga-
seeAppendix A. Foralisting of standardsforother tionshallbemadetodeterminethatthematerialsare
commonly usedmaterialsthatarenotreferenced,see compatible with each other. See para. 842.39 for joining
Appendix C. requirements.


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STD-ASME B31-8-ENGL 3999 H 0759b70 0637072 9Tb

ASME 831.8-1999 Edition 814.2-817.13

814.2Steel,CastIron,andDuctileIronPiping 817.12 Usedsteelpipeandunidentifiednewsteel {S91

Components pipemaybeused for low-stress (hoop stress less than
6,000 psi) level service where no close coiling or close
bendingisto be done,providedthat
8 1 l . 1(a) are found in Chapter
that qualify under para. III.
(a) carefulvisualexaminationindicatesthatitis in
good conditionandfreefromsplitseams or other
815EQUIPMENTSPECIFICATIONS defectsthat would causeleakage
(b) if thepipeis to be weldedand is ofunknown
Exceptforthepipingcomponentsandstructural specification, it shall satisfactorily pass weldability tests
materialslistedinAppendicesAand C , it is not prescribedinpara.817.13(e)
intended to include in this Code complete specifications
for equipment. Certain detailsof design and fabrication, 817.13 Usedsteelpipeandunidentifiednewsteel
however,necessarilyrefertoequipment,such as pipe pipe may be qualifiedforuse at stresslevelsabove
hangers,vibrationdampeners,electricalfacilities,en- 6,000 psi or for service involving close coiling or close
gines,compressors,etc.Partialspecificationsforsuch bending by the proceduresand within the limits outlined
equipmentitemsaregivenherein,particularly if they in the tablebelow.
affectthesafety of thepipingsysteminwhichthey
are to be installed. In other cases where the Code gives
no specifications for the particular equipment item, the New or Used
intentisthatthesafetyprovisionsoftheCodeshall Pipe. used Pipe.
Unknown Known
govern, insofar as they are applicable. In any case, the Specification Specification
safety of equipment installed in a piping system shall
be equivalent to that of other parts (a)
of the same system. Inspection
(b) properties
Bending ...
Thickness (c) (C)
(d) factor joint
Longitudinal (d)
816TRANSPORTATION OF LINE PIPE (e Weldability ) ...
Surfacedefects (f) (0
Any pipe having an outer-diameter-to-wall thickness strength Yield (8) ...
ratio of 70 to 1 or more,thatistobeused in a S value(para. 8 4 1 . 1 1 ) (h) ...
pipelineatahoopstress of 20% or more of thetest Hydrostatic (i) (i)
specified minimum yield strength that has been or will
GENERAL NOTE:The letters in the table correspond to the following
betransportedby railroad,inlandwaterway, or by subparagraphs,exceptwherenotedotherwise.
mannetransportation, musthave been or shall be
loaded in accordance with API RPSLI or API RPSLW,
(a) Inspection. All pipeshall be cleaned inside and
respectively. Where it is not possible to establish that
outside, if necessary,topermitgoodinspection. All
pipe was transported in accordance with the appropriate
pipe shall be visually inspected to determine that it is
recommended practice, the pipe must be hydrostatically
testedforatleast 2 hrtoatleast1.25times the
defects that might impair its strength or tightness.
maximumallowableoperatingpressure if installed in
a Class 1 location, or to at least 1.5 times the maximum (6) Bending Properties. For pipe NPS 2 and smaller,
allowable operating pressure if installed in a Class 2, asufficientlengthof pipe shall be bentcoldthrough
3, or 4 location. 90 degaroundacylindricalmandrel,thediameterof
whichis 12 timesthenominaldiameter of the pipe,
without developing cracks at anyportionandwithout
For pipelargerthan NPS 2,flatteningtestsaspre-
scribed in Appendix H shall be made.Thepipeshall
817.1Reuse of SteelPipe
meet the requirementsin this test, except that the number
817.11 Removal of aportion ofan existingsteel of tests required to determine flattening properties shall
line and reuse ofthepipe in thesame line or in a bethe sameasrequired in subpara. (8) below to
line operatingat the same or lower pressure is permitted, determine yield strength.
exceptforsubseaapplication, andissubjectonlyto ( c ) Determination of Wall Thickness. Unlessthe
therestrictions of paras.817.13(a), (9, and(i). nominal wall thickness is known with certainty, it shall


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817.13-817.3 ASME B31.8-1999 Edition

be determined by measuring the thicknessatquarter Lot Number of Tensile

Tests, All Sizes
points on one end of each piece of pipe. If the lot of 10 lengths or less 1 set of tests from eachlength
pipe is known to be of uniform grade, size, and nominal I I to 1 0 0 lengths 1 set of tests for each 5 lengths,but
thickness, measurement shall be made on not less than not less than 10
10%oftheindividuallengths,butnotlessthan IO Greater
than 100 I set of tests for each I O lengths.but
lengths; thickness of the other lengths may be verified lengths than less not 20
by applyingagagesettothe minimum thickness.
(2) All test specimens shall be selected at random.
(3) If the yield-tensile ratio exceeds 0.85, the pipe
ness shall be takenas the next commercial wall thickness
shall not be used, except as provided in para. 8 17.12.
belowtheaverage ofallthemeasurementstaken,but
in nocasegreaterthan1.14timestheleastmeasured (h) S Value. For pipe ofunknownspecification,the
thicknessforallpipesmallerthan NPS20,andno yield strength, to beused as S in the formula of para.
greaterthan1.11timestheleastmeasuredthickness 84 I .I 1, in lieu of the specified minimum yield strength,
forallpipeNPS 20 andlarger. shallbe24,000psi,ordeterminedasfollows.
Determinetheaveragevalue of all yieldstrength
(d) Longitudinal Joint Factor. If the type of longitu-
testsforauniformlot.Thevalue of S shallthenbe
dinal joint can be determined with certainty, the corres-
taken as thelesser ofthe following:
pondinglongitudinaljointfactor, E (Table841.115A
( 1 ) 80% of the average value of the yield
in Chapter IV), maybe used.Otherwise, E shallbe
taken as 0.60 for pipe NPS 4 and smaller, or 0.80 for
pipelargerthanNPS4. ( 2 ) the minimum value of any yield strength test,
provided,however,that in nocaseshall S betaken
(e) Weldability. Weldabilityshallbedeterminedas
asgreater than 52,000 psi
follows. A qualifiedweldershallmakeagirthweld
(i) Hydrostatic Test. New or usedpipe of unknown
in the pipe. The weld shall then be tested in accordance
withrequirements ofAPI1104. Thequalifying weld specificationandallusedpipe,thestrengthofwhich
shallbemadeunder the most severe conditions under isimpaired by corrosionorotherdeterioration,shall
which welding will be permitted in the field and using be retested hydrostatically either length by length in a
thesameprocedureasto beused in thefield.The mill-typetestor in thefield afterinstallationbefore
pipeshallbeconsideredweldable if therequirements beingplaced in service.Thetestpressureusedshall
setforth in API1104aremet. At leastonesuchtest establishthemaximumallowableoperatingpressure,
weld shallbe made foreach100lengthsofpipeon subject to limitations described in para. 841 . I I 1.
sizes larger than NPS 4. On sizes NPS 4 and smaller,
one test will be required for each 400 lengths of pipe. 817.2 Reuse of Ductile Iron Pipe
Ifin testingtheweldtherequirements ofAPI 1104 817.21 Theremoval of aportion ofan existing
cannot be met, the weldability may beestablished by lineofunknownspecificationsandthereuseofthe
making chemical tests for carbon andmanganese(see pipe in thesamelineor in alineoperatingatthe
para.823.23),andproceeding in accordancewiththe sameorlowerpressure ispermitted,providedcareful
provisionsoftheASMEBoilerandPressureVessel inspection indicates that the pipe is sound, permits the
Code, Section IX. The number of chemical tests shall makeupoftightjoints,andhas an actualnetwall
be the same as required for circumferential weld tests thicknessequalto or exceedingtherequirements of
statedabove. para. 842.214. The pipe shall be leak-tested in accord-
(J) Surface Defects. Allpipeshallbeexaminedfor ancewithpara.841.34 or 841.35.
gouges,grooves,anddentsandshall be qualified in
817.22 Usedpipeofknownspecificationsmaybe
accordancewiththeprovisions of para.841.24.
reused in accordance with the provisions and specifica-
(g) Determination of Yield Strength. When the manu-
tions of para. 842.2 provided a careful inspection indi-
facturer’s specified minimum yieldstrength,tensile
catesthepipeissoundandpermits the makeupof
strength,orelongationforthepipeisunknown, and
tight joints.
no physical tests are made, the minimum yield strength
for design shall betaken as notmorethan 24,000 psi.
817.3 Reuse of PlasticPiping
Alternatively, the tensile properties may be established
as follows. Used plastic pipe and tubing of known specifications
(1) Perform all tensile tests prescribed byAPI 5L and dimensions that hasbeen used in natural gas service
except that the number of such tests shall be as follows: only maybe reused,providedthat


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(u) it meetstherequirementsofASTM D 2513 for

newthermoplasticpipe or tubing,orASTM D 2517
fornewthermosetting pipe
(6)a carefulinspectionindicates that it isfree of
(c) it isinstalledandtested in accordance with the
requirements ofthisCodefornew pipe


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820 WELDING 821.5

A l l welding done under this Code shall be performed
under a standard referenced in para. 823.11 or 823.21,
821 GENERAL whicheverisapplicable.

(99) 821.1 Scope
Priortoweldingin or aroundastructure or area
ThisChapteraddressestheweldingofpipejoints containing gas facilities, a thorough check shall
be made
inbothwroughtandcast steel materials and covers to determine the possible presenceof a combustible gas
buttandfilletweldedjointsinpipe,valves,flanges, mixture. Welding shall begin only when safe conditions
and fittings and fillet weld joints in pipe branches, slip- areindicated.
pipelinesandconnectionstoapparatus or equipment. 821.7Welding Terms
When valves or equipment are furnished with welding
ends suitable for welding directly into a pipeline, the Definitionspertainingtowelding as used in this
design,composition,welding,andstressreliefproce- Codeconform to thestandarddefinitionsestablished
duresmust besuchthatnosignificantdamagewill by theAmericanWeldingSocietyandcontained in
resultfromthewelding or stressrelievingoperation. ANSVAWS A3.0.
822.1 Butt Welds
The welding may be done by any processor combina-
tionofprocessesthatproduceweldsthatmeetthe ( a ) Some acceptable end preparations are shown in
procedure qualification requirements of this Code. The Appendix I, Fig. 14.
weldsmaybeproducedbypositionwelding or roll (b) Appendix I, Fig. 15 shows acceptable end prepara-
welding. or a combination of position and roll welding. tionsforbuttwelding of pieceshavingeitherunequal
thickness or unequalyieldstrength, or both.
822.2 Fillet Welds
Prior to welding of any pipe, piping components, or
relatedequipmentcovered by thisCode,awelding Minimumdimensions for filletweldsusedinthe
procedure shallbe established and qualified. Each welder attachmentofslip-onflanges and forsocketwelded
or welding operator shall be qualified for the established joints are shown in Appendix I, Fig. 16. Similar mini-
procedure before performing any welding on any pipe, mum dimensions for fillet weldsused in branch connec-
pipingcomponents, or relatedequipmentinstalled in tionsareshown inAppendix I, Figs. I1 and 12.
822.3 Seal Welds
Sealweldingshallbedone by qualifiedwelders.
Thestandards of acceptabilityforweldsofpiping Sealwelding of threadedjoints is permitted,butthe
systems to operate at20% or more of specified minimum sealweldsshallnot be consideredascontributingto
yield strength as established in API 1104 shall be used. the strength of joints.

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823 QUALIFICATION OF PROCEDURESAND 823.4QualificationRecords

of a welding procedure shall be maintained as long as
thatprocedureis inuse.Theoperatingcompany or
823.1Requirements for PipingSystemsOperating
contractor shall, during the construction involved, main-
at Hoop Stresses of Less Than 20% of the
tainarecord of theweldersqualified,showingthe
dates and results of tests.
823.11 Welderswhoseworkislimitedtopiping
operating at hoop stress levels of less than 20% of the 824PREHEATING
underanyofthereferencesgiveninpara.823.21 or 824.1
inaccordancewithAppendix G.
Carbon steels having a carbon content in excessof
823.2Requirements for PipingSystemsOperating 0.32% (ladleanalysis) or acarbonequivalent(C +
at Hoop Stresses of 20% or More of the ‘/4 Mn) in excess of 0.65% (ladleanalysis)shallbe
SpecifiedMinimumYieldStrength preheated to the temperature indicated by the welding
procedure. Preheating shall also be required for steels
823.21 Welding procedures andweldersperforming havinglowercarboncontent or carbonequivalents
workunderthisclassificationshall be qualifiedunder when theweldingprocedureindicatesthatchemical
theASMEBoilerandPressureVessel(BPV)Code, composition, ambient and/or metal temperature, material
Section IX, or API1104. thickness, or weld-end geometry require such treatment
823.22 When welders qualified under API 1104 are
employed on compressor station piping, their qualifica- 824.2
tion shall have been based on the destructive mechanical
testrequirementsofAPI1104. Whenweldingdissimilarmaterialshavingdifferent
preheating requirements, the material requiring the
823.23 Variables for the Separate Qualification of higher preheat shall govern.
Welders. The references given in para. 823.21 contain
sections titled “Essential Variables,” applicable to 824.3
welderqualification.Theseshall be followed,except Preheatingmay be accomplished by anysuitable
thatforpurposes of thisCode,allcarbonsteelsthat method, provided thatit is uniform and that the tempera-
haveacarboncontentnotexceeding0.32% by heat ture does not fall below the prescribed minimum during
analysis andacarbonequivalent(C + !L4 Mn)not theactualweldingoperations.
exceeding 0.65% by heatanalysis,areconsideredto
comeundermaterialgroupingP-No.1.Alloysteels 824.4
havingweldabilitycharacteristicsdemonstratedto be
similar to these carbon steels shall be welded, preheated, The preheating temperature shall be checked by the
and stress relieved as prescribed herein for such carbon use of temperature-indicatingcrayons,thermocouple
steel. There may be significant differences in the base pyrometers, or othersuitablemethodstoensurethat
metal strength encompassed by these P-No. 1 materials, therequiredpreheattemperatureisobtainedpriorto
and althoughitisnotanessentialvariabletowelder andmaintainedduringtheweldingoperation.
qualification, it may require separate procedure qualifi-
cation in accordancewithpara.823.21. 825 STRESS RELIEVING

823.3WelderRequalificationRequirements 825.1
Welder requalification tests shall be required if there Weldsincarbonsteelshavingacarboncontent in
issomespecificreasontoquestionawelder’sability excess of 0.32% (ladle analysis) or a carbon equivalent
or ifthe welder is not engaged in a given process of (C + y4 Mn) in excess of 0.65% (ladle analysis) shall
weldingfor 6 months or more.Allweldersshall be be stress relieved as prescribed in the ASME BPV Code,
requalifiedatleastonceeachyear. Section VIII. Stress relieving may also be advisable for


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welds in steel having lower carbon content or carbon than '/2 hr,andshallbeallowedtocoolslowlyand
equivalent when adverse conditions cool the weld too uniformly.
825.7Methods of StressRelieving
199) 825.2
(a) Heatthecompletestructure as aunit.
Welds in all carbonsteelsshallbestressrelieved
whenthenominalwallthicknessexceeds I $ in. (6) Heat a complete section containing the weld or
weldsto be stressrelievedbeforeattachmenttoother
sections of work.
(c) Heatapart of theworkbyslowlyheatinga
Whenthewelded joint connectspartsthatare of circumferential band containing the weld at the center.
different thicknesses but of similar materials, the thick- The widthofthebandthatisheated to therequired
nesstobeusedin applyingtherules inparas. 825.1 temperatureshallbeatleast 2 in. greaterthanthe
and 825.2 shall be width of the weld reinforcement. Care should be taken
(a) thethickerofthetwopartsbeingjoined,mea- toobtainauniformtemperaturearoundtheentire
sured at theweld joint circumference of the pipe. The temperature shall dimin-
(6) the thickness of thepiperun or header in case ishgraduallyoutwardfromtheedgesofthisband.
of branch connections, slip-on flanges, or socket weld (d) Branches or other welded attachments for which
fittings stressrelief is requiredmay be locally stress relieved
by heatingacircumferentialbandaroundthepipe on
825.4 which thebranch or attachmentisweldedwiththe
attachmentatthemiddle of theband.Thewidth of
If either material in welds between dissimilar materi-
the band shall be at least 2 in. greater than the diameter
als requires stress relieving, thejoint shall require stress
of theweldjoiningthebranchorattachmenttothe
header.Theentirebandshall be brought up tothe
requiredtemperatureandheldfor the timespecified.
All welding of connections and attachments shall be 825.8EquipmentforLocalStressRelieving
stress relievedwhenthepipeisrequiredtobestress
relieved by the rules of para. 825.3, with the following (a) Stress relieving may be accomplished by electric
exceptions: induction,electricresistance,fuel-firedringburners,
(a) filletandgrooveweldsnotover!&in.legsize fuel-firedtorches, or othersuitablemeans of heating,
thatattachconnectionsnotover NPS 2 pipesize providedthatauniformtemperatureisobtainedand
(6) filletandgrooveweldsnotover "/8 in.groove
sizethatattachsupportingmembers or othernon- (b) The stress relieving temperature shall be checked
pressureattachments by the use of thermocouple pyrometersor other suitable
825.6 Stress RelievingTemperature cyclehasbeenaccomplished.

(a) Stress relieving shall be performed at a tempera-

ture of 1,100"F or greater for carbon steels and 1,200"F
or greater for ferritic alloy steels. The exact temperature 826 WELDINGANDINSPECTIONTESTS
rangeshall be statedintheprocedurespecification.
( b ) When stress relievingtakesplace in ajoint
between dissimilar metals having different stress reliev-
ing requirements, the material requiring the higher stress 826.1Inspection of WeldsonPipingSystems
relievingtemperatureshallgovern. Intended to Operate at LessThan 20% of
( c ) The parts heated shall be brought slowly to the
requiredtemperatureandheldatthattemperaturefor The quality of welding shall be checked visually on
a period of time proportioned on the basis of at least a sampling basis, and defective welds shall be repaired
1 hr/in.ofpipewallthickness,but in no caseless or removedfromtheline.


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826.2-827 ASME B31.8-1999 Edition

826.2 Inspection and Tests for QualityControlof (c) Allweldsthat are inspected must either meet
Welds on Piping Systems Intendedto Operate the standards of acceptability of API 1104 or be appro-
at 20% or Moreofthe Specified Minimum priatelyrepairedandreinspected.Theresults of the
YieldStrength inspection shallbe used to control the qualityof welding.
(d) When radiographicexaminationisemployed, a
(u) Thequality of weldingshall be checked by procedure meeting the requirements of API 1 1 0 4 shall
nondestructiveinspection. Nondestructive inspection be followed.
may consist of radiographic examination, magnetic parti- (e) WhenpipesizeislessthanNPS 6, or when
cle testing, or other acceptable methods. The trepanning the construction project involves such a limited number
method of nondestructive testing is prohibited. of weldsthatnondestructiveinspection wouldbeim-
(b) Thefollowingminimumnumberoffieldbutt practical,andthepipe is intendedtooperate at 40%
weldsshallbeselected on a randombasisbythe or less of thespecifiedminimumyieldstrength, then
operatingcompanyfromeachday’sconstructionfor provisions (a), (b), and (c) above are notmandatory,
examination. Eachweld so selected shall be examined provided the welding is inspected visually and approved
overits entire circumference or else the equivalent by a qualifiedweldinginspector.
lengthofweldsshall be examined if the operating cf) In additiontothenondestructiveinspectionre-
company chooses to examine only a part of the circum- quirements outlined above, the quality of welding shall
ference of each. The same minimum percentages shall be continuallycontrolled by qualifiedpersonnel.
be examined for double ending at railhead or yard:
( I ) 10% of welds inLocation Class I
(2) 15% of welds inLocation Class 2 827 REPAIRORREMOVAL OF DEFECTIVE
(3) 40% of welds inLocation Class 3 WELDSINPIPINGINTENDEDTO
(4) 75% of welds inLocation Class 4
(5) 100% of the welds in compressor stations, and
atmajor or navigablerivercrossings,majorhighway Defectiveweldsshall be repaired or removed. If a
crossings, andrailroadcrossings, if practical,butin repair is made, it shall be in accordance with API
no case lessthan 90%. All tie-inweldsnotsubjected 1104. Welders performing repairs shall be qualified in
to a pressure prooftestshall be examined. accordancewithpara. 823.2.


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ASME B31.&1999 Edition 830-831.11


830PIPINGSYSTEMCOMPONENTSAND 831.1ValvesandPressureReducingDevices
831.11 Valves shall conform to standards and speci-
ficationsreferenced in thisCodeandshallbeused
830.1General of themanufacturer.
(u) The purpose of this Chapter is to provide a set (a) Valves manufactured in accordance with the fol-
of standards for piping systems covering lowingstandards may be used:
( I ) specificationsforandselectionof all items
andaccessoriesthatareapartofthepipingsystem, ANSI
B Manually
otherthanthepipeitself MetallicGasValves,inGas
(2) acceptable methods of making branch connec- DistributionSystems
tions ANSI B 16.34 SteelValves
(3) provisions to care for the effects of temperature ANSI B16.38 LargeManuallyOperated
changes Metallic Gas ValvesinGas
(4) approvedmethodsforsupportandanchorage DistributionSystems
of exposedandburiedpipingsystems
( 6 ) ThisChapter does notinclude ThermoplasticGasShut-Offs
pipematerials(seeChapter I) andValvesin Gas
weldingprocedures (see Chapter II) DistributionSystems
design of pipe (see Chapter IV) Equipment
installation and testing of piping systems
Valves(see6D API
IV) MSS SP-70 Gate
special conditions for offshore application (see
MSS SP-71 Swing
special conditions for sour gas application (see
Cast Iron Plug
(6) Valveshavingshell(body,bonnet,cover, and
or endflange)componentsmadeofcastductileiron
in compliance with ASTM A 395 and having dimensions
All components of piping systems, including valves, B16.34, ANSI B16.38, API 6D, or ASME B16.40 may
flanges, fittings, headers, special assemblies, etc., shall be used at pressures not exceeding 80% of the pressure
be designed in accordance with the applicable require- ratings for comparable steel valves at their listed temper-
ments of this Section and recognized engineering prac- ature, provided the pressure does not exceed 1,OOO psi,
tices to withstand operating pressures and other specified and weldingis
employed onanyductileiron
loadings. component in thefabrication of thevalveshells or
Selected components shall be designed to withstand their assembly as part of the piping system.
thespecifiedfieldtestpressuretowhichtheywill (c) Valveshavingshellcomponentsmade of cast
be subjectedwithoutfailureorleakage andwithout ironshallnot be used in gas piping components for
impairment of their serviceability. compressor stations.


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STD-ASME B31.8-ENGL L999 0759b70 Oh37080 T72 m

831.12831.22 ASME B31.8-1999 Edition

831.12 Threaded valves shall be threaded according usingaringgasket,theboltingshall be ofcarbon

toANSI B1.20.1,API5L, or API6A. steel,equivalentto ASTMA 307 Grade B, without
831.13 Pressurereducingdevicesshallconformto (i) WhenboltingtogethertwoClass 250 integral
the requirements of this Code for valves in comparable or threadedcompanioncastironflangeshaving 1/6-
serviceconditions. in.raisedfaces,theboltingshall be of carbonsteel
equivalent to ASTMA 307 Grade B, withoutheat
831.2 Flanges treatmentotherthanstressrelief.
831.21 Flange Types andFacings (j) Class 150 steelflangesmay be boltedtoClass
(a) The dimensions and drilling for all line or end 125 cast iron flanges. When such construction is used,
flanges shall conform to one of the following standards: the 1/16-in. raisedfaceonthesteelflangeshallbe
ANSI B16 SerieslistedinAppendices A and B flat ring gasket extending to the inner edge of the bolt
(forIronandSteel) holes,theboltingshall be ofcarbonsteelequivalent
MSSSP-44 SteelPipeLineFlanges to ASTM A 307 Grade B, without heat treatment other
Appendix I Light-WeightSteelFlanges thanstressrelief.Whenboltingsuchflangestogether
ANSI B 16.24 Brass or BronzeFlangesand using a full-face gasket, the bolting may be alloy steel
FlangedFittings (ASTMA 193).
Flangescast or forgedintegralwithpipe,fittings, (k) Class 300 steelflangesmay be bolted to Class
or valves are permitted in sizes and the pressure classes 250 cast iron flanges. Where such construction is used,
covered by thestandardslistedabove,subjecttothe the bolting shall be of carbon steel, equivalent to ASTM
facing,bolting,andgasketingrequirementsofthis A 307 Grade B, withoutheattreatmentotherthan
paragraphandparas. 831.22 and 831.23. stressrelief.Goodpracticeindicatesthattheraised
(b) Threadedcompanionflangesthatcomplywith
the B 16 groupofAmericanNationalStandardsare in this case, bolting shall beof carbon steel equivalent
permitted in sizes and pressure classes covered by these toASTMA 307 Grade B.
standards. (1) Forgedsteelweldingneckflangeshaving an
(c) Lapped flanges are permittedin sizes and pressure
outsidediameter and drillingthesame as that of
classesestablished inANSI B16.5. ANSI B16.1,butwithmodifiedflangethickness,hub
dimensions, and special facing details, may be used to
(d) Slip-onweldingflangesarepermitted in sizes
bolt against flat faced cast iron flanges and may operate
andpressureclassesestablishedinANSI B16.5.Slip-
at the pressure-temperature ratings given in ANSIB16.1
forClass 125 castironpipeflanges,provided
for hubbedslip-onflanges,providedthethicknessis
( I ) theminimumflangethickness, T, isnotless
increased as required to produce equivalent strength as
than that specified in Appendix I for lightweight flanges
determined by calculationsmade in accordance with
(2) flangesareusedwithnonmetallicfull-face
Section VI11oftheBPV Code.
gasketsextending to theperiphery of theflange
(e) Welding neck flanges are permitted in sizes and
(3) the joint designhasbeenprovenbytestto
pressureclassesestablishedinANSI B16.5 andMSS
be suitablefortheratings
SP-44.Thebore oftheflangeshouldcorrespondto
(m) Flangesmadeofductileironshallconformto
theinsidediameter ofthe pipeused.Forpermissible
the requirements ofANSI B 16.42. Bolting requirements
weldingendtreatment,seeAppendix I, Fig. 15.
for ductile iron flange joints shall be the same as those
If) Castiron,ductileiron,andsteelflangesshall
forcarbonandlowalloysteelflangesasspecified in
havecontactfacesfinished in accordancewithMSS
para. 83I .22.
(g) Nonferrous flanges shall have contact faces fin- 831.22 Bolting
ished inaccordancewithANSI B16.24. (a) For all flange joints, the bolts or studbolts used
(h) Class 25 and 125 castironintegral or threaded shallextendcompletelythroughthenuts.
companion flanges may be used with a full-face gasket (b) Forallflangejointsotherthanthosedescribed
or with a flat ring gasket extending to the inner edge in paras. 83 l.21(h),(i), ti), and (k), theboltingshall
oftheboltholes.Whenusingafull-facegasket, the be madeofalloysteelconformingtoASTM A 193,
boltingmay be of alloysteel(ASTM A 193). When ASTMA 320, or ASTMA 354, or of heattreated


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carbonsteelconforming to ASTMA 449. Bolting, gaskets(eitherplain or corrugated)is notlimited as

however,forANSIB16.5Class150and 300 flanges to pressure, provided that the gasket material is suitable
at temperatures between -20°Fand 450°F may be made for the service temperature. These types of gaskets are
ofGradeB of ASTMA307. recommended for use with the small male and female
(c) Alloy-steel bolting material conforming to ASTM or the small tongue and groove facings. They may also
A 193 or ASTMA 354shall be used forinsulating be used with steel flanges with lapped, large male and
flanges if suchboltingismade'/s-in.undersized. female, large tongue and groove, or raised face facings.
(d) Thematerialsusedfornutsshallconformto ( e ) Full-facegasketsshall be usedwithallbronze
ASTMA194andASTMA307.ASTMA307nuts flangesand may be usedwith Class25 or 125cast
may be usedonlywithASTMA307bolting. iron flanges. Flat ring gaskets with an outside diameter
( e ) All carbon andalloy-steelbolts,studbolts,and extending to the inside of the bolt holes may be used
theirnutsshall be threadedinaccordancewiththe withcastironflanges,withraisedfacesteelflanges,
followingthreadseriesanddimensionclassesasre- or withlappedsteelflanges.
quired byANSI B1.l. cf) To secure higher unit compression on the gasket,
( 1 ) Carbon Steel. All carbon-steel bolts and stud- metallic gaskets of a width less than the full male face
bolts shall have coarse threads having Class 2A dimen- oftheflangemay be usedwithraisedface,lapped,
sions,andtheirnutsshallhaveClass 2Bdimensions. or largemale and femalefacings.Thewidthofthe
(2) Alloy Steel. All alloy-steel bolts and studbolts gasketforsmall maleand female or fortongueand
of 1-in. and smaller nominal diameter shall be ofthe groove joints shall be equalto the widthofthemale
coarse-threadseries;nominaldiameters 198in. and face or tongue.
larger shall be of the 8-thread series. Boltsand studbolts ( g ) Rings for ringjointsshall be ofdimensions
shall have a Class 2A dimension; their nuts shall have established inANSIB16.20.Thematerialforthese
Class 2B dimension. rings shall be suitable for the service conditions encoun-
BoltsshallhaveAmericanNationalStandard teredandshallbesofterthantheflanges.
regularsquareheads or heavyhexagonalheadsand ( h ) Theinsulatingmaterialshall be suitable for the
shall have American National Standard heavy hexagonal temperature,moisture, and otherconditionswhere it
nuts conforming to the dimensions ofANSIB18.2.1 will be used.
and B 18.22.
(g) Nutscutfrombarstockinsuchamannerthat 831.3Fittings OtherThan Valves and Flanges
theaxiswill be paralleltothedirection of rollingof
831.31 Standard Fittings
thebar maybeused in allsizesforjoints inwhich
( a ) The minimummetal thicknessofflanged or
one or bothflangesarecastironandforjointswith
threaded fittings shall not be less than specified for the
psig.Suchnutsshallnot be used forjoints inwhich
pressures and temperatures in the applicable American
NationalStandards or the MSS StandardPractice.
psig, except that for nut sizes 92 in. and smaller, these (b) Steel buttwelding fittings shall comply with either
limitations do notapply. ANSIB16.9 or MSS SP-75andshallhavepressure
831.23 Gaskets the same or equivalent material. For adequacy of fitting
( a ) Material for gaskets shallbe capable of withstand- design, the actual bursting strength of fittings shall at
ing the maximum pressure and of maintaining its physi- leastequalthecomputedburstingstrengthofpipe
cal and chemical properties at any temperature to which of thedesignatedmaterialandwallthickness.Mill
it mightreasonablybesubjected in service. hydrostatictesting of factory-madesteelbuttwelding
(b) Gaskets used under pressure and at temperatures fittingsisnotrequired,butallsuchfittingsshall be
above 250°F shallbe of noncombustible material. Metal- capableofwithstandingafieldtestpressureequal to
licgasketsshall not be usedwithClass 150 standard the test pressure established by the manufacturer, with-
or lighterflanges. out failure or leakage, and without impairment of their
( c ) Asbestoscompositiongaskets may be used as serviceability.
permitted in ANSI B 1 6 5 This type of gasket may be (c) Steelsocket-weldingfittingsshallcomplywith
usedwithanyofthevariousflangedfacingsexcept ANSI 816.1 1.
smallmale and female or smalltongueandgroove. ( d ) Ductileironflangedfittingsshallcomplywith
( d ) Theuse of metal or metal-jacketedasbestos therequirementsofANSIB16.42 or ANSIA21.14.


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831.31-831.371 ASME B31.8-1999 Edition

(e) Thermoplasticfittingsshallcomplywith ASTM and operators that are qualified in accordance with the
D2513. requirements of para.823.
0 Reinforced thermosetting plastic fittings shall (c) Branch connections shall meet the design require-
complywithASTMD2517. ments of paras. 831.4, 831 S , and 83 1.6.
(d) Prefabricated units, other than regularly manufac-
831.32SpecialFittings. When specialcast,forged, tured buttwelding fittings, that employ plate and longitu-
wrought, or welded fittings are required to dimensions dinalseams as contrastedwithpipethathasbeen
differing from those of regular shapes specified in the producedandtestedunderone of thespecifications
applicable American National andMSS Standards,the listed in this Code, shall be designed, constructed, and
provisionsofpara.831.36shallapply. tested under requirements of the BPV Code. BPV Code
requirementsarenotintended to applytosuchpartial
831.33BranchConnections assemblies as splitrings or collars or tootherfield
(a) Weldedbranchconnectionsonsteelpipemust welded details.
meet the design requirementsof paras. 831.4 and 83I S . ( e ) Everyprefabricatedunitproducedunderthis
(b) Threaded taps in cast iron pipe for branch connec- section of theCodeshallsuccessfullywithstand a
tions are permitted without reinforcement to a size not pressure test without failure, leakage, distress, or distor-
morethan25%ofthenominaldiameterofthepipe; tion other than elastic distortion at a pressure equal to
however, where climate service conditions or soil condi- the test pressure of the system in which it is installed,
tionscreateabnormal or unusualexternalloadingson eitherbeforeinstallation or duringthesystemtest.
castironpipe,unreinforcedthreadedtapsforbranch When such units are to be installed in existing systems,
connections are permitted only on cast iron pipe NPS theyshall
installation, if
8andlarger in diameter, provided that the tap size is feasible;otherwise,theyshallwithstandaleaktestat
nogreaterthan25% of thenominalpipediameter. theoperatingpressure of theline.
(c) Existingthreadedtaps in castironpipemaybe
used for replacement branch connections when careful 831.36PressureDesignofOtherPressure-Con-
inspection shows there are no cracks or other deteriora- tainingComponents. Pressure-containingcomponents
tion in the main immediately surrounding the opening. that are not covered by the standards listed in Appendix
(d) Threaded taps in ductile iron pipe are permitted Aandforwhichdesignequations or proceduresare
without reinforcement to a size not more than 25% of notgivenhereinmaybeusedwherethedesignof
thenominaldiameter of thepipe,exceptthat 1 '/&. similarlyshaped,proportioned,andsizedcomponents
tapsarepermittedinNPS 4 pipehavinganominal has been proven satisfactory by successful performance
wallthickness ofnotlessthan0.380in. under comparable service conditions. (Interpolation may
( e ) Mechanical fittings may be used for making hot bemadebetweensimilarlyshapedcomponentswith
small differences in size or proportion.) In the absence
taps on pipelines and mains provided they are designed
for the operating pressure of the pipeline or main, and of suchserviceexperience,thepressuredesignshall
aresuitableforthepurpose. bebasedonan analysisconsistentwiththegeneral
design philosophy embodied in this Code and substanti-
831.34OpeningsforGasControlEquipmentin ated by at least one of the following:
CastIronPipe. Threadedtapsusedforgascontrol (a) prooftests, as described in UG-101of Section
equipment in cast iron pipe (i.e., bagging off a section VIII,Division I, of theBPVCode
of main) are permitted without reinforcement, to a size (b) experimental stress analysis, as described in Ap-
notmorethan25%ofthenominal diameter ofthe pendix 6 of Section VIII, Division 2, of the BPV Code
pipe,exceptthat 1 v&. tapsarepermitted in NPS 4 (c) engineeringcalculations
pipe. Taps larger than those permitted above shall use
a reinforcingsleeve. 831.37Closures
831.371 Quick Opening Closures. A quick open-
831.35SpecialComponentsFabricated by ingclosureisapressure-containingcomponent(see
Welding para. 83 1.36)usedforrepeatedaccesstotheinterior
(a) Thissectioncoverspipingsystemcomponents of apipingsystem.Itisnottheintent of thisCode
otherthanassembliesconsistingofpipeandfittings to impose the requirements of a specific design method
joined by circumferentialwelds. onthe designer or manufacturerofaquickopening
(b) All welding shall be performed using procedures closure.


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ASME B31.8-1999 Edition 831371431.41

Quick opening closures shall have pressure and tem- inthe pipe or header,theshearstressesproduced by
peratureratingsequalto or in excess of the design the pressure acting on the area of the branch opening,
requirements of thepipingsystemtowhichthey are andany externalloadingsduetothermalmovement,
attached. weight, vibration, etc. The following paragraphs provide
Quick opening closures shallbe equipped with safety designrules for theusual combinations of theabove
locking devices in compliance with Section VIII, Divi- loads,except for excessiveexternalloads.
sion I, UG-35(b) of theBPVCode. (b) The reinforcement required in the crotch section
Weldendpreparationshall be in accordance with of a welded branch connection shall be determined by
Appendix I, Fig.14. the rule that the metal area available for reinforcement
831.372ClosureFittings. Closurefittingscom- shall be equal to or greater thantherequired area as
monly referredtoas“weldcaps”shall be designed definedinthisparagraphaswellas in AppendixF,
andmanufactured in accordance withANSIB16.9 or Fig.F5.
MSS SP-75. [Seepara.831.31(b).] (c) The required cross-sectional area, AR, is defined
as the product of d times r:
831.373ClosureHeads. Closureheadssuchas
flat, ellipsoidal (other than in para. 831.372), spherical,
or conical heads are allowed for use under this Code. AR = dt
Such items may be designed in accordance with Section
VIII,Division I , oftheBPVCode.Themaximum where
allowablestressesformaterials usedin theseclosure d = the greater of the length of the finished opening
heads shall be established under the provisions of para. intheheaderwallmeasuredparalleltothe
841notexceeding60% SMYS. axis ofthe run orthe insidediameter ofthe
If welds are used in the construction of these heads, branchconnection
they shall be inspected in accordance with the provision c = thenominalheader wall thicknessrequired
of SectionVIII,Division 1 oftheBPV Code. by para.841.1 1 for the designpressureand
Closureheadsshallhavepressureandtemperature temperature
ratings equal to or in excess of the design requirement When the pipe wall thickness includes an allowance
of thepipingsystem towhichtheyare attached. for corrosion or erosion, all dimensions used shall result
831.374FabricatedClosures. Orange-peel bull after the anticipated corrosion or erosion has taken place.
plugs and orange-peel swages are prohibitedon systems ( d ) The area available for reinforcement shall be the
operating atstress levels of 20%or moreof the specified sum of
minimum yield strength of the pipe material. Fish tails ( I ) the cross-sectionalarearesultingfrom any
andflatclosuresarepermittedonpipeNPS 3 and excess thickness available in the header thickness over
smalleroperatingatless than100psi.Fishtailson theminimumrequiredfortheheaderasdefinedin
pipelarger thanNPS 3 areprohibited.Flatclosures para. 83 1.41(c)andthatlies within the reinforcement
on pipe larger than NPS 3 shall be designed according area as definedinpara. 831.41(e)
to SectionVIII,Division I , oftheBPVCode. (See (2) the cross-sectionalarearesultingfromany
para. 83 1.373.) excess thickness available in the branch wall thickness
831.375BoltedBlindFlangeConnections. andthatlieswithinthereinforcementarea as defined
Bolted blind flange connections shall conform to para. in para. 83 1.41(e)
(3) the cross-sectional areaof all added reinforcing
metal that lies within the reinforcement area, as defined
831.4 Reinforcement of Welded Branch Connections
in para. 83 1.41(e),includingthatofsolidweldmetal
831.41GeneralRequirements. Allweldedbranch that is conventionallyattached totheheader andor
connectionsshallmeetthefollowingrequirements. branch
(a)Whenbranchconnectionsaremadetopipe in (e) Thearea of reinforcement,shown in Appendix
theform of a singleconnection or in a header or F, Fig. F5, is defined as a rectangle whose length shall
manifoldas a series of connections,thedesignmust extend a distance, d, on eachside ofthe transverse
be adequate to controlthestresslevels in thepipe center line ofthefinished openingand whosewidth
within safe limits. The construction shall accommodate shallextend a distance of 21/2 timestheheaderwall
the stresses in the remaining pipe wall due to the opening thicknessoneachside ofthe surface oftheheader


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STDmASME B 3 L - B - E N G L 3997 111 0759670 Oh37084 h38 m

831.41431.42 ASME B31.8-1999 Edition

wall. In nocase,however,shallitextendmorethan TABLE 831.42

292 timesthethickness of thebranchwallfromthe REINFORCEMENT OF WELDED BRANCH
outside surface of the header or of the reinforcement, CONNECTIONS, SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS
if any. Ratio of Nominal Branch
J'I Thematerial of anyaddedreinforcementshall Diameter to Nominal Header
have an allowable working stress at least equal to that Ratio of Design Diameter
Hoop Stress to
of the header wall, except that material of lower allow- Minimum Specified More Than
ablestress may be used if theareaisincreased in Yield Strength in 25% or 25% Through More Than
directratiooftheallowablestressforheader and the Header Less 50% 50%
less 20% or (9) (9) (h)
(9) The material used for ringor saddle reinforcement More than 20% (dl(i)(i) (h) ( i )
may be ofspecificationsdifferingfromthoseofthe through 50 %
pipe, provided the cross-sectional area is made in direct More than 50% (c)
(dl (f)
proportiontotherelativestrength of thepipeand G E N E R A L NOTE: The letters in the table correspond to the
reinforcementmaterials at theoperatingtemperatures, subparagraphs of para. 831.42.
and providedithasweldingqualitiescomparableto
those of thepipe. No creditshall be takenforthe
additional strength of material having a higher strength
thanthat of thepartto be reinforced. such construction. The use of encircling ribs to support
theflat or reenteringsurfacesispermissible andmay
(h) Whenrings or saddlescovertheweldbetween
be included in thestrengthcalculations.Thedesigner
branchandheader,aventholeshallbeprovided in
is cautioned that stress concentrations near the ends of
the ring or saddle to reveal leakage in the weld between
partial ribs, straps, or gussets may defeat their reinforc-
branch and header and to provide venting during welding
pluggedduringservicetopreventcrevicecorrosion 831.42 SpecialRequirements. In additiontothe
between pipe and reinforcing member, but no plugging requirements of para. 831.41, branch connections must
materialthatwould be capableofsustainingpressure meetthespecialrequirementsofthefollowingpara-
withinthecreviceshould be used. graphs as given in Table 83 1.42.
( i ) The use of ribs or gussets shall not be considered (a) Smoothly contoured wrought steel tees of proven
as contributing to reinforcement of the branch connec- designarepreferred.Whenteescannotbeused,the
tion. This does not prohibit the use of ribs or gussets reinforcing member shall extend around the circumfer-
for purposes other than reinforcement, such as stiffening. ence of the header. Pads, partial saddles, or other types
( j ) Thebranchshall be attached by aweldforthe of localized reinforcement are prohibited.
full thickness of the branch or header wall plus a fillet (6) Smoothlycontouredteesofprovendesignare
weld, W,,as showninAppendix I, Figs. I l and12. preferred.Whenteesarenotused,thereinforcing
The use of concave fillet welds is preferred to further member should be of the complete encirclement type,
minimizecornerstressconcentration.Ring or saddle butmay be of the pad type, saddle type, or a welding
reinforcementshall be attached as shown by Fig. 12. outletfittingtype.
When a full fillet is not used, it is recommended that (c) The reinforcement member maybeofthecom-
the edge of the reinforcement be relieved or chamfered plete encirclement type, pad type, saddle type, or weld-
atapproximately 45 degtomergewiththeedgeof ingoutletfittingtype.Theedgesofreinforcement
thefillet. members should be tapered to the header thickness. It
(k) Reinforcementringsandsaddlesshallbeaccu- isrecommendedthatlegsoffilletweldsjoiningthe
ratelyfittedtothepartstowhichtheyareattached. reinforcingmemberandheader do notexceedthe
Appendix I, Figs.I2andI3illustratesomeacceptable thickness of the header.
forms of reinforcement. (d) Reinforcementcalculationsarenotrequiredfor
(L) Branchconnectionsattachedatanangleless openings 2 in. and smaller in diameter; however, care
than 85 degtotherunbecomeprogressivelyweaker should be taken toprovidesuitableprotectionagainst
as the angle decreases. Any such design must be given vibrations and otherexternalforces to whichthese
individualstudy,andsufficientreinforcementmust be small openings are frequently subjected.
providedtocompensatefortheinherentweaknessof (e) All welds joining the header, branch, and reinforc-


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ingmembershallbeequivalent to thoseshownin 831.54 Any number

of closely
Appendix I, Figs. 11and 12. openings inany arrangement maybe reinforced as if
cfl Theinsideedges of thefinishedopening shall, the group were treatedas one assumedopening of a
wheneverpossible, beroundedto a V8-in. radius.If diameterenclosingall such openings.
the encircling member is thicker than theheaderand
is welded to the header, the ends shall be tapered down 831.6 Extruded Outlets
totheheaderthickness,andcontinuousfilletwelds (a) The rules in this paragraph apply to steel extruded
shallbemade. outlets in whichthereinforcementisintegral.
(g) Reinforcement of openingsisnotmandatory; An extruded outlet is defined as an outlet in which
however,reinforcement may berequired for special theextrudedlip at theoutlet has a heightabovethe
cases involving pressures over 100 psi, thin wall pipe, surface ofthe run thatisequalto or greater thanthe
or severe externalloads. radius of curvature ofthe externalcontouredportion
(h) If a reinforcementmemberisrequired,andthe of the outlet. (SeeAppendix F, Figs.F1throughF4
branch diameter is such that a localizedtype of rein- andnomenclature.)
forcementmember would extendaroundmorethan (b) These rules donot apply to any nozzles or branch
half the circumference oftheheader,then a complete connections inwhich additional nonintegral material is
encirclementtype of reinforcementmembershallbe applied in the formofrings, pads,orsaddles.
used, regardless of the design hoop stress, or a smoothly (c) Theserulesapplyonlytocaseswheretheaxis
contouredwroughtsteel teeofprovendesignmay of the outlet intersects and is perpendicular to the axis
beused. of therun.
( i ) The reinforcement maybeofanytypemeeting ( d ) Figures F1 through F4 define the pertinent dimen-
therequirements ofpara. 831.41. sions andlimitingconditions.
( e ) Required Area. Therequiredarea is definedas
831.5 ReinforcementofMultipleOpenings
A = Kt,D,
831.51 When two or more adjacentbranches are
spaced at lessthantwotimestheiraveragediameter where
(so that their effective areas of reinforcement overlap), K. = 1.00 when &D > 0.60
the group of openings shall be reinforced in accordance +
= 0.6 93 &D > 0.15andnot exceeding 0.60
with para. 831.4. The reinforcing metal shall be added = 0.70 when &D I 0.15
as a combinedreinforcement,thestrength ofwhich The design must meet the criterion that the reinforce-
shall equal the combined strengthsof the reinforcements ment areadefined in subpara. (f) belowisnotless
thatwould be required for theseparateopenings. In thanthe requiredarea.
no case shall any portion ofa cross section be considered (f) Reinforcement Area. The reinforcement area shall
to applytomorethanoneopening or be evaluated be thesum of areas A , + A2 + A3 asdefinedbelow.
morethanonce in a combinedarea. ( 1 ) Area Al is the area lying within the reinforce-
ment zone resulting fromany excess thickness available
831.52 Whenmorethantwo adjacentopeningsare in therunwall,¡.e.,
to be provided with a combinedreinforcement,the
minimum distance between centers of any two of these A I = DoVr - r,)
openingsshallpreferablybeatleast 1V2 timestheir (2) Area A2 is the area lying within the reinforce-
average diameter, and the area of reinforcement between ment zone resulting from any excess thickness available
them shall be at least equal to 50% of the total required in thebranchpipewall,i.e.,
for these twoopeningsonthe cross sectionbeing
considered. A2 = 2L (Tb - th)

831.53 Whenthe distancebetweencenters of two ( 3 ) Area A3 is the area lying within the reforcement
adjacent openings is less than 193 timestheiraverage
zoneresultingfromexcessthicknessavailable in the
diameter, as considered under para. 83 1.52, no credit extrudedoutlet lip, i.e.,
for reinforcementshall be givenforanyofthemetal
betweenthesetwoopenings. A3 = 2r0(T0 - tb)


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' STD ASME B3L 8-ENGL L999 0759b70 Ob1708b 490

831.683237 ASME B31.8-1999 Edition

TABLE 832.2 or for precise calculations, reference shall bemadeto

THERMAL EXPANSION OF PIPING MATERIALS authoritativesource data, suchaspublicationsofthe
Carbon and Low Alloy
High Tensile Steel and Wrought Iron
832.3 FlexibilityRequirements
Temperature, Total Expansion, inAOO ft,
"F Above 32°F 832.31 Pipingsystemsshallbedesignedtohave
sufficientflexibilitytopreventthermalexpansion or
60 0.2 contraction from causing excessive stresses in the piping
100 material, excessive bending or unusual loads at joints,
125 or undesirable forcesor moments at points of connection
150 0.9 to equipment or at anchorage or guide points. Formal
200 1.3
225 doubt exists as to the adequate flexibility of the system.
250 1.7
300 2.2 832.32use Flexibility
the byprovidedbe of
350 2.6 loops,
bends, or offsets, or provision
shall beto made
400 3.0 changes
absorb use the by of expansion joints
450 3.5 or couplings
the of slip joint type or expansion joints
of the bellows type. If expansion joints are used, anchors
or ties of sufficient strength and rigidity shall
be installed
to provide for end forces duetofluidpressureand
( g ) Reinforcement ofMultipleOpenings. Therules other causes.
in para. 83 1.5 shall be followed, except that the required 832.33 In calculatingtheflexibility of a piping
area and reinforcement area shall be asgiveninpara. system,thesystemshallbetreatedas a whole.The
83 1.6. significance ofallpartsofthelineandallrestraints,
(h) In addition to the above, the manufacturer shall suchassolidsupports or guides,shall be considered.
be responsible for establishing andmarkingonthe
sectioncontainingextrudedoutlets the following:the 832.34 Calculations shall account for stressintensi-
design pressure, temperature, and that these were estab- fication factors found to exist in components other than
lished under provisionsof this Code.The manufacturer's plainstraightpipe. Credit may be taken for the extra
name or trademarkshall bemarkedon thesection. flexibility of such components. In the absence of more
directly applicable data, the flexibility factorsand stress
intensification factors shown in Table El of Appendix
E may be used.
FLEXIBILITY 832.35 Properties of fittings
calculations shall be based on nominal dimensions, and
the joint factor, E (Table841.115A),shall be taken
as 1.00.
832.1 Scope
Thissectionisapplicable to abovegroundpiping 832.36 Thetotalrange in temperature shall beused
only and covers all ,.lasses of materialspermitted by in allexpansioncalculations,whetherpipingiscold-
this code up to temperatures no greater than 4 5 0 0 ~ . sprung or not. In addition to the expansion of the line
itself, the linear and angular movements of the equip-
832.2 Amount of Expansion which
it to
ment is attached
The thermal expansionof the more common materials 832.37 Cold-Springing. To modify the effect of
used for piping shall be determined from Table 832.2. expansion and contraction, runs of pipe may be cold-
The expansion tobe considered is the difference between sprung. Cold-spring maybetaken intoaccount inthe
the expansionforthemaximumexpectedoperating calculations ofthe reactions as shown in para. 833.5,
temperature and that for the expected average erection provided an effective method of obtaining the designed
temperature. For materials notincludedinthisTable, cold-springisspecifiedand used.


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83238 Flexibilitycalculationsshall be basedon 833.5

themodulusofelasticity, E,, at ambienttemperature.
Thereaction, R', shall be obtained as follows from
the reactions R derived from the flexibility calculations:


R' = (1 - ?3Cs)R
when Cs is less than 0.6; R' = Cs when Cs is between
0.6 and I .o
Using the above assumptions, the stresses and reac- where
tionsduetoexpansionshallbeinvestigated at all Cs = the cold-spring factor varying from O for no
significantpoints. cold-spring to 1.0 for 100% cold-spring
E= = the modulus of elasticity in the cold condition
833.2 R = maximumreactioncorrespondingtothefull
expansionrangebasedon Ec
The expansion stresses shall be combined in accord- R' = maximumreactionforthelineaftercold-
ancewiththefollowingformula: springing; the reactions so computed shall not
exceed limits that the attached equipment or
anchorage is designedtosustain

resultantbendingstress,psi Piping and equipment shall be supported in a substan-
iMb I z tial and workmanlike manner,so as to prevent or reduce
torsionalstress,psi excessivevibration, andshall be anchoredsufficiently
M, I ~ z topreventunduestrainsonconnectedequipment.
stressintensificationfactor(Appendix E)
sectionmodulus of pipe,in.3 834.2Provision for Expansion
Supports, hangers, and anchors shouldbe so installed
as not to interfere with the free expansion and contrac-
The maximum combined expansion stress range, S
, hangers,swaybracing,etc.,shallbeprovidedwhere
shall not exceed0.72S,where S is the specified minimum necessary.
yield strength, psi, subject to the further limitation of
para.833.4. 834.3Materials,Design,andInstallation
All permanenthangers,supports,andanchorsshall
be fabricated from durable incombustible materials and
833.4 designedandinstalled in accordancewithgoodengi-
Thetotalofthefollowingshallnotexceedthe neeringpracticefortheserviceconditionsinvolved.
specifiedminimumyieldstrength, S: All parts of the supporting equipment shall be designed
(a) thecombinedstressduetoexpansion, SE andinstalled so thattheywillnot be disengaged by
(6) thelongitudinalpressurestress(see para. movementof the supported piping.
841.11, S I T )
834.4 Forceson Pipe Joints
(c) thelongitudinalbendingstressduetoexternal
loads, such as weight ofpipeand contents, wind, etc. (a) All exposed pipe joints shall be able to sustain
The sum of paras. 833.4(b) and (c) shall not exceed themaximumendforcedue to theinternalpressure,
0.75s. ¡.e.,the designpressure(psi)timestheinternalarea


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STD-ASHE B3L.B-ENGL 1999 0759670 Ob37088 2b3 m

834.4-835.6 ASME B31.8-1999 Edition

ofthepipe(sqin.)aswell as anyadditionalforces 835.3RestraintDue to Soil Friction

duetotemperatureexpansion or contraction or to the Where there is doubt as to the adequacy of restraint
weight of pipe and contents. friction,calculationsshall bemade,andindicatedan-
(b) If compression or sleeve-type couplings are used choringshall be installed.
in exposedpiping,provisionshall be madetosustain
thelongitudinalforcesnotedinsubpara.(a)above.If 835.4 ForcesonPipeJoints
suchprovisionisnotmade in the manufactureofthe
coupling, suitable bracingor strapping shallbe provided, If anchorage isnotprovidedatthebend(seepara.
butsuchdesignmustnotinterferewiththenormal 835.2), pipe joints that are close to the points of thrust
performance of the coupling nor with its proper mainte- originshallbedesignedtosustainthelongitudinal
nance. Attachmentsmust meet the requirements of para. pulloutforce. If suchprovisionisnotmade in the
834.5. manufacture of the joints, suitable bracing or strapping
834.5 Attachment of Supports or Anchors
835.5Supports for BuriedPiping
(a) If thepipeisdesignedtooperateatahoop
stress of less than 50% of the specified minimum yield In pipelines, especially those that are highly stressed
strength, structural supports or anchors maybe welded frominternalpressure,uniformandadequatesupport
directly to the pipe. Proportioning and welding strength of the pipe in the trench is essential. Unequal settlements
requirements of suchattachmentsshallconformto may produce added bending stressesin the pipe. Lateral
standardstructuralpractice. thrusts at branch connections may greatly increase the
stresses in thebranchconnectionitself,unlessthe fill
( b ) If thepipeisdesignedtooperateatahoop
stress of 50% or more of the specified minimum yield is thoroughly consolidated or other provisions are made
strength,support of thepipeshallbefurnishedbya toresistthethrust.
member that completely encircles it. Where it is neces- Rock shield shall not be draped over the pipe unless
sarytoprovidepositiveattachment, as atananchor, suitablebackfillandpaddingareplaced in theditch
the pipe may be welded to the encircling member only; toprovideacontinuousandadequatesupportofthe
the support shall be attached to the encircling member pipeinthetrench.
and not to the pipe. The connection of the pipe to the 835.51 When openingsare made in aconsolidated
encircling member shall be by continuous welds, rather backfilltoconnect new branchesto an existingline,
thanintermittentones. care must be taken to provide firm foundation for both
the header and the branch to prevent vertical and lateral
835.6Interconnection of UndergroundLines
835.1 General Underground lines are subjected to longitudinal
stressesduetochanges in pressureandtemperature.
Bends or offsets inburiedpipe causelongitudinal
forces that must be resisted by anchorage at the bend,
changes in length from these stresses, except for several
by restraint due to friction of the soil, or by longitudinal
hundred feet adjacent to bends or ends. At these loca-
stresses in thepipe.
tions, the movement,if unrestrained, may be of consider-
ablemagnitude. If connectionsare made atsucha
locationtoarelativelyunyieldingline or otherfixed
If the pipe is anchored by bearing at the bend, care object, it is essential that the interconnection shall have
shall be taken to distribute the load on the soil so that ample flexibility to compensate for possible movement,
thebearingpressureiswithinsafelimitsforthesoil or the line shall be providedwithananchorsufficient
involved. to develop the forces necessary to limit the movement.


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ASME B31.8-1999 Edition 840-840.21


840 DESIGN, INSTALLATION, AND TESTING Class andrelatingthedesignofthepipelinetothe

840.1 General Provisions ( c ) Early editions of this Code used the term “popula- (99)
( a ) The design requirementsof this Code are intended testing, and operation requirements. They also used the
tobeadequateforpublicsafetyunderallconditions term“LocationClass” in prescribingdesignpressure,
encountered in thegasindustry.Conditionsthat may type of construction, and maximum allowable operating
causeadditionalstress in anypart of alineorits pressure. To simplify use of this Code, the term “popula-
appurtenances shall be providedfor,usinggoodengi- tion density index” was eliminated. Construction Types
neering practice. Examples of such conditions include A, B, C, and D were eliminated and replaced with the
long self-supported spans, unstable ground, mechanical sameterminologyusedfordesign-locationclass.
or sonic vibration, weight of special attachments, earth- The requirements based on Location Class were such
quake-induced stresses, stresses caused by temperature thattherewerenosignificantchanges in thedesign,
differences, andthesoilandtemperatureconditions installation,testing, and operationofpipingsystems
found in theArctic.Temperaturedifferencesshall be duetochanges in terminology.
taken as the difference between the lowest and highest Pipelines constructed prior to the publication of this
expectedmetaltemperatureduringpressuretest and Edition and designed in accordance with location classes
or operating services having due regard to past recorded established in compliance with previous editions of this
temperaturedata andthe possibleeffects of lower or Code may continuetouse the locationclasses so
higher air and ground temperature. determined,providedthat when observedincreases in
(b) Themostsignificantfactorcontributingtothe the number of buildings intended for human occupancy
failure of a gas pipeline is damage to the line caused occur,theLocationClassdeterminationshallbe as
by the activities of people along the route of the line. presented in para.840.2.
Damagewillgenerallyoccurduringconstruction of
otherfacilitiesassociatedwithprovidingtheservices 840.2 Buildings Intended for Human Occupancy
industrialenterprises.Theseservices,such as water, 840.21 General
gas and electricalsupply,sewagesystems,drainage
lines and ditches,buriedpowerandcommunication (a) To determinethenumber of buildings intended
cables, streets and roads, etc., become more prevalent for humanoccupancyforanonshorepipeline,layout
andextensive, andthepossibilityofdamagetothe azone Vd-milewide alongtherouteof the pipeline
pipeline becomes greater with larger concentrations of withthepipelineonthecenterlineofthiszone,and
buildings intended for humanoccupancy.Determining dividethepipelineintorandomsections 1 mile in
the Location Class provides a method of assessing the length such that the individual lengths will include the
degreeofexposureof the line to damage. maximum number of buildingsintendedforhuman
Apipelinedesigned,constructed, andoperated in occupancy.Countthenumber of buildingsintended
accordancewith the requirements of Location Class 1 for humanoccupancywithineachI-milezone.For
[see para. 840.2(b)(l)] isbasicallysafeforpressure this purpose, each separate dwelling unit in a multiple
containment in any location; however, additional mea- dwellingunitbuildingistobecounted as aseparate
sures are necessary to protect the integrity of the line buildingintendedforhumanoccupancy.
in the presence of activities that might cause damage. Itisnotintendedherethata full mileoflower
One of the measures required by this Code is to lower stresslevelpipelineshall be installed if thereare
the stress level in relation to increased public activity. physical bamers or otherfactorsthatwilllimitthe
Thisactivityisquantified by determiningLocation furtherexpansion of themoredenselypopulatedarea


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to atotaldistance of lessthan 1 mile.Itisintended, (d) Location Class 4. Location Class 4 includes areas
however,thatwhere no suchbarriersexist,ample where multistory buildings are prevalent, where traffic
allowanceshall bemade in determiningthelimitsof is heavy or dense, andwheretheremay be numerous
the lower stress design to provide for probable further otherutilitiesunderground.Multistorymeansfour or
development in thearea. more floors above ground including the first or ground
(b) When a cluster of buildings intended for human floor. The depth of basements or number of basement
occupancy indicates that a basic mile of pipeline should floorsisimmaterial.
beidentifiedasaLocationClass2 or LocationClass
3, theLocationClass 2 or LocationClass 3 maybe 840.3ConsiderationsNecessary for Concentrations
terminated 660 ftfromthenearestbuildinginthe of PeopleinLocation Class 1 or 2
(a) In additiontothecriteriacontained in para.
( c ) Forpipelinesshorterthan 1 milein length,a 840.2,additionalconsiderationmust be givento the
LocationClassthatistypical of theLocationClass possible consequences of a failure near areas where a
that would be required for 1 mile of pipeline traversing concentration of peopleislikely,suchasachurch,
theareashall be assigned. school, multiple dwelling unit, hospital, or recreational
area of an organized character in Location Class 1 or 2.
If the facility is usedinfrequently,therequirements
840.22LocationClasses for Designand
Construction of subpara.(b)neednotbeapplied.
(6) Pipelines near places of public assembly or con-
(a) Location Class 1. A LocationClass 1 isany 1- centrations of people, such as churches, schools, multiple
milesectionthathas10orfewerbuildingsintended dwelling unit buildings, hospitals, or recreational areas
for human occupancy. A LocationClass 1 isintended ofan organizednature in LocationClass 1 or 2shall
to reflectareassuch as wasteland,deserts,mountains, meet requirementsforLocationClass 3.
grazingland,farmland, andsparselypopulatedareas. ( c ) Concentrations of people referred to in subparas.
( 1 ) Class 1, Division I . This Division is a Location (a) and (b) aboveare notintendedtoincludegroups
Class 1 wherethedesignfactor of thepipeisgreater of fewer than 20 peopleperinstance or locationbut
than0.72butequaltoorlessthan0.80andhas are intended to cover people in an outside area as well
been hydrostatically tested to 1.25 times the maximum as in abuilding.
operating pressure. (See Table 841.114B for exceptions
todesignfactor.) 840.4Intent
(2) Class 1, Division 2. This Division is a Location
840.41 ItshouldbeemphasizedthatLocationClass
Class 1 wherethedesignfactor of thepipeisequal
(1, 2, 3, or 4) as described in the previous paragraphs
to or lessthan0.72andhasbeentestedto1.1times
the maximum operating pressure. (See Table 841.1 14B
area having certain characteristics as a basis for prescrib-
for exceptions to design factor.)
ingthetypesofdesign,construction,andmethods of
(b) Location Class 2. A LocationClass2isany I- testingto be used in thoselocations or in areasthat
mile section that has more than 10 but fewer than 46 arecomparable. A numberedLocationClass,such as
buildingsintendedforhumanoccupancy. A Location Location Class I , refers only to the geography of that
Class2isintendedtoreflectareaswherethedegree location or asimilararea and does notnecessarily
of populationisintermediatebetweenLocationClass indicatethatadesignfactor of0.72willsufficefor
1 andLocationClass 3, such as fringeareasaround all construction in that particular location or area (e.&
cities andtowns,industrialareas,ranch or country in Location Class 1, all aerial crossings require a design
estates,etc. factor of 0.6; see para. 84 l . 122).
(c) Location Class 3. A LocationClass 3 isany 1-
milesectionthathas 46 or morebuildingsintended 840.42 Whenclassifyinglocationsfordetermining
for humanoccupancyexceptwhenaLocationClass thedesignfactorforpipelineconstructionandtesting
4prevails. A LocationClass 3 isintendedtoreflect thatshould be prescribed,dueconsiderationshall be
areas such as suburban housing developments, shopping giventothepossibilityoffuturedevelopmentofthe
centers,residentialareas,industrialareas,andother area. If at thetime of planninga new pipelinethis
populated areas not meeting Location Class 4 require- futuredevelopmentappearslikelyto besufficient to
ments. changetheClassLocation,thisshall be takeninto


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consideration in the design and testing of the proposed stress over 72% through80% of SMYS in sizes smaller
pipeline. thanNPS16.
When a fracture toughness criterion is used, control
can be achieved by ensuring that the pipe has adequate
841 STEEL PIPE ductilityandeither by specifyingadequatetoughness
or installingcrackarrestors on thepipelinetostop
841.1SteelPipingSystemsDesignRequirements propagation.
( I ) Brittle Fracture Control. To ensurethatthe
pipe hasadequateductility,fracturetoughnesstesting
( a ) The design pressure for steel gas piping systems shallbe
performed in accordancewiththetesting
or the nominal wall thickness for a given design pressure procedures of supplementary requirements SR5 or SR6
shall be determined by thefollowingformula(for ofAPI 5L, or otherequivalentalternatives. Ifthe
limitations, see para. 841 .I 1I): operatingtemperature isbelow 32“F,anappropriate
lowertesttemperatureshall be used.Theappropriate
2sr lowertesttemperaturefornotchtoughnessshallbe
P = - FET
takentobeat or belowthelowestexpectedmetal
temperature during pressure testing (if with air or gas)
where and duringservice,havingregardtopastrecorded
D = nominaloutsidediameter of pipe,in. temperature data and possible effects of lower air and
E = longitudinaljointfactorobtainedfromTable groundtemperatures.Theaverageshearvalue of the
841.115A[seealsopara.817.13(d)] fractureappearance of thetestspecimensfromeach
F = design factor obtained from Table 841.1 14A. heat shall not be less than 35%, and the all-heat average
In settingthevaluesofthedesignfactor, F, shallnotbelessthan 50% shear whenCharpy V-
due consideration hasbeen given and allowance notchtesting,basedonfull-sizedCharpyspecimens,
has been made for the various underthickness is specified, or at least 80% of the heats shall exhibit
tolerancesprovidedfor in thepipespecifica- afractureshearappearanceof40% or morewhen
tions listed and approved for usage in this Code. drop-weightteartestingisspecified.
P = design pressure, psig (see also para. 841.1 Il) (2) Ductile Fracture Arrest. To ensurethatthe
S = specifiedminimumyieldstrength,psi,stipu- pipelinehasadequatetoughnesstoarrestaductile
latedinthespecificationsunderwhichthe fracture,thepipeshallbetested in accordancewith
pipe was purchased from the manufacturer or theprocedures of supplementary requirements SR5 of
determined in accordance with paras.8 17.13(h) API 5L. Theall-heataverage of theCharpyenergy
and841 . I 12. Thespecifiedminimumyield values shall meet or exceed the energy value calculated
strengths of some of the more commonly used usingone of thefollowingequationsthathavebeen
piping steels whose specifications are incorpo- developedinvariouspipelineresearchprograms.
rated by referencehereinaretabulatedfor (a) Battelle Columbus Laboratories (BCL)
convenience in Appendix D. (AGA)
T = temperature derating factor obtained from Ta- CVN = 0 . 0 1 0 8 ~ ~ R ” ~ t ” ~
ble 841.1 16A
t = thickness,
in. (Institute
) American
andIron (AISI)
( 6 ) The design factor for pipelines in Location Class
1,Division 1 isbasedongaspipelineoperational
experience operation
at levels in excess of thosepre- CVN = 0.0345 u3I2 R ‘I2
viouslyrecommended by thisCode.
It be noted that
may be requiredto ( c ) British Gas Council (BGC)
change out such pipe or reduce pressure to 0.72 SMYS
CVN = 0.03151~R/t”~
( c ) FractureControl and Arrest. Afracturetough-
nesscriterion or other
method shall
to ( d ) British
Steel Corporation (BSC)
control fracture propagation when a pipelineis designed
tooperateeither at ahoopstressover40%through
80% of SMYS in sizes NPS 16 or larger, or
aat CVN = 0.00119u2R


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STD-ASME B3L m8-ENGL L999 m 0759b70 ObL7092 794

841.11-841.114 ASME B31.8-1999 Edition

where 841.112LimitationsonSpecifiedMinimum
CVN = full-sizeCharpy V-notchabsorbedenergy, YieldStrength S inPara.841.11
ft-lb (a) If thepipeunderconsiderationisnotnewpipe
R = piperadius,in. purchased under a specification approved and listed in
t = wallthickness,in. this Code, the value of S may be determined in accord-
u = hoopstress,ksi ancewithone of thefollowing:
(3) Mechanical Crack Arrestors. Mechanical crack ( 1 ) S valuefornewpipequalifiedunderpara.
arrestors consisting of sleeves, wire-rope wrap, heavy- 811.221 or 811.222
wall pipe, or other suitable types have been shown to (2) S value for reuse of steel pipe qualified under
providereliablemethodsofarrestingductilefracture. oneoftheprovisions of para.817.1
The mechanical crack arrestors shall be placed at inter- (3) S value for pipe of unknown specification as
valsalongthepipeline. determined by para.817.13(h)
(b) When pipe that has been cold worked for meeting
CAUTION: The requirements specified in (2) above assume the
pipeline is transporting essentially pure methane and thepipe heated to atemperaturehigherthan 900°F for any
issimilar in fracture behavior to that used to develop the period of time or over 600°F formorethan1hr,the
e m p i r i d equations above. The presence of heavier hydrocarbons maximumallowablepressureatwhich it can be used
cancause the gas toexhibit two-phase behavior on sudden shall not exceed 75% of the value obtained byuse of
decompression and thus requires a greater Charpy energy to
arrest propagating pipe fracture. Likewise, pipe that has been
thesteelpipedesignformulagiven in para.841.1 l.
control rolled or quench and tempered may not behave as (c) In no case where the Code refers to the specified
indicated by the equations and may also require a greater Charpy minimumvalue of amechanicalpropertyshallthe
energy to arrest a propagating fracture. Calculations must be higher actual value of a property be substituted in the
performed to determine if the decompression exhibits two-phase steel pipe design formula given in para. 841.1 1. If the
behavior, and an assessment must be made as to the applicability
of the arrest equations where additional toughness ismay be actualvalueislessthanthespecified minimum value
required. Otherwise, mechanical crack arrestors [see (3) above] of a mechanical property, the actual value may be used
should be installed, or the Charpy toughness requirements for whereitispermitted bythe Code,such as inpara.
arrest should be verified through experiments or additional calcu- 817.1regardingthereuse of steelpipe.
841.113AdditionalRequirements for Nominal
Wall Thickness t inPara.841.11
841.111LimitationsonDesignPressure P in (a) The minimum wall thickness r required for pres-
Para.841.11. Thedesignpressureobtained bythe surecontainmentasdetermined by para.841.1 1 may
formula in para.841.11shallbereducedtoconform not be adequate for other forces to which the pipeline
tothefollowing: may be subjected.[Seepara. 840.l(a).] Consideration
(a) P for furnace butt welded pipe shall not exceed shall also be given to loading due to transportation or
therestrictionsofpara.841.1 1 or 60% of milltest handling of thepipeduringconstruction,weightof
pressure,whicheveristhelesser. water during testing, and soil loading and other second-
(6) P shall not exceed 85% of the mill test pressure aryloadsduringoperation.Considerationshouldalso
be given to welding or mechanical joining requirements.
testedtoapressurelessthan85% ofthepressure Standard wall thickness,asprescribed in ASME
requiredtoproduceastressequaltothespecified B36.10M,shall be theleastnominalwallthickness
minimumyield,may be retestedwitha mill type usedforthreadedandgroovedpipe.
hydrostatic test or tested in place after installation. In (b) Transportation, installation,or repair of pipe shall
theeventthepipeisretestedtoapressureinexcess not reduce the wall thickness at any point to a thickness
of the mill test pressure, then P shall not exceed 85% lessthan 90% of the nominalwallthickness as deter-
of theretestpressureratherthantheinitial mill test mined by para. 841.1 1 for the design pressure to which
pressure.Itismandatorytousealiquidasthetest thepipeistobesubjected.
mediuminalltestsinplaceafterinstallationwhere 841.114 Design Factors F and Location Classes.
thetestpressureexceedsthemilltestpressure.This The design factor in Table 84 I . 1 14A shall be used for
paragraph is not to be construed to allow an operating the designated Location Class. All exceptions to basic
pressure or design pressure in excess of that provided designfactorsto beused in thedesignformulaare
for by para. 841.1 1. given in Table 841.1 14B.


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ASME B31.8-1999 Edition 841.115-841.142

TABLE 841.114A (6) Wherepipelinesandmains cross areasthat are

BASIC DESIGN FACTOR, F normally under water or subject to flooding (i.e., lakes,
Location Class Design Factor, F bays, or swamps), sufficient weight or anchorage shall
be appliedtothelinetopreventflotation.
Location Class 1, Division 1 0.80 (c) Because submarine crossings may be subjectto
Location Class 1, Division 2 0.72
washouts due to the natural hazards of changes in the
Location Class 2 0.60
Location Class 3 0.50 waterway bed, water velocities, deepening of the chan-
Location Class 4 0.40 nel, or changing of the channel location in the waterway,
designconsiderationshall be given to protectingthe
pipeline or main at such crossings. The crossing shall
belocatedin the more stable bank and bed locations.
841.115 Thelongitudinal joint factor shallbein The depth oftheline,locationof thebendsinstalled
accordance with Table 84 1.1 15A. in the. banks, wall thickness of the pipe, and weighting
841.116 The temperature derating factor shallbe of the line shall be selected based on the characteristics
in accordance with Table 841.116A. ofthewaterway.
( d ) Where pipelines and mains are exposed, such as
841.12 Additional
or atspans,trestles,andbridge crossings, thepipelines
Instructions andmainsshall be reasonablyprotected by distance
or barricadesfromaccidentaldamage by vehicular
841.121 Fabricated Assemblies. When fabricated
traffic or other causes.
assemblies,suchasconnections for separators, main
line valve assemblies, cross connections, river crossing 841.14 Cover,Clearance,
headers,etc.,are to be installed in areasdefined in Requirements for Buried Steel Pipelines and Mains
Location Class 1, a designfactorof 0.6 isrequired 841.141 Cover Requirements for Mains. Buried
throughouttheassemblyandfor a distanceequal to mains shall be installed with a cover not less than 24
the lesser of 5 diameters or 10 ft in eachdirection in. Where this cover provision cannot be met, or where
beyond the last fitting. A shorter distance may be used externalloads maybe excessive,the mainshall be
providedthatcombinedstressesareconsideredinthe encased,bridged, or designed towithstandanysuch
designof the installation. Transition pieces at the end anticipatedexternalloads.Wherefarmingorother
of an assembly and elbows used in place of pipe bends operations might result in deep plowing,in areas subject
are not consideredfittingsundertherequirements of to erosion, or in locations where future grading is likely,
thisparagraph. Also see para. 822. suchasroad,highway,railroad,andditchcrossings,
841.122 Pipelines or MainsonBridges. The additionalprotectionshallbeprovided.
design factor for pipelines or mains supported by rail- 841.142 Cover Requirements for Pipelines. Ex-
road,vehicular,pedestrian,orpipelinebridgesshall ceptforoffshorepipelines,buriedpipelinesshall be
be determined in accordance with the Location Class installed with a cover not less than that shown inthe
prescribed for the area in which the bridge is located. followingtable:
In LocationClass I , however, a designfactor of 0.6
Cover, in.
For Rock
841.13 Protection of PipelinesandMainsFrom Excavation [Note (I)]
Hazards Pipe Size Pipe Size
(a) When pipelinesandmainsmust be installed For Normal NPS 20 and
Larger Than
where they will be subject to ,natural hazards, such as Location Excavation
Smaller 20
washouts,floods,unstablesoil,landslides,earthquake- Class 1 24 I2 18
related events (such as surface faulting, soil liquefaction, Class 2 30 18 18
Classes 3 and 4 30 24 24
andsoilandslopeinstability characteristics), or other Drainage ditch at 36 24 24
conditionsthat may causeseriousmovement of, or publicroadsand
abnormal loads on, the pipeline, reasonable precautions railroad crossings
shall be taken to protect the pipeline, such as increasing (alllocations)
the wall thickness, constructing revetments, preventing NOTE:
erosion, andinstallinganchors. ( I ) Rock excavation is excavation thatrequiresblasting.


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841.14284131 ASME 831.8-1999 Edition

TABLE 841.114B
Location Class

Facilitv Div. 1 Div. 2 2 3 4
Pipelines, and service lines [see para. 840.2(b)l 0.80 0.72 0.60 0.50 0.40
Crossings of roads, railroads without casing:
(a) Private roads 0.80 0.72 0.60 0.50 0.40
(b) Unimproved public roads 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.50 0.40
(c) Roads, highways, or public streets, with hard surface and railroads 0.60 0.60 0.50 0.50 0.40

Crossings of roads, railroads with casing:

(a) Private roads 0.80 0.72 0.60 0.50 0.40
(b) Unimproved public roads 0.72 0.72 0.60 0.50 0.40
(c) Roads, highways, or public streets, with hard surface and railroads 0.72 0.72 0.60 0.50 0.40

Parallel encroachment of pipelines and mains on roads and railroads:

(a) Private roads 0.80 0.72 0.60 0.50 0.40
(b) Unimproved public roads 0.80 0.72 0.60 0.50 0.40
(c) Roads, highways, or public streets, with hard surface and railroads 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.50 0.40

(see assemblies para. 841.121) 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.50 0.40
Pipelines on bridges (see para. 841.122) 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.50 0.40

Compressor station piping 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.40

Near concentration of people in Location Classes 1 and 2 [see para. 840.3(b)l 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.40

Where these cover provisions cannot be metor where precautionstoprotectthe mainshallbetaken,such

external loads may be excessive, the pipeline shall be as theinstallation of insulatingmaterialorcasing.
encased,bridged, or designedtowithstandanysuch 841.144 Casing Requirements Under Railroads,
anticipatedexternalloads. In areaswherefarmingor Highways, Roads,or Streets. Casings shallbe designed
other operations might result in deep plowing, in areas towithstandthesuperimposedloads.Wherethere is
subject to erosion, or in locations where future grading a possibility of water entering the casing, the ends of
is likely, such as at roads, highways, railroad crossings, thecasingshall be sealed. If theendsealing is ofa
and ditch crossings, additional protection shall be pro- type that will retain the maximum allowable operating
vided. pressure of the carrier pipe, the casing shallbe designed
841.143 Clearance Between Pipelines or Mains forthispressure and atleasttothedesignfactorof
andOtherUndergroundStructures 0.72. Venting of sealedcasingsis notmandatory;
(u) There shall beat least 6 in. of clearance wherever however, if vents are installed they should be protected
possiblebetweenanyburiedpipeline andany other fromtheweathertopreventwaterfromenteringthe
undergroundstructurenotusedinconjunctionwith casing.(Requirementsforcrossingswithincasingof
thepipeline.Whensuchclearancecannot be attained, railroads and highways are shown in Table 841.1 14B.)
precautions to protectthepipeshall be taken,such 841.15 Designfactorsaresummarized in Table
as theinstallationofcasing,bridging,orinsulating 841.1 14B.
(b) There shall be at least 2 in. of clearance wherever 841.2Installation of SteelPipelinesandMains
possiblebetweenanyburiedgas mainandany other
undergroundstructurenotused in conjunctionwith 841.21ConstructionSpecifications. All construc-
themain.Whensuchclearancecannot be attained, tionworkperformedonpipingsystemsinaccordance


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ASME B31.8-1999 Edition 84131441.231

TABLE 841.115A 841.222 The installation inspection provisions for

LONGITUDINAL JOINT FACTOR, € pipelines and other facilities to operate at hoop stresses
of 20% or more of the specified minimum yield strength

Spec. No. Pipe Class E Factor

shall be adequate to make possible at leastthe following
ASTM A 53 Seamless 1.00 inspectionsatsufficientlyfrequentintervalstoensure
Electric Welded
Resistance 1.00
good quality of workmanship.
Furnace Butt Welded: Continuous Weld 0.60
ASTM A 106 Seamless 1.00 (u) Inspect the surface of the pipe for serious surface
ASTM A 134 Electric Fusion Arc Welded 0.80 defects just priortothecoatingoperation.[Seepara.
ASTM A 135 Electric Welded
Resistance 1.00 841.242(a).]
ASTM A 139 Electric
WeldedFusion 0.80
ASTM A 211 Spiral
Welded 0.80 (b) Inspectthesurface of thepipecoating as itis
ASTM A 333 Seamless 1.00 lowered into theditch to find coatinglacerationsthat
Electric Welded
Resistance 1.00 indicate the pipe might have been damaged after being
ASTM A 381
Double 1.00
ASTM A 671 Electric Fusion Welded
Classes 13,
53 0.80 (c) Inspectthefitup of thejoints before theweld
Classes 12,
1.00 is made.
ASTM A 672 Electric Fusion Welded
Classes 13,
53 0.80 (d) Visually inspect the stringer beads before subse-
Classes 12,
1.00 quentbeadsareapplied.
API 5L Seamless 1.00 (e) Inspectthecompletedweldsbeforetheyare
Electric 1.00
Welded Flash Electric 1.00
Welded ArcSubmerged 1.00 Cfl inspectthecondition oftheditchbottom just
Furnace Butt Welded 0.60 beforethepipeisloweredin,exceptforoffshore
GENERAL NOTE: Definitions for the various classes of welded pipe
are given in para. 804.243. (g) Inspectthefitofthepipetotheditchbefore
TABLE 841.116A (h) Inspect all repairs, replacements, or changes or-
TEMPERATURE DERATING FACTOR, T, deredbeforethey are covered.
( i ) Perform such special tests and inspections as are
Temperature Derating required by the specifications,such as nondestructive
Temperature, "F Factor, T
testing of welds and electrical testing of the protective
250 or less 1.000 coating.
300 ( j ) Inspect backfill material prior to use and observe
400 0.900
450 0.867 coating in theprocess of backfilling.

GENERAL NOTE: Forintermediatetemperatures,interpolate for

derating factor.
841.23 Bends, Elbows, andMitersinSteel
PipelinesandMains. Changes in direction may be
with the requirements of this Code shall be done under
madeby the use of bends,elbows,ormitersunder
tionsshallcoverallphases of the workandshall
be in sufficientdetailtocovertherequirements of
(u) A bendshall be freefrombuckling,cracks, or
841.22 Inspection Provisions other evidence of mechanicaldamage.
841.221 The operatingcompany shall
provide (b) The maximum degree of bendingonafieldcold (99)
suitable inspection. Inspectors shall be qualifiedeither bendmaybe determined by either method in the
by experience or training. The inspector shall have the tablebelow.Thefirstcolumnexpresses the maximum
authority to order the repairor removal and replacement deflection in an arc length equal to the nominal outside
of any component found that fails tomeet the standards diameter, and the second column expresses the minimum
of this Code. radius as afunctionofthenominaloutsidediameter.


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841.231-841.243 ASME B31.8-1999 Fdition

Deflection of Minimum
Radius of of the specified minimum yield strength, the minimum
Nominal Longitudinal Axis, Bend in PipeDiameters
Pipe Size deg [see841.231(c)]
notbe lessthanonepipediameter.
Smaller than12 841.231(d) 180 (e) Careshallbetakeninmakingmiteredjoints to
12 3.2 180
14 2.7 21D
16 2.4 24D tration.
18 2. I 27 D 841.233 Factory-made,wrought-steelwelding el-
20 andlarger 1.9 300
bows or transversesegmentscuttherefrommay be
(c) A fieldcoldbendmaybemade to ashorter used forchanges in direction,providedthatthearc
minimum radius than permitted in (b) above, provided lengthmeasuredalongthecrotch is at least 1 in. on
thecompletedbendmeetsallotherrequirementsof pipesizes NPS 2 andlarger.
thissection,andthe wallthicknessafterbendingis
not less than the minimum permitted by para. 841.1 l. 841.24PipeSurfaceRequirementsApplicable to
This may be demonstrated through appropriate testing. PipelinesandMains to Operate at aHoopStress
(d) For pipe smaller than NPS 12, the requirements of 20% or More of theSpecifiedMinimumYield
of (a) above must be met, and the wall thickness after Strength. Gouges,grooves,andnotcheshave been
bending shall not be less than the minimum permitted foundtobeanimportantcauseofpipelinefailures,
by para.841.1 l. This maybe demonstratedthrough and all harmful defects of this nature must be prevented,
appropriatetesting. eliminated, or repaired. Precautions shallbe taken during
(e) Except for offshore pipelines, when a circumfer-
gouging or grooving of pipe.
ential weld occurs in a bend section, it shall be subjected
toradiographyexaminationafterbending. 841.241 Detection of GougesandGrooves
I f ) Hot bends made on cold worked or heat treated (u) Thefieldinspectionprovidedoneach job shall
pipe shall be designed for lower stress levels in accord- be suitabletoreducetoanacceptable minimum the
ance with para. 841.1 12(b). chances that gouged or grooved pipe will get into the
(8) Wrinkle bends shall be permitted only on systems finishedpipeline or main.Inspectionforthispurpose
operating at lessthan 30% ofthespecified minimum just aheadofthecoatingoperationandduringthe
yield strength. When wrinkle bends are made in welded lowering-inandbackfilloperationisrequired.
pipe,thelongitudinalweldshallbelocated as near to (b) Whenpipeis coated,inspectionshallbemade
90 deg with the top of the wrinkle as conditions will to determine that the coating machine does not cause
permit.Wrinklebendswithsharpkinksshallnotbe harmfulgouges or grooves.
permitted. Wrinkles shall have a spacing not less than (c) Lacerations of the protectivecoatingshall be
the distance equal to the diameter of the pipe measured carefullyexaminedpriortotherepair of thecoating
alongthecrotch. Onpipe NPS 16 andlarger,the todetermine if thepipesurfacehasbeendamaged.
wrinkleshallnotproduce an angleofmorethan l'/z 841.242FieldRepair of GougesandGrooves
deg per wrinkle. (u) Injuriousgouges or groovesshall beremoved.
841.232 Miteredbendsarepermittedprovided (6) Gouges or grooves may be removed by grinding
thefollowinglimitationsaremet: toasmoothcontour,providedthattheresultingwall
(a) In systemsintendedtooperateat40% or more thicknessisnotlessthantheminimumprescribedby
of the specified minimum yield strength, mitered bends thisCodefortheconditionsofusage. [See para.
are notpermitted.Deflectionscausedbymisalignment 84 1.1 13(b).]
up to 3 degare notconsidered as miters. (c) When the conditions outlined in para. 841.242(b)
(b) Insystemsintended to operateat 10% or more cannot be met,thedamagedportionofpipeshall be
butless than 40% of thespecifiedminimumyield cut out as a cylinder and replaced with a good piece.
strength,thetotaldeflectionangleateachmitershall Insertpatchingisprohibited.
notexceed12v2deg. 841.243Dents
( c ) In systems intended to operate at less than 10% (u) A dent may be defined as adepressionthat
ofthespecifiedminimumyieldstrength,thetotal producesagrossdisturbanceinthecurvatureofthe
deflection angle at each miter shall not exceed 90 deg. pipewall(asopposedtoascratch or gouge, which
(d) In systemsintendedtooperateat10% or more reducesthepipewallthickness).Thedepthofadent


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STD-ASME B3L.B-ENGL L999 m 0754b70 ObL7097 27b m

ASME 831.8-1999 Edition 841.243-841.272

shall be measured as the gap between the lowest point the heat of grinding does notproduce a metallurgical
of the &nt and a prolongation of the original contour notch.
of thepipeinanydirection.
(b) A dent, as defined in para.841.243(a),which 841.25MiscellaneousOperationsInvolvedinthe
contains a stress concentrator such as a scratch, gouge, Installation of Steel PipelinesandMains
groove, or arcbumshall be removed by cutting out 841.251 Handling, Hauling, and Stringing. Care
thedamagedportionofthepipe as a cylinder. shall be taken in the selection of the handling equipment
(c) All dentsthataffectthecurvature ofthe pipe andinhandling, hauling,unloading,andplacingthe
at thelongitudinal weld or anycircumferential weld pipe so as nottodamagethepipe.
shallberemoved. All dentsthatexceed a maximum
depth ofin.inpipe NPS 12 and smaller or 2% of 841.252Installation of PipeintheDitch. On
the nominal pipe diameter in all pipe greater than NPS pipelines operating at stresses of 20% or more ofthe
12 shall not be permitted in pipelines or mains intended specifiedminimumyieldstrength,it is importantthat
to operate at 40% or moreofthespecifiedminimum stressesimposedonthepipeline by construction be
yieldstrength.Whendentsareremoved,thedamaged minimized. Except for offshore pipelines, the pipe shall
portion of the pipe shall be cut out as a cylinder. Insert fit theditchwithouttheuseofexternalforcetohold
patchingandpoundingoutofthedentsisprohibited. it inplaceuntilthebackfillis completed. Whenlong
sections of pipethathavebeenweldedalongsidethe
1991 841.244
Notches ditch are lowered in, care shall be exercised so as not
(a) Notches on thepipesurfacecan be caused by to jerk thepipe or imposeanystrainsthatmaykink
mechanical damage in manufacture, transportation, han- or put a permanentbendinthepipe.Slackloops are
dling, or installation,andwhendetermined to beme- not prohibited by this paragraph where laying conditions
chanically caused, shall be treated the same as gouges rendertheiruse advisable.
and grooves inpara.841.241.
(b) Stress concentrations thatmay or may not involve 841.253Backfilling
a geometrical notch may also be created by a process ( a ) Backfillingshall be performedin a manner to
involvingthermalenergy in whichthepipe surfaceis provide firm supportunderthepipe.
heated sufficiently to change its mechanical or metallur- (b) If therearelargerocksinthematerial to be
gical properties. These imperfections are termed “metal- used for backfill, care shall be used to prevent damage
lurgicalnotches.”Examplesincludeanarcbumpro- to the coating by such means as the use of rock shield
duced by accidentalcontact with a weldingelectrode material, or bymakingtheinitial fill with rock-free
or a grinding burnproduced by excessive force on a materialsufficienttopreventdamage.
grindingwheel.Metallurgicalnotches may result in (c) Wherethetrenchisflooded to consolidatethe
even more severe stress concentrations than a mechani- backfill, care shall be exercised to see that the pipe is
calnotchandshallbeprevented or eliminated inall not floated from its firm bearing on the trench bottom.
pipelinesintended to operate at 20% or moreof the
specifiedminimumyieldstrength. 841.26 Hot Taps. All hot taps shall be installed by
841.245 Elimination of Arc Burns. The metallur-
gicalnotchcaused by arc bumsshall be removed by 841.27PrecautionstoAvoidExplosions of Gas-
grinding,providedthegrinding does notreducethe Air
Mixtures or Uncontrolled
remainingwallthicknesstolessthan the minimum ConstructionOperations
prescribed by this Code for the conditions ofuse.’In
all other cases, repair is prohibited, and the portion of 841.271 Operations such as gasor electric welding
pipecontainingthe arc bummust be cutoutas a and cutting with cutting torches canbe safely performed
cylinder and replaced with a good piece. Insert patching on pipelines, mains, and auxiliary equipment, provided
is prohibited.Careshall be exercisedtoensurethat thattheyarecompletely full ofgas or of air thatis
freefromcombustiblematerial. Steps shall be taken
to prevent a mixture of gas and air at all points where
’ Completeremoval of themetallurgicalnotchcreated by an arc
such operationsareto be performed.
bum can be determinedas follows: Aftervisibleevidence of the
arc bum hasbeenremoved by grinding, swab theground area 841.272 When a pipelineormaincanbekept
witha 20% solution of ammoniumpersulfate. A blackened spot
is evidence of a metallurgicalnotch and indicatesthatadditional full of gasduring a weldingorcuttingoperation,the
grinding is necessary. followingproceduresarerecommended:


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STDDASME B3B-B-ENGL L999 0757670 ObB7098 B02 m

841.272-84131 ASME B31.8-1999Edition

(a) Keepaslightflowofgasmovingtowardthe closedbeforeanysubstantialquantity of combustible

pointwherecutting or weldingisbeingdone. gas isreleased to theatmosphere.
(991 (b) Controlthegaspressureatthesiteof the work (b) In caseswheregas in apipeline or main is to
by asuitablemeans. be displaced with air and the rate at which air can be
(c) After a cut is made, immediately close all slots suppliedtothelineistoosmalltomakeaprocedure
oropenendswithtape,tightlyfittedcanvas, or other similar to but the reverse of that described in (a) above
suitablematerials. feasible,aslugofinertgasshould beintroduced to
(d) Do not permit two openings to remain uncovered preventtheformationofanexplosivemixtureat the
at the same time. This is doubly important if the two interfacebetween gas and air.Nitrogen or carbon
openings are at different elevations. dioxidecanbeusedforthispurpose.
(c) If apipeline or main containinggasisto be
841.273 Welding, cutting, or other operations that removed, the operation may be carried out in accordance
could be asource of ignitionshallnot be done on a with para. 841.272. or the line may be first disconnected
pipeline, main, or auxiliary apparatus that contains air, fromallsourcesofgasandthenthoroughlypurged
if it is connected to a source of gas, unless a suitable with air, water, or inert gas before any further cutting
meanshasbeenprovidedtopreventtheformationof orweldingisdone.
anexplosivemixture in thework area. (d) If agaspipeline,main,orauxiliaryequipment
istobefilledwithairafterhavingbeen in service
841.274 In situationswherewelding or cutting
mustbe done on facilities that are filled with air and andthereisareasonablepossibilitythat the inside
surfaces of the facility are wetted with volatile inflam-
connectedtoasource of gas, andthe precautions
mable liquid, or if such liquids might have accumulated
recommendedabovecannotbetaken,oneormore of
in low places,purgingproceduresdesignedto meet
the following precautions, depending on circumstances
thissituationshallbeused.Steaming ofthefacility
at the jobsite, are suggested:
until all combustible liquids have been evaporated and
(a) purging of the pipeorequipment uponwhich swept out is recommended. Filling of the facility with
welding or cutting is to be donewithaninertgasor an inert gas and keeping it full of such gas during the
continuouspurgingwithair in suchamannerthata
progress of anyworkthatmightigniteanexplosive
combustiblemixturedoesnot form in thefacilityat mixture in the facility is an alternative recommendation.
the work area
(b) testing of theatmosphereinthevicinity of the facilitymustnotbeoverlookedasapossiblesource
zoneto be heatedbeforetheworkisstartedand at of ignition.
intervals as theworkprogresseswithacombustible
gasindicatoror by othersuitablemeans 841.276 Whenevertheaccidentalignition in the
(c) carefulverificationbeforeandduringthework open air of gas-airmixturemightbelikely to cause
ensuringthatthevalvesthatisolatethe workfroma personalinjuryorpropertydamage,precautionsshall
sourceofgasdonotleak. be taken.Forexample:
841.275 Purging of PipelinesandMains (a) Prohibitsmokingandopenflames in thearea.
(6) Installametallicbondaroundthelocationof
(a) Whenapipelineormainisto be placed in
cuts in gaspipestobemadebymeans otherthan
service, the air in it shall be displaced. The following
(c) Take precautions to prevent static electricity
( I ) Introduceamoderatelyrapid and continuous
flow of gas into one end ofthelineandventtheair sparks.
outtheotherend.Thegasflowshallbecontinued (d) Provideafireextinguisher of appropriatesize
without interruption until the vented gas is free of air. andtype, in accordance withANSI/NFPA 10.
(2) If theventisinalocationwheretherelease
of gasintotheatmosphere may causeahazardous 841.3 Testing After Construction
condition, then a slug of inert gas shall be introduced
betweenthegasandair.Thegasflowshall then be 841.31 General Provisions. All piping systems shall
continued without interruption until allofthe air and be testedafterconstructiontotherequirementsof
inertgashavebeenremovedfromthefacility.The thisCodeexceptforpretestedfabricatedassemblies,
vented gases shall be monitored and the vent shall be pretestedtie-insections,andtie-inconnections.


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ASME 83181999 Edition 8413144133

The circumferential welds of weldedtie-inconnec- (b), (c),and(d) are summarized in Table841.322(f).

tions not pressuretested after constructionshallbe (See also para. 816.)
inspected by radiographic or other accepted nondestruc- fl In selectingthetestlevel,thedesigner or op-
tivemethods in accordance withpara.826.2. erating company should be aware of the provisions of
Nonweldedtie-inconnectionsnotpressuretested para. 854 andtherelationshipbetweentestpressure
after construction shall be leak tested at not less than and operating pressure when the pipeline experiences
thepressureavailable whenthetie-in is placedinto a future increase in the number of dwellings intended
service. for humanoccupancy.
841323 Otherprovisions of thisCodenotwith-
841.32 TestRequiredtoProveStrength of standing,pipelines andmainscrossinghighwaysand
PipelinesandMainstoOperate at Hoop Stresses railroads may be tested in each case in the same manner
of 30% or MoreoftheSpecifiedMinimumYield and to the same pressure as the pipeline on each side
Strength of the Pipe of the crossing.
841321 All pipelinesandmainsto be operated 841.324 Otherprovisions of thisCodenotwith-
at a hoop stress of30%ormoreof thespecified standing,fabricatedassemblies,including mainline
minimumyieldstrength of thepipeshall begiven a valve assemblies,cross connections, river crossing head-
test for at least 2 hr to prove strength after construction ers, etc., installed in pipelines in Location Class 1 and
andbeforebeingplaced in operation. designed in accordance with a designfactor of 0.60
841.322 Location Classes 1 4 as required in para. 841.121, may be tested as required
forLocation Class 1.
(u) Pipelineslocated inLocation Class 1, Division
1 shall be testedhydrostaticallyto1.25timesdesign 841.325 Notwithstandingthelimitationsonair
pressure if the maximum operating pressure is greater testingimposedonpara. 841.322(d),airtesting may
than72% SMYS. (See para.841.36.) be used in Location Classes 3 and 4, provided that all
(6) Pipelineslocated in LocationClass1,Division of the following conditions apply:
2 shallbetested either with air or gasto 1.1 times (a) The maximum hoop stress during the test is less
themaximumoperatingpressure or hydrostaticallyto than50% of thespecified minimum yieldstrength in
atleast 1.1 timesthemaximumoperatingpressure if Location Class 3, andlessthan40% of thespecified
the maximum operating pressure is 72% SMYS or less. minimum yieldstrength in LocationClass4.
(See para. 841.36.) (b) The maximum pressure at which the pipeline or
(c) Pipelines andmainsinLocation Class 2 shall mainisto be operateddoes notexceed 80% ofthe
be tested either with air to1.25times themaximum maximumfieldtestpressureused.
operatingpressure or hydrostatically to at least1.25 (c) The pipe involved is new pipe having a longitudi-
timesthe maximum operatingpressure.(Seepara. nal joint factor, E, in Table 841. I15A of 1.00.
84 I .36.) 841.326 Records. Theoperatingcompanyshall
(d) Pipelinesandmains inLocationClasses 3 and maintainin its file for the useful life of each pipeline
4 shall be tested hydrostatically to a pressure not less and main, records showing the procedures used and the
than1.4 timesthemaximumoperatingpressure.This data developed in establishing its maximum allowable
requirement does not apply if, at the time the pipeline operatingpressure.
or main is firstready for test,one or bothofthe
following conditions exist: 841.33 Tests RequiredtoProveStrengthfor
( I ) The ground temperature at pipe depth is 32°F Pipelines and Mains to Operate at Less Than 30%
or less, or mightfalltothattemperaturebeforethe of theSpecifiedMinimumYieldStrengthofthe
hydrostatictestcould be completed, or pipe, butinExcessof 100 psi. Steelpipingthatis
(2) Water of satisfactoryqualityis not available to operateatstresseslessthan30% of thespecified
insufficientquantity. minimum yieldstrength in Class I Locationsshallat
In such cases an air test to 1.I times the maximum least be testedin accordance withpara.841.34.In
operatingpressureshall be made,andthelimitations Class 2, 3, and 4 Locations, such piping shall be tested
on operating pressure imposed by Table 841.322(9 do in accordance with Table 841.322(9, exceptthatgas
notapply. or air may be used asthetestmedium within the
(e) The test requirement given inparas. 841.322(a), maximumlimitsset in Table841.33.


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841.34-841.352 ASME B31.8-1999 Edition

TABLE 841.322(f)
1 2 3 4 5

Pressure Test Prescribed Maximum Allowable

Location Permissible Operating Pressure,
Class Minimum Test Fluid the Lesser of

1 Water 1.25 x m.0.p. t.p. None f 1.25

Division 1

1 Water 1.1 x m.0.p. None t.p. + 1.1

Division 2 Air 1.1 x m.0.p. 1.1 x d.p. or d.p.
Gas 1.1 x m.0.p. 1.1x d.p.

2 Water 1.25 x m.0.p. None t.p. + 1.25

Air 1.25 x m.0.p. 1.25 x d.p. or d.p.

3 and 4 Water None

1.40 x m.0.p. t.p. or d.p. i 1.40
[Note (1)l or d.p.

d.p. = designpressure
m.0.p. = maximum operating pressure (not necessarily the maximum allowable operating pressure)
t.p. = test pressure

GENERAL NOTE: This Table defines the relationship between test pressures and maximum allowable operating pressures subsequent to the
test. If an operating company decides that the maximum operating pressure will be less than the design pressure, a corresponding reduction in
prescribed test pressuremay be madeas indicated in the PressureTestPrescribed, Minimum, column. If this reduced test pressure is used,
however, the maximum operating pressure cannot later be raised to the design pressure without retesting the line to the test pressure prescribed
in the Pressure Test Prescribed, Maximum, column. See paras. 805.214, 845.213, and 845.214.
(1) For exceptions, see para. 841.322(d).

TABLE 841.33 shall be selectedaftergivingdueconsiderationtothe

MAXIMUM HOOP STRESS PERMISSIBLE volumetriccontentofthesectionandtoitslocation.
DURING TEST This requires the exercise of responsible
and experienced
Class Location,
judgement,rather thannumericalprecision.
% of Specified 841.343 In all cases where a line is to be stressed
Minimum Yield Strensth
in a strength proof test to 20% or more of the specified
Test Medium 2 3 4 minimum yield strength of the pipe, and gas or air is
the test medium, a leak test shall be made at a pressure
Air 50 75 40
G as 30 30 30
in therangefrom 1 0 0 psitothatrequired to produce
a hoop stress of 20% of the minimum specified yield,
or the line shall be walked while the hoop stress is held
841.34 Leak Tests for Pipelines or Mains to at approximately 20% of the specified minimum yield.
Operate at 100 psi or More
841.35 Leak Testsfor Pipelines and Mains to
841.341 Eachpipelineandmainshall be tested
Operateat Less Than 100 psi
after construction and before being placed in operation
to demonstrate that it does not leak. If the test indicates 841.351 Eachpipeline,main, and relatedequip-
thataleakexists,theleak or leaksshallbelocated mentthatwilloperateatlessthan 100 psishall be
and eliminated,unlessitcan bedeterminedthatno testedafterconstructionandbeforebeingplaced in
unduehazardtopublicsafetyexists. operation to demonstratethatitdoes notleak.
841.342 The test procedure used shall be capable 841.352 Gas may be used as thetestmedium
of disclosing all leaks in thesectionbeingtestedand atthemaximumpressureavailableinthedistribution

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; STD. ASME B3L.B-ENGL 1999 0759670 ObL7LOL 527 m

ASME B31.8-1999 Edition 841352-842.214

system at thetime ofthetest.Inthis case, thesoap (a) the system be mechanically complete and opera-
bubbletest may be used to locateleaks ifall joints tional
are accessibleduringthetest. (b) allfunctionaltestsbeperformedandaccepted
841.353 Testing at availabledistributionsystem (c) allnecessarysafetysystems be operational
pressures as provided for in para. 841.352 maynotbe (d) operatingprocedures be available
adequate if substantial protective coatings are used that (e) a communicationssystem be established
would seal a split pipe seam. If such coatings are used, cfl transfer of the completed pipeline systemto those
the leak testpressureshall be 100 psi. responsible for its operation

841.36 Safety During Tests. All testing of pipelines 841.45 Documentation and Records. The following
and mainsafterconstructionshallbedonewithdue commissioning records shall be maintained as permanent
regard for the safety of employees and the public during records:
thetest.When air or gas is used,suitablestepsshall (a) cleaning and drying procedures
betakentokeeppersonsnotworkingonthetesting (b) cleaninganddryingresults
operations out of the testing area when the hoop stress (c) function-testing records of pipelinemonitoring
is first raised from 50% of the specified minimum yield
(d) controlequipmentsystems
tothemaximumteststress,anduntilthepressure is
(e) completed prestart checklist
reduced to themaximumoperatingpressure.

(99) 841.4Commissioning of Facilities

841.41General. Writtenproceduresshall be estab-
lished for commissioning. Procedures shall consider the 842.2DuctileIronPipingSystemsRequirements
characteristics ofthe gas to be transported,the need
to isolatethepipelinefromotherconnected facilities, 842.21DuctileIron pipe Design
andthetransfer ofthe constructedpipelinetothose 842.211 Determination of Required Wall Thick-
responsible for its operation. ness. Ductile iron pipe shall be designed in accordance
Commissioning procedures, devices, and fluids shall withthemethodssetforthinANSUAWWA C 1501
be selected to ensurethatnothingisintroducedinto A2 1S O .
the pipeline system that will be incompatible with the
842.212 Allowable Values of S andf. The values
gastobetransported, or withthematerialsinthe
of design hoop stress S and design bending stress f at
thebottom ofthe pipe, to be usedin theequations
841.42 Cleaning and Drying Procedures. Consider- giveninANSUAWWAC150/A21 S O , are
ation shall be given to the need for cleaning and drying
thepipeanditscomponentsbeyondthatrequired for S = 16,800 psi

removal of thetestmedium. f = 36,000 psi

841.43 Functional Testing of Equipment and Sys-

tems. As a part of commissioning,allpipelineand
ConformancetoANSIA21.5.2. Ductileironpipe
compressor station monitor and control equipment and
shall be (60-42-10)gradeandshallconform to all
systems shall be fully function-tested, especially includ-
requirements of ANSI A21.5.2. Grade(60-42-10) ductile
ing safety systems such as pig trap interlocks, pressure ironhasthefollowingmechanicalproperties:
andflow-monitoringsystems, andemergencypipeline
shut-down systems. Consideration should also be given Minimumtensile
strength 60.000 psi
to performing a final test of pipeline valves before the Minimum
strength 42,000 psi
gas is introduced to ensure that each valve is operating elongation
Minimum 10%
841.44 Start-up ProceduresandIntroductionof Pipe. Theleastductileironpipethicknesspermitted
Transported Gas. Written start-up procedures shall be are the lightest standardclass for each nominal pipe size
prepared before introducingthetransportedgasinto as shown in ANSI A21S2. Standard wall thicknessesfor
thesystemandshallrequirethefollowing: 250 psi maximum working pressure and standard laying


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842.214-842.221 ASME 831.8-1999 Edition

TABLE 842.214
Thickness, in.

Depth of Cover, ft
Nominal Laying
Pipe Size Condition 2=/2 392 5 8 12 16 20 24
3 A 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28
B 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28

4 A 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.29

B 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.29

6 A 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31

B 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31

8 A 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33

B 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33

10 A 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.38 0.38

B 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.38 0.38

12 A 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.40 0.43

B 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.40 0.40

14 A 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.39 0.42 0.45 0.45

B 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.42 0.42 0.45

16 A 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.40 0.43 0.46 0.49

B 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.40 0.43 0.46 0.49

18 A 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.41 0.47 0.50 0.53

B 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.41 0.44 0.47 0.53

20 A 0.39 0.39 0.39 0.39 0.45 0.48 0.54 ...

B 0.39 0.39 0.39 0.39 0.42
0.51 0.48 ...
24 A 0.44 0.41 0.41 0.44 0.50 0.56 ... ...
B 0.31 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.47 0.53 ... ...
(a) This Table is taken from ANSI A21.52.
(b) Laying Condition A: flat-bottom trench without blocks, untamped backfill.
(c) Laying Condition B: flat-bottom trench without blocks, tamped backfill.
(d) The thicknesses in this Table are equal to or in excess of those required to withstand 250 psi working pressure.
(e) All thicknesses shown in this Table for the depths of cover indicated are adequate for trench loads including truck superloads.
(f) For the basis of design,see ANSI/AWWA C150/A21.50.
(g) Thread engagement in taps for service connections and bag holes may require consideration in selecting pipe thicknesses. See Appendix of
‘ANSI A21.52.

conditions at severaldepths of cover areshown in qualifiedandmeettheappropriateprovisions of this

Table 842.2 14. Code.Such joints shall be assembled in accordance
with applicablestandards or in accordance withthe
842.215DuctileIron Pipe Joints
( a ) Mechanical Joints. Ductileironpipewithme- (c) Threaded Joints. Theuseof threaded joints to
chanical joints shallconform to therequirements of couple lengths of ductile iron pipe is not
ANSI A21 S.2 and ANSUAWWA C I I llA21. I 1. Me-
chanical joints shall be assembled in accordance with 842.22Installation of Ductile Iron Pipe
“Notes on Installation of Mechanical Joints” inANSU
AWWA C11 1/A21.11. 842.221Laying. Ductileironpipeshall be laid
(b) Other Joints. Ductile iron pipe may be furnished inaccordance with theapplicablefieldconditionsde-
withothertypes of joints providedthey are properly scribed in ANSUAWWA C150/A21.50.


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ASME 831.8-1999 Edition 842.222-842.351

842.222 Undergroundductileironpipeshallbe NOTE:Long-term hydrostatic strength at 73°F for the plastic materials
installed with a minimum cover of24in.unlesspre- whosespecifications are incorporated by referenceherein are given
in Appendix D.
vented by other underground structures. Where sufficient
covercannot be provided to protectthepipefrom
external loads or damage and the pipe is not designed 842.32ThermoplasticDesignLimitations
to withstandsuchexternalloads,thepipeshallbe (a) Thedesignpressureshallnotexceed 1 0 0 psig.
cased or bridgedto protectthepipe. (6) Thermoplastic pipe, tubing, and fittings shall not
842.223JointRestraint. Suitableharnessing or be used where the operating temperatures of the materi-
buttressing shall beprovided at points where the main als will be
deviatesfrom a straightlineandthethrust,ifnot ( 1 ) below-20°F; or
restrained, would separatethe joints. (2) above the temperature at which the long-term
hydrostatic strength used in the design formula in para.
842.224 Making Ductile Iron Field Joints. Duc- 842.31 is determined, except that in no case shall the
tile iron pipe joints shall conform to para. 842.215 and temperatureexceed 140°F.
shall be assembledaccordingtorecognizedAmerican ( c ) The value of t for thermoplasticpipeshallnot
National Standards or in accordance with the manufac- be lessthan that shown in Table842.32(c).
turer's writtenrecommendations. ( d ) The value of t for thermoplastic tubing shall not
be lessthan0.062in.
842.23TestingDuctileIronFieldJoints. Ductile (e) Forsaddletypeserviceconnectionsmade by
iron pipe joints shall be leak tested in accordance with heatfusiontechniques, it may be necessaryforsome
para.841.34 or 841.35. materials, which are intended for use at high operating
pressures,torequire a heavierwallthicknessthan
842.3 Design of Plastic Piping defined by the pressure design formula for sizes 2 in.
and smaller. Manufacturers of the specific pipe material
General Provisions.Thedesignrequirements ofthis should be contacted for recommendations or a qualified
sectionareintendedto limit theuseofplasticpiping procedureshall be used.
primarily to mains and service lines in typical distribu-
tion systems operating at a pressure of 100 psi or less. 842.33ReinforcedThermosettingPlasticDesign
For other applications in Class 1 or 2 locations, plastic Limitations
pipingmaybeusedwithinthe limitationsprescribed (a) Thevalue of P forreinforcedthermosetting
in this Code. plasticmainsandservicelines in distributionsystems
in all class locations and for other applications in Class
84231 Plastic Pipe and Tubing Design Formula. 3 and 4 locationsshallnotexceed100psig.
Thedesignpressureforplasticgaspipingsystems or (b) Reinforced thermosetting plastic pipe and fittings
the nominal wall thickness for a given design pressure shallnot be usedwhereoperatingtemperatures will
(subjecttothelimitations inpara. 842.32)shall be bebelow-20°F or above150°F.
determined bythe followingformula: (c) The value of r for reinforced thermosetting plastic
pipe shall not be less than that shown in Table 842.33(c).
P = 2s- (D - r) X 0.32 842.34
Fittings. The
maximum pressure rating for fittings shall be the same
where valueasthemaximumdesignpressure ofthe corres-
D = specifiedoutsidediameter, pondingpipesizeandwallthicknessasindicated in
P = designpressure,psig
the referenced standardfor the fittings andas determined
in paras.842.31and842.32.Themanufacturershould
S = for thermoplasticpipeandtubing,long-term
be consultedforadviceonmaximumpressureratings
hydrostatic strength determined inaccordance
forfittingsnotcovered by referencedstandards.
with thelistedspecification at a temperature
equal to 73"F, iOO"F, 120"F, or 146'F; for
reinforcedthermosettingplasticpipe, use
11,OOO psi 842.351 Valves in plastic piping may be made of
t = specified wall thickness,in. any suitable material and design permitted by this Code.


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842.35284239392 ASME B31.8-1999 Edition

TABLE 842.32k)
Minimum Wall Thickness,in.
Nominal Outside
Pipe Diameter, Dimension Standard Ratio, R
Size in. 26 21 17 13.5 11
~ ~ ~~~

S; 0.062
0.840 0.062 0.062 0.062 0.076
3/4 0.090
1.050 0.090 0.090 0.090 0.095
1 1.315 0.119 0.097
0.090 1 0.090 1.660
0.090 15; 0.090 1.660 0.173 0.141 0.112
3 20.091 2.375
214 ...
30.135 3.500 ...
3112 ...
40.173 4.500 ...
5 0.265
5.563 0.224 0.413 0.328 ...
6 0.316
6.625 0.255 0.491 0.390 ...
(a) Standard Dimension Ratio. The Standard Dimension Ratio System enables the user to select a number of different sizes of pipe for a piping
system, all of which will have the same design pressure. When plastic materials of the same design strengths are used, the same Standard
Dimension Ratio may beused for all sizes of pipe instead of calculating a value of t for each size.
(b) Wall thicknessabovethe line are minimum values and are not a function of the Standard Dimension Ratio.

TABLE 842.33W 841.141and841.144.Whereplasticpiping must be

DIAMETER AND WALL THICKNESS FOR cased or bridged,suitableprecautionsshallbetaken
REINFORCED THERMOSETTING PLASTIC PIPE to prevent crushing or shearing of the piping. (See also
Nominal Pipe Outside Diameter, Thickness,
in. Size in. 842.38ClearanceBetweenMainsandOtherUn-
derground Structures. Plastic piping shall conform to
0.060 2 2.375 theapplicableprovisions of para.841.143.Sufficient
0.060 3 3.500
0.070 4 4.500
clearanceshall bemaintainedbetweenplasticpiping
0.100 6 6.625 and steam, hot water, or power lines and other sources
of heat to prevent operating temperatures in excess of
thelimitationsofpara.842.32(b) or 842.33(b).
842.352 Valve installations in plastic piping shall 842.39PlasticPipeandTubingJointsand
be so designed as to protect the plastic material against
excessivetorsional or shearingloadswhenthevalve
or shutoffisoperated,andfromanyothersecondary 842.391 General Provisions. Plastic pipe, tubing,
stresses that might be exerted through the valve or its andfittingsmay be joined by thesolventcement
enclosure. method,adhesivemethod,heat-fusionmethod,or by
means of compression couplings or flanges. The method
842.36ProtectionFromHazards. Plasticpiping usedmustbe compatiblewiththematerialsbeing
shallconformtotheapplicableprovisions of para. joined. The recommendations of the manufacturer shall
841.13. be considered when determining the method to be used.
842.37CoverandCasingRequirementsUnder 842.392JointRequirements
Railroads, Roads, Streets, or Highways. Plastic piping (a) Pipe or tubingshallnot be threaded.
shall conform to the applicable requirements ofparas. (b) Solvent cement joints, adhesive joints, and heat-


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ASME B31.8-1999 Edition 842392842.3%

fusion joints shall be made in accordance with qualified ends together, and holds the piping in proper alignment
proceduresthathavebeenestablishedandproven by whiletheplastichardens.
testtoproducegas-tightjointsatleastasstrong as (b) Soundsocketheat-fusionjointsrequirethe use
thepipe or tubingbeingjoined. of a jointing device that heats the mating surfaces of
(c) Jointsshall bemadebypersonnelqualifiedby the joint uniformlyandsimultaneouslytoessentially
training or experience in the proper procedures required thesametemperature.Thecompleted joint mustnot
for the type of joint involved. bedisturbeduntilproperlyset.
(d) Solventcement or heat-fusionjointsshall be ( c ) Caremust be usedintheheatingoperationto
used only when joining components made of the same prevent damage to the plastic material from overheating
thermoplasticmaterials. or having the material not sufficiently heated to ensure
(e) Heat-fusion or mechanical joints shallbeused asoundjoint.Directapplicationofheatwithatorch
when joiningpolyethylenepipe,tubing, or fittings. or otheropenflameisprohibited.
Polyethylene components made of different grades of ( d ) When connecting saddle-type fittingsto pipe NPS
materials may be heat-fusedprovidedthatproperly 2 and smaller,seepara.842.32(e)tominimizethe
qualified procedures for joining the specific components possibility of failures.
are used. Any combination of PE 2306, PE 3306, and 842.395Adhesive Joints
PE 3406 materials maybe joined by heat fusion. (a) AdhesivesthatconformtoASTM D 2517 and
J’r Flanges or special joints maybeusedprovided are recommendedby the pipe, tubing,or fitting manufac-
they are properly qualified and used in accordance with turershallbeused to make adhesive bonded joints.
the appropriate provisions of thisCode. (b) Whendissimilarmaterialsarebondedtogether,
a through investigation shall be made to determine that
842.393 Solvent Cement Joints thematerials and adhesiveusedarecompatiblewith
(a) Squarecutendsfree of burrsarerequiredfor eachother.
a proper socket joint. (c) An adhesivebondedjoint may be heated in
(6) Proper fit between the pipe or tubing and mating accordance with the pipe manufacturer’s recommenda-
socket or sleeveisessentialtoagoodjoint.Sound tiontoacceleratecure.
joints cannot normally be made between loose or very ( d ) Provisions shall be made to clamp or otherwise
tight fitting components. preventthejoinedmaterialsfrommovinguntilthe
(c) The mating surfaces must be clean, dry, and free adhesiveisproperlyset.
of materialthatmight be deterimental to the joint. Joints2
842.396 199)
( d ) Solvent cements that conform to ASTM D 2513 (a) When compression-typemechanicaljointsare
and are recommended by the pipe or tubing manufac- used, the elastomeric gasket material in the fitting shall
turershallbeused to makecementedjoints. be compatible with the plastic (¡.e.,the plastic and the
(e) A uniformcoatingofthesolventcementis elastomer shall not cause deterioration in one another’s
requiredonbothmatingsurfaces. After the joint is chemicalandphysicalpropertiesoveralongperiod).
made, excess cement shall be removed from the outside (b) Thetubularstiffenerrequiredtoreinforcethe
of thejoint.The joint shallnotbedisturbeduntilit endofthepipeortubingshallextendatleastunder
hasproperlyset. that section of the pipe being compressed by the gasket
Thesolventcementandpipingcomponentsto orgrippingmaterial.Thestiffenershallbefreeof
be joined maybe conditionedpriortoassembly by rough or sharpedgesandshallnot be aforce fit in
warming if done in accordance with the manufacturer’s the pipe or tube. Split tubular fittings shall not be used.
recommendations. ( c ) Since pull-out resistance of compression-type fit-
(g) A solventcement joint shall notbeheatedto tingsvarieswithtypeandsize,allmechanicaljoints
accelerate the setting of the cement. shallbedesignedandinstalledtoeffectivelysustain
(h) Safety requirements in Appendix A of ASTM D the longitudinal’ pull-out forces caused by contraction
2513 shall be followed when solvent cements are used.

842.394Heat-FusionJoints Refertothecurrenteditionsof the American Gas Association

(u) Soundbuttheat-fusionjointsrequiretheuseof PlasticPipe Manual for Gas Service, ASTM D 2513, the ANSI
2380.1 Guide for Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Sys-
a jointing device that holds the heater element square tems, and technical publications of plastic pipe and fitting manufac-
totheendsofthepiping,cancompresstheheated turers.


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STD-ASME B3L-B-ENGL L999 0759b70 ObL7LOb O09 m

842.396-842.43 ASME B31.8-1999 Edition

of thepiping or bymaximumanticipatedexternal TABLE 842.396k)

loading.Theinstallationshallbedesignedandmade NOMINAL VALUES FOR COEFFICIENTS OF
tominimizetheseforces as follows: THERMAL EXPANSION OF THERMOPLASTIC
( I ) In thecase of directburialwhenthepipeis PIPE MATERIALS
sufficiently flexible, the pipe may be snaked in the ditch. Nominal
(2) In thecase ofpipeinstalledbyinsertion in Coefficients of
casing, the pipe shall be pushed rather than pulled into Thermal
General Expansion
place so as toplaceit in compressionratherthan Material ASTM D ,696,
Designation x in.lin.PF
(3) Allowance shall be made for thermal expansion PE 2306 9.0
and contraction due to seasonal changes in temperature PE 3306 9.0
ofinstalledpipe.Theimportance of thisallowance PE 3406 9.0

increasesasthelength of theinstallationincreases. PVC 1120 3.0

Such allowance isofparamountimportancewhenthe PVC 1220 3.5
plastic pipe is used for insertion renewal inside another PVC 2110 5.0
pipe,becauseitisnotrestrained by earthloading. PVC 2112 4.5
Thisallowance maybe accomplished by appropriate PVC 2116 4.0
combinations of PB 2110 7.2
(a) offsets -
(b) anchoring GENERAL NOTES:
(a) Individual compoundsmay differ from values in this Table as
(c) aligningthepipeandfitting much as *lo%. More exact values for specific commercial
( d ) in thecaseofcompression,fittings by the products may be obtained from the manufacturers.
useof long-styletypes andplacement of thepipe in (b) Abbreviations:PVC = polyvinyl chloride, PE = polyethylene,
and PB = polybutylene.
( e ) expansionxontraction devices, or
fittingsdesigned to preventpull-out 842.423 Skillful application
Typical coefficients of thermal expansion,which may niques and the use of proper materials and equipment
beusedtomakecalculations,aregiven in Table in good condition are required to achieve sound joints
842.396(c). in plasticpiping by the solventcement,adhesive, or
heatfusionmethods.Inspectionprovisionsshall be
842.4 Installation of PlasticPiping checked visually. If there is any reason to believe the
jointisdefective,itshall beremovedand replaced.
842.41 ConstructionSpecifications. Allconstruc- 842.424 Careshallbeexercised to avoidrough
tionworkperformed on piping systems inaccordance handling of plasticpipe andtubing.Itshallnot be
with the requirements of this Code shall be done using pushed or pulled over sharp projections or dropped, or
constructionspecifications.Theconstructionspecifica- it shall not have other objects dropped on it. Care shall
tionsshallcover the requirements of thisCodeand be taken to prevent kinking or buckling, and any kinks
shall be in sufficient detail to ensure proper installation. or buckles that occur shall be removed by cutting out
842.42 Inspection and Handling Provisions. Plastic
piping components are susceptible to damage by mishan- 842.425 Careshallbeexercisedatalltimes to
dling. Gouges, cuts, kinks, or other forms of damage protecttheplasticmaterialfromfire,excessiveheat,
may causefailure.Careshallbeexercisedduring or harmfulchemicals.
handlingandinstallationtopreventsuchdamage. 842.426 Plasticpipeandtubingshall be ade-
842.421 Plastic pipe and tubing shall be carefully quatelysupportedduringstorage.Thermoplasticpipe,
inspected for cuts, scratches, gouges,
and other imperfec- tubing,andfittingsshall be protectedfromlong-term
tionsbeforeuse,andanypipe or tubingcontaining exposuretodirectsunlight.
842.43 InstallationProvisions
842.422 Eachinstallationshallbefieldinspected
to detect harmful imperfections. Any such imperfections (a) Plasticpiping maybe installedaboveground
foundshall be eliminated. only if itis


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ASME B31.8-1999 Edition 842.43-842.44

( I ) encased in metal pipe that is protected against fj) Where flooding of the trench is done to consoli-
atmosphericcorrosion;protectedagainstdeterioration datethebackfill,careshallbeexercised to see that
(e+, high-temperature degradation);and protected thepipingisnotfloatedfromits firm bearing on the
against external damage; or trenchbottom.
(2) installed for plastic service lines as permitted (g) An electricallyconductivewireshouldbein-
inpara.849.52(b) stalled with the piping to facilitate locating it with an
Plasticpipeshallnotbeusedtosupportexternal electronic pipe locator. Other suitable material may be
loads.Encasedplasticpipeshall be abletowithstand employed.
842.432 Insertion of Casing
creasing in strength below the design limitations stated
( a ) The casing pipe shall be prepared to the extent
externaldamage,considerationshallbegiven to the necessarytoremoveanysharpedges,projections, or
abrasive material that could damage the plastic during
need to isolate the encased segment and to safely vent
and afterinsertion.
or contain gas that may escape the plastic pipe in the
event of a leak or rupture. (b) Plasticpipe or tubingshall be insertedintothe
(b) Plastic piping shall not be installed in vaults or
casingpipe insuchamanner so as toprotectthe
any other below-grade enclosure unless it is completely
plastic during the installation. The leading end of the
encased in gas-tight metal pipe and metal fittings having
the end of the casing.
(c) Plasticpipingshall beinstalledinsuchaway
that shear or tensile stresses resulting from construction, (c) Theportionoftheplasticpipingexposeddue
totheremoval of asection of thecasingpipeshall
backfill,thermalcontraction, or externalloadingare
minimized.(Seepara.842.396.) be of sufficientstrength to withstandtheanticipated
extemal loading, or it shall be protected with a suitable
842.431 Direct Burial bridging piece capable of withstanding the anticipated
( a ) Directly buried thermoplastic pipe or tubing shall externalloading.
haveaminimumwallthicknessof 0.090 in.inall (d) Theportionoftheplasticpipingthatspans
sizes except NPS pipe and ’/4 in. and smaller nominal disturbedearthshallbeadequatelyprotected by a
diametertubing,whichshallhaveaminimumwall bridging pieceor other means from crushing or shearing
thickness of 0.062 in. fromexternalloading or settling of backfill.
(6) Plasticpipingshallbelaidonundisturbed or (e) The pipingshallbeinstalledtoprovidefor
well-compactedsoil. If plastic piping is to belaidin possible contraction. Cooling may be necessary before
soils that may damage it, the piping shall be protected thelastconnectionismadewhenthepipehasbeen
by suitablerock-freematerialsbeforebackfillingis installed in hot or warm weather. (See para. 842.396.)
completed.Plasticpipingshallnot be supported by fj) If water accumulates between the casing and the
blocking. Well-tamped earthor other continuous support carrierpipewhereit maybe subjectedtofreezing
shallbeused. temperatures, the canier pipe can be constricted to the
(c) The piping shall be installed with sufficient slack pointwherethecapacityisaffected or thepipewall
toprovideforpossiblecontraction.Cooling maybe could be crushed and leak. To avoid this, one or more
necessarybeforethelastconnection is madeunder ofthefollowingstepsshallbetaken:
extremelyhightemperatureconditions. (See para. ( I ) Theannulusbetweenthecarrierpipe and
842.396.) casing shall be kept to a minimum so that the increased
(d) Whenlongsections of pipingthathavebeen volumeofwater changingtoicewillbeinsufficient
assembled alongside the ditch are lowered in, care shall to crush the c h e r pipe.
beexercised to avoidanystrainsthat may overstress (2) Adequatedrainingforthecasingshallbe 199)
or buckle the piping or impose excessive stress on the provided.
joints. ( 3 ) Fillersuch as foamshall be insertedintothe 199)
(e) Backfillingshallbeperformedinamannerto annulus betweenthecasingandthecarrierpipe.
provide firm supportaroundthepiping.Thematerial
used for backfilling shall be free of large rocks, pieces 842.44 BendsandBranches. Changesindirection
of pavement, or any other materials that might damage ofplasticpiping maybe madewithbends,tees, or
thepipe. elbowsunderthefollowinglimitations:


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842.44-842.614 ASME B31.8-1999Edition

(u) Plasticpipeandtubing maybedeflected to a (d) Plasticpipelinesandmainsshall be tested at a

radius not less than the minimum recommended by the pressure not less than 1.5 times the maximum operating
manufacturer for the kind, type, grade, wall thickness, pressure or 50 psig, whichever is greater, except that
and diameter of the particular plastic used. (i) thetestpressureforreinforcedthermosetting
(b) The bendsshallbefree of buckles,cracks, or plasticpipingshallnotexceed 3.0 timesthedesign
other evidence of damage. pressureofthepipe
(c) Changes in directionthatcannot be madein (2) the test pressure for thermoplastic piping shall
accordancewith(a)aboveshallbemadewithelbow- notexceed 3.0 timesthedesignpressureofthepipe
typefittings. at temperatures up to and including l00OF or 2.0 times
(d) Miterbendsarenotpermitted. thedesignpressureattemperaturesexceeding100°F
(e) Branchconnectionsshall bemadeonlywith (e) Gas,air, or watermay be used as thetest
socket-type tees or othersuitablefittingsspecifically medium.
designed for the purpose.
842.53SafetyDuringTests. All testingaftercon-
842.45 Field Repairs of Gouges and Grooves. Inju- struction shall be donewithdueregardforthesafety
riousgouges or groovesshall be removed by cutting of employeesandthepublicduringthetest.
outandreplacingthedamagedportion as acylinder
or repaired in accordancewithpara. 852.7. 842.6CopperMains
842.46 Hot Taps. All hot taps shall be installed by 842.61Design of CopperMains
842.611 Whenusedforgasmains,copperpipe
842.47 Purging. Purging of plastic mains and service or tubing shall conform to the following requirements:
linesshallbedone in accordancewiththeapplicable (a) Copperpipe or tubingshallnotbeused for
provisionsofparas.841.275 and 841.276. mainswherethepressureexceeds100psig.
(b) Copperpipe or tubingshallnotbeusedfor
842.5TestingPlasticPipingAfterConstruction mainswherethegascarriedcontainsmorethan an
averageof 0.3 grains of hydrogensulfideper 100
842.51GeneralProvisions. Allplasticpipingshall standard cubic feet of gas. This is equivalent to a trace
be pressure tested after construction and before being as determined by the lead acetate test. (See para. 863.4.)
placed in operation to prove its strength and to demon-
(c) Coppertubing or pipeformainsshallhavea
minimum wall thickness of 0.065 in. and shall be hard
Tie-fns.Because it is sometimes necessary to divide
a pipeline or main intosectionsfortesting, andto
( d ) Copperpipe or tubingshallnot be used for
install test heads, connecting piping, and other necessary
appurtenances, it is not required that the tie-in sections mainswherestrain or externalloading may damage
of piping be tested.Thetie-injoints,however,shall thepiping.
be testedforleaks. 842.612Valves in CopperPiping. Valves in-
842.52TestRequirements materialpermitted by thisCode.
(u) Thetestprocedureused,includingtheduration
of the test, shall be capable of disclosing all leaks in 842.613 Fittings in Copper Piping. Itisrecom-
thesectionbeingtestedandshall be selectedafter mendedthatfittingsincopperpipingandexposedto
givingdueconsiderationtothevolumetriccontent of the soil, such as service tees, pressure control fittings,
thesectionanditslocation. etc.,bemade of bronze,copper, or brass.
(6) Thermoplastic piping shall not be tested at mate- 842.614 Joints in Copper Pipe and Tubing.Cop-
rial temperatures above 140"F, and reinforced thermoset- per pipeshall be joinedusingeitheracompression-
ting plastic piping shall not be testedat material tempera- type coupling or abrazed or solderedlapjoint.The
turesabove150°F.Theduration of thetestof fillermaterialusedforbrazingshall be acopper-
thermoplasticpipingabove100"F,however,shallnot phosphorous alloy or silver base alloy. Butt welds are
exceed 96 hr. notpermissibleforjoiningcopperpipe or tubing.
(c) Sufficient time for joints to "set" properly must Coppertubingshallnot be threaded,butcopperpipe
be allowedbeforethetestisinitiated. withwallthicknessequivalenttothecomparablesize


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ASME B3181999 Edition 842.614-843.412

of Schedule 40 steel pipe may be threadedand used 843.14Fenced Areas. Any fencethat may hamper
for connectingscrewfittings or valves. or preventescape of personsfromthevicinity of a
compressor station inan emergency shall beprovided
842.615 Protection Against Galvanic Corrosion.
with a minimumof twogates.Thesegatesshall be
Provisionshall be madetopreventharmfulgalvanic
located so as to provide a convenient opportunity for
action where copper is connected underground to steel.
escapeto a placeofsafety.Any suchgateslocated
[See para. 862.1 14(a).] within 200 ft ofany compressorplantbuildingshall
openoutwardandshall be unlocked (or capable of
Testing of Copper
After being opened from the inside without a key) when the
Construction area within theenclosureisoccupied.Alternatively,
842.621 All coppermainsshall be tested after otherfacilitiesaffording a similarlyconvenientexit
construction in accordance with the provisions of para. fromtheareamay be provided.
843.2 Electrical Facilities
All electricalequipmentandwiringinstalled in gas
843COMPRESSORSTATIONS transmission and distribution compressor stations shall
conform to the requirements of ANSVNFPA 70, insofar
843.1CompressorStationDesign astheequipmentcommerciallyavailablepermits.
Electrical installations in hazardous locations as de-
843.11Location of CompressorBuilding. Except
finedin ANSI/NFPA 70 andthataretoremain in
for offshorepipelines,the main compressorbuilding
for gas compressor stations should be located at such
down as provided in para. 843.431(a) shall be designed
clear distances from adjacent property not under control
toconformtoANSUNFPA 70 for Class I, Division 1
of the company as to minimize the hazard of communi-
cation of fire to the compressor building from structures
on adjacent property. Sufficient open space should be
provided around the building to permit the free move- 843.4CompressorStationEquipment
ment of firefighting equipment.
843.41 Gas TreatingFacilities
843.12 Building Construction. All compressor sta-
843.411 Liquid Removal. When condensable va-
tion buildings that house gas piping in sizes larger than
pors are present in the gas stream in sufficient quantity
NPS 2 or equipment handling gas (except equipment for
to liquefy under the anticipated pressure and temperature
domestic purposes) shallbe constructed of noncombusti-
conditions, the suction stream to each stage of compres-
ble or limited combustible materials as definedin ANSY
sion (or to each unit for centrifugal compressors) shall
NFPA 220.
be protected against the introductionof dangerous quan-
tities of entrainedliquidsintothecompressor.Every
843.13Exits. A minimumof two exits shall be liquid separator used for this purpose shall be provided
provided for each operating floor of a main compressor with manually operated facilities for removal of liquids
building,basements,and any elevatedwalkway or therefrom. In addition, automatic liquid removal facili-
platform 10 ft ormoreaboveground or floor level. ties, an automaticcompressorshutdowndevice, or a
Individual engine catwalks shall not require two exits. highliquidlevelalarmshall be usedwhere slugs of
Exits of eachsuchbuilding may be fixed ladders, liquidmight be carriedintothecompressors.
stairways, etc. The maximum distance from any point
onanoperating floor to an exit shallnotexceed 75 843.412 Liquid Removal Equipment. Liquid sep-
ft, measured along the center lineof aisles or walkways. arators, unless constructed of pipe and fittings and no
Exitsshall be unobstructed doorways located so asto internalweldingisused,shall be manufactured in
provide a convenientpossibility of escapeandshall accordance with Section VI11 of the ASMEBoiler
provide unobstructed passage to a place of safety. Door andPressureVesselCode.Liquidseparatorswhen
latches shall be of a typethatcan be readilyopened constructed of pipe and fittings without internal welding
fromtheinsidewithout a key. All swingingdoors shallbe in accordance with Location Class 4 require-
located inan exteriorwallshallswingoutward. ments.


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843.42843.472 ASME B31.8-1999 Edition

843.42FireProtection. Fire protectionfacilities installedandmaintainedtoensurethatthemaximum

shouldbeprovidedin accordance with theAmerican allowable operating pressure of the station piping and
InsuranceAssociation’srecommendations. If thefire equipment is notexceeded by morethan 10%.
pumps are a part of such facilities, their operation shall 843.442 A pressurereliefvalve or pressurelim-
not be affected by emergencyshutdownfacilities. itingdevice,suchas a pressureswitch or unloading
(99) 843.43
Devices device, shall be installed in the discharge line ofeach
positive displacement transmission compressorbetween
843.431EmergencyShutdownFacilities the gas compressor and the first discharge block valve.
(u) Eachtransmissioncompressorstationshall be If a pressure relief valve is the primary overprotection
provided with an emergency shutdown systemby means device, thenthe relievingcapacityshall beequalto
ofwhich thegascan be blockedout ofthe station or greater than the capacity ofthe compressor. Ifthe
andthestationgaspipingblowndown.Operation of reliefvalvesonthecompressor do notpreventthe
theemergencyshutdownsystem also shallcausethe possibility of overpressuringthepipelineasspecified
shutdown ofall gascompressingequipment andall inpara. 845, a relieving or pressurelimitingdevice
gas-fired equipment. Operation of this system shall de- shallbeinstalledonthepipelinetopreventitfrom
energizetheelectrical facilities located in thevicinity beingoverpressuredbeyondthelimitsprescribed by
of gasheadersandinthecompressorroom,except thisCode.
thosethatprovideemergencylighting for personnel
protectionandthosethat are necessaryforprotection 843.443Venting. Ventlinesprovided to exhaust
of equipment.Theemergencyshutdownsystemshall thegasfromthepressurereliefvalvestoatmosphere
be operablefrom any one of at leasttwolocations shallbe extended to a location where the gas may be
outside the gas area of the station, preferably near exit discharged without undue hazard. Vent lines shall have
gates inthe station fence, butnotmorethan 500 ft sufficientcapacity so thattheywillnotinhibitthe
from the limits of the stations. Blowdown piping shall performance of the relief valve.
extend to a location where the discharge of gas is not
843.45Fuel Gas Control. An automatic device de-
likelyto create a hazardtothecompressorstation or
signed to shut off the fuel gas when the engine stops
surrounding area. Unattended field compressor stations
shall beprovidedon eachgas engine operating with
of 1,OOO hp and less are excluded from the provisions
pressure gas injection. The engine distribution manifold
of this paragraph.
(b) Each compressor station supplyinggas directly to
a distribution system shall be provided with emergency 843.46CoolingandLubricationFailures. All gas
shutdown facilities located outside the compressor sta- compressorunitsshall be equippedwithshutdown or
tion buildings by means of which all gas can be blocked alarmdevices to operate inthe event of inadequate
out ofthestation,providedthereisanotheradequate cooling or lubrication of theunits.
source of gasforthedistributionsystem.Theseshut-
down facilities can be either automatic or manually 843.47ExplosionPrevention
operated as local conditions designate. When no other
843.471Mufflers. Theexternalshell ofmufflers
gassource is available, noshutdown facilities that
for enginesusinggasasfuelshall be designed in
might function at the wrong time and cause an outage
accordance with goodengineeringpractice andshall
onthedistributionsystemshall be installed.
be constructed of ductile materials. It is recommended
843.432EngineOverspeedStops. Every com- thatall compartments ofthemufflerbemanufactured
pressorprimemover, except electrical induction or withventslots or holesinthebaffles to preventgas
synchronous motors, shall be provided with an automatic frombeingtrapped inthemuffler.
devicethat is designedto shut downthe unit before
the maximum safe speed of either the prime mover or 843.472BuildingVentilation. Ventilationshall
driven unit, as established by the respective manufactur- be ample to ensure that employees are not endangered
ers, isexceeded. undernormaloperatingconditions (or suchabnormal
conditions as a blown gasket,packinggland, etc.) by
843.44PressureLimitingRequirementsin accumulationsof hazardous concentrationsof flammable
CompressorStations or noxiousvapors or gases in rooms,sumps,attics,
843.441 Pressure relief or other suitable protective pits, or similarlyenclosedplaces, or inanyportion
devices of sufficientcapacityandsensitivityshall be thereof.


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STDmASME B3L.B-ENGL L999 0759b70 ObL7LLL 47b

ASME B31.8-1999 Edition 843.48-843.533

(99) 843.48 Gas Detection

Systems 843514 Identification of Valves and piping. All
(a) Each compressor building in a compressor station emergencyvalves and controlsshallbeidentifiedby
where hazardous concentrationsof gas may accumulate signs. The function of all important gas pressure piping
shallhave a fixedgas detectionandalarmsystem shall be identifiedby signs or color codes.
unlessthebuilding is
843.52 Fuel Gas Piping. The following are specific
( I ) constructed so that at least 50% of its upright
provisionsapplicable to fuelgaspipingonly.
sideareaispermanentlyopen totheatmosphere or
adequately ventilatedby forced or natural ventilation; or 843.521 All fuelgaslines within a compressor
(2) in an unattended field compressor station loca- station that serve the various buildings and residential
tionof 1,OOO hporlessandadequatelyventilated. areasshall beprovided with mastershutoffvalves
( b ) Except when shutdownof the system is necessary located outside ofany building or residentialarea.
for maintenance (see para. 853.16), each gas detection 843.522 Thepressureregulatingfacilities for the
andalarmsystemrequired by thissectionshall fuel gassystemfor a compressorstationshall be
(I) continuously monitor the compressor building provided with pressure-limiting devices to prevent the
for a concentration of gas in air of not more than 25% normal operatingpressure ofthe systemfrombeing
ofthelower explosivelimit exceeded by more than 25%, or the maximum allowable
(2) warn personsabout to enter thebuildingand operatingpressure bymorethan10%.
persons inside the building of the danger if that concen- 843.523 Suitableprovisionshall bemade to pre-
tration of gas is exceeded vent fuel gas from entering the power cylinders ofan
(c) Thecompressorbuildingconfigurationshallbe engine and actuatingmovingpartswhilework is in
considered in selecting the number, type, and placement progress on the engine or on equipment driven by the
of detectors and alarms. engine.
( d ) Alarm signalsshall beuniqueandimmediately 843.524 Allfuel gas used fordomesticpurposes
recognizable,consideringbackgroundnoiseandlight- at a compressorstationthat hasaninsufficientodor
ing, to personnel who are inside or immediately outside of itsowntoserveas a warning in the event ofits
eachcompressorbuilding. escapeshall be odotizedasprescribed inpara. 871.

843.53 AirPipingSystem
843.5 CompressorStationPiping 843.531 All air piping within gascompressing
stations shall be constructed in accordance with ASME
843.51 Gas piping. The following are general provi- B3 1.3.
sions applicable to allgaspiping.
843.532 The starting air pressure, storage volume,
843.511 Specifications for Gas piping. All com- andsize of connectingpipingshall be adequateto
pressor station gas piping, otherthan instrument, control, rotatetheengine at thecranking speed and forthe
and sample piping, to and including connections to the number of revolutions necessary to purge the fuel gas
main pipeline shall be of steelandshalluse a design from the power cylinder and muffler. The recommenda-
factor, F, per Table841.114B.Valveshavingshell tions ofthe enginemanufacturer maybeused as a
components madeof ductile iron may be used subject guide in determining these factors. Consideration should
to the limitations in para. 83 l . 1 I(b). be given to the number of engines installed and to the
possibility ofhavingto start severalofthese engines
843.512 Installation of Gas Piping. Theprovi- within a shortperiodoftime.
sions of para.841.2shallapplywhereappropriateto
gaspiping in compressorstations. 843.533 A checkvalveshall be installed in the
starting air lineneareachenginetopreventbackflow
843.513 Testing of Gas Piping. All gaspiping fromtheengineintotheairpipingsystem. A check
within a compressor station shallbe tested after installa- valveshall also be placedinthemainairlineonthe
tionin accordance with theprovisions of para.841.3 immediateoutletside of theairtank or tanks. It is
for pipelines andmainsinClass 3 locations,except recommendedthatequipmentforcoolingthe air and
thatsmalladditionstooperatingstationsneednot be removingthemoistureandentrainedoil be installed
testedwhereoperatingconditionsmakeitimpractical betweenthestarting air compressor andthe air stor-
totest. agetanks.


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843.534-84432 ASME B31.8-1999 Edition

843.534 Suitableprovisionshallbemadetopre- 844.3Pipe-TypeandBottle-TypeHolders on

vent starting air from entering the power cylinders of PropertyUndertheExclusiveUseand
anengineandactuatingmovingpartswhilework is Control of the Operating Company
in progressontheengine or onequipmentdriven by
theengines.Acceptablemeansofaccomplishingthis 844.31 The storage site shall be entirely surrounded
are installing a blind flange, removing a portion of the with fencing to prevent access by unauthorized persons.
airsupplypiping, or lockingclosedastopvalveand 844.32 (99)
( a ) Apipe-type or bottle-typeholderthatis to be
843.535 Air Receivers. Air receivers or air storage installedonpropertyundertheexclusivecontroland
bottlesforuse in compressorstationsshall be con- useoftheoperatingcompanyshall be designed in
structed and equipped in accordance with Section VI11 accordance with construction design factors. The selec-
of the BPV Code. tionofthesefactorsdependson the classlocation in
which the site is situated, the clearance between the pipe
843.54LubricatingOilPiping. Alllubricatingoil containers or bottles and the fence, and the maximum
pipingwithingascompressingstationsshallbecon- operatingpressure, as follows:
structed in accordancewithASME B31.3. Design Factors, F
Minimum ClearanceForMinimum
843.55WaterPiping. Allwaterpipingwithingas Holder BetweenContainers BetweenContainers
compressing stations shall be constructed in accordance Size andFenced andFenced
withASME B31.1. Class Boundaries of Site Boundaries of Site
Location of 25 ft to 1 0 0 ft of 1 0 0 ft andOver

843.56SteamPiping. All steampipingwithingas 0.72 0.72

compressing stations shall be constructed in accordance 0.60 0.72
0.60 0.60
withASME B31.1. 0.40 0.40

843.57 Hydraulic Piping. All hydraulic power pip- ( b ) The minimum clearance between containers and
ing within gas compressing stations shall be constructed thefencedboundaries of thesiteisfixed by the
in accordancewithASME B31.3. maximum operating pressure of the holder as follows:
MaximumOperatingPressure.psi MinimumClearance,ft
Less than 1,OOO 25
HOLDERS (c) Minimum Clearance Between PipeContainers
or Bottles. The minimum distance in inchesbetween
844.1Pipe-TypeHoldersin Rights-of-way Not pipecontainers or bottlesshallbedeterminedbythe
UnderExclusive Use andControlofthe followingformula:
A pipe-type holder that is to be installed in streets,
highways, or inprivaterights-of-waynotunderthe
c = 3DPF
I .o00
exclusivecontrolanduse of theoperatingcompany
shall be designed,installed, andtestedinaccordance where
with the provisions of this Code applicable to a pipeline C = minimumclearance betweenpipe containers
installed in the same location and operated at the same or bottles,in.
maximumpressure. D = outside diameter of pipe container or bottle, in.
F = designfactor[seepara.844.32(a)]
P = maximumallowableoperatingpressure,psig
844.2Bottle-TypeHolders (d) Pipecontainersshall be buriedwiththe top of
Bottle-typeholdersshallbelocated on landowned eachcontainernotless than 24 in. belowtheground
or under the exclusive control and use of the operating surface.
company. ( e ) Bottlesshallbeburiedwiththetopofeach


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STDaASME 631-8-ENGL L999 m 0759b70 Ob17113 249 m

ASME B31.8-1999 Edition 84432-845.213

container below thenormal frost line butinno case Sionor interfere with the safe operation of the storage
closer than 24 in.tothesurface. equipment.
Pipe-typeholdersshall be tested in accordance Relief valvesshallbeinstalled in accordance with
with theprovisions of para. 841.32 for a pipeline provisions of this Code that will have relieving capacity
located in thesame class locationas the holder site, adequate to limitthepressureimposed on thefilling
provided,however,that in any casewherethetest line and thereby on the storage holder to 1 0 % of the
pressurewillproduce a hoop stress of 80% or more designpressure of theholder or to thepressure that
of thespecified minimum yieldstrength ofthepipe, produces a hoop stress of 75% of the specified minimum
watershall be used as thetestmedium. yieldstrength of the steel, whichever is thelesser.

844.4 SpecialProvisionsApplicable to Bottle-Type

844.41 A bottle-typeholder maybemanufactured
from steel that is not weldable under field conditions, 845.1BasicRequirementforProtectionAgainst
subjecttoall of thefollowinglimitations: AccidentalOverpressuring
(a) Bottle-typeholdersmade from alloysteelshall Every pipeline, main, distribution system, customer’s
meetthe chemicalandtensilerequirementsforthe meter and connected facilities, compressor station, pipe-
variousgrades of steel in ASTM A 372. typeholder,bottle-typeholder,containersfabricated
(6) In no case shall the ratio of actual yield strength frompipeandfittings,andallspecialequipment, if
to actualtensilestrengthexceed 0.85. connected to a compressor or to a gassourcewhere
(c) Welding shall not be performed on such bottles thefailure of pressurecontrolorothercausesmight
after they have been heat treated and/or stress relieved, resultin a pressure that wouldexceedthemaximum
except that it shall be permissible to attach small copper allowableoperatingpressure ofthefacility (refer to
wirestothesmalldiameterportion of the bottle end para. 805.214), shall be equipped with suitable pressure-
closure for cathodic protection purposes using a local- relieving or pressure-limiting devices. Special provisions
ized thermit welding process (charge not to exceed 15 g). for serviceregulatorsaresetforth in para. 845.24.
(d) Such bottles shall be given a hydrostatic test in
the mill and need not be retested hydrostatically at the 845.2ControlandLimiting of GasPressure
time of installation. The mill test pressure shall not be
lessthanthatrequiredtoproduce a hoop stress equal 845.21ControlandLimiting of Gas Pressure in
to 85% of the specified minimum yield strength of the Holders, Pipelines, and All Facilities That Might at
steel.Carefulinspection ofthe bottles at thetimeof Times BeBottleTight
installation shall be made, and no damaged bottle shall
beused. 845.212 Suitabletypes of protectivedevices to
preventoverpressuring ofsuch facilities include
(e) Such bottles and connecting piping shall be tested
( a ) spring-loaded relief valves of types meeting the
for tightnessafterinstallationusing air or gas at a
pressure of 50 psiabovethe maximum operating provisions ofBPV Code,Section VI11
pressure. ( b ) pilot-loaded back-pressure regulators used as re-
lief valves, so designed that failure of the pilot system
orcontrollines will causetheregulatortoopen
844.5 GeneralProvisionsApplicabletoBothPipe- ( c ) rupture disks of the type meeting the provisions
TypeandBottle-TypeHolders ofBPV Code,Section VIII, Division 1
(a) No gas containing more than 0.1 grain of hydro- 845.213 Maximum Allowable Operating
gen sulfide per 1 0 0 standard cubic feet shall bestored PressureforSteel or PlasticPipelines or Mains.
when free water is present or anticipated without em- Thispressureis bydefinitionthemaximum operating
ploying suitable means to identify, mitigate, or prevent pressure to which the pipeline or main may be subjected
detrimentalinternalcorrosion. (See para. 863.) in accordance with the requirements of this Code. For
(b) Provision shall be made to prevent the formation a pipelineormain,themaximumallowableoperating
or accumulation of liquids in theholder,connecting pressureshallnotexceedthelesserofthefollowing
piping, and auxiliary equipment that might cause corro- fouritems:


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845.213-845.214 ASME B31.8-1999 Edition

(u) thedesignpressure(definedinpara. 805.212) shall be limited to thepressureobtained by dividing

of the weakest element of the pipeline or main. Assum- thepressuretowhichthepipeline or mainistested
ingthatallfittings,valves,andotheraccessories in by the appropriatefactor for the Location Class involved
the line have an adequate pressure rating, the maximum asfollows:
allowable operating pressure of a pipeline or main shall
be the design pressure determined in accordance with Allowable
Class Pressure
para. 841.11 for steel or para.842.3 for plastic.
(b) thepressureobtained by dividingthepressure I , Division 1 pressure
to which the pipeline or main is tested after construction 1.25
bythe appropriate factor for theLocationClassin-
1, Division 2 pressure
re Location
Class For Steel ( I ) For Plastic 2 Test pressure
I . Division 1 N.A.pressure Test
1.25 3 pressure Test
1, Division 2 Test pressure Test pressure
1.10 1S O 4 pressure Test
2 pressure Test Test pressure
1.25 1S O (2) The test pressure to beused in the maximum
allowableoperatingpressurecalculationshall be the
3 pressureTest (2) pressureTest testpressureobtainedatthehighelevationpoint of
1.40 IS O the minimum strengthtestsectionandshallnot be
higherthanthepressurerequiredtoproduce a stress
4 pressureTest (2) pressureTest
equaltotheyieldstrength as determinedbytesting.
1.40 ISO
Onlythefirsttesttoyieldcanbeusedto determine
NOTES: maximumallowableoperatingpressure.
(1) See para. 845.214 fortest factors applicabletoconversion of
(3) Records of hydrostatic pressure tests and line
pipelineswithunknown factors.
(2) Other factors shouldbe used if theline was testedunderthe repairsshall bepreserved aslongasthefacilities
special conditions described in paras. 841.322(d), 841.325, and involvedremaininservice.
841.33. In such cases, use factors that are consistent with the (4) Determinethatallvalves,flanges,andother
applicablerequirements of thesesections. pressureratedcomponentshaveadequateratings.
(c) the maximum safe pressure to which the pipeline (5) Whilethemaximumpressure of a testused
or main should be subjected basedonits operating toestablishthemaximumallowableworkingpressure
and maintenance history (for pipelines, see para. 85 l. 1) is notlimitedbythis paragraphexcept by (2) above,
(d) when service lines are connected to the pipeline due caution should be exercised in selecting the maxi-
or main, the limitationssetforth in paras.845.223(b) mum testpressure.
and (e) (6) Pipelines Operating at Less Than 100 psig. This
paragraphappliestoexistingnaturalgaspipelines or
845.214 Qualification of a Steel Pipelineor Main toexistingpipelinesbeingconvertedtonaturalgas
to Establishthe MAOP service where one or more factors of thesteelpipe
(a) Pipeline Operating at 100 psig or More. This design formula (see para. 841.11) is unknown, and the
paragraph applies toexistingnatural gas pipelines or pipeline isto be operated at lessthan 100 psig.The
toexistingpipelinesbeingconvertedtonaturalgas maximum allowable operating pressure shall be deter-
service whereone or morefactors of thesteelpipe mined by pressuretestingthepipeline.
design formula (see para. 841 . I 1) is unknown, and the ( I ) Themaximumallowableoperatingpressure
pipeline is to be operated at 100psig or more.The shall be limitedtothepressureobtained by dividing
maximum allowable operating pressure shall be deter- thepressuretowhichthepipeline or main is tested
minedby hydrostatic testing ofthe pipeline. by the appropriate factorfor the Location Class involved
( I ) Themaximumallowableoperatingpressure as follows:


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ASME B31.8-1999 Edition 845.214445.232

Location Maximum Allowable (b) weight-loadedreliefvalves

Class Operating Pressure
(c) a monitoringregulatorinstalled in serieswith
1 Test Pressure theprimarypressureregulator
I .25 ( d ) a series regulatorinstalledupstreamfromthe
primaryregulatorand set to limitthepressure on
Test Pressure
theinlet of theprimaryregulatorcontinuously to the
I .25 maximum allowable operating pressure of the distribu-
Test Pressure
tionsystem or less
(e) an automaticshutoffdeviceinstalled in series
I .5
with the primary pressure regulator and set to shut off
Test Pressure whenthe pressure onthe distributionsystemreaches
1.5 the maximum allowable operating pressure or less. This
device mustremainclosed until manuallyreset. It
(2) The test pressure to be used in the maximum should not be used where it might cause an intemption
allowableoperatingpressurecalculationshall be the in serviceto a largenumber of customers.
testpressureobtained at thehighelevationpoint of fl spring-loaded,diaphragm-typereliefvalves
higher than thepressurerequiredtoproduce a stress 845.223 Maximum Allowable Operating
equaltotheyieldstrengthasdetermined by testing. PressureforHigh-pressureDistributionSystems.
Only thefirsttesttoyieldcan be usedtodetermine This pressure shall be the maximum pressure to which
maximumallowableoperatingpressure. thesystemcanbesubjected in accordance withthe
requirements of thisCode.Itshallnotexceed
(3) Records of pressure tests and line repairs shall
bepreservedaslongasthe facilities involvedremain (a) thedesignpressure oftheweakestelement of
in service. thesystemasdefined in para.805.212
( 4 ) Determinethatallvalves,flanges,andother (b) 60 psigif theservicelines in thesystem are
pressureratedcomponentshaveadequateratings. not equipped withseriesregulatorsorotherpressure-
limitingdevices as prescribedinpara.845.243
(5) Althoughthemaximumpressure of a test
utilized to establishthemaximumallowableworking (c) 25 psig in cast iron systems having caulked bell
pressure is not limited by this paragraph except by (2) and spigot joints, which have not been equipped with
above,duecautionshouldbeexercisedinselecting bell joint clamps or other effective leak sealing methods
themaximumtestpressure. ( d ) the pressure limits to whichany joint could be
subjectedwithoutpossibility ofparting
845.22 ControlandLimiting of Gas Pressurein (e) 2 psig in high-pressuredistributionsystems
High-PressureSteel,DuctileIron,CastIron, or equipped with service regulatorsnot meeting the require-
PlasticDistributionSystems ments of para. 845.241 and that do not have an overpres-
sureprotectivedeviceasrequired in para.845.242
845.221 Each high-pressuredistributionsystem fl the maximum safe pressure to which the system
or main, suppliedfrom a source of gas that is at a should be subjected based on its operation and mainte-
higher pressure than the maximum allowable operating nancehistory
pressure for the system, shall be equipped with pressure-
regulatingdevices of adequatecapacityanddesigned 845.23 ControlandLimiting of Gas Pressurein
to meet the pressure, load, and other service conditions Low-PressureDistributionSystems
underwhichtheywilloperate or towhichtheymay 845.231 Each low-pressure distribution system or
be subjected. low-pressure main suppliedfrom a gassourcethat is
845.222 In addition to
pressure-regulating at a higherpressurethanthemaximumallowable
devices prescribed in para. 845.221, a suitable method operating pressure for the low-pressure system shall be
shall beprovided to prevent accidental overpressuring equipped with pressure-regulating devices of adequate
of a high-pressure distribution system. capacity. These devices must be designed to meet the
Suitable types of protective devices to prevent over- pressure, load, and other service conditions underwhich
pressuring of high-pressure distribution systems include theywillhavetooperate.
( a ) reliefvalvesasprescribed inparas. 845.212(a) 845.232 In addition to the pressure-regulating
and (b) devicesprescribed inpara. 845.231, a suitabledevice


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845.232845.242 ASME 831.8-1999 Edition

shall be provided to prevent accidental overpressuring. The desirable magnitudeof each increase and the length
Suitable types of protective devices to prevent overpres- of the check period will vary depending on conditions.
suring of low-pressuredistributionsystemsinclude The objective of this procedure is to afford an opportu-
(a) a liquidsealreliefdevicethatcan be set to nity todiscoveranyunknownopenandunregulated
open accurately and consistently at the desired pressure connectionstoadjacentlow-pressuresystems or to
(6) weight-loadedreliefvalves individualcustomersbeforeexcessivepressures are
(c) an automatic shutoff device as described in para. reached.
(d) a pilot-loaded,back-pressureregulatorasde- 845.24ControlandLimiting of thePressure of
scribed in para. 845.212(b) Gas Delivered to Domestic, Small Commercial, and
(e) a monitoringregulatorasdescribed inpara.
(j)a series regulator as describedin para. 845.222(d)
845.233 Maximum AllowableOperating NOTE:When the pressure of the gas and the demand by the customer
are greater than those applicable under the provisions of para. 845.24,
Pressure for Low-Pressure Distribution Systems.The therequirements for control andlimiting of thepressure of gas
maximum allowable operating pressure for a low-pres- deliveredareincludedinpara. 845.1.
sure distribution system shall not exceed either ofthe
following: 845.241 If the maximum allowable
(a) a pressure that would cause the unsafe operation pressure ofthe distribution system is 60 psig or less,
ofany connectedandproperlyadjustedlow-pressure and a service regulator having the characteristics listed
gasburningequipment below is used, no otherpressure-limitingdeviceis
(6) a pressure of 2 psig required:
845.234 Conversion of Low-Pressure (a) a pressure regulator capable of reducing distribu-
DistributionSystems to High-pressureDistribution tionlinepressure,psi, to pressuresrecommendedfor
Systems household appliances, inches of watercolumn
(a) Before convertinga low-pressure distribution sys- (6) a singleportvalvewithorificediameterno
tem to a high-pressure distribution system, itis required greater than that recommended by the manufacturer for
thatthefollowingfactorsbeconsidered themaximumgaspressure at theregulatorinlet
( I ) thedesign ofthesystem includingkinds of (c) a valve seat made of resilient material designed
materialandequipmentused to withstand abrasion of the gas, impurities in gas, and
(2) pastmaintenancerecordsincludingresults of cutting by the valve, and designed to resist permanent
any previousleakagesurveys deformationwhenitis pressedagainstthevalveport
(b) Before increasing the pressure the following steps (d) pipeconnectionstotheregulatornotexceeding
(notnecessarily in sequenceshown)shall betaken: 2 NPS
( I ) Make a leakage survey and repair leaks found. (e) the capability under normal operating conditions
(2) Reinforce or replace parts of the system found of regulating the downstream pressure within the neces-
to be inadequate for thehigheroperatingpressures. sary limits ofaccuracy and of limiting the buildup of
(3) Install a service regulator on each service line, pressure under no-flow conditions to no more than 50%
and test each regulator to determine that it is functioning. overthenormaldischargepressuremaintainedunder
In some cases it may be necessary to raise the pressure flow conditions
slightly to permit proper operation of the service regu- a self-contained service regulatorwith no external
lators. static or controllines
(4) Isolate the system from adjacent low-pressure 845.242 the Ifmaximum allowable operating
systems. pressureofthe distribution system is 60 psig or less,
(5) At bends or offsets in coupled or bell and and a service regulator not having allof the characteris-
spigot pipe, reinforce or replace anchorages determined tics listed in para. 845.241 is used, or if the gas contains
to be inadequate for the higher pressures. materialsthatseriouslyinterfere with theoperationof
(c) The pressure in the system being converted shall serviceregulators,suitableprotectivedevicesshall be
be increased by steps, with a period to check the effect installed to prevent unsafe overpressuring of the custom-
of the previous increase before making the next increase. er’s appliances, should the service regulator fail. Some


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STD.ASME B3L-8-ENGL L999 m 0759b70 O b L 7 L L 7 994

ASME B31.8-1999 Edition 845.242453

of thesuitabletypes of protectivedevicestoprevent ofexternalparts by theatmosphere or internalparts

overpressuring ofthecustomers’appliances are by gas
(a) a monitoringregulator (b) havevalves andvalveseatsthat are designed
(b) a reliefvalve nottostickin a positionthatwillmakethedevice
(c) an automatic shutoff device inoperative and resultin failure of the device to perform
These devices may be installed as an integralpart in themannerforwhichitwasintended
oftheserviceregulator or as a separate unit. (c) bedesigned andinstalled so thattheycanbe
readily operated to determine if the valve is free, can
845.243 the Ifmaximum allowableoperating be tested to determine the pressure at which they will
pressure of thedistributionsystem exceeds 60 psig, operate,andcanbetested for leakage whenin the
suitable methodsshallbeusedtoregulateandlimit closedposition.
thepressure of thegasdelivered to thecustomerto
themaximumsafevalue.Suchmethods may include 845311 Rupture discs shall meet the requirements
( a ) a service regulator having the characteristics listed for designasset out in BPV Code,Section VIII,
in para.845.241and a secondaryregulatorlocated Division l.
upstreamfromtheserviceregulator. Inno case shall 845.32 The dischargestacks,vents, or outletports
thesecondaryregulator be set to maintain a pressure ofall pressurereliefdevicesshallbelocatedwhere
higher than 60 psi. A device shall be installed between
thesecondaryregulatorandtheserviceregulatorto unduehazard.Considerationshould be giventoall
limit the pressure on the inlet of the service regulator exposures in theimmediatevicinity.Whererequired
to 60 psi or less in case the secondary regulator fails toprotectdevices,thedischargestacks or ventsshall
to function properly. This device may be either a relief be protected with rain caps to precludetheentry of
valve or an automatic shutoff that shuts if the pressure water.
ontheinlet ofthe serviceregulatorexceedstheset
pressure (60 psi or less) andremainscloseduntil 845.33 Thesize ofthe openings,pipe,andfittings
manuallyreset. locatedbetweenthesystemtobeprotectedandthe
(b) a serviceregulatorand a monitoringregulator pressure-relieving device andtheventlineshall be of
set tolimitto a maximumsafevaluethepressure of adequate size topreventhammeringofthevalveand
the gas deliveredtothecustomer to prevent impairment ofrelief capacity.
(c) a service regulator with a relief valve vented to
theoutsideatmosphere,withthereliefvalvesetto 845.34 Precautionsshall betakento prevent unau-
open so that the pressure of gas going to the customer thorized operation of any stop valve that will make a
shallnotexceed a maximumsafevalue.Therelief pressurereliefvalveinoperative.Thisprovisionshall
valve may be either built into the service regulator or notapplytovalvesthat will isolatethesystemunder
may be a separate unit installed downstream from the protection from its source of pressure. Acceptable meth-
service regulator. This combination may be used alone ods for complying with thisprovisionareasfollows:
onlyincaseswheretheinletpressureonthe service (a) Lock the stop valve in the open position. Instruct
regulator does not exceed the manufacturer’s safe work- authorized personnel of the importance of not inadver-
ingpressurerating of theserviceregulator, anditis tently leaving the stop valve closed andof being present
not recommended for use where the inlet pressure on duringthe entire periodthatthe stop valve is closed
the service regulator exceeds 125 psi. For higher inlet so thattheycanlock it in theopenpositionbefore
pressures, the method in para. 845.243(a) or (b) should they leavethelocation.
beused. (6) Installduplicatereliefvalves,eachhavingade-
quatecapacity by itselftoprotectthesystem,and
arrange the isolating valves or three-way valve so that
8453 Requirements for Design of PressureRelief mechanicallyitispossibletorenderonlyonesafety
andPressureLimitingInstallations deviceinoperativeat a time.

84531 Pressurerelief or pressure-limitingdevices 845.35 Precautionsshall betakentopreventunau-

except rupturedisksshall thorized operation of any valve that will make pressure-
(a) be constructed of materials such that the operation limiting devices inoperative. This provision applies to
of the device will not normally be impaired by corrosion isolatingvalves,bypassvalves,andvalves on control


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STDaASME B3L-B-ENGL L999 m 0 7 5 9 b 7 0 O b L 7 L L B 820 W

845.3s-845.5 ASME B31.8-1999 Edition

or floatlinesthat are locatedbetweenthepressure- such stations, the relieving capacityat the remote station
limiting device and the system that the device protects. may betaken into account in sizing the relief devices
A method similar to para. 845.34(a) shall be considered at each station. In doingthis,however,theassumed
acceptable in complying withthisprovision. remote relieving capacitymust be limited to the capacity
ofthepiping systemtotransmitgastotheremote
845.36 location or to the capacity of the remote relief device,
( a ) When a monitoringregulator, series regulator, whichever is less.
system relief, or system shutoff is installed at a district
regulator station to protect a piping system from over- 845.42Proofof
Adequate Capacity
pressuring,theinstallationshall be designedandin- Satisfactory Performance of Pressure Limiting and
stalledtopreventanysingleincident,suchas an Pressure Relief Devices
explosion in a vault or damage by a vehicle,from
affecting the operation of both the overpressure protec- 845.421 Wherethesafetydeviceconsistsofan
tivedeviceandthedistrictregulator. (See paras.846 additional regulator that is associated with or functions
in combination with one or more regulators in a series
and 847.)
arrangement to control or limit the pressure in a piping
(6) Special attention shall be given to control lines.
system,suitablechecksshall be made.Thesechecks
All control lines shall be protected from falling objects,
shallbe conductedtodeterminethattheequipment
excavations by others, or otherforeseeablecauses of
will operate in a satisfactorymannertoprevent any
damage and shall be designed and installed to prevent
pressure in excess of the established maximum allowable
damage to anyone control line from making both the
operatingpressure ofthe system,should any one of
district regulator and the overpressure protective device
theassociatedregulatorsmalfunction or remaininthe
845.41RequiredCapacityofPressureRelieving (a) Scope
andPressureLimitingStations ( I ) Therequirementsgiven in thissectionapply
(99) 845.411 Each pressure
pressure piping for safe and proper operation of the piping itself
limiting station, or group ofsuch stations installed to anddonotcoverdesign of pipingtosecureproper
protect a pipingsystem or pressurevesselshallhave functioning of instrumentsfor whichthepiping is
sufficient capacity and shall be set to operate to prevent installed.
(2) Thissectiondoes notapplytopermanently
( a ) Systems With Pipe or Pipeline Components Op- closed piping systems, such as fluid-filled, temperature-
erating Over 72% of the SMYS. The required capacity responsivedevices.
is the maximum allowable operating pressure plus 4%.
(b) Materials and Design
( b ) Systems With Pipe or Pipeline Components Op- ( 1 ) Thematerialsemployed for valves,fittings,
eratingat or Below 72% of theSMYS Other Than tubing, and piping shall be designed to meet the particu-
in Low-PressureDistributionSystems. Therequired
lar conditions of service.
capacity is thelesser of thefollowingtwoitems:
(2) Takeoff connections and attaching bosses, fit-
( I ) the maximum allowableoperatingpressure
tings, or adaptersshall be madeof suitablematerial
plus 10%
andshall be capable of withstanding themaximum
(2) thepressurethatproduces a hoop stress of service pressure and temperatureof the piping or equip-
75% ofthespecifiedminimumyieldstrength ment to which they are attached. They shall be designed
(c) Low-Pressure Distribution Systems. The required tosatisfactorilywithstandallstresseswithoutfailure
capacity is a pressurethatwouldcausetheunsafe by fatigue.
operationof any connected andproperlyadjustedgas (3) A shutoffvalveshallbeinstalled in each
burningequipment. takeofflineasnearaspracticabletothe point of
845.412 Whenmorethan one pressure regulating takeoff. Blowdown valvesshall be installedwhere
or compressor station feeds into the pipeline or distribu- necessary for the safe operation of piping, instruments,
tion system and pressure relief devices are installed at and equipment.


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STD-AS,ME B3L.B-ENCL L999 0759670 ObL?LL9 ?b?

ASME B31.8-1999 Edition %45.W5.61

(4) Brass pipe or copper pipe or tubing shall not 845.61 General
be usedformetaltemperaturesgreaterthan400°F. (a) A higher maximum allowable operating pressure
(5) Piping subject to clogging from solids or depos-
established under this sectionmay not exceed the design
itsshallbeprovidedwithsuitableconnectionsfor pressure of the weakest element in the segment to be
cleaning. uprated. It is not intended that the requirements of this
(6) Pipe or tubing required under this section may
Codebeappliedretroactivelytosuchitems as road
be specified by themanufacturersoftheinstrument, crossings,fabricatedassemblies, minimum cover,and
controlapparatus, or samplingdevice,providedthat valvespacings.Instead,therequirementsforthese
the safety of the pipe or tubing as installed is at least
items shall meet the criteria of the operating company
equaltothatotherwiserequiredundertheCode. beforetheupratingisperformed.
(7) Pipingthatmaycontainliquidsshallbepro- (b) A planshallbepreparedforupratingthatshall
tected by heating or other suitable means from damage include a written procedure that will ensure compliance
duetofreezing. witheachapplicablerequirementofthissection.
(8) Piping in which liquids may accumulate shall (c) Beforeincreasingthe maximum allowableop-
be providedwithdrains or drips. erating pressure of a segment that has been operating
(9) The arrangement of piping and supports shall at a pressure less than that determinedby para. 845.2 13,
be designedtoprovidenotonlyforsafetyunder the following investigative and corrective measures shall
operating stresses, but also to provide protection for the
be taken:
piping against detrimental sagging, external mechanical (1) Thedesign,initialinstallation,method,and
injury, abuse, and damage due to unusual service condi- date of previoustesting,Locationclasses,materials,
tions other than those connected with pressure, tempera-and equipmentshallbereviewedtodeterminethat
ture, and servicevibration. theproposedincreaseissafeandconsistentwiththe
(10) Suitableprecautionsshall betakentoprotect requirements of this Code.
againstcorrosion.(Seepara.863.) (2) The condition of the line shall be determined
by leakage surveys, other field inspections,
( I l ) Joints between sections of tubing andor pipe, and examina-
between tubing andor pipe and valves or fittings shall tionofmaintenancerecords.
be made in amannersuitableforthepressureand (3) Repairs,replacements, or alterationsdisclosed (99)
temperatureconditions,such as by means of flared,
to be necessary by subparas. (c)(l) and (c)(2)above
flareless,andcompressiontypefittings, or equal, or
shall be madepriortotheuprating.
theymay be of the brazed, screwed, or socket-welded (d) A new test according to the requirements of this
type. If screwed-end valves are to be used with flared, Codeshouldbeconsidered if satisfactoryevidence is
flareless, or compressiontypefittings,adapters are
required. maximum allowableoperatingpressure.
Slip type expansion joints shall not be used; expansion
shall be compensated for by providing flexibility within ( e ) When gasupratingsarepermittedunderparas.
thepiping or tubingsystemitself. 845.62,845.63,845.64,and845.65,thegaspressure
shall be increasedinincrements,withaleaksurvey
(12) Plastic shall not be used where operating tem-
performed after each incremental increase. The number
peratures exceed limitations shown in paras. 842.32(b)
of increments shall be determined by the operator after
and 842.33(b).
consideringthetotalamount of thepressureincrease,
(13) Plastic piping shall not be painted. If identifi-
the stress level at the final maximum allowable operating
cation other than that already provided by the manufac- pressure,theknownconditionofthe line, andthe
turer’smarkingisrequired,itshall be accomplished
proximity of thelinetootherstructures.Thenumber
by othermeans. of incrementsshallbesufficienttoensurethatany
hazard. Potentially hazardous leaks discovered shall be
repaired before further increasing the pressure. A final
845.6 Uprating leak survey shall be conducted at the higher maximum
This section of the Code prescribes minimum require- allowableoperatingpressure.
ments for uprating pipelines or mains to higher maxi- Records for uprating, including each investigation
mum allowableoperatingpressures. required by thissection,correctiveactiontaken,and


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STD-ASME B3L.B-ENGL L999 H 0759670 O'b1712O 489 9

845.61-845.64 ASME B31.8-1999 Edition

pressuretestconducted,shallberetained as longas 845.63UpratingSteel or PlasticPipelines to a

thefacilitiesinvolvedremain in service. PressureThatWillProduce a Hoop Stress Less
Than 30% of SMYS
845.62Uprating Steel Pipelines or Mains to a (a) Thisappliestohigh-pressuresteelmainsand
Pressure That Will Produce a Hoop Stress of 30% pipelineswherethehighermaximumallowableop-
or More of SMYS. The maximum allowable operating eratingpressureisless thanthatrequired to produce
pressure may be increased after compliance with para. a hoop stress of 30% ofthespecifiedminimumyield
845.61(c) and oneofthefollowingprovisions: strengthofthepipeandtoallhigh-pressureplastic
(u) If the physical condition of the line as determined distribution systems. If the higher maximum allowable
by para.845.61(c)indicatesthelineiscapable of operating pressure of a steel pipeline or mainismore
withstandingthedesiredhigheroperatingpressure,is than 30% ofthespecified minimum yieldstrengthof
in generalagreementwiththedesignrequirementsof thepipe,theprovisionsofpara.845.62shallapply.
this Code, and has previously been tested to a pressure (b) Beforeincreasingthe maximum allowableop-
equal to or greater than that required by this Code for a eratingpressureofasystemthathasbeenoperating
new line for the proposed maximum allowable operating at less than the applicable maximum pressureto a higher
pressure, the line may be operated at the higher maxi- maximumallowableoperatingpressure, the following
mum allowableoperatingpressure. factorsshall be considered:
(6) If the physical condition of the line as determined ( I ) the physical condition of the lineas determined
by para. 845.61(c) indicates that the ability of the line by para.845.61(c)
towithstandthehighermaximumoperatingpressure (2) information from the manufacturer or supplier
has not been satisfactorily verified or that the line has determiningthateachcomponent of aplasticsystem
notbeenpreviouslytestedtothelevelsrequiredby iscapable of performingsatisfactorilyatthehigher
thisCodefora new linefortheproposedhigher pressure.
maximumallowableoperatingpressure,thelinemay (c) Beforeincreasingthepressure,thefollowing
be operated at the higher maximum allowable operating stepsshallbetaken:
pressure if itshallsuccessfullywithstandthetestre- ( I ) Install suitable devices on the service lines to
quired by thisCodefora new linetooperateunder regulate and limit the pressure of the gas in accordance
thesameconditions. withpara.845.243 if the newmaximum allowable
(c) If the physical condition of the line as determined operatingpressureisto be over 60 psi.
by para.845.61(c)verifiesitscapability of operating ( 2 ) Adequately reinforce or anchor offsets, bends,
atahigherpressure,ahigher maximum allowable and dead ends in coupled pipe to avoid movement of
operatingpressure maybe establishedaccordingto the pipe should the offset, bend,or dead end be exposed
para.845.213usingasatestpressurethehighest in anexcavation.
pressuretowhichthelinehasbeensubjected,either (3) Increasepressure in incrementsasprovided
in astrengthtest or in actualoperation. in para.845.61(e).
(d) If it is necessary to test a pipeline or main before
itcanbeupratedtoahigher maximum allowable 845.64Uprating a Ductile Iron High-pressure
operating pressure, and if it is not practical to test the Main or System to a NewandHigherMaximum
line either becauseof the expense or difficulties created AllowableOperatingPressure
by taking it out of service or because of other operating (a) The maximum allowableoperatingpressureof
conditions, a highermaximum allowable operating pres- aductileironmain or systemshallnot be increased
sure may be established in Location Class 1 as follows. toapressure in excessofthatpermitted in para.
( I ) Performtherequirements of para.845.61(c). 842.21 1. Whererecordsarenotcompleteenough to
( 2 ) Selecta newmaximum allowableoperating permitthedirectapplication of para.842.211,the
pressure consistent with the condition of the line and followingproceduresshall be used.
thedesignrequirementsofthisCode,provided ( I ) Laying Condition. Where the originallaying
( a ) the new maximum allowable operating pres- conditionscannot be ascertained,itshall be assumed
sure does not exceed 80% of that permitted for a new thatCondition D (pipesupported on blocks,tamped
linetooperateunderthesameconditions backfill) exists for cast iron pipe and Condition B (pipe
(b) thepressureisincreasedinincrementsas laid without blocks, tamped backfill) exists for ductile
provided in para. 845.61 (e) ironpipe.


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ASME Bf.8-1999 Edition 845.64-846.11

(2) Cover. Unless the actual maximum cover depth maximumallowableoperatingpressure,thepressure

isknownwithcertainty,itshallbedetermined by shallbeincreased as provided inpara.845.61(e).
exposingthe main or system at three or morepoints
and making actual measurements. The main or system 845.65 Uprating a Distribution System That Has
shall be exposedinareaswherethecoverdepthis Been Operating at Inches of Water (Low-Pressure)
most likely to be greatest. The greatest measured cover to a Higher Pressure
depthshall be usedforcomputations. (a) In additiontotheprecautionsoutlined in para.
(3) Nominal Wall Thickness. Unlessthenominal 845.61(c) and the applicable requirements contained in
thickness is known with certainty, it shallbe determined paras. 845.63 and 845.64, the following steps must be
withultrasonicmeasuringdevices. The averageofall taken.
measurements taken shall be increasedby the allowance ( 1 ) Install pressure regulating devices at each cus-
indicated inthefollowingtable: tomer’smeter.
(2) Verify that the segment being uprated is physi-
Allowance, in.
continuetooperate at inches of water.
CastIronPipe (b) After performing the steps outlined in (a) above,
Nominal PitCast Iron
Cast the pressure shall be increased in increments as outlined
Pipe Size Pipe Pipe Pipe
- in para. 845.61(e). After the first incremental increase,
5 0.065 3-8 0.075 however, steps shall be taken to verify that the custom-
10-12 0.07
0.08 0.07 er’sregulatorsareperformingsatisfactorily.
14-24 0.08 0.08 0.075
3042 0.09 0.09 0.075
48 0.09 0.09 0.08 846VALVES3
54-60 0.09 ... . ..
846.1RequiredSpacing of Valves
The nominal wall thickness of cast iron shall be the
standardthicknesslistedinTable 10 or Table 1 1 - 846.11TransmissionLines
whichever is applicable - ofAWWA Cl01 thatis (a) Exceptforoffshoreinstallations,sectionalizing
nearest the value obtained. The nominal wall thickness blockvalvesshall be installed in new transmission
of ductileironshall be thestandardthicknesslisted pipelines at the time of construction. When determining
in Table 6 of ANSYAWWA C150/A2I S O nearest the the sectionalizing valve spacing, primary consideration
value obtained. shall be giventolocationsthatprovidecontinuous
( 4 ) Manufacturing Process. Unlessthecastiron accessibilitytothevalves.Otherfactorsinvolvethe
pipe manufacturing process is known with certainty, it conservationofgas,time to blowdowntheisolated
shall be assumed to be pit cast pipe having a bursting section,continuityofgasservice,necessaryoperating
tensilestrength, S, of 11,OOO psiandamodulus of flexibility, expected future development within the valve
rupture, R, of31,000psi. spacing section, andsignificantnaturalconditionsthat
may adverselyaffecttheoperationandsecurity of
(b) Beforeincreasingthemaximumallowableop-
erating pressure, the following measures shall be taken:
(b) Notwithstanding the considerations in (a) above,
( I ) Reviewthephysicalcondition as required by
the spacing between valves on a new transmission line
(2) Adequately reinforce or anchor offsets, bends, ( I ) 20 miles in areas of predominantlyLocation
anddeadends in coupled or bell andspigotpipeto Class I
avoidmovementofthepipe,shouldtheoffset,bend, (2) 15milesinareas of predominantlyLocation
or deadend be exposed by excavation. Class 2
(3) Install suitable devices onthe service lines to (3) 10 miles in areasofpredominantlyLocation
regulate and limit the pressure of the gas in accordance Class 3
withpara.845.243 if the new andhighermaximum (4) 5 miles in areas of predominantlyLocation
allowableoperatingpressureisto be over 60 psig. Class4
( c ) If aftercompliancewithparas.845.64(a) and
(b),itisestablishedthatthe mainsystemiscapable See paras. 849.12 and 849.13 forprovisionscoveringvalvesin
of safelywithstandingtheproposednewandhigher service lines.


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846.11-847.1 ASME B31.8-1999Edition

(c) The spacing definedin (b) above may be adjusted an emergency,such as alarge gas leak or afirein
slightlytopermitavalvetobeinstalled in amore thestation.
accessible location, with continuous accessibility being (b) Valvesondistributionmains,whetherforop-
theprimaryconsideration. erating or emergencypurposesshall be located in a
846.12 Valvesondistributionmains,whetherfor theiroperationduringanemergency.Whereavalve
operating or emergencypurposes,shall bespaced as isinstalledinaburied box or enclosure,onlyready
follows: access to the operating stem or mechanism is implied.
(a) High-pressure Distribution Systems. Valves shall The box or enclosureshall be installed in amanner
beinstalled in high-pressuredistributionsystems in toavoidtransmittingexternalloadstothemain.
a section of main in an emergency. In determining the
spacing ofthevalves,considerationshouldbegiven
to theoperatingpressureandsize ofthemainsand 847VAULTS
localphysicalconditions as well as thenumberand
type of consumers that might be affectedby a shutdown. 847.1StructuralDesignRequirements
(b) Low-Pressure Distribution Systems. Valvesmay
Underground vaults or pits for valves, pressure reliev-
be usedon low-pressuredistributionsystemsbutare
ing,pressurelimiting or pressureregulatingstations,
etc.,shallbedesignedandconstructed in accordance
846.2Location of Valves (a) Vaults and pits shall be designed and constructed
846.21TransmissionValves in accordance with good structural engineering practice
(a) Sectionalizingblockvalvesshall be accessible to meettheloadsthatmaybeimposedonthem.
and protected from damage and tampering. If a blow- (b) Sufficientworkingspaceshallbeprovided so
downvalveisinvolved, it shall belocatedwherethe that all of the equipment required in thevaultcanbe
gascan be blowntotheatmospherewithoutundue properlyinstalled,operated,andmaintained.
hazard. (c) In thedesign of vaultsandpitsforpressure
(b) Sectionalizingvalves may be installedabove limiting,pressurerelieving, andpressureregulating
ground, in avault, or buried. In allinstallations an equipment, consideration shallbe given to the protection
operatingdeviceto open or closethevalveshall be of theinstalledequipmentfromdamage,such as that
readilyaccessibletoauthorizedpersons. Allvalves resulting from an explosion within the vault or pit that
shall be suitablysupportedtopreventsettlement or may causeportions oftheroof or covertofallinto
movement of theattachedpiping. thevault.
(c) Blowdown valves shall be provided so that each (d) Pipe entering and within regulator vaults or pits
section of pipelinebetweenmainlinevalvescan be shallbe steel for NPS IO andsmallersizes,except
blown down. The sizes and capacity of the connections thatcontrolandgagepiping may becopper.Where
forblowingdownthelineshallbesuchthatunder piping extends through the vault or pit structure, provi-
emergency conditions the section of line can be blown sion shall be made to prevent the passage of gases or
downasrapidly as ispracticable. liquids through the opening andto avert strains in the
(d) This Code does not require the use of automatic piping. Equipment and piping shall be suitably sustained
valves nor does the Code imply that the use of automatic by metal,masonry, or concretesupports.Thecontrol
valves presently developed will provide full protection pipingshallbeplacedandsupported in thevault or
to a piping system. Their use and installation shall be pit so that its exposure to injury or damage is reduced
at the discretion of the operating company. toaminimum.
(e) Vault or pitopeningsshall belocated so asto
846.22DistributionSystemValves minimize the hazards of tools or other objects falling
(a) A valve shall be installed on the inlet piping of on the regulator, piping, or other equipment. The control
eachregulatorstationcontrollingtheflow or pressure piping and the operating parts of the equipment installed
ofgas in adistributionsystem.Thedistancebetween shall not be located under a vault or pit opening where
thevalveandtheregulator or regulatorsshall be workmencan step onthemwhen entering or leaving
sufficienttopermittheoperationofthevalveduring the vault or pit, unless such parts are suitably protected.

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fj) Whenever a vault or pit opening is to be located vented, or ventilated. If sealed,allopeningsshall be

aboveequipmentthatcould bedamagedby a falling equipped withtight-fittingcoverswithoutopenholes
cover, a circular covershould be installed, or other throughwhich an explosive mixture might beignited.
suitableprecautionsshould betaken. Meansshallbeprovided for testing the internal atmo-
sphere before removing the cover. If vented, the proper
847.2Accessibility provision to prevent external sources of ignition from
reachingthevaultatmospheremustbeprovided. If
Accessibilityshall be considered in selecting a site ventilated,theprovisions of either subparas. (a), (b),
for a vault. Some of the important factors to consider and (c) above or (e) belowshallapply.
in selectingthelocation of a vaultare as follows: ( e ) If vaults or pitsreferredto in (d) above are
(a) Exposure to Trafic. Thelocationofvaultsin ventilated by means of openings in thecovers or
street intersections or atpointswheretraffic is heavy gratings, and the ratio of the internal volume in cubic
or denseshould be avoided. feet to theeffectiveventilatingarea ofthe cover or
(b) Exposure to Flooding. Vaultsshouldnotbe grating in square feet is less than 20 to 1, no additional
locatedatpoints of minimum elevation,nearcatch ventilation is required.
basins, or where the access cover will be in the course cf3 Vaults or pitshavinganinternalvolumeless
of surface waters. than 75 CU ft havenospecificrequirements.
( c ) Exposure to Adjacent Subsuvace Hazards.Vaults
shouldbelocated as faras is practicalfromwater, 847.4DrainageandWaterproofing
electric, steam, or otherfacilities.
( a ) Provisions shall be made to minimize the entrance
of water into vaults. Nevertheless, vault equipment shall
alwaysbedesignedtooperatesafely, if submerged.
Undergroundvaultsandclosedtoppitscontaining (b) No vault containing gas piping shall be connected
either a pressureregulating or reductionstation, or a by means of a drain connection to any other substructure,
pressurelimiting or relievingstationshall be sealed, suchas a sewer.
vented, or ventilated as follows: ( c ) Electricalequipment invaultsshallconformto
(a) When theinternalvolumeexceeds200 CU ft, therequirements of Class 1, Group D, of ANSI/
suchvaults or pitsshall be ventilated withtwoducts NFPA 70.
eachhaving at leasttheventilatingeffect of an NPS
4 pipe.
(b) Theventilationprovidedshall be sufficientto
minimize the possible formationof a combustible atmo-
sphere inthevault or pit. Ventsassociated with the
848.1 Location for Customers’Meterand
pressure regulatingor pressure relieving equipment must
notbe connected to thevault or pitventilation.
( c ) The ductsshallextendto a heightabovegrade (a) Customers’ meters and regulators may be located
adequatetodisperseanygas-airmixturesthatmight either inside or outside of buildings, dependingon local
be discharged.Theoutsideend ofthe ductsshall be conditions, except that on service lines requiring series
equippedwith a suitableweatherprooffitting or vent regulation, in accordance with para.845.243(a),the
head designed to prevent foreign matter from entering upstreamregulatorshall be
located outsideofthe
or obstructing the duct.The effective area of the opening building.
insuchfittings or ventheadsshallbe at leastequal ( b ) When installedwithin a building,the service
to thecross-sectionalarea ofanNPS 4 duct.The regulator shall bein a readily accessible location near
horizontalsection of theductsshall be as short as the point of gasservicelineentrance,andwhenever
practical and shall be pitched to prevent the accumula- practical,themetersshall be installed at thesame
tionofliquids intheline.Thenumberofbendsand location. Neither meters nor regulators shall be installed
offsets shall be reduced to a minimum, and provisions in bedrooms, closets, or bathrooms; under combustible
shall be incorporated to facilitate the periodic cleaning stairways; inunventilated or inaccessibleplaces; or
of the ducts. closer than 3 ft to sources of ignition, including furnaces
(cf) Suchvaults or pitshavinganinternalvolume andwaterheaters.On servicelinessupplyinglarge
between 75 CU ft and 200 CU ft may be either sealed, industrialcustomers or installationswheregasisused


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848.1-849.11 ASME B31.8-1999 Edition

at higher than standard service pressure, the regulators into the atmosphere and away from any openings into
may be installed at otherreadilyaccessiblelocations. thebuildings if aregulatorfailureresulting in the
(c) When locatedoutsideofbuildings,meters and release of gas occurs. At locations where service regula-
service regulators shall be installed in readily accessible tors might be submerged during floods, either a special
locations where they will be reasonably protected from antiflood type breather vent fitting shall be installed or
damage. theventlineshallbeextendedabovetheheightof
(d) Regulatorsrequiringventsfortheirproperand theexpectedfloodwaters.
effective operation shall be vented to the outside atmo-
sphere in accordance withthe provisions of para.848.33. 848.34 Pitsandvaultshousingcustomers’meters
Individualventsshall be providedforeachregulator. and regulatorsshall be designedtosupportvehicular
848.2OperatingPressuresforCustomers’Meter (a) travelled portions of alleys, streets, and highways
Installations (6) driveways
Iron or aluminumcasemetersshallnotbeusedat
a maximum operating pressure higher than the manufac- 848.4InstallationofMetersandRegulators
turer’sratingforthemeter.Newtinnedsteelcase All metersandregulatorsshall be installedinsuch
metersshallnotbeused at apressure in excess of a manner as to prevent undue stresses on the connecting
50% of the manufacturer’s test pressure; rebuilt tinned piping and/or the meter. Lead (Pb) connections or other
steelcasemetersshallnotbeusedatapressurein connections madeof material that can be easily damaged
excessof 50% of the pressure used to test the meter shallnotbeused.Theuseofstandardweightclose
after rebuilding. (allthread)nipplesisprohibited.

848.3Protection of Customers’Meterand
RegulatorInstallationsfromDamage 849 GASSERVICELINES
848.31 Metersandserviceregulatorsshallnotbe
installedwhererapiddeteriorationfromcorrosion or 849.1GeneralProvisionsApplicable to Steel,
other causes is likely to occur, unless proven measures Copper,andPlasticServiceLines
aretakentoprotectagainstsuchdeterioration. 849.11Installation of ServiceLines
848.32 A suitable protective device, such as a back- (a) Servicelinesshallbeinstalledatadepththat
pressure regulator or a check valve, shall be installed willprotectthemfromexcessiveexternalloadingand
downstream of the meter ifand as required under the localactivities,suchasgardening.Itisrequiredthat
followingconditions: a minimumof 12 in. of cover beprovided in private
(a) If the nature of the utilization equipment is such property and a minimum of 18 in. of cover be provided
that it may inducea vacuumat themeter,installa in streetsandroads.Wherethesecoverrequirements
back-pressureregulatordownstreamfromthemeter. cannot be met due to existing substructures, less cover
(6) Installacheckvalve or equivalent if ispermittedprovidedsuchportions of theseservice
( 1 ) the utilization equipment might induce a back- lines that are subject to excessive superimposed loads
pressure arecased or bridged or thepipeis appropriately
(2) thegasutilizationequipmentisconnected to strengthened.
a source of oxygen or compressed air (6) Servicelinesshall be properlysupportedatall
(3) liquefied petroleum gas or other supplementary pointsonundisturbed or well-compactedsoil so that
gasis used as standbyandmightflowbackintothe the pipe will not be subject to excessive external loading
meter. A three-way valve, installed to admit the standby by the backfill. The material used for the backfill shall
supply and at the same time shut off the regular supply, be free of rocks,buildingmaterials,etc.,thatmight
can be substitutedforacheckvalve if desired. causedamagetothepipeortheprotectivecoating.
(c) Wherethereisevidenceofcondensate in the
848.33 All serviceregulatorvents andreliefvents, gas in sufficient quantities to cause interruptions in the
whererequired,shallterminateintheoutsideair in gassupplytothecustomer,theservicelineshall be
rain- and insect-resistant fittings. The open end of the graded so as to drain into the main or to drips at the
vent shall be locatedwherethegascanescapefreely lowpointsintheserviceline.


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ASME B31.8-1999 Edition 849.12849.21

849.12 Types of Valves Suitable for Service Line 849.14Loeation of ServiceLineConnections to

valves Main Piping. It is recommended that service lines be
(u) Valvesusedas service linevalvesshallmeet connectedtoeitherthe top or the side of the main.
the applicable requirements ofparas. 810 and 831.1. The connection to the top of themain is preferred to
(b) The useof soft seat servicelinevalves is not minimizethepossibility of dust andmoisturebeing
recommendedwhenthedesignofthevalvesissuch carriedfromthe main intotheserviceline.
that exposure to excessive heat could adversely affect
theability of thevalvetopreventtheflow of gas. 849.15 Testing of Service Lines After Construction
(c) A valve incorporated in a meter bar that permits 849.151GeneralProvisions. Each serviceline
themeter to bebypasseddoesnotqualifyunderthis shallbetested after constructionandbeforebeing
Code as a servicelinevalve. placed in service to demonstrate that it does not leak.
(d) Service line valves on high-pressure servicelines, Theservicelineconnectiontothe mainneednotbe
installed either inside buildings or in confined locations included inthistest if it isnotfeasible to do so.
outside buildings where the blowing of gas wouldbe 849.152 Test Requirements
hazardous, shall be designed and constructed tomini- ( a ) Service linestooperate at a pressure of less
mize the possibility of the removal of the core of the than 1 psig, whichdonothave a protectivecoating
valveaccidentally or willfully withordinaryhouse- capable oftemporarily sealing a leak,shallbegiven
holdtools. a standupair or gaspressuretest at notlessthan 10
(e) The operatingcompanyshallmakecertainthat psig for at least 5 min.
the service line valves installed on high-pressure service (b) Service linestooperate at a pressure of less
linesare suitable for this use either by makingtheir than 1 psig, which have a protective coating that might
owntests or byreviewingthetestsmadebythe temporarily seal a leak, and all service lines to operate
manufacturers. at a pressure of 1 psig or more,shall be given a
@J On service lines designed to operate at pressures standup air or gaspressuretest for at least 5 min at
in excess of 60 psig,the service linevalvesshallbe the proposed maximum operating pressure or 90 psig,
the equivalent of a pressure lubricated valveor a needle whichever is greater.Servicelines of steel, however,
type valve. Other types of valves maybeusedwhere that are stressedto 20% or more of thespecified
tests bythe manufacturer or bythe userindicatethat minimumyieldstrengthshallbetested in accordance
they are suitable for this kind of service. withthe requirements for testingmains. (See para.
(c) Therequirements of (a) and (b) aboveshall
849.13Location of ServiceLineValves apply to plastic service lines, except that plastic service
(a) Service line valves shall be installed on all new lines shall be tested to at least 1.5 times the maximum
servicelines(includingreplacements) in a location operatingpressure, and the limitations onmaximum
readilyaccessiblefromtheoutside. testpressure,temperature,anddurationset forth in
(b) Valvesshall be locatedupstream ofthemeter para. 842.52 shall be observed.
if there is no regulator, or upstream of theregulator,
if there is one. 849.2SteelServiceLines
(c) All servicelinesoperating at a pressure greater
than 10 psigandall service lines NPS 2 or larger 849.21Design of SteelServiceLines
shall be equipped with a valvelocatedontheservice (a) Steelpipe, whenused forservicelines,shall
line outside ofthe building, except that whenever gas conformtotheapplicablerequirementsofChapter I.
is supplied to a theater, church, school,factory,or (b) Steel service pipe shall be designed in accordance
other building where large numbers of persons assemble, with therequirements of paras.841.11and 841.121.
an outsidevalve will be required,regardless ofthe Wherethe pressureislessthan 100 psig,the steel
size ofthe serviceline or theservicelinepressure. servicepipeshall be designed for atleast 100 psig
( d ) Underground valves shall be located in a covered pressure.
durable curb box or standpipe designed to permit ready ( c ) Steel pipe used for service lines shall be installed
operation of the valve. The curb box or standpipe shall in such a manner thatthepipingstrain or external
be supportedindependently ofthe serviceline. loadingshallnotbe excessive.

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STDOASME B3L-8-ENGL L777 W 0757670 Ob17126 9T7 m

8492149.421 ASME B31.8-1999Edition

(d) All underground steel service lines shall be joined wall.Ductileironservicelinesshallnotbeinstalled

by threadedandcoupledjoints,compression-type fit- inunstablesoils or underbuildings.
tings, or by qualifiedwelding or brazingmethods,
procedures, andoperators. 849.4 PlasticServiceLines

849.41 Design of PlasticServiceLines

849.22 Installation of Steel Service Lines
(u) Plastic pipe and tubing shall be used for service
849.221 Installation of SteelServiceLinesin lines only where the piping strain or externalloading
Bores willnotbeexcessive.
(u) Whencoatedsteelpipeisto be installedasa (b) Plasticpipe,tubing,cements,andfittingsused
service line in a bore, care shall be exercised to prevent for service lines shall conform to the applicable require-
damagetothecoatingduringinstallation. ments of Chapter I.
(b) When a service line is to be installed by boring (c) Plastic service lines shall be designed in accord-
or driving, and coated steel pipe is to be used, it shall ancewiththeapplicablerequirementsofpara.842.3.
not be used as the bore pipe or drive pipe and left in (d) Plastic service lines shall be joined in accordance
theground as partoftheservicelineunlessithas withtheapplicablerequirementsofpara.842.39.
been demonstrated that the coating is sufficiently durable
to withstand the boring or driving operation in the type 849.42 Installation of Plastic Service Lines
ofsoilinvolvedwithoutsignificantdamagetothe (u) Plastic service lines shall be installed in accord-
coating. Where significant damage to the coating may ancewiththeapplicablerequirements of paras. 842.4
resultfromboring or driving,thecoatedserviceline and 849.1l . Particular care must be exercised to prevent
should be installed in an oversized bore or casing pipe damage to plastic service line piping at the connection
of sufficient diameter to accommodate the service pipe. to the main or other facility. Precautions shall be taken
( c ) In exceptionally rocky soil, coated pipe shall not topreventcrushingorshearing of plasticpipingdue
be inserted through an open bore if significant damage to external loading or settling of backfill and to prevent
tothecoatingislikely. damage or pullout from the connection resulting from
thermalexpansion or contraction.(Seeparas.842.431
849.222 Installation of ServiceLinesInto or and842.432.)
UnderBuildings (b) Notwithstanding the limitations imposed in para.
(u) Undergroundsteelservicelines,wheninstalled 842.43,aplasticservicelinemayterminateabove
belowgradethroughtheouterfoundationwallofa groundandoutsidethebuilding,providedthat
building, shall be either encased in a sleeve or otherwise ( 1 ) the above-ground portion of the plastic service
protectedagainstcorrosion.Theserviceline andor lineiscompletelyenclosed in aconduit or casingof
sleeve shall be sealed at the foundation wall to prevent sufficientstrengthtoprovideprotectionfromexternal
entryofgas or waterintothebuilding. damage and deterioration. Where a flexible conduit is
(b) Steelservicelines,whereinstalledunderground used,thetop of the riser mustbe attached to a solid
under buildings, shall be encasedin a gas-tight conduit. support. The conduit or casing shall extend a minimum
Whensuchaservice line suppliesthebuildingit of 6 in. below grade.
subtends,theconduitshallextendintoanormally (2) theplasticservice line isnotsubjectedto
usableandaccessibleportionofthebuilding. At the externalloadingstresses by thecustomer’smeter or
point where the conduit terminates, the space between itsconnectingpiping.
theconduit andthe servicelineshall be sealedto 849.421 Installation of Plastic Service Lines Into
prevent the possible entrance of any gas leakage. The or UnderBuildings
casingshall be ventedatasafelocation. (u) An undergroundplasticservicelineinstalled
through the outer foundation or wall of a building shall
8493 DuctileIronServiceLines be encased inarigidsleevewithsuitableprotection
from shearing action or backfill settlement. The sleeve
849.31 Use of DuctileIronServiceLines. When shall extend past the outside face of the foundation a
used for service lines, ductile iron pipe shall meet the sufficientdistance to reachundisturbedsoilorthor-
applicable requirements of para. 842, Ductile iron pipe oughlycompactedbackfill.Atthepointwherethe
may be usedforservicelinesexceptfortheportion sleeveterminatesinsidethefoundation or wall,the
of theservicelinethatextendsthroughthebuilding space between the sleeve and the service line shall be


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sealed to prevent leakage into the building. The plastic 849.515ProtectionAgainstGalvanicAction

service line shallnot be exposedinsidethebuilding. Caused by Copper. Provisions shallbe made to prevent
(6) A plastic service line installed underground under harmfulgalvanicactionwherecopper is connected
abuildingshall be encased in agas-tightconduit. underground to steel. [See para. 862.1 14(a).]
Whensuch a service line suppliesthebuildingit
subtends, the conduit shall extend into a normally usable 849.52Installation of CopperServiceLines. The
and accessibleportion of thebuilding.Atthepoint followingrequirementsshallapply to copper service
wheretheconduitterminates,thespacebetweenthe lineswithinbuildings.
conduit and the service line shall be sealed to prevent (u) Copperservicelines may be installedwithin
leakage into the building. The plastic service line shall buildings, provided that the service line is not concealed
not be exposedinsidethebuilding.Thecasingshall andissuitablyprotectedagainstexternaldamage.
beventedatasafelocation. (6) An undergroundcopperservicelineinstalled
throughtheouterfoundationwall of abuildingshall
be eitherencased ina sleeve or otherwiseprotected
849.5CopperServiceLines against corrosion. The annular space between the service
line and sleeve shall be sealed at thefoundationwall
849.51Design of CopperServiceLines toprevententry of gas or water.
849.511 Copperpipe or tubing, whenused for (c) A copper service line installed underground under
servicelines,shallconformtothefollowingrequire- buildingsshall be encasedinaconduitdesignedto
ments: prevent gas leaking from the service line from getting
(u) Copperpipe or tubingshallnot be usedfor intothebuilding.Whenjointsareused,theyshall be
servicelineswherethepressureexceeds 100 psig. of brazed or solderedtypeinaccordancewithpara.
(6) Copperpipe or tubingshallnot be usedfor 849.5 14.
service lines where the gas carried contains more than
anaverage of 0.3 grains of hydrogensulfideper 100 849.6ServiceLineConnectionstoMains
standard cubic feet of gas. This is equivalent to a trace 849.61ServiceLineConnectionstoSteelMains.
as determinedby the lead-acetate test. (See para. 863.4.) Servicelines may be connected to steelmains by
(c) The minimum wall thickness for copper pipe or (u) weldingaservicelinetee or similardeviceto
tubingusedforservicelines,shallbenotlessthan themain
type "L" as specified in ASTMB 88. (b) usingaservicelineclamp or saddle
( d ) Copperpipe or tubingshallnotbeusedfor (c) using compression fittings with rubber or rubber-
servicelineswherestrain or externalloading may likegaskets or weldedconnectionstoconnectthe
damagethepiping. servicelinetothe mainconnectionfitting.Gaskets
849512 ValvesinCopperPiping. Valves in- used in a manufactured gas system shall be ofatype
stalledincopperservicelinesmay be made of any that effectively resists that type of gas.
suitablematerialpermitted by thisCode. ( d ) welding a steel service line directly to the main
849.513 Fittings in Copper Piping. It is recom-
mendedthatfittings in copperpipingandexposedto 849.62 Service Line Connection to Cast Iron and
thesoil,such as service line tees,pressurecontrol DuctileIronMains
fittings,etc., be made of bronze,copper, or brass. (a) Service lines maybe connected to cast iron and
ductileironmains by
849.514 Joints in Copper Pipe and Tubing.Cop-
( I ) drilling andtappingthemain,providedthe
per pipe shall be joined by using either a compression-
diameter of the tapped hole shall not exceed the limita-
type coupling or abrazed or solderedlapjoint.The
tions imposed by para. 83 1.33(b); or
fillermaterialusedforbrazingshall be acopper-
(2) usingareinforcingsleeve
phosphorous alloy or silver base alloy. Butt welds are
( 6 ) Servicelineconnectionsshall notbebrazed
notpermissibleforjoiningcopperpipe or tubing.
directlytocastiron or ductileironmains.
with a wall thickness equivalent to the comparable size 849.621 Compression fittings
rubber or
of Schedule 40 steelpipemaybethreadedandused rubber-like gaskets or welded connections may be used
forconnectingscrewfittings or valves. toconnecttheservice line tothemainconnection


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849.621-849.65 ASME 831.8-1999 Edition

fitting.Gasketsusedinamanufacturedgassystem (b) Buttweldsarenotpermitted.

shall be of a type that effectively resists that type of gas. ( c ) Fillet-brazed joints arenotrecommended.
(cf) The requirements of para. 849.514 shall apply to
849.63 Service Line Connections to Plastic Mains ( I ) jointsnotspecificallymentionedabove
(u) Plastic or metal service lines shall be connected (2) allbrazingmaterial
toplasticmains with suitablefittings. 849.65 Plastic Service Line Connections to Metal
(b) A compression-type service line to main connec- Mains
tion shall be designed and installedto effectively sustain (a) Plastic service lines shall be connected to metal
thelongitudinalpulloutforcescaused by contraction mains with asuitablemetallic or plasticmainfitting
of thepiping or externalloading. asprovidedinpara.849.61,849.62,or849.64having
849.64 Service Line Connections to Copper Mains (b) A compression-type service line to main connec-
(u) Connections using a copper or cast bronze service tion shall be designed and installed to effectively sustain
line tee or extension fitting sweat-brazed to the copper thelongitudinalpulloutforcescaused by contraction
mainarerecommendedforcoppermains. of thepipingorexternalloading.

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STD-ASME B31-8-ENGL 199q m 0759b70 Obl7l29 bob

ASME B3181999 Edition 850-850.41 1


850OPERATINGANDMAINTENANCE 850.3EssentialFeatures of theOperatingand

Theplanprescribed in para.850.2(a)shallinclude
(u) detailedplans andinstructionsforemployees
covering operating and maintenance procedures for gas
850.1 General facilitiesduringnormaloperationsandrepairs
(u) Because of many variables, it is not possible to (b) items recommended for inclusion in the plan for
prescribe in acodeadetailedsetofoperatingand specificclassesoffacilitiesthataregiveninparas.
maintenance procedures that will encompass all cases. 851.2, 851.3, 851.4,851.5,851.6,and861(d)
It is possible, however, for each operating company to (c) plans to give particular attention to those portions
developoperating andmaintenanceproceduresbased ofthefacilitiespresentingthegreatesthazardtothe
on the provisions of this Code, its experience, andits public in theevent ofanemergencyorbecauseof
knowledge of its facilities and conditions under which construction or extraordinary maintenance requirements
they are operated that will be adequate from the stand- (u') provisions for periodic inspections along the route
point of public safety. For operating and maintenance of existing steel pipelines or mains, operating at a hoop
procedures relating to corrosion control, see Chapter VI. stress in excess of 40% of the specified minimum yield
(b) Upon initiating gas service in a pipeline designed strength of the pipe material to consider the possibility
and constructed or converted to gas service in. accord- of Location Class changes. It is not intended that these
ancewiththisCode,theoperatingcompanyshall inspections include surveys of the number of buildings
determine the Location Class in accordance with Table intended for human occupancy.(Seepara. 854.)
854.1 (c).
850.4EssentialFeatures of theEmergencyPlan
850.2BasicRequirements 850.41WrittenEmergencyProcedures
Each operating company having gas transmission or 850.411 Each operatingcompanyshallestablish
distribution facilities within the scope of this Code shall written procedures that will provide the basis for instruc-
(u) have a written plan covering operating and main- tions to appropriate operating and maintenance person-
tenanceproceduresinaccordancewiththescopeand nel thatwillminimizethehazardresultingfromagas
intent of this Code pipelineemergency. Ata minimum, the procedures
(b) have a written emergency plan covering facility shallprovideforthefollowing:
failure or other emergencies (u) a system for receiving, identifying, and classify-
(c) operate and maintain its facilities in conformance ingemergenciesthatrequireimmediateresponse by
withtheseplans theoperatingcompany
(d) modify the plans periodically as experience dic- (b) indicating clearly the responsibility for instructing
tatesand as exposureofthepublic to thefacilities employees in theprocedureslisted in theemergency
andchanges in operatingconditionsrequire plansandfortrainingemployees in theexecution of
(e) providetrainingforemployees in procedures thoseprocedures
establishedfortheiroperatingandmaintenancefunc- (c) indicating clearly those responsible for updating
tions.Thetrainingshall be comprehensive andshall theplan
be designed to prepare employees for service in their (d) establishingaplanforprompt and adequate
area of responsibility. handling of all calls that concern emergencies whether
cfl keep records to administer the plans and training they are from customers, the public, company employ-
properly ees, or other sources


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STDOASME B31.8-ENGL L999 I0759b70 Ob17130 328 I

850.4114EO.6 ASME B31.8-1999 Edition

(e) establishing a plan for the prompt and effective of the failed facilityor equipment for laboratory exami-
response to a notice of eachtypeofemergency nationwhennecessary.
cf) controllingemergencysituations,includingthe
action to be taken by thefirstemployeearrivingat
thescene 850.6 Prevention of AccidentalIgnition
(g) thedissemination of informationtothepublic Smokingandallopenflamesshall be prohibited in
(h) thesaferestoration of servicetoallfacilities andaroundstructures, or areasunderthecontrolof
affected by the emergency after proper corrective mea- theoperatingcompanycontaininggasfacilities (such
sureshavebeentaken ascompressorstations,meterandregulatorstations,
( i ) reportinganddocumentingtheemergency and othergashandlingequipment),wherepossible
leakage of gas constitutes a hazard of fire or explosion.
850.42 Training Program. Each operating company Eachoperatingcompanyshalltakestepstominimize
shallhaveaprogramforinforming,instructing,and thedangerofaccidentalignition of gas.
training employees responsible for executing emergency (a) When a hazardous amount of gas is to be vented
procedures.Theprogramshallacquainttheemployee into open air, each potential source of ignition shall first
withtheemergencyproceduresandhowtopromptly be removed from the area and adequate fire extinguishers
and effectivelyhandleemergencysituations.Thepro- shall be provided. All flashlights, lightingfixtures,
grammaybeimplementedbyoral instruction, written extension cords, and tools shall be of a type approved
instruction,and, in someinstances,groupinstruction, for hazardous atmospheres. Blowdown connections that
followed by practicesessions.Theprogramshallbe will direct the gas away from any electrical transmission
established and maintained on a continuing basis with linesmustbeinstalled or used.
provisionforupdating as necessitated by revision of
(b) Suitable signsand flagmen or guards, if necessary,
shall be posted to warn others approaching or entering
shall be maintainedtoestablishwhattrainingeach
the area of the hazard.
employee has received and the date of suchtraining.
(c) To prevent accidental ignition by electric arcing,
850.43 Liaison. Each operating company shall estab- an adequate bonding cable should be connected to each
lishandmaintainliaisonwithappropriatefire,police, side of any piping that is to be parted or joined, and
and otherpublicofficialsandpubliccommunications any cathodic protection rectifiers inthearea shallbe
media. turned off. When plastic pipe is being parted or joined,
a spray of water or use of wet rags is advised to cover
850.44 EducationalProgram. An educationalpro- thesurfacetopreventstaticarcing.
gram shall be established to enable customers and the ( d ) When cutting by torch or weldingisto be
general public to recognize and report a gas emergency performed,athoroughcheckshallfirstbemadefor
totheappropriateofficials.Theeducationalprogram the presence of a combustible gas mixture in the area
called for under this section should be tailored to the outside ofthepipeline.If found, the mixture shall be
type of pipeline operation and the environment traversed eliminated before starting welding or cutting. Monitoring
by thepipelineandshouldbeconducted in each of theairmixtureshouldcontinuethroughoutthe
languagethatissignificant inthecommunityserved. progress of thework.
Operators of distribution systems should communicate ( e ) Should welding be anticipated on a pipeline filled
their programs to consumers and the general public in withgasandthesafety check under (d) abovehas
their distribution area. Operators of transmission systems been completed satisfactorily, the gas pressure must be
should communicate their programs to residents along controlled by a suitable means to keep a slight positive
their pipeline rights-of-way. The programs of operators pressure in thepipelineatthewelding area before
in the same area should be coordinated to properly direct startingwork.Precautionsshouldbetakentoprevent
reports of emergencies and toavoidinconsistencies. abackdraftfromoccurringattheweldingarea.
cf, Beforecutting by torch or welding on aline
850.5 PipelineFailureInvestigation
that may contain a mixture of gas and air, it shall be
Eachoperatingcompanyshallestablishprocedures made safe by displacing the mixture with gas, air, or
toanalyzeallfailuresandaccidentsfordetermining an inertgas.Cautionmust be takenwhenusingan
the cause and to minimize the possibility of a recurrence.inert gas to provide adequate ventilation for all workers
Thisplanshallincludeaproceduretoselectsamples in thearea.


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STD.ASME B3L.B-ENGL 1999 m 0757670 ObL7131 264

ASME B3181999 Edition 850.7-851.4

850.7 BlastingEffects highways and railroad crossings shall be inspected with

greaterfrequencyand more closely than pipelines in
open country.
for protection of facilities inthevicinityofblasting
activities. The operating company shall
851.21 Maintenance of Cover at Road Crossings
(a) locate and mark its pipeline when explosives are
andDrainageDitches. Theoperatingcompanyshall
to be detonated within distancesas specified in company
determine by periodicsurveys ifthe coveroverthe
pipeline at roadcrossingsanddrainageditcheshas
ofminimum blasting distances fromthe pipelinesde-
beenreducedbelowtherequirements ofthe original
design. Ifthe operatingcompanydeterminesthatthe
(b) determine the necessity and extent of observing normal cover provided at the time of pipeline construc-
or monitoring blasting activities basedupon the proxim- tionhasbecomeunacceptablyreducedduetoearth
ity of theblastwithrespecttothepipelines,the size removal or line movement, the operating company shall
of charge, and soil conditions provideadditionalprotection by providing barriers,
(c) conduct a leaksurveyfollowingeachblasting culverts, concretepads,casing,lowering of theline,
operationnearitspipelines. or othersuitablemeans.

851.22 Maintenance of CoverinCross-Country

851 PIPELINEMAINTENANCE Terrain. If theoperatingcompanylearns,as a result
of patrolling, that the cover over the pipeline in cross-
(991 851.1 PeriodicSurveillance of Pipelines countryterrain does notmeetthe originaldesign, it
shall determine whether the cover has been reduced to
As a means of maintaining the integrity of its pipeline
an unacceptablelevel. Iflevelisunacceptable,the
implementproceduresforperiodicsurveillance of its
by replacing cover, lowering the line, or other suitable
maintenance conditions occur, such as failures, leakage
851.3 LeakageSurveys
history. drop in flow efficiency dueto internal corrosion,
or substantialchanges in cathodicprotectionrequire- Each operating company of a transmission line shall
ments. provide for periodic leakage surveys ofthe line in its
When such studies indicate the facility is in unsatis- operating and maintenance plan. The types of surveys
factory condition, a planned program shall be initiated selected shall be effective for determining if potentially
to abandon,replace, or reconditionandprooftest.If hazardous leakage exists. The extent and frequency of
such a facility cannot be reconditioned or phased out, the leakage surveys shall be determined by the operating
themaximumallowableoperatingpressureshallbe pressure,piping age, class location, andwhetherthe
reduced commensurate with the requirements described transmissionlinetransportsgaswithout an odorant.
inpara. 845.213(c).
851.4 RepairProceduresforSteelPipelines
851.2 PipelinePatrolling Operating at Hoop Stress Levels at or Above
40% of the Specified Minimum Yield Strength
Eachoperatingcompanyshallmaintain a periodic
pipeline patrol program to observe surface conditions on Ifatanytime a defectmentioned inthe following
and adjacentto each pipeline right-of-way, indications of subsections of para, 851.4 isevidenton a pipeline
leaks,constructionactivityother thanthatperformed operating at or above 40% ofthespecified minimum
by the company, natural hazards, and any other factors yieldstrength ofthe pipe,temporarymeasuresshall
affecting the safety and operationof the pipeline. Patrols be employedimmediatelytoprotectthepropertyand
shall be performed at least once every year in Locations thepublic. Ifit is not feasibletomakepermanent
Classes 1 and2,atleastonceevery 6 months in repairs at the time of discovery, permanent repairs shall
Location Class 3, and at leastonceevery 3 months be made as soonasfeasible as describedherein.The
in LocationClass 4. Weather,terrain,size of line, use of a welded patch as a repair method is prohibited,
operating pressures, and other conditionswill be factors exceptasprovided inpara. 851.43(e). If thepipeline
in determining the need for more frequent patrol. Main is not taken out of service, the operating pressure shall


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851.4-851.42 ASME B31.8-1999 Edition

be at a level that will provide safety during the repair service or operate at a reducedpressure,repairs may
operations. be made
Gougesandgroovesaredefinedasinjuriouswhen (a) with a full encirclement welded split sleeve
thedepth ofthe defectisgreaterthan10% of the with or withoutcircumferentialfilletwelds;
nominal wall thickness of the pipe. See para. 841.1 13(b) (b) by removingthedefect byhot tapping,
foradditionallimitations.Smoothdents in existing providedthe entire defectisremoved; or
pipelines do notrequirerepairunlessthey (c) if thedefectisnot a dent, by grinding as
(a) contain a stress concentrator, such as a scratch, providedfor inpara.841.242.If after thedefectis
gouge,groove, or arc burn; removed by grinding not enough wall thickness remains
(b) affect the curvature of the pipe at the longitudinal [see para. 841.113(b)], a full encirclement welded split
weld or a circumferentialweld; or sleeve, with or withoutcircumferentialfilletwelds,
(c) exceed a maximum depth of 6% of nominal pipe shall be installed.
diameter. (3) If a dent is repaired with a sleeve and circum-
Nonleaking corroded areas that must be repaired or ferentialfilletwelds are notmade,the dentshallfirst
replaced are defined in para. 862.213. Longitudinalweld befilled with a hardenablefiller. If filletwelds are
seamsarecommonlyidentified by visualinspection, made,thedent maybe protected either by thefiller
etchants,andultrasonics. just mentioned or by intentionallypressurizingthe
A fullencirclementweldedsplitsleeveshallhave sleeve byhot tapping the pipelineunderit.
a designpressureatleastequaltothatrequired for (b) All repairs under para.85 1.41(a) shall pass nonde-
the maximum allowable operating pressure of the pipe structiveinspections andtestsasprovidedinpara.
beingrepaired. If conditionsrequirethatthesleeve 85 1S .
carrythefulllongitudinal stresses, thesleeveshallbe 851.42 Permanent Field Repair of Welds Having
at least equal to the design strength ofthe pipe being InjuriousDefects
repaired. Full encirclementsleevesshallnot be less (a) All circumferentialbuttweldsfoundto have
than 4 width.
unacceptable defects (according to API 1104) shallbe
If thedefectisnot a leak, the circumferential fillet repaired in accordance with therequirements ofpara.
welds are optional in certain cases as described inthe 827, provided the pipeline can be taken out of service.
following subsections of para. 851.4. If circumferential
Repairs onweldsmaybemadewhilethe pipeline is
filletwelds are made, the sleeve's longitudinalwelds
in service, provided the weld is not leaking, the pressure
shouldbebuttwelds.Theweldingprocedures for the inthe pipelinehasbeenreducedto a pressurethat
circumferentialfilletweldsshall be suitable for the
will notproduce a stress in excess of 20% of the
materials and shall consider the potential for underbead
specified minimum yieldofthe pipe, and grinding of
cracking. Backup strips are not required. If the circum- thedefectiveareacan belimited so thattherewill
welds maybebuttwelds or fillets to a sidebar.The
remainatleast '/8 in. thickness in thepipe weld.
(b) Defectiveweldsmentioned in (a) above, which
circumferentialedges, whichwouldhavebeen sealed
cannot be repairedunder (a) aboveandwhereit is
had the fillet welds been made, should be sealed with
not feasible to remove the defect from the pipeline by
a coatingmaterialsuchasenamel or mastic, so that
replacement, mayberepairedbytheinstallationof a
the soil environment will be kept out of the area under
full encirclement welded split sleeve using circumferen-
851.41 PermanentFieldRepairs ofInjurious (c) If a gouge, groove, or dent occurs in a submerged
arcweldedseam(or a manufacturingdefectisfound
in such a seam) orif a gouge, groove, or dent occurs
(a) Injuriousgouges,grooves,anddentsshall be in a circumferentialbuttweld, a full encirclement
removed or reinforced, or the operating pressure shall welded split sleeveshallbeinstalled with or without
be reduced. usingfilletwelds.Dentsshall be protected by a filler
( 1 ) If feasible,gouges,grooves,anddentsshall or by pressurizing the sleeveaspreviouslydescribed
be removed by takingthepipelineout of service and in para.851.41(a)(3).
cuttingout a cylindricalpiece of pipeandreplacing ( d ) If a gouge, groove, or dent occurs in an electric
same withpipeof equal or greater designpressure. resistance weld seam or a flash weld seam, if a manufac-
(2) If not feasible to takethepipelineout of turingdefect is discovered in same, orif hydrogen


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ASME B31.8-1999 Edition 851.42451.6

stress cracking is found in

anyweldzone, a full aboveshallbetestedandinspectedasprovidedin
encirclement welded split sleeve shall be installed using 85 1S .
filletwelds. The sleeveshall thenbepressurizedby
851.44 Permanent Field Repair of Hydrogen
Stress Cracking in Hard Spots and Stress Corrosion
(e) All repairs performed under (a), (b), (c), and (d) Cracking
aboveshall be testedandinspected as providedin ( a ) If feasible, the pipelineshallbetakenout of
para. 851.5. service and repaired by cutting out a cylindrical piece
of pipeandreplacing withpipeof equal or greater
851.43 Permanent Field Repair of Leaks and designstrength.
NonleakingCorrodedAreas (b) If itisnot feasible to takethepipelineout of
(a) If feasible, thepipelineshallbetakenout of service, repairs shall bemadebytheinstallationof a
service and repaired by cutting out a cylindrical piece full encirclementwelded split sleeve. Inthe case of
of pipeandreplacingwithpipe of equal or greater stress corrosion cracking, the fillet welds are optional.
designstrength. If the fillet welds are made, pressurization of the sleeve
(b) Ifit is notfeasibletotakethepipeline out of is optional. The same applies to hydrogen stress cracking
service, repairs shall bemadebytheinstallationof a inhard spots exceptthat a flathard spotshall be
full encirclement welded split sleeve unless a patch is protectedwith a hardenable filler or by pressurization
chosen in accordance with (e) below, or unless corrosion of a filletweldedsleeve.
is repairedwithdepositedweldmetal in accordance (c) All repairsperformedunder (a) and (b) above
with (9 below. If nonleaking corrosion is repaired with a shall be tested and inspected as provided in para. 85 I S .
full encirclement weldedsplit sleeve. the circumferential
filletweldsare optional. 851.5TestingRepairs to SteelPipelines or Mains
(c) Iftheleak is due to a corrosion pit, the repair Operating at Hoop Stress Levels at or Above
may be made by the installation of a properly designed 40% of the Specified Minimum Yield Strength
851.51 Testing of Replacement Pipe Sections.
(cf) A smallleakmayberepairedbywelding a When a scheduled repair to a pipeline or main is made
nipple over it to vent the gas while welding and then by cuttingoutthedamagedportion of the pipe as a
installinganappropriatefitting onthenipple. cylinder and replacing it with another section ofpipe,
(e) Leaking or nonleakingcorrodedareas on pipe thereplacementsection of pipeshall be subjectedto
ofnotmorethan 4 0
,O O psispecifiedminimumyield a pressuretest.Thereplacementsection ofpipeshall
strength may be repaired byusing a steelplatepatch betestedtothe pressurerequiredfor a newpipeline
with rounded comers and with dimensions not in excess or maininstalledinthesamelocation.Thetestsmay
of one-half the circumference of the pipe fillet welded bemadeonthe pipeprior to installation,provided
overthepitted area. The designstrengthoftheplate nondestructive tests meeting the requirements of para.
shall be thesame or greater thanthepipe. 826 are made on all field girth butt welds after installa-
(f) Small corroded areas mayberepairedbyfilling tion. If thereplacement is madeundercontrolledfire
themwith deposited weldmetalfromlow-hydrogen conditions (gas in the pipeline), full encirclement welded
electrodes. The higher the pressure and the greater the splitsleeves maybeusedto join the pipe sections
flowrate, the less is thechance of bum-through. At insteadof buttwelds. All sleeve weldsshouldbe
20 V and 100 A, bum-throughisunlikelytooccur radiographed. (See para. 85 1S2.)
851.52 Nondestructive Testing of Repairs, Gouges,
Gas Velocity, ft/sec Grooves, Dents, and Welds. If the defects are repaired
by welding in accordance with the provisions ofpara.
- O 5 IO 20
851.4 and any of its subsections, the welding shall be
15 0.320 ... ... ... examined in accordancewithpara. 826.
500 0.300 0.270 0.240 0.205
900 0.280 0.235 0.190 0.150
851.6 Pipeline k k Records
This method of repairshouldnot be attemptedon Records shall be made covering all leaks discovered
pipe that is thought to be susceptible to brittle fracture. and repairs made. All pipeline breaks shall be reported
(g) All repairsperformed under (a), (b), and (d) in detail.Theserecordsalong with leakagesurvey


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STD. ASME B3L.B-ENGL 179’3 M 0757670 Ob17234 T73 m

851.6-852.22 ASME B31.8-1999Edition

records, line patrol records, and other records relating (h) bends
toroutine or unusualinspectionsshallbekeptinthe ( i ) valvesandfittings
fileoftheoperatingcompany, as long as thesection (i) terrainandsoilconditions
of lineremainsinservice. (k) personnelsafetyconsiderations
( I ) additional stresses caused by repositioning of the
851.7PipelineMarkers pipeline
(a) Signs or markersshallbeinstalledwhereitis
considerednecessarytoindicatethepresenceofa 852DISTRIBUTIONPIPINGMAINTENANCE
pipeline at road, highway, railroad,and stream crossings.
Additionalsignsandmarkersshall be installedalong 852.1Patrolling
the remainder of the pipeline at locations where there
is a probability of damage or interference. Distribution mains shall be patrolled in areas where
(6) Signs or markers andthesurroundingright-of- necessary to observe factors that may affect safe opera-
way shall be maintained so markers can be easily read tion.Thepatrollingshallbeconsidered in areasof
andarenotobscured. construction activity, physical deterioration of exposed
piping and supports, or any natural causes, which could
(c) Thesignsormarkersshallincludethewords
“Gas (or name of gas transported) Pipeline,” the name
patrollingshall be determined by theseverity of the
of theoperatingcompany, andthe telephonenumber
conditions that could cause failure or leakage and the
(including area code) where the operating company can

851.8Abandoning of TransmissionFacilities 852.2LeakageSurveys

Eachoperatingcompanyshallhaveaplan in its Eachoperatingcompanyhavinga gas distribution

systemshallset upin itsoperatingandmaintenance
plan a provisionformakingperiodicleakagesurveys
transmission facilities. The plan shall include the follow-
( a ) Facilities to be abandoned shall be disconnected 852.21 The types of surveys selected shall be effec-
fromallsourcesandsuppliesofgassuch as other tivefordetermining if potentiallyhazardousleakage
pipelines, mains, crossover piping, meter stations, con- exists.Thefollowingaresomeproceduresthat may
trollines,andotherappurtenances. be employed:
(b) Facilitiesto be abandonedinplaceshall be ( a ) surfacegasdetectionsurveys
purged of gas with an inert material and the ends shall (b) subsurfacegasdetectorsurvey(includingbar
be sealed,exceptthat: holesurveys)
(c) afterprecautionsaretaken to determinethat (c) vegetationsurveys
noliquidhydrocarbonsremain in thefacilitiesto be (d) pressuredroptests
abandoned,thensuchfacilitiesmaybepurgedwith (e) bubbleleakagetests
air. If the facilities are purged with air, then precautions cf) ultrasonicleakagetests
must be taken to determine that a combustible mixture Adetaileddescription of thevarioussurveys and
isnotpresentafterpurging. ( S e e para. 841,275.) leakage detection procedures is shown in Appendix M.

(991 851.9RepositioningaPipelineinService 852.22 The extent and frequency of leakage surveys

shall be determined by thecharacterofthegeneral
When repositioning a pipeline in service, the follow- service area, building concentrations, piping age, system
ingaresomeofthefactorsthatshall be considered: condition,operatingpressure,andanyotherknown
(a) deflection condition (such as surface faulting, subsidence, flooding,
(b) diameter,wallthickness,andgradeofpipe or an increase in operating pressure) that has significant
( c ) pipelinepressure potentialtoeitherinitiatealeak or tocauseleaking
(d) typeofgirthwelds gastomigratetoanareawhereitcouldresultina
(e) testandoperatinghistory hazardouscondition.Specialone-timesurveysshould
presence of defects be considered following exposureof the gas distribution
(g) existingcurvature system to unusual stresses (such as those resulting from


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ASME B31.8-1999Edition 852.22852.41

earthquakes or blasting). The leakage survey frequencies the flow of gas to the facility, shall be taken to eliminate
shall be based on operating experience, sound judgment, thepotentialhazard.
frequenciesshall be reviewedperiodicallytoaffirm
thattheyarestillappropriate.Thefrequenciesofthe 852.34 Followup Inspections. While the excavation
leakagesurveyshallatleastmeetthefollowing. is open, the adequacy of leak repairs shall be checked
(a) Distribution systems in a principal business dis- by using acceptable methods. The perimeter of the leak
trict should be surveyed at least annually. Such surveys area shall be checked with a gas detector. Inthe case
shall be conducted using a gas detector and shall include of aGrade 1 leakrepair as defined in Appendix M,
tests of the atmosphere that will indicate the presence wherethereisresidualgasintheground,afollowup
of gas inutilitymanholes,atcracksin the pavement inspection should be made as soon as practicable after
andsidewalks, and atotherlocationsthatprovide allowing the soil to vent to the atmosphereand stabilize,
opportunities for finding gas leaks. but in no case later than 1 month following the repair.
(b) The underground distribution system outside the In the case of other leak repairs, the need for a followup
areascovered by (a) aboveshouldbesurveyed as inspection should be determined by qualified personnel.
frequently as experienceindicatesnecessary,butnot
lessthanonceevery 5 years. 852.4 Requirements for Abandoning, Disconnecting,
852.41 Abandoning of Distribution Facilities. Each
852.31LeakageClassificationandRepair. Leaks operatingcompanyshallhaveaplan for abandoning
located by surveys and/or investigation shouldbe evalu- inactive facilities, such as service lines, mains, control
ated, classified, and controlled inaccordancewiththe lines, equipment, and appurtenances for which there is
criteriasetforth inpara. M5 ofAppendix M.
Prior to takinganyrepairaction,leaksshould be
The plan shall also include the following provisions:
pinpointedbutonlyafterithas been establishedthat
animmediatehazarddoesnotexist or has been con- (a) If thefacilitiesareabandoned in place,they
trolled by suchemergency actions as evacuation, shall be physically disconnectedfrom the piping system.
blocking an area off, rerouting traffic, eliminating The open endsofallabandonedfacilitiesshall be
sources of ignition,ventilating, or stoppingtheflow capped,plugged, or otherwiseeffectivelysealed.The
of gas.Thepinpointingguidelinesprovided in para. need for purging the abandoned facility to prevent the
M 6 ofAppendix M should be followed. development of a potential combustion hazard shall be
considered and appropriatemeasuresshall be taken.
852.32 investigation of Reports From Outside
Abandonment shall not be completed until it has been
Sources. Any notification from an outside source (such
determined that the volume of gas or liquid hydrocar-
as police or firedepartment,otherutility,contractor,
customer, or general public) reporting a leak, explosion, bons contained within the abandoned section poses no
or fire,whichmay involvegaspipelines or other potentialhazard.Airor inert gas may be usedfor
gas facilities,shall be investigatedpromptly. If the purging, or thefacility may be filled withwater or
investigation reveals a leak, the leak should be classified other inert material. (See para. 841.275.)If air is used
andactionshould be takeninaccordancewiththe for purging, the operating company shall determine that
criteria inpara. M5 ofAppendix M. acombustible mixture is
Consideration shall be given to any effects the abandon-
85233 Odor or indications From Foreign Sources. ment may have on an active cathodic protection system,
Whenpotentiallyhazardousleakindications(such as and appropriateactionshall be taken.
natural,sewer, or marshgasorgasolinevapors)are
(6) In caseswhereamainandtheservicelines
found to originate from a foreign source or facility or
connected to it are abandoned, insofar as service lines
customer-ownedpiping,theyshall be reportedtothe
operatorofthefacilityand,whereappropriate,tothe are concerned, only the customer’s end of such service
police department, fire department,or other governmen- linesneedto be sealedasstipulatedabove.
tal agency. When the company’s pipeline is connected (c) Servicelinesabandonedfromtheactivemains
toaforeignfacility(suchasthecustomer’spiping), should be disconnected as close to the main as practi-
necessary action, such as disconnecting or shutting off cable.


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852.41-852.52 ASME B31.8-1999 E d i t h

(d) All valves left in the abandoned segment should manufacturecanbepinchedandreopenedwithout

be closed. If thesegment' is longandtherearefew causingfailureundertheconditionsthatwillprevail
line valves, consideration should be given to plugging at thetime of thepinchingandreopening.
the segment at intervals. (b) After compliance with (a) above, whenever ther-
(e) All above-gradevalves,risers,andvault and moplasticpipe or tubingispinchedandreopened,it
valveboxcoversshall be removed.Vaultandvalve isrequiredthat:
box voids shallbe filled with suitable compacted backfill ( 1 ) the work be done with equipment and proce-
material. duresthathave been establishedandproven by test
852.42TemporarilyDisconnectedService. When- to be capableofperformingtheoperationsafelyand
ever service to a customer is temporarily discontinued, effectively
oneofthefollowingshallbecompliedwith: (2) the pinched and reopened area of the pipe or
(a) Thevalvethatisclosedtopreventtheflowof tubing be reinforced in accordance with the appropriate
gastothecustomershallbeprovidedwithalocking provisions of para. 852.52, unless it has been determined
device or other means designed to prevent the opening by investigationandtestthatpinchingandreopening
ofthevalvebypersonsotherthanthoseauthorized doesnotsignificantlyaffectthelong-termproperties
by theoperatingcompany. of the pipe or tubing.
(b) Amechanicaldevice or fittingthatwillprevent
852.52 Repair of Plastic Pipe or Tubing. If at any
theflowof gasshall be installed in theserviceline
or inthemeterassembly. time an injuriousdefect,groove,gouge, or dent is
found in plastic pipeor tubing, the damagedor defective
(c) The customer's piping shall be physically discon-
section shall be replaced unless satisfactory repairs are
Repairsshallbemade in accordancewithqualified
852.43TestRequirements for Reinstating proceduresthathave been established andprovenby
Abandoned Facilities and Temporarily Disconnected testandinaccordancewiththefollowing:
Service Lines. Facilities previously abandoned shall be (a) The recommendations of the plastic manufacturer
tested in thesamemanner as new facilitiesbefore shall be taken into consideration when determining the
beingreinstated. typeofrepairtobemade.Specialconsiderationshall
Servicelinespreviouslyabandonedshall be tested be given to the extent of fiber damage in the case of
in the same manner as new service lines before being thermosettingplasticpipe.
reinstated. (b) If apatch or full encirclementsleeveisused,
Servicelinestemporarilydisconnectedbecauseof v2
it shall extend at least in. beyond the damaged area.
mainrenewals or otherplannedworkshallbetested (c) If a full encirclementsplitsleeveisused,the
fromthepoint of disconnection to theserviceline joining line between the halves ofthe sleeve shall be
valve in the same manner as new service lines before as far as possible from the defect, but in no case closer
reconnecting,except than in. Suitableprecautionsshall be takentoensure
(a) whenprovisionstomaintaincontinuousservice aproperfitatthelongitudinalseam.
are made,such as by installation of abypass,any ( d ) Thepatch or sleevematerialshallbethesame
portion of theoriginalservicelineusedtomaintain typeandgradeasthepipe or tubingbeingrepaired.
continuousservice neednotbetested; or Wall thickness of the patch or sleeve shall be at least
(b) when the service line has been designed, installed, equaltothat ofthepipe or tubing.
tested, and maintained in accordance with the require-
(e) The method of attachment of the patch or sleeve
shall be compatible with the material and shall conform
to the applicable provisions of para. 842.392. Precau-
tions shall be taken to ensure a properfit and a complete
852.51 Pinching and Reopening of Thermoplastic bondbetweenthepatchor sleeveandthepipebeing
PipeandTubing for PressureControl repaired. The patch or sleeve shall be clamped or held
(a) Before thermoplastic pipe andtubingispinched in place by other suitable means during the setting or
and reopened, it is required that investigations and tests curing of the bonding material or during the hardening
be made todeterminethattheparticulartype,grade, of a heat-fusion bond. Excess solvent cement shall be
size, and wall thickness of-pipe or tubing of the same removedfromtheedgesofthepatch or sleeve.


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ASME B31.8-1999 Edition 852.6-853.16

852.6PipingMaintenanceRecords 853MISCELLANEOUSFACILITIES
852.61 Wheneveranyportion or section ofan
coveredforoperating or maintenancepurposesorfor 853.1CompressorStationMaintenance
the installation of new facilities, the following informa-
853.11 Compressors and Prime Movers. The start-
tionshall be recorded:
ing,operating, andshutdownprocedures for all gas
(u) thecondition of thesurface of barepipe, if compressor units shall be established bythe operating
pittedorgenerallycorroded company. The operating company shall take appropriate
(6) theconditionofthepipesurfaceand of the stepstoseethattheapprovedpracticesarefollowed.
to the extentthatthepipeiscorrodingunderneath 853.12InspectionandTesting of ReliefValves.
(c) anydamagedprotectivecoating Allpressurerelievingdevices in compressorstations
(d) anyrepairsmade shall be inspectedandlortested in accordancewith
para. 853.3, andall devices except rupture disks shall
be operatedperiodicallytodeterminethattheyopen
852.62 Wheneverbrokencastironfacilitiesare
at the correct set pressure. Any defective or inadequate
equipment found shallbe promptly repaired or replaced.
effect,backfill, or construction by others,shall be
All remote control shutdown devices shall be inspected
recorded if itcan be determined.
852.63 Distributionpipingconditionrecordsshall
be analyzed periodically. Any indicated remedial action 853.13 Repairs to Compressor Station Piping. All
on thepipingsystemshall be takenandrecorded. scheduled repairs to compressor station piping operating
at hoop stress levels at or above 40% of the specified
852.7CastIronPipeMaintenance minimumyieldstrengthshall be done in accordance
with para, 851.3, except that the use of a welded patch
852.71 Each castironcaulked bell andspigotjoint is prohibited. Testing repairs shall be donein accordance
operating at pressuresof 25 psig or more that is exposed withpara.851.4.
for any reason must be sealed with a mechanical leak
clamp or a material or device that does not reduce the 853.14IsolationofEquipment for Maintenance
flexibility of the joint and permanently sealsand bonds. or Alterations. The operating company shall establish
procedures for isolation of units or sections of piping
852.72 Each cast iron caulked bell and spigot joint formaintenance, and forpurgingpriortoreturning
operatingatpressures of lessthan 25 psigthatis unitstoservice,andshallfollowtheseestablished
exposedforanyreasonmust be sealed by ameans procedures in allcases.
other than caulking.
853.15Storage of CombustibleMaterials. All
852.73 When a section of cast iron pipe is exposed flammable or combustible materialsin quantities beyond
for any reason, an inspection shall be made to determine thoserequiredforeverydayuse or other thanthose
if graphitization exists. If detrimental graphitization is normallyused in compressor buildings shall be stored
found,theaffectedsegmentmust be replaced. in a separate structure built of noncombustible material
located a suitable distance from the compressor building.
852.74 Whenan operating company has knowledge All aboveground oil or gasoline storage tanks shall be
thatthesupportforasegmentofaburiedcastiron protected in accordancewithANSVNFPA30.
pipelineisdisturbed 853.16 Maintenance and Testing of Gas Detection (99)
(a) thatsegment ofthe pipelinemust be protected andAlarm Systems. Eachgasdetectionandalarm
as necessaryagainstdamageduringthedisturbance systemrequired by thisCodeshallbemaintainedto
(6) as soonaspossible,appropriatestepsmust be functionreliably.Theoperatorshalldevelopmainte-
taken to provide permanent protection for the disturbed nance and calibration procedures to periodically verify
segmentfromdamagethatmightresultfromexter- the operational integrity of the gas detectors and alarm
nalloads. systemsinstalled.

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853.2-85333 ASME B31.8-1999 E d i t h

853.2ProceduresforMaintainingPipe-Typeand (4) control, sensing, and supply lines for conditions

Bottle-TypeHolders in SafeOperating thatcouldresult in afailure
Condition (5) alllockingdevicesforproperoperation
(6) stationschematicsforcorrectness
853.21 Each operating company having a pipe-type
(b) adequatefromthestandpointofcapacityand
or bottle-type holder shall prepare and place in its files
reliability of operationfortheservice inwhichthey
a plan for the systematic, routine inspection and testing
are employed and set to function at the correct pressure
of the facilities that has the following provisions.
( I ) If acceptable operation is not obtained during
853.211 Proceduresshallbefollowedtoenable theoperationalcheck, the causeofthemalfunction
thedetection of externalcorrosionbefore the strength shallbedetermined, andtheappropriatecomponents
of the container has been impaired. shallbeadjusted,repaired, or replaced as required.
After repair, the component shall again be checked for
853.212 Periodicsamplingandtestingofgasin
storageshallbe made todeterminethedewpoint of
(2) At leastonceeachcalendaryear,areview
shall be made to ensure that the combined capacity of
internal corrosion or interfere with the safe operations
thereliefdevicesonapipingsystem or facilityis
adequateto limit thepressure at alltimestovalues
853.213 The pressure control and pressure limiting prescribed by the Code.Thisreviewshould bebased
equipment shall be inspected and tested periodically to ontheoperatingconditionsthatcreatethemaximum
determinethatitis in asafeoperatingconditionand probablerequirementforreliefcapacityineachcase,
hasadequatecapacity. eventhoughsuchoperatingconditionsactuallyoccur
infrequentlyand/orforonlyshortperiodsoftime. If
853.22 Each operatingcompany,havingprepared it is determinedthattherelievingequipmentis of
such a plan as prescribed in para. 853.21, shall follow insufficient capacity, steps shall be taken to install new
theplanandkeeprecordsthatdetailtheinspection or additionalequipmenttoprovideadequatecapacity.
853.32 Wheneverabnormalconditionsareimposed
853.23 All unsatisfactoryconditionsfoundshallbe onpressure or flowcontroldevices,theincidentshall
promptlycorrected. be investigatedandadeterminationshall bemade as
853.3Maintenance of PressureLimitingand conditions may includeregulatorbodiesthataresub-
PressureRegulatingStations jectedtoerosiveserviceconditions or contaminants
853.31 Allpressurelimitingstations,reliefdevices,
andotherpressureregulatingstations and equipment 853.33
shall be subject to systematic, periodic inspections and (a) An inspectionand/ortest of stopvalvesshall
suitabletests, or reviewedtodeterminethattheyare bemade to determine that the valves will operate and
(a) in good mechanical condition. Visual inspections are correctly positioned. (Caution shall beused to avoid
shall be made to determine that equipment is properly anyundesirableeffectonpressureduringoperational
installedandprotectedfromdirt,liquids, or other checks.) The following shall be included in the inspec-
conditionsthatmightpreventproperoperation.The tionand/ortest:
followingshall beincludedintheinspectionwhere ( I ) stationinlet,outlet,andbypassvalves
appropriate: (2) reliefdeviceisolatingvalves
( I ) stationpipingsupports,pits,andvaultsfor (3) control,sensing, and supplylinevalves
general condition and indications of ground settlement. (b) The finalinspectionprocedureshallincludethe
See para. 853.5 forvaultmaintenance. following:
(2) stationdoorsandgatesandpitvaultcovers ( I ) acheckforproperpositionofallvalves.
to determinethattheyarefunctioningproperlyand Specialattentionshall be given to regulatorstation
thataccessisadequate and freefromobstructions bypass valves, relief device isolating valves, and valves
(3) ventilating equipment installed in station build- incontrol,sensing,andsupplylines.
ings or vaults for proper operation and for evidence of (2) restoration of all locking and security devices
accumulation of water, ice, snow, or other obstructions toproperposition


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STD-ASME B31.8-ENGL 1999 E 0759b70 Ob17139 555 m

ASME 831.81999 Edition 853.34-853.5

853.34 Inspection shall include checkingof alignment to permit

(u) Every distribution system supplied by more than useof a key or wrenchandclearingfromthevalve
one pressure regulating station shall be equipped with box or vaultany debris thatwouldinterfere with or
telemetering or recording pressure-gages to indicate the delay the operation of the valve. System maps showing
gas pressure in the district. valvelocationsshouldbeavailable.
(6) On distributionsystemssupplied by a single
pressure regulating station, the operating company shall 853.43 Service Line Valves. Outside shutoff valves
determine the necessity of installing such gages in the installed in servicelinessupplyingplaces ofpublic
district. In making this determination,theoperating assembly, such as theaters, churches, schools, and hospi-
companyshalltakeintoconsiderationtheoperating tals, shall be inspected and lubricated where required at
conditions such as thenumber of customers supplied, the sufficiently frequent intervals to ensure their satisfactory
operating pressures, the capacity of the installation, etc. operation. The inspection shall determine if thevalve
isaccessible, ifthe alignment is satisfactory,and if
(c) If there are indications of abnormal high or low
the valve box or vault, ifused, containsdebristhat
wouldinterfere with or delaytheoperation ofthe
valve.Unsatisfactoryconditionsencounteredshall be
beemployed to rectifyanyunsatisfactoryoperating
conditions. Suitable periodic inspections of single pres-
sure regulation stations not equipped with telemetering 853.44 Valve Records. A record shall be maintained
or recording gages shall be made to determine that the for locating valves covered by paras. 853.41 and 853.42.
pressure regulating equipment is functioning properly. Theserecords may be maintainedonoperatingmaps,
separate files, or summary sheets, and the information
853.4ValveMaintenance on these records shall be readily accessible to personnel
853.41 Pipelinevalvesthat would be requiredto requiredtorespond to emergencies.
be operatedduring an emergencyshallbeinspected
853.45Prevention of AccidentalOperation. Pre-
periodically and partially operated at least once a year
cautions shall betakentoprevent accidental operation
to provide safe andproperoperatingconditions.
of any valvecovered by paras. 853.41 and 853.42.
(u) Routinevalvemaintenanceproceduresshallin- Accidental valve operation by operating company per-
clude, butnotbe limitedto,thefollowing: sonnel and the general public should be considered in
( I ) servicing in accordance with written procedures takingtheseprecautions.Somerecommendedactions
by adequatelytrainedpersonnel tobe taken,whereapplicable,areasfollows:
(2) accuratesystemmaps for use duringroutine ( a ) Lockvalves in aboveground settings readily ac-
or emergency conditions cessible to the general public, that are not enclosed by
(3) valve security to prevent service interruptions, a building or fence.
tampering,etc.,asrequired (6) Lock valveslocatedinvaults, if accessibleto
( 4 ) employee training programs to familiarize per- thegeneralpublic.
sonnel withthe correctvalvemaintenanceprocedures
( c ) Identifythevalve by tagging,color coding, or
(6) Emergency valve maintenance procedures include any other suitable means of identification.
( I ) written contingency plansto be followed during
any type of emergency 853.5VaultMaintenance
(2) trainingpersonneltoanticipateallpotential
hazards Each vault housinga pressure limiting, pressurerelief,
(3) furnishing tools andequipmentasrequired, orpressureregulatingstationshall be inspected to
including auxiliary breathing equipment, to meet antici- determineitsconditioneachtime the equipmentis
patedemergencyvalveservicing andor maintenance inspectedandtested in accordance with para. 853.3.
requirements. For any vault that personnel enter, the atmosphere shall
be tested for combustiblegas. If theatmosphereis
853.42 Distribution System Valves. Valves, the use hazardous,thecauseshall be determined.Thevault
of which maybe necessary for the safe operation of shall be inspected for adequate ventilation. The condition
a gas distribution system, shallbe checked and serviced, ofthevault coversshall be carefullyexaminedfor
includinglubricationwherenecessary,atsufficiently hazards.Unsatisfactoryconditionsdisclosedshall be
frequent intervals to ensure their satisfactory operation. corrected. The applicable provisionsof para. 821.6 shall


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853.!a544 ASME B31.8-1999 Edition

be metbeforeanywelding is performed in thevault. (5) the actual area affected bythe increase in the
Maintenance workperformedinthevaultshallbein number of buildingsintended for humanoccupancy
accordance with procedures developed per para. and physical barriers or other factors that may limit the
850.2(a), giving particular considerationto the monitor- further expansion of the more densely populated area.
ing of theatmosphere and safety protection for personnel (d) Followingthisstudy, if a change of Location (99)
in thevault. Class in indicated, the patrols and leakage surveys shall
immediately be adjusted to the intervals established by
theoperatingcompany for the new LocationClass.
FOR HUMAN OCCUPANCY Ifthestudy described in para.854.1indicatesthat
the established maximum allowable operating pressure
854.1 of a section of pipeline or mainisnot commensurate
with existing LocationClasses2, 3, or 4,andsuch
(SS) (u) Existing steel
pipelines or mains operating in sectionisinsatisfactoryphysicalcondition,themaxi-
excess of 40% ofspecifiedminimumyieldstrength mum allowable operating pressure of that section shall
shall be monitored to determine if additional buildings beconfirmed or revised within 18monthsfollowing
intended for human occupancy have been constructed. completion of thestudyasfollows.
Thetotalnumberof buildingsintended for human (a) If the section involved has been previously tested
occupancyshall becountedto determinethecurrent in place for not less than 2 hr, the maximum allowable
Location Class in accordance with the procedures speci- operatingpressureshall beconfirmed or reduced so
fiedinparas. 840.2(a) and(b). that it does not exceed that allowed in Table 854.l(c).
(b) In accordance with the principles stated inpara. (b) If the previous test pressure was not high enough
840.l(c), and with theknowledgethatthe number of to allow the pipeline to retain its MAOP or to achieve
buildingsintendedforhumanoccupancyisnot an an acceptablelower MAOP in theLocationClass
exact or absolute means of determining damage-causing according to subpara. (a) above, the pipeline may either
activities, judgement mustbeusedto determinethe retain its MAOP or become qualified for an acceptable
changes that should be made to items, such as operating lower MAOP ifit is retested at a higher test pressure
stress levels, frequencyof patrolling and cathodic protec- for not less than 2 hr in compliance with the applicable
tion' requirements, as additional buildings intended for provisions of this Code. If the new strength test is not
humanoccupancyareconstructed. performedduringthe18-monthperiodfollowingthe
(SS) (c) When there
is increase inthe
of LocationClasschange,theMAOPmust be reduced
buildings intended for human occupancy to or near the so as to not exceed the design pressure commensurate
upper limit of the Location Class listed in Table 854.1(c) with the requirements of Chapter IV at the end of the
to the extent that a change in Location Class is likely, 18-monthperiod. Ifthetestisperformedanytime
a study shall be completed within6 months of perception after the18-monthperiodhasexpired,however,the
of theincrease to determinethefollowing: MAOPmaybeincreasedtothelevel it wouldhave
( 1 ) the design, construction, and testing procedures achieved if thetesthadbeenperformedduringthat
followed in the original construction and a comparison 18-month period.
ofsuchprocedures with theapplicableprovisions of (c) AnMAOPthathasbeenconfirmed or revised
thisCode according to subparas. (a) or (b) above shall not exceed
(2) the physical conditions of the pipeline or main that established by, this Code or previously established
to the extent that this can be ascertained from current by applicable editions of the B3 1.8 Code. Confirmation
testsandevaluationrecords or revision according to para. 854.2 shall not preclude
(3) operating and maintenance history of the pipe- theapplication ofpara. 845.6.
line or main (d) Where operating conditions require that the ex-
(4) themaximum operating pressure and the cor- isting maximum allowable operating pressure be main-
responding operating hoop stress. The pressure gradient tained, and the pipeline cannot be brought into compli-
may be taken into account in the section of the pipeline anceasprovidedinsubparas. (a), (b), or (c) above,
or main directly affected by the increasing number of the pipe within the area of the Location Class change
buildingsintendedfor human occupancy. shallbereplacedwithpipe commensurate with the


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ASME 631.8-1999 Edition 854.2855.1

TABLE 854.U~)
[Note (1)l Current

Location Number of Location Number of Allowable

Class Buildings Class Buildings Operating Pressure (MAOP)

1 Division 1 0-1 o 11-25 Previous MAOP butnot greater than 80% SMYS
1 Division 2 0-1 o 11-25 Previous MAOP butnot greater than 72% SMYS
1 0-1 o 26-45 0.800 x test pressure but
not greater than 72% SMYS
1 0-1 o 46-65 0.667 x test pressure but
not greater than 60% SMYS
1 0-10 66+
0.667 x test pressure but
not greater than 60% SMYS
1 0-10 [Note (2)l0.555 x test pressure but
not greater than 50% SMYS

2 11-45 2 46-65 Previous MAOP

not but greater than 60% SMYS
2 11-45 3 0.667
66+ x test pressure
not but greater than 60% SMYS
2 11-45 4 [Note ( 2 ) l 0.555 x test pressure
notbut greater than 50% SMYS

3 46+ 4 [Note ( 2 ) l 0.555 x test pressure

not but greater than 50% SMYS

(1) At time of design and construction.
( 2 ) Multistory buildings become prevalent.

requirementsofChapter IV, usingthedesignfactor pressure as provided in para.854.2(d),consideration

obtained from Table 841.114A for the appropriate Loca- shouldbegiventovalvespacingasfollows:
tionClass. ( 1 ) Whereashortsectionoflineisreplaced,
854.3 a replacementthe (2) Where
involvessection mile
or more of transmission line, additional valve installation
Where the MAOP of a section of pipeline or main
shall be considered to conform to the spacing require-
is revised in accordance with para. 854.2 and becomes
lessthanthemaximumallowableoperatingpressure ments in para.846.1 1.

of the pipeline or main of which it is a part, a suitable

pressurerelieving or pressurelimitingdeviceshallbe 855CONCENTRATIONSOFPEOPLEIN
installed in accordancewith
provisions of paras.
1 2
(u) ( I ) Where a facility meeting the criteria of para. (99)
Wherethestudyrequired in para.854.1indicates 840.3 is built near an existing steel pipeline in Location
that the established maximum allowable operating pres- Classes 1 or 2, considerationshall begiventothe
sureofatransmissionpipelineisnotcommensurate possibleconsequence of afailure, even thoughthe
withthatpermittedbythis Code for the new location probabilityofsuch anOccurrenceisveryunlikely
class, the sectionalizing valve spacing shallbe reviewed if thelineisdesigned,constructed,andoperated in
andrevised as follows: accordance with this Code. Where such a facility results
(u) Ifthesectionofpipeisqualifiedforcontinued in frequent concentrations of people, the requirements
servicebecauseofapriortest,para.854.2(a), or can of (b) belowshallapply.
be brought into compliance by lowering the maximum (2) However, (b) belowneednotbe applied if
allowable operating pressure, para. 854.2(a), or testing, the facility is used infrequently. The lesser usage com-
para.854.2(b), no additionalvalveswillnormallybe binedwiththeveryremotepossibilityofafailureat
required. that particular point on the pipeline virtually eliminates
(b) Where a segment of pipeline must be replaced to thepossibility ofan occurrence.
maintain the established maximum allowable operating (6) Pipelines near places of public assembly as out-


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m 0759670 ObL7L42 ‘OYT m

855.14356.4 ASME B31.8-1999Edition

lined in (a) aboveshallhave a maximumallowable (6) Studyavailableoperating andmaintenancedata

hoop stress not exceeding 50% of SMYS. Alternatively, includingleakrecords,inspections, failures, cathodic
the operating company may make the study described protection,andinternalcorrosioncontrolpractices.
inpara.854.1(c)anddeterminethatcompliancewith (c) Consider the age of the pipeline andthelength
the following will result in an adequate level of safety: oftime it may havebeen out of service in preparing
( I ) The segment is hydrostatically retested for at a final evaluation to convert the pipeline to gas service.
least 2 hr to a minimum stress levelof
( a ) 100% of SMYS if the pipeline is operating 856.3Requirements for Conversion to Gas Service
over 60% and up to 12% of SMYS
A steelpipelinepreviouslyusedforservicenot
(6) 90% of SMYS if the pipeline is operating
subject to this Code may be qualified for service under
over 50% and up to 60% of SMYS, unless the segment
was tested previously to a pressure of at least 1.5 times
( a ) Review historical records of the pipeline as indi-
cated in para. 856.2.
Ifthe segmentcontainspipe of variousoperating
stress levels, the minimum test stress levels stated above (b) Inspect all above-ground segmentsof the pipeline
should be basedontheSMYS ofthepipewiththe forphysicalcondition.Duringtheinspection,identify
the material where possible for comparison with avail-
highest operating stress level.
(2) Patrolsandleakagesurveys are conductedat
intervals consistent with thoseestablished bythe op- (c) Operating Stress Level Study
eratingcompanyforLocationClass 3. ( I ) Establishthe number of buildings nearthe
(3) When themaximumallowablehoop stress pipeline or main intendedforhumanoccupancy,and
determine the design factor for each segment in accord-
exceeds 60% of SMYS, adequate periodic visual inspec-
tions are conducted byan appropriatesamplingtech- ance with para. 840.2 and Table 841 . I 14A.
nique, or instrumented inspections capable of detecting (2) Conduct a study to comparetheproposed
gouges and corrosion damage are made to confirm the operating stress levels with those allowed for the Loca-
continuingsatisfactoryphysicalcondition ofthepipe. tionClass.
(4) Ifthenearbyfacility is likelyto encourage (3) Replace facilities necessarytomakesurethe
additional constructionactivity, provide appropriate operating stress level is commensuratewith the Location
pipelinemarkers. Class.
( d ) If necessary,makeinspections of appropriate
sections of underground piping to determine the condi-
856 PIPELINESERVICECONVERSIONS tion of the pipeline.
(e) Makereplacements,repairs, or alterations that
856.1General in the operating company’s judgement are advisable.
(fJ Perform a strengthtestinaccordancewiththis
The intent of this section is to provide requirements Code to establishthemaximumallowableoperating
to allow an operator of a steel pipeline previously used pressure ofthe pipeline,unlessthepipelinehasbeen
for service not covered by thisCodetoqualifythat so testedpreviously.
pipeline for service under this Code. For a dual service
( g ) Perform a leaktest in conformance withthis
pipeline used alternately to transport liquids in confor-
mance with an appropriate Code, such as ASMEB3 1.4,
(h) Within 1 yearofthe datethattheconverted
pipelineisplaced in
gas service,providecathodic
to gas service requiresqualificationtesting.
protection as set out in para. 862.2, except that wherever
feasible,replacementsectionsandother newpiping
shallbe cathodicallyprotectedasrequiredfor new
Reviewthefollowinghistoricaldataandmake an pipelines.
evaluation ofthepipeline’scondition.
( a ) Studyallavailableinformationontheoriginal 856.4ConversionProcedure
pipeline design, inspection, and testing. Particular atten- Prepare a writtenprocedureoutliningthestepsto
tionshouldbepaid to weldingprocedures usedand befollowed duringthestudyandconversion ofthe
other joining methods,internal and externalcoating, pipelinesystem.Noteanyunusualconditionsrelating
pipe,and other materialdescriptions. tothisconversion.


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856.5 Records of theConversion

Maintainforthe life of the pipeline a record of the
studies,inspections, tests, repairs,replacements,and
alterationsmade in connection with conversion of the
existingsteelpipelineto gas serviceunderthisCode.


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860 CORROSIONCONTROL lines,andpipe-typeandbottle-typeholdersinstalled

under this Code shall, except as permitted under para.
862.113, be externally coated and cathodically protected
unlessitcanbedemonstrated by test or experience
(a) This Chapter contains the minimum requirements thatthematerialsareresistant to corrosion in the
and procedures for corrosion controlof exposed, buried, environment in which they are installed. Consideration
andsubmergedmetallicpipingandcomponents.(See shall be given to the handling, shipping, storing, installa-
Chapter VI11 forspecialoffshorerequirements.)This tionconditions,andthe service environmentand ca-
Chapter contains minimum requirements and procedures thodic protection requirements when selecting the coat-
for controllingexternal(includingatmospheric)and ing materials. The Corrosion Dura Survey, published
internalcorrosion. This Chapter is applicable to the bytheNationalAssociationofCorrosionEngineers
designandinstallation of new pipingsystemsand (NACE), is a source of information on materials per-
to theoperationandmaintenance of existing piping formance in corrosive environments.
systems. 862.112CoatingRequirements
(b) The provisions of this Chapter should be applied (a) The surfacepreparationshould be compatible
under the direction of competent corrosion personnel. with the coating to be applied. The pipe surface shall
Every specific situation cannotbe anticipated; therefore, be free of deleteriousmaterials,suchas rust, scale,
theapplicationandevaluation of corrosioncontrol moisture, dirt, oils, lacquers, andvarnish.Thesurface
practicesrequire a significantamount of competent shall be inspected for irregularities that could protrude
judgmentto be effective inmitigatingcorrosion. throughthe coating. Anysuchirregularities shall be
(c) Deviations from the provisions of this Chapterare removed.Furtherinformationcan be obtainedfrom
permissible in specific situations, provided the operating NACE W-02-75.
company can demonstrate that the objectives expressed (b) Suitable coatings, including compatible field joint
hereinhave been achieved. and patch coatings, shall be selected, giving consider-
(d) Corrosion control requirementsandprocedures ation to handling, shipping, storing, installation condi-
may, inmany instances,requiremeasures in addition tion, moisture adsorption, operating temperatures of the
to those shown in this Chapter. Each operating company pipeline,environmental factors (including the nature
shallestablishprocedurestoimplementitscorrosion ofthe
in contact with the coating), adhesion
controlprogram,includingtherequirementsofthis characteristics,anddielectricstrength.
Chapter, to achieve the desired objectives. Procedures, (c) Coating shall be applied in a manner that ensures
including thosefor design, installation, and maintenance effective adhesion to the pipe. Voids, wrinkles, holidays,
of cathodicprotectionsystems,shall be preparedand andgasentrapmentshould be avoided.
implementedby, or underthedirection of, persons (d) The coating shallbe visually inspected for defects
qualifiedby training andor experience in corrosion before thepipe is lowered into the ditch.Insulating
controlmethods. type coatings on mains and transmission lines shall be
inspected for holidays by the most appropriate method.
862 EXTERNALCORROSIONCONTROL Coatingdefects or damagethat may impair effective
corrosioncontrolshall be repairedbeforethepipeis
862.1NewInstallations installed intheditch.
(e) In additiontotheprovisions ofparas. 841.222,
862.11 Buried SteelFacilities 841.252, and 841.253,care shall be exercised inhan-
862.111 General. All new transmission pipelines, dling,storage,andinstallation to preventdamageto
compressorstationpiping,distributionmains,service thecoating,includingmeasures noted as follows.

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862.112862.117 ASME B31.8-1999 Edition

( I ) Minimize handling of coated pipe. Use equip- (b) the possibility of lightning or fault currents
mentleastlikely to damage the coating, e.g., belts or inducingvoltagessufficient to puncturepipecoatings
cradles instead of cables. or pipe
(2) Usepaddedskidswhereappropriate. (c) possible adverse effects on cathodic protec-
(3) Stack or store pipe in a manner that minimizes tion,communications, or otherelectronicfacilities
damagetocoating. (d) the corrosive effects of high voltage direct
862.113 Cathodic Protection Requirements. Un- current(HVDC)powersystems
less it can be demonstrated by tests or experience that (3) obtaining further information from NACE RP-
cathodicprotectionisnotneeded,allburied or sub- O1 -77 and EPRI EL-3 106
mergedfacilitieswithinsulatingtypecoatings,except 862.115 Electrical Connections and Monitoring
facilitiesinstalledforalimitedservicelife,shall be Points
cathodicallyprotected as soon as feasiblefollowing (a) Except for offshore pipelines, sufficient test points
installation. Minor replacementsor extensions, however, should be installed to demonstrate the effectiveness of
shall be protectedascovered by para.862.212. corrosioncontrol or the need forcathodicprotection.
Facilities installed for a limited service life need not (See ChapterVI11 for special considerations for offshore
be cathodically protected if it can be demonstrated that pipelines.)
the facility will not experience corrosion that will cause (6) Specialattentionshall be givento the manner
it to be harmful to the public or environment. Cathodic of installation of electricalleadsusedforcorrosion
protectionsystemsshall be designedtoprotectthe control or testing to avoid harmful stress concentration
buried or submergedsystem initsentirety.Afacility at thepoint of attachmenttothepipe.Acceptable
is considered tobe cathodically protected when it meets methodsinclude,butarenotlimitedto
one or more of the criteria established in Appendix K. ( I ) electricalleadsattacheddirectly onthepipe
862.1 14 Electrical Isolation or by the thermit welding process, using copper oxide
(u) All coated transmission and distribution systems and aluminum powder. The size of the thermit welding
shall be electrically isolated at all interconnections with chargeshallnotexceeda 15-g cartridge.
foreign systems including customer’s fuel lines, except (2) attachmentofelectricalleadsdirectlytothe
whereundergroundmetallicstructuresareelectrically pipeby the use of soft solders or other materials that
interconnectedandcathodicallyprotectedasaunit. donotinvolvetemperaturesexceedingthoseforsoft
Steelpipelinesshallbeelectricallyisolatedfromcast solders
iron,ductileiron, or nonferrousmetalpipelinesand (c) All pipe that is barred for electrical lead connec-
components. Electrical tests shall be made of transmis- tions and all bared electrical lead wires shallbe protected
sionanddistributionsystemstolocateunintentional by electrical insulating material compatible with existing
contacts with other metallic structures. If such contacts coating.
exist,theyshallbecorrected.Seepara. 841.143 for
(u) Impressedcurrentcathodicprotectionsystems
(b) Where a gas pipeline parallels overhead electric
shall be designed,installed,andoperated so as to
transmissionlines,considerationshall be givento
minimize adverse effects on existing metallic structures.
( I ) investigating the necessityof protecting insulat-
ingjoints in thepipelineagainstinducedvoltages (6) Fieldtestsshall be conductedtodeterminethe
resulting from ground faults and lightning. Such protec- adverseelectricalinterferencefromforeignstructures,
tioncanbeobtained by connectingburiedgalvanic includingDCelectricalfacilities.Theeffectsshall be
anodes to the pipe near the insulating joints andor by mitigated by such means as control bonds, supplemen-
bridging the pipeline insulator with a spark gap, or by tary cathodic protection, protective coatings, and insulat-
other effective means ing devices.
(2) making a study in collaboration with the elec- 862.117Casings. The use of metallic casings
tric company, taking the following factors into consider- should beavoidedasmuchas as possiblefroma
ation and applyingremedialmeasuresasappropriate: corrosion control standpoint. It is recognized, however,
(u) theneedtomitigateinducedACvoltages that installation of metallic casingsis frequently required
or their effects on personnel safety during construction or desirable to facilitate construction, as an economical
andoperationofthepipelinebymeansofsuitable methodofprotectingexistingpipelines,toprovide
design for bonding, shielding, or grounding techniques structuralprotectionfromheavyand/orimpactloads


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ASME B3134999 Edition 862.117462.213

to facilitate replacement as required by a governmental 862.21 BuriedSteelFacilities

agencyand as requiredby the landowner or permit
grantor,and for otherreasons.Wheremetalliccasing 862.211 Evaluation
is used, care should be exercised to ensure that coating (a) The recordsavailableas a resultofleakage
on the carrier pipe is not damaged during installation. surveysandnormalmaintenance workin accordance
The carrier pipeshould be insulated from metallic withparas.852.2and852.6shall be continuously
casings, and the casing ends should be sealedwith a reviewed for evidence of continuing corrosion.
durable material to minimize the accumulation of solids
(b) Electricalsurveymethods may be used as an
andliquids in
the annularspace.Specialattention
should be given to the casing ends to prevent electrical indication ofsuspected corrosiveareaswheresurface
shorting due to backfilling movement or settling. Where
Such surveys are most effective in nonurbanenviron-
electrical isolation is not achieved, action shall be taken
to correctthecondition or mitigatecorrosioninside
ofthe casing by supplemental or localizedcathodic ( 1 ) pipe-to-soilpotentials
protection,installation of a high-resistivityinhibited (2) surfacepotentials (cell-to-cell)
material in the annular space, or other effective means. (3) soilresistivitymeasurements
(c) The continued effectiveness of a cathodic protec-
862.12 Atmospheric
Protection system
tionshall be monitored in accordance with para.
(u) Facilities
atmosphereshall be 862.217.
protected from external corrosion by a suitable coating
or jacket. Measures
862.212 Corrective
(b) The surface to be coated shall be free of deleteri- (u) if continuingcorrosionthat,unless controlled,
ous materials,suchasrust, scale, moisture,dirt, oil, could result in a condition that is detrimental to public
lacquer,andvarnish.Thesurfacepreparationshall be or employeesafety is found by theevaluationmade
compatible with the coating or jacket to be applied. under para. 862.211 or 862.217(d), appropriate correc-
(c) The coating or jacket selected shall possess char- tive measures shallbe taken to mitigate further corrosion
acteristicsthat will provideadequateprotectionfrom onthe piping system or segment. Corrective measures
the environment. Coatings and jackets shall completely shall be continued in effectaslongasrequiredto
covertheexposedstructureandshall be applied in maintain a safe operating system. Appropriate corrective
accordance with established specifications or manufac- measures may includethefollowing:
turer’srecommendations. ( I ) provisions for proper and continuous operation
(d) Specialconsiderationshall be given to surfaces of cathodicprotection facilities
nearthegroundline or in a splashzone. (2) application of protectivecoating
(3) installation of galvanicanode(s)
862.13 Other Materials. Where investigation or ex- (4) application ofimpressed current
perienceindicatesthattheenvironment in which the (5) electricalisolation
pipe or componentis to be installedissubstantially (6) straycurrentcontrol
corrosive, thefollowingshall be considered:
(7) othereffectivemeasures
(u) materialsand/orcomponentgeometryshall be
(8) any combination of theabove
designed to resist detrimental corrosion
(6) a suitable coating (b) When experience or testingindicatestheabove
mitigation methods will not control continuing corrosion
(c) cathodicprotection
to an acceptablelevel,thesegmentshall be recondi-
tioned or replacedandsuitablyprotected.
(99) 862.2 Existing
Procedures shallbe established for evaluating the need 862.213 Repair of Corroded Pipe. If the extent
for andeffectiveness of a corrosioncontrolprogram. of corrosion has reduced the strength of a facility below
Appropriatecorrectiveactioncommensurate with the its maximum allowable operating pressure, that portion
conditions foundshall be taken. The proceduresand shallbe repaired,reconditioned, or replaced, or the
actionsshouldinclude, but shouldnotbelimitedto, operating pressure shall be reduced, commensuratewith
theitems inparas.862.21 through862.25. the remaining strength of the corroded pipe. For steel


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862313462.223 ASME B31.8-1999 Edition

pipelinesoperating at or above 40% ofthespecified (d) Where the tests or surveys indicate that adequate
minimumyieldstrength,theremainingstrength of protection doesnot exist, appropriate corrective measure
corrodedpipe may be determined in accordance with shall be taken.
Appendix L. For background information on Appendix
L, refer to ANSVASME B31G, titled Manual for De- 862.218Casings. Electricalisolation of cathodi-
terminingtheRemainingStrength of CorrodedPipe- cally protected pipelines and mains from metallic cas-
lines. ingsthatarepart oftheundergroundsystemshall be
maintainedasnecessarytoensureeffectiveness of
862.214CathodicProtectionCriteria cathodic protection. Electrical measurements and inspec-
(u) A facility is consideredto be cathodically pro- tionsshallbemadeasnecessarytoprovidetimely
tectedwhenitmeetsone or moreof thecriteria evidence of shorts that would adversely affect cathodic
established in Appendix K. protection. Ifthere is evidence of shortsbetweenthe
(b) Itisnotintendedthatcathodicprotectionbe carrier pipe and casing that renders cathodic protection
limited to thesecriteria ifit can be demonstrated by ofthe pipeline or mainineffective, or if evidence of
other means that adequate control of corrosion has been corrosion of the carrier pipe inside the casing is found,
achieved. remedial measures shall be taken as necessary to correct
862.215ElectricalInterference the condition or minimize corrosion inside the casing.
(u) Adverse electrical interference from or to foreign
structures as determinedby field tests shall be mitigated. 862.22BuriedCast Iron, Wrought Iron, and
(6) Facilitiesformitigatingelectricalinterference DuctileIron
shall be periodicallymonitored. 862.221Evaluation. Therecordsavailableas a
862.216ExaminationWhenExposed result of leakage surveys and normal maintenance work
( a ) Whenever a buriedfacility is exposedduring in accordance with paras. 852.2 and 852.6shall be
normal maintenance or construction activities, a visual routinely reviewed to determine pipe conditions. Appro-
inspection shall be made of the coating condition and priate corrective measures shall be taken in accordance
or themetal surface, if exposed. with para. 862.222if such review reveals thata condition
(b) Theextent ofany corrosionshall be evaluated that may affect public and employee safety exists. Pipe
in accordance withpara.862.213. size,operatingpressure,terrain,recentunderground
construction;proximityandnumber of otherunder-
862.217Operation andMaintenance of
ground facilities and buildings; and pipe condition shall
be considered in determiningthepresence ofsuch a
(a) Inspections shall be made as required to maintain
continuous and effective operation of the cathodic pro-
tectionsystem. 862.222 Corrective Measures. The magnitude of
(6) Electricaltestsshallbemadeperiodicallyto theproblem will dictatethecorrectivemeasuresthat
determine that the piping system is protected in accord- shall be considered. Theymay include, butarenot
ance with theapplicablecriteria. limitedto
(c) The type, frequency, and location of inspections (a) piperepair
and tests shall be adequate to establish with reasonable (b) pipereplacement
accuracythedegree of protectionprovided onthe (c) pipereinforcementand/orsupport
pipingsystem.Frequencyshouldbedetermined by (d) pressurereduction
consideration ofitems including, butnotlimitedto,
thefollowing: 862.223Installation of ElectricalConnections
(1) condition of pipe (a) Electricalconnections may be attacheddirectly
(2) methodof cathodicprotection onto the cast or ductile iron pipe by the thermit welding
(3) corrosiveness ofthe environment process using copper oxide and aluminum powder. The
(4) probability of loss or interruption of protection size of the thermit welding charge shall not exceed a
(5) operating experience, including inspections and 32-gcartridge.
leak investigations (b) All pipethatisbared for testlead connections
(6) designlifeofthe cathodicprotectioninstal- andallbaredtestleadwiresshall be protected by
lation electricalinsulatingmaterialcompatible with theex-
(7) public or employeesafety istingcoating.


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STD-ASME 831.8-ENGL.1999 0759b70 Ob17148 5bB m

ASME B31.8-1999 Edition 862324-863.2

862.224ElectricalInterference factors should be included in the design and construc-

(a) If an impressed current type cathodic protection tion, either separately or in combination.
system is used,theanodesshall be located so asto (a) Wheninternalcoatingisto be usedtoprotect
mitigate adverse effects on existing underground metal- a pipingsystem
lic structures. ( I ) the coating shallmeet the quality specifications,
(b) Adverse electrical interference from foreign struc- and the minimum dry film thickness shall be established
tures as determined byfieldtestsshall be mitigated. to protect the facility from the corrosive media involved,
based on the type of coating and methods of application
862.23Requirements for CastIronandDuctile
(2) applied coatings shall be inspected in accord-
Iron Piping FacilitiesExposed to Atmosphere. Above-
ance with established specificationsor accepted practice
ground cast iron and ductile iron pipe shall be suitably
(3) provision shall be made to prevent joint corro-
protected in areas where severe atmospheric corrosion
sion, such as cleaning and recoating or the continuing
may occur.
useof a suitable inhibitor when coated pipe or other
862.24 OtherMetallicMaterials. When a nonfer- componentsarejoined by welding or other methods
rous metal or ferrous alloy component is found to have that leave the parentmetalexposed
corroded to the point where public or employee safety (4) thetypes of coatingandpittingtools used
may be affected, it shall be reconditioned in accordance should be evaluated andchosentopreventdamageto
withpara.862.13 or replaced.Thereplacementshall the internal coating ifpigs or spheres are to be used
meetone ofthe followingcriteria: (6)When a corrosioninhibitoristo be used as an
(a) it shall be constructed with other materials and/ additive to the gas streams
or geometrydesigned for theremaininglife of the ( I ) theequipment for theholding,transfer,and
parentfacility injection of theinhibitorintothe stream shall be
(6) itshallbecathodically or otherwiseprotected. included in thedesign
(2) the operation oftheinjectionprogramshould
862.25AtmosphericCorrosion. Facilitiesexposed be a partoftheplanning
to theatmosphereshall be periodicallyinspectedfor
(3) sufficient test coupon holders or other monitor-
indication of surfacecorrosion.Wherecorrosion is
ing equipment shall be provided to allow for continued
takingplacetotheextentthatpublic or employee
safety may be affected, the facility shall be reconditioned
(4) thecorrosioninhibitorselectedshall be of a
in accordance with para.862.12 or replaced.Special
type that will not cause deteriorationof any components
considerationshall be giventosurfacesnearthe
ofthe pipingsystem
(c) When a pipelinepiggingsystemisplanned:
( I ) scraper traps for the insertion and removal of
863INTERNALCORROSIONCONTROL pigsand/orspheresshallbeprovided
(2) sections of pipelinetobetraversedbypigs
863.1General or spheres shall be designed to prevent damage to pigs,
spheres,pipes, or fittingsduringoperations
When corrosivegas is transported,provisionsshall ( 3 ) pipingforpigs or spheresshall be designed
be taken to protect the piping system from detrimental to guide the tool and the materials they propel effectively
corrosion. Gas containing free water under the condi- andsafely
tions at which it will be transported shall be assumed (4) provisions shall be made for effective accumu-
to be corrosive,unlessproventobenoncorrosive by lation and handlingof liquid and solidmaterials removed
recognized tests or experience. fromthepipeline bypigs or spheres
( d ) When corrosion coupons, corrosion probes, and/
863.2 New Installations or test spools areto be used
When designing a new or replacement pipeline sys- ( I ) corrosion coupons, probes, or test spools shall
tem, or additions or modifications to existing systems, be installedwherepracticalatlocationswherethe
measures shall be considered to prevent and/or inhibit greatestpotentialforinternalcorrosion exists
internalcorrosion. To preservetheintegrityandeffi- ( 2 ) corrosion coupons, probes, and test spools must
ciency of a pipeline in which it is known or anticipated be designed to permit passage of pigs or spheres when
thatcorrosivegas will be transported,thefollowing installed in sectionstraversedthereby


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863.2-864.1 ASME B31.8-1999Edition

(e) When gas is to be treated to reduce its corosivity ( I ) An effective corrosion inhibitor shallbe applied
( I ) separators and/or dehydration equipment may in a manner and quantity to protect all affected portions
be installed ofthe piping systems.
(2) equipment for the removal of other deleterious (2) Corrosiveagentsshall be removed byrecog-
materialfromthegasshould be considered. nized methods, such as acid gas or dehydration treating
cfl Thematerialofthepipeand other equipment plants.
exposed to the gas stream must resist internal corrosion; (3) Fittingsshall beadded for removal of water
therefore, from low spots, or piping shall be positioned to reduce
( I ) materialsselectedforpipeandfittingsshall sump capacities.
be compatible withthe components ofthe gas,the (4) Undersomecircumstances,application of a
liquidscarried by thegas,andwitheachother. A suitableinternalcoating may beeffective.
source of information on materialsperformance in ( c ) Internal corrosion control measures shall be eval-
corrosive environments is The Corrosion Data Survey, uated by an inspection and monitoring program, includ-
published byNACE. ing,butnot limitedto,thefollowing.
(2) whereplastic,nonferrous, or alloysteelpipe ( I ) The inhibitor and the inhibitor injection system
and components are used to prevent or control internal should be periodicallychecked.
corrosion, suchmaterialsshallhavebeendetermined (2) Corrosioncouponsandtest spools shall be
to be effective under the conditions encountered. [See removedandevaluated at periodicintervals.
paras.842.61 l(b) and849.611(b) for limitationson (3) Corrosion probes should be checked manually
copper.] at intervals, or continuously or intermittently monitored
(3) erosion+orrosioneffectsfromhigh-velocity and/or recorded to evaluate control of pipeline internal
particles at probable points of turbulence and impinge- corrosion.
mentshould be minimized byuseof erosion-resistant (4) A record of the internal condition of the pipe,
materials, added wall thickness, design or flow configu- of leaks and repairs from corrosion, and of gas, liquids,
ration, and size or dimensions of the pipe and fittings. or solids quantities and corrosivity should be kept and
used as a basis for changes inthe piggingschedule,
863.3 ExistingInstallations inhibitor program, or gas treatment facility.
A pipelineinternalcorrosioncontrolprogramshall (5) When pipe is uncovered, or on exposed piping
include, butshallnot be limitedto,thefollowing: where internal corrosion may be anticipated, pipe wall
(a) The establishment and evaluation of a program thickness measurement or monitoring will help evaluate
for the detection, prevention, or mitigation of detrimental internalcorrosion.
internalcorrosionshouldinclude the following: (6) Where inspections, observation,or record anal-
( I ) Pipelineleakandrepairrecordsshould be
reviewed for indication of the effects ofinternal cor- extent that may be detrimental to public or employee
rosion. safety,thatportion of the system shall be repaired or
reconditioned,andappropriatestepsshall be taken to
(2) Whenany part of a pipelineisremovedand
mitigatetheinternal corrosion.
the internal surface is accessible for inspection, it
should be visually examined and evaluated for internal
(3) If evidence of internal corrosion is discovered,
the gas shallbe analyzed to determinethetypesand
concentrations of any corrosive agents. 864.1 General
(4) Liquids or solids removedfromthepipeline Special consideration must be given to the corrosion
by pigging,draining, or cleanupshouldbeanalyzed control requirementsof buried pipelines and other facili-
asnecessary to determinethepresence of corrosive tiesinstalled in arctic environments,particularly in
materials and evidence of corrosionproducts. permafrost regions. For pipelines in contact with frozen
(b) Whereitisdeterminedthatinternalcorrosion earth,thecorrosionrate is reducedbecauseof the
takingplacecouldaffectpublic or employeesafety, extremelyhighresistivityofthesoilandlowion
one or more ofthe following protective or corrective mobility, but it does not reach zero. Significant corrosion
measuresshall be usedto controldetrimentalinternal can occur, however, in unfrozen inclusions, discontinu-
corrosion: ouspermafrost, or thawareassuchasthosethat may


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ASME B31.8-1999 Edition 864.1-864.5

occur in the vicinity of rivers, lakes, springs, or pipeline (b) Impressedcurrentanode beds shallbe installed
sections where the pipe surface temperatureis above the wheneverfeasibleat a sufficientdistancefrom the
freezing pointof the environment. Cathodic protectionin pipeline or otherundergroundstructures to achieve
localizedthawareas maybe moredifficultdueto maximum spread along the pipeline and to reduce the
theshielding of cathodicprotectioncurrents bythe peak potential at thepipeline.
surroundingfrozensoil.Otherdetrimentaleffectscan (c) Anodebedsshall be installed,wherepractical,
becaused byseasonalthawsthatincreasebiological below thepermafrostlevel or in otherunfrozenloca-
andbacteriologicactivity inthenonpermafrostareas tions,suchas a stream or lake, to achieve better
or in the“activelayer”aboveunderlyingpermafrost. cathodiccurrentdistribution. Whereanodesmustbe
Pipeline facilities installed in arcticenvironments installed in permanently frozen ground, the volume of
shallbe coated and cathodically protected inthe same the anode backfill material should be increased to reduce
manner as pipelines in temperatelocations,andthe theeffectiveresistance betweentheanodeandthe
sameconsiderationshall begiventotheneed for surrounding earth.
protectionfrominternal and atmosphericcorrosion,
(d) Impressedcurrentfacilitiesusingdistributed or
except as specificallyprovided in thissection.
deepanodeground bedsshouldbeusedto protect
buried station facilities and pilings where used
to support
aboveground plant facilities. The pilings and any other
Coatingsforpipelines in low-temperatureenviron- adjacent underground metallic facilities must be electri-
mentsshallbeselectedaccordingtotheparticular cally interconnected to prevent detrimental interference.
requirements of that environment. These include adhe-
sion, resistance to cracking or damage during handling
864.33GalvanicAnode Installations. Galvanic
and installation in subfreezing temperatures, applicabil-
anodes (packaged or ribbon) may be needed on pipelines
ity of field joint coatings or coating repairs, compatibility
in permafrostareastosupplementimpressed current
with any applied cathodic protection, and resistance to
facilities in localized thawed areas. This provides local-
ized cathodic protection to those sections of pipe that
changes, or other reasons.
might be shielded bytheextremelyhighresistivityof

86431 Criteria. Criteria for cathodic protection shall 864.4Monitoring

be the same as those for pipelines in temperate environ- Installation of calibrated current measurement spans
ments.Becausehigherdrivingvoltages are normally should beconsidered in addition to thenormaltest
required in frozensoils,thevoltageimpressedacross points. These should be installed at sufficient intervals
thecoatingshouldbelimited so thatthecoatingis toevaluatecurrentdistributionalongtheprotected
not subject to damage due to cathodic overvoltage or pipelineand the effects of telluriccurrentsprevalent
excessivecurrentdensity. in polarregions.Thesespansalsoprovide contact
points for measuringindications of possiblecoating
86432 Impressed CurrentFacilities damage due to stresses induced by a frozen environment.

(a) Impressedcurrentfacilitiesshallbeusedon 864.5 InternalCorrosionControl

pipelines in permanentlyfrozensoil,especiallywhere
the gas is chilled to prevent thawing of the earth. Such Wherethe gas streamischilledtopreventmelting
facilities are capable ofprovidingthehigher driving of frozensoilsurrounding the pipeline,there will not
voltageneeded to overcome thehighresistivityof normallybeenoughfreewater in thegastoresultin
frozen soil. They canbe installed at compressor stations internal corrosion in the presence of contaminants, such
or other facilities where power is available and access as sulfur compounds or COs. If it is anticipated, how-
for adjustment and maintenance is ensured. The effects ever, that free water or water/alcohol solutions will be
ofseasonalvariations in
be present in the pipeline along with potentially corrosive
compensatedfor byusing constantpotentialrectifiers contaminants, suitable corrective measures shall be taken
or manualadjustments. asprescribed in para. 863.


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865-867 ASME B31.8-1999 Edition

865PIPELINESINHIGHTEMPERATURE 865.4InternalCorrosionControl
SERVICE When gas or a mixture of gas and liquids or solids
knownor anticipated to be corrosive is transported at
elevatedtemperatures,specialconsiderationshall be
865.1General giventotheidentificationandmitigationofpossible
internal corrosion. Such measures are necessary because
Special consideration must be given to the corrosion
corrosion reaction rates increase with elevated tempera-
in high-temperatureservice(above 150°F). Elevated monitoringmeasuresaregiven in para. 863.
temperatures tend to decrease the resistivity of buried
or submergedpipelineenvironmentsandtoincrease
theelectrochemicalcorrosionreaction as aresult of
accelerated ionic or molecular activity. Elevated temper-
aturestypicallyoccurdownstream of compressorsta- Environmentally induced and other corrosion-related
tionsor in gatheringsystems. phenomena, including stress corrosion cracking, corro-
865.2ExternalCoatingRequirements embrittlement have been identified as causes of pipeline
failure.Considerableknowledge and datahavebeen
Coatingsshall be selectedbasedontheparticular acquired and assembled on these phenomena, andre-
requirements for pipeline facilities in high temperature search is continuing as to their causes and prevention.
service.Theseincluderesistancetodamagefromsoil Operating companies should be alertforevidence of
or secoqdarystresses,compatibilitywithanyapplied such phenomena duringallpipe inspections andat
cathodic protection, and particularly, resistance to ther- othersuchopportunities.Whereevidenceofsucha
mal degradation. In rockyenvironments,theuse of a conditionisfound,aninvestigativeprogramshall be
initiated,andremedialmeasuresshall be taken as
protective outer wrap, select backfill, or other suitable
necessary. Any such evidence should be given consider-
ation in allpipelinefailureinvestigations.Operating
damage. companies should avail themselves of current technol-
ogy on the subject and/or consult with knowledgeable
865.3CathodicProtectionFacilities experts.
This paragraph must be limited to general statements
865.31 Criteria. Criteria for cathodic protection shall rather than specific limits in regard to stress corrosion.
be thesame as thosefornormaltemperatureservice, Stress corrosion is currently the subject of investigative
except that recognition should be giventotheeffects research programs, and more specific data will certainly
of decreased resistivity and increased cathodic protection be availabletothepipelinedesignerandoperating
currentrequirements in elevatedtemperatureservice company in the future. In the interim, this Code suggests
onanyIRcomponentofthepipe-to-soilpotential thattheuserrefertothecurrentstateoftheart.
measurement.Possibledepolarizationeffectsdueto Cathodic protection current levels, quality of pipe sur-
hightemperatureoperationshallalsobeconsidered. facepreparationandcoating,operatingtemperatures,
stresslevels,and soil conditionsshall be considered
in pipelinedesignandoperations.
865.32Galvanic Anodes. Consideration shall be
given to the impact on the performance of close galvanic 867RECORDS
( a ) Records indicating cathodically protected piping,
elevatedtemperaturesdue to theirproximitytoahot cathodicprotectionfacilities,andotherstructuresaf-
pipeline. Higher temperatures tend to increase the cur- fected by or affectingthecathodicprotectionsystem
rentoutput andrateof degradation of mostanode shallbemaintained bythe operatingcompany.
materials.Someanodematerialsmaybecomemore (6) Records of tests, surveys, inspection results, leaks,
noble than steel at temperatures above 140°F in certain etc., necessary for evaluating the effectiveness of corro-
electrolytes. Zinc anodes containing aluminum are also sion control measures, shall be maintained and retained
susceptibletointergranularcorrosionabove 120°F. for as long as thepipingremains in service.

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870 MISCELLANEOUS (b) Theproducts of combustion fromthe odorant

shall be nontoxic to humansbreathing air containing
theproductsof combustion and shall not be corrosive
or harmfultothe materialswithwhichsuchproducts
of combustionwouldordinarilycome in contact.
871.1 (c) The combination ofthe odorant and the natural
Any gas distributed to customers through gas mains odor of the gas shall provide a distinctive odor so that
or servicelines or used for domesticpurposes in when gas ispresent in air at theconcentration of as
compressor plants, which does not naturally possess a little as 1% by volume,the odor isreadilydetectable
distinctive odor to theextentthat its presencein the by a personwith a normalsense of smell.
atmosphere is readily detectable at all gas concentrations
of one-fifth of thelowerexplosivelimitandabove, 871.4
shallhaveanodorantadded to ittomakeit so For all odorizers, except small wick-type or bypass-
detectable. type, or similar odorizers serving individual customers
871.11 Odorization is notrequiredfor or small distribution systems, each operating company
(a) gas in underground or other storage shallmaintainrecordscontainingthefollowingitems
(6) gas used for further processing or use where the (a) thetypeof odorantintroducedintothegas
odorant would servenousefulpurposeas a warning (6) theamount of odorantinjected per millioncu-
agent or wouldbe a detriment to theprocess bicfeet
(c) gas usedin lease or fieldoperations
871.12 If gasisdelivered for useprimarilyin one
ofthe aboveexemptedactivities or facilitiesandis Each operating company shall conduct odorant con-
also used in one ofthose activities for space heating, centrationtests on gas suppliedthroughits facilities
refrigeration, water heating, cooking, and other domestic that requires odorization. Test points shall be remotely
uses, or if such gas is used for furnishing heat or air locatedfromtheodorizingequipmenttoprovidedata
conditioning for office or living quarters, the gas shall representative of gasatallpoints of the system.
be odorized.


Each operating company shall use odorization equip-
ment designed for the type and injection rateof odorant
Liquefied petroleum gases generally include butane,
87 1.3 propane,andmixtures ofthe twothatcan be stored
Each operatingcompanyshall usean odorant in
as liquids under moderate pressures (approximately 80
accordancewiththefollowingrequirements: psigto 250 psig) at ambienttemperatures.
(a) Theodorant, whenblendedwithgasinthe
specifiedamount,shallnot be deleterioustohumans
or to the materials present in the gas system and shall ThisCode is concernedonlywithcertainsafety
not be soluble inwaterto a greaterextent than 2v2 aspects ofliquefiedpetroleumgaseswhentheyare
parts of odorantto 100 parts ofwaterby weight. vaporizedandusedasgaseousfuels.


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872.3-873.2 ASME B31.8-1999Edition

872.3 to preventaccumulationoftheheavygases at or
belowgroundlevel.Likewise,specialprecautions are
All oftherequirementsof ANSVNFPA 58 and
ANSVNFPA 59 andofthisCodeconcerningdesign,
are madefortherepairofleaksinanunderground
construction, and operation and maintenance of piping
facilities shall apply to piping systems handling butane,
propane, or mixturesofthesegases.
872.4 Special Safety Requirements for LPG Systems WAY OF ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION
872.41Odorization. Liquefiedpetroleumgasesare
usuallynontoxic,butwhendistributedforconsumer Where gas pipelines parallel overhead electric trans-
use or used asfuelinaplaceofemployment,they missionlinesonthesameright-of-way,thecompany
shallbeodorizedforsafety.Criteriaforodorization operating the pipelines shall take the following precau-
aregiven in section 871.' tions:

872.42Ventilation 873.1
(a) All liquefied petroleum gases are heavier than air; Employblowdownconnectionsthatwilldirectthe
hence,structuresabovegroundforhousingregulators, gasawayfromtheelectricconductors.
meters, etc., shall have open vents near the floor level.
Suchequipmentshallnot be installed in pits or in 873.2 (991
provisionsforforcedventilationaremade. Install a bonding conductor across points where the
main isto be separatedandmaintainthisconnection
(6) Special care is required in the location of relief
valve discharge vents releasing LPG to the atmosphere
capacity ofthebondingconductorshould be atleast
one-half of the current carrying capacity of the overhead
' Refer to ANSVNFF'A 58 and ANSVNFPA 59. line conductors. [See also para. 862.1 14(b).]


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STDmASME B3L-8-ENGL 1999 m 0759670 ObL7L54 8bL m

ASME B3161999 Edition


A800 OFFSHORE GASTRANSMISSION the safety and reliability requirements of the Code are

(991 A801
Chapter VI11 pertains only to offshore gas transmis- A803 OFFSHORE GASTRANSMISSION
sionsystems as definedinpara.A802.1.Withthe DEFINITIONS
exception of sections A840throughA842,A844,and
accidental loads: anyunplannedload or combination
A847, this Chapter is organized to parallel the number-
ingand the content of thefirstsixchaptersofthe of loads caused byhuman intervention.
Code. All provisions of the first sixchapters ofthe breakaway coupling: a component introduced into the
Code are also requirements of thisChapterunless pipelinetoallowthepipeline to separatewhen a
specifically modified herein. Chapter VI1 is not applica- predetermined axial load is applied to the coupling.
ble. With the exceptions noted above, paragraph desig-
nations follow those inthefirstsixchapterswiththe buckle: a condition where the pipeline has undergone
prefix “A.” sufficient plastic deformation to cause permanent wrin-
klinginthepipewall or excessive cross sectional
deformationcaused by bending, axial, impact, andor
A802 SCOPE ANDINTENT torsionalloadsactingalone or in combinationwith
AS02.1 Scope buckle arrestor: any deviceattached to or made a
part of the pipe for arresting a propagating buckle.
This Chapter of the Code covers the design, material
requirements,fabrication,installation,inspection,test- buckle derecroc any means for detecting dents, exces-
ing,andsafetyaspects of operationandmaintenance sive ovalization, or buckles in a pipeline.
of offshore gas transmission systems. For this Chapter,
column buckling: buckling of a beam or pipeunder
offshore gas transmission systems include offshore gas
compressiveaxialload inwhich loadscauseunstable
pipelines, pipeline risers, offshore gas compressor sta-
tions, pipeline appurtenances, pipe supports, connectors,
and other components as addressed specifically in connectors: anycomponent,exceptflanges, used for
theCode. mechanically joining two sections ofpipe.

A802.2 Intent external hydrostaticpressure: pressureactingonany

external surface resulting from its submergence
in water.
The intent ofthisChapter is toprovideadequate
requirements for the safe and reliable design, installa- flexiblepipe: pipethatis
tion, and operation ofoffshore gas transmission systems. (a) manufacturedfrombothmetalandnonmetal
Requirements of this Chapter supplement the require- components
ments of theremainder oftheCode.Itistherefore ( 6 ) capable of allowinglargedeflectionswithout
nottheintentofthisChapterto be all inclusive, and adverselyaffectingthe pipe’s integrity
provisions must be made for any special considerations ( c ) intended to be an integral part of the permanent
that are not specifically addressed. producttransportationsystem
It is not theintent of this Chapter topreventthe Flexible pipe does not include solid steel pipe, plastic
developmentandapplication ofnew equipmentand pipe, fiber reinforced plastic pipe, rubber hose, or solid
technologies.Suchactivity is encouragedaslongas steelpipeslinedwithnonsteellinings or coatings.


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STDOASME B31-8-ENGL L999 m 075Sb70 Ob17155 7TB m

AsOSA814.2 ASME B31.8-1999 Edition

hyperbaric weld: a weld performed at ambient hydro- pull-tuberiser: riserpipe or pipesinstalledthrough

staticpressure in asubmergedchamberfromwhich apulltube.
thewater has beenremovedfromthesurfaces to be
return interval: averagetimeintervalbetweensucces-
sive events of design wave being equalled or exceeded.
offshore: theareabeyondthelineofordinaryhigh soil liquefaction: a soil condition, typically caused by
wateralongtheportion of thecoastthatis in direct dynamic cyclic loading (e.g., earthquake, waves) where
contact with the open seas and beyond the line marking theeffectiveshearstresses in thesoilarereduced to
theseawardlimit of inlandcoastalwaters. zero,andthesoilexhibits the propertiesofaliquid.
offshore pipelineriser: thevertical or nearvertical splash zone: thearea ofthepipelineriser or other
portionofanoffshorepipelinebetweentheplatform pipeline components that is intermittently wet and dry
piping and the pipeline at or below the seabed, including duetowaveandtidalaction.
a length of pipe of at least five pipe diameters beyond
weight coating: anycoatingattachedtothepipeline
thebottomelbow,bend, or fitting.Duetothewide
variety of configurations, the exact location of transition
must be selected onacase-by-casebasis. AS11
AND (99)
offshore pipeline system: all components of a pipeline
installed offshore for transporting gas other than produc- “Unidentified’pipe,plasticpipe,plasticpipewith
tion facility piping. Tanker or barge loading hoses are nonmetallic reinforcement,castironpipe,andductile
not considered part of the offshore pipeline system. iron pipe shall not be used for transporting natural gas.

offshore plarform: any man-made fixed or permanently MATERIAL

A814 (991
anchored structure or artificial island located offshore.
pipecollapse: flatteningdeformation of thepipere- AS14.1 199)
sulting in loss ofcross-sectionalstrength and circular Concrete weight coating materials (cement, aggregate,
shape, which is caused by excessive external hydrostatic reinforcing steel) shall meet or exceed the requirements
pressureactingalone. of applicable ASTM standards.
Flexiblepipeshall be manufacturedfrommaterials
platformpiping: dueto a widevarietyof configura- meeting the requirements of applicable ASTMor ASME
tions, the exact location of the transition between the standards.
offshore pipeline riser(s), the platform piping, and the
productionfacilityshall be selectedoncase-by-
a AS14.2 (99)
(a) On offshoreplatformswherehydrocarbonsare In additionto the requirementscontained inrefer-
produced, platform piping consists of all the gas trans- encedstandards,certainotherrequirementsmay be
mission piping, appurtenances, and components that are consideredforpipe and othercomponentsusedoff-
between the production facility and the off-shore pipe- shore,dependingonwaterdepth,watertemperature,
lineriser(s).Thisincludesanygascompressorsand internal pressure, product composition, product tempera-
piping that are notapartoftheproductionfacility. ture, installation method and/or other loading conditions.
Thus,consideration may includeone or moreofthe
( b ) On offshoreplatformswherehydrocarbonsare
( a ) wallthicknesstolerance
transmissionpiping,compressors,appurtenances,and (b) outsidediametertolerance
componentsbetween the offshorepipelinerisers. (c) out-of-roundness
propagating buckle: abucklethatprogressesrapidly (d) maximumand m i n i m u m yieldandtensile
along a pipeline caused by the effect of external hydro- strengths
staticpressureonapreviouslyformedbuckle,local (e) maximumcarbonequivalent
collapse, or othercross-sectionaldeformation. If) fracturetoughness
(g) hardness
pull tube: aconduitattachedtoanoffshoreplatform (h) pipe mill hydrostatic testing and other mechanical
throughwhicharisercanbeinstalled. testing


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ASME B31.8-1999 Edition A816A826.21


Transportation bytruck or other road vehicles shall ANDWELDERS
be performed insuch a manneras t6 avoiddamage Qualification of procedures and welders shall be in
tothepipe.Provisionsshall be made to protectthe accordance with the requirements ofpara. 823, except
pipeline corrosion coating, end bevel, and weight coatingparas. 823.1 and 8.23.2 donotapplyoffshore.
fromdamage. (u) Welding procedures andweldersperforming at-
mospheric welding under this section shall be qualified
A820WELDINGOFFSHOREPIPELINES under API Standard 1104, except that for applications
in which design, materials, fabrication, inspection, and
testing are in accordance with BPV Code, Section VIII.
A821GENERAL welding procedures and welders shallbe qualified under
BPV Code,Section IX.
(99) A821.1 Scope (b) Welding procedures and welders performing hy-
This Sectionconcerns the welding of carbonsteel perbaric weldingunderthissectionshallbequalified
materialsthatare usedin a pipeline in theoffshore in accordance with the testing provisions of API Stan-
environment. The welding covered may be performed dard 1104 as supplemented by ANSUAWS D3.6, Speci-
under atmospheric or hyperbaric conditions. fication for Underwater Welding for Type “ O ’ Welds.

STRESS A825 (99)
The welding may be done by any process or combina-
tionof processesthatproduceweldsthat meet the Stress relieving requirements may be waived, regard-
procedure qualification requirements of thisCodeand less ofwall thickness, provided that it can be demon-
canbeinspected by conventionalmeans. stratedthat a satisfactoryweldingprocedurewithout
the use of postweld heat treatment has been developed.
A821.3Requirements Such a demonstration shall be conducted on materials
and under conditions that simulate, as closely as practi-
(u) Prior to atmospheric welding of any pipe, piping cal, the actual production welding. Measurements shall
components, or related equipment, Welding Procedure be taken of the tensile, toughness, and hardness proper-
Specifications shall be written andthe procedure shall ties oftheweldandheat-affectedzone.Nostress
bequalified.Theapprovedprocedureshallincludeall relieving will be required if
ofthe applicable details listedinAPI Standard 1104. (u) the measurements indicate that the metallurgical
(b) Prior to hyperbaric welding ofany pipe, piping and mechanical properties are within the limits specified
components, or related equipment, Welding Procedure for thematerialsandintendedservice
Specifications shall be written and the procedureshall ( b ) an engineeringanalysis is conducted to ensure
be qualified. The approved procedure shall include all that the mechanical properties of the weldment and the
ofthe applicable details listed inAPI Standard 1104 residualstresseswithoutpostweldheattreatment are
andANSUAWS D3.6. satisfactory for theintendedservice.Insomecases,
(c) Each welder or welding operator shall be qualified measurement of residualstresses may be required.
for theestablishedprocedurebeforeperforming any
weldingonany pipe, pipingcomponent, or related
equipmentinstalled in accordance withthisCode. A826WELDINGANDINSPECTIONTESTS
(d) Weldingprocedurequalifications, as well as
welder or welding operator qualifications,are valid only
A826.2Inspectionand Tests forQualityControl of (99)
withinthespecified limits oftheweldingprocedure.
Welds on PipingSystems
If changes are made in certain details, called “essential
variables” or “essentialchanges,”additionalqualifica- A826.21Extent of Examination. Onehundredper- (99)
tion is required. API Standard 1104 essential variables cent of thetotalnumber of circumferentialfieldbutt
shalltakeprecedence in matters not affected bythe weldsonoffshorepipelinesshallbenondestructively
underwaterenvironment, andANSVAWS D3.6 shall inspected, if practical,butinno case shalllessthan
govern those essential changes related to the underwater 90% ofsuchweldsbeinspected.Theinspectionshall
welding environment and working conditions. cover 100% ofthe length of suchinspectedwelds.


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STD-ASME B31.B-ENGL 1999 0759b70 Ob17157 570 m

A826.22A84Q.Z ASME B31.8-1999Edition

A826.22 Standard of Acceptability. All welds that temperature during operations and material temperature
are inspected must meetthe standards of acceptability duringinstallation.
of API Standard 1104 or BPV Code, Section VIII, as
appropriate for the service of the weld, ‘or be appropri-
atelyrepairedandreinspected or removed. A834SUPPORTSANDANCHORAGEFOR
A826.23 Alternative Flaw Acceptance Limits. For
girthweldson a pipeline,alternative flaw acceptance Supports arid anchorage for platform piping and risers
limits may be established based on fracture mechanics shall conform to the requirements of para. 834, except
analyses and fitness-for-purpose criteria as described in thatno attachment, other thanan encirclingmember,
API Standard 1104. Such alternativeacceptancestan- shallbewelded directly to thepipeline.(Seepara.
dards shall be supported by appropriate stress analyses, A842.27.)
supplementary welding procedure test requirements, and
nondestructiveexaminations beyondtheminimumre-
quirements specified herein. The accuracy of the nonde- A835ANCHORAGEFORBURIEDPIPING
structivetechniques for flawdepthmeasurementshall Thermal expansion and contraction calculations shall
beverifiedbysufficientdatatoestablishprobabilities consider the effects of fully saturated backfill material
for theproposedinspectionerrorallowance. onsoilrestraint.
When a submergedpipelineisto belaid across a
A830PIPINGSYSTEMCOMPONENTSAND known fault zone, or in an earthquake-prone area where
FABRICATIONDETAILS new faults are a possibility, consideration shallbe given
to theneed forflexibility in thepipelinesystemand
A830.1General its components tominimizethepossibilityofdamage
duetoseismic activity.
The purpose of thisSection is toprovide a set of Therequirements ofpara.835.51 forheaderand
criteria for system components tobe used in an offshore branch connections are not applicable to offshore sub-
application. mergedpiping systems. An appropriate meansofpre-
ventingundue stresses at offshoresubmergedpiping
connections is to provide adequate flexibility at branch
connections onthe seabed.
Cast iron or ductile iron shall not be used in flanges,
fittings, or valveshellcomponents.
All system components for offshore applications shall AS40DESIGN,INSTALLATION,AND
be capable of safelyresistingthesameloadsasthe TESTING
pipeinthemninwhichthey areincluded,except
“weak links” (e.g., break-away couplings) designed into AS40.1GeneralProvisions
a system to fail underspecificloads.Consideration
should be giventominimizingstressconcentrations. The design, installation, and testing of offshore gas
System components whicharenot specifically cov- transmission systems shall be in accordance with Chap-
ered in para. 831 shall be validated for fitness by either ter IV asspecïficallymodified by theprovisions of
(a) documented full scaleprototypetesting ofthe Chapter VIII. Also,allprovisions of Chapter IV that
components or specialassemblies, or depend onlocation class and construction type do not
(b) a history of successful usageof these components apply to offshore gas transmission systems, except that
or specialassembliesproduced bythesamedesign offshore pipelines approaching shoreline areas shall be
method. Care shouldbe exercised in any new application additionally designed and tested consistently with class
of existing designs to ensure suitability for the intended locationprovisionsasdeterminedinpara.A840.2.
AS40.2 ShorelineApproaches
Offshore pipelines approaching shoreline areas shall
be additionallydesignedandtestedconsistently with
Thermal expansion and contraction calculations shall class location provisions as determined insection 840,
consider thetemperaturedifferentialbetweenmaterial except that


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ASME B31.8-1999 Edition AW.2-A84131

(a) offshorepipelines in LocationClass 3 and 4 A841.22 Profile. Variations in water depth along the
may alternatively be hydrostatically tested to a pressure pipeline route shall be considered. The effect of tides
not less than 1.25 times the maximum operating pressure shall be includedforlocationswheresuchvariations
so longastheprovisions of section A826 are met are a significantfraction ofthewater depth.Bottom
(b) for offshore pipelines, the provisions of section slope, obstructions, or irregularities which affect installa-
A847 supersedepara. 841.32. tion stressesshall be considered.

AM1.23 Environmental Loads. Local environmen-

A841 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS tal forcesincludingthoseinduced by wind,wave,
currents, ice, seismic activity, and other natural phenom-
enonaresubjecttoradicalchange in offshoreareas.
A841.1 DesignConditions
Thesepotentialchangesshould be consideredduring
A number of physical parameters, henceforth referred installationdesignandcontingencyplanning.
to as design conditions, govern design ofthe offshore
pipeline system so that it meets installation, operation, A841.24 Loads Imposed by Construction
andotherpost-installationrequirements.Some ofthe Equipmentand Vessel Motions. Limitations and be-
factorswhich mayinfluencethe safetyandreliability havioralcharacteristics of installationequipmentshall
ofan offshore pipeline and riser include: be considered in theinstallationdesign.
(a) waves Vesselmotionsshall be considered if they are ex-
( 6 ) current pected to result in pipe stresses or pipelcoating damage
(c) marine soils sufficienttoimpairtheserviceability ofthe pipeline.
(d) wind
A841.25 Bottom Soils. Soilcharacteristicsshall be
(e) ice consideredwheninstallationprocedures are developed
cf) seismicactivity for the following:
(g) platformmotion
( a ) riserinstallation in pull tubes
(h) temperature
(b) layinghorizontalcurves in the pipelinerouting
(i) pressure
( c ) pipelinebottomtows
(J) waterdepth
( d ) trenchingandbackfilling
(k) supportsettlement
(1) accidentalloads A8413 OperationalDesignConsiderations
( m ) commercialshipping
(n) fishinghhrimping activities A841.31 LoadingClassifications. All parts ofthe
The design of offshote pipelines is often controlled offshorepipelineandriser system shall be designed
by installationconsiderationsrather thanby operating forthemostcriticalcombinations of operational and
loadconditions. designenvironmentalloads,actingconcurrently, to
whichthesystemmay be subjected. Wind, wave, and
A841.2 InstallationDesignConsiderations current design loads should be based on a design return
intervalnolessthanfivetimesthedesignlifeof the
Thedesign of anoffshorepipelinesystemsuitable pipeline or 1 0 0 years,whicheverissmaller.
for safeinstallationandthedevelopment of offshore If thepipelineoperatingphilosophyissuchthat
pipelineconstructionproceduresshall be basedon operations with full operational loads will be maintained
consideration of the parameters listed in paras. A841.21 during design storms, then the system shall be designed
through A841.25. These parameters shall be considered for concurrent action of operational and design environ-
to the extent that they are significant totheproposed mentalloads.
systemandapplicable to themethod of installation If theoperatingphilosophyissuchthatoperations
beingconsidered. will bereduced or discontinuedduringdesignstorm
A841.21 Weight. The effect of pipe or pipelineconditions,thenthe Systemshall be designed for
assembly weights (in air and submerged) on installation (a) full operational loads plus maximum coincidental
stresses and strains shall be considered. Variability due ~~vim~mental hds
to weight coating manufacturingtolerancesandwater (6) designenvironmentalloads plus appropriatere-
absorptionshall also be considered. ducedoperationalloads


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A84131-AS4218 ASME B31.8-1999 Edition

Directionality of waves, winds and currents shall be A842.11 Buckling. The pipeline should be designed
consideredtodeterminethe most criticalexpected andinstalled in amanner to preventbucklingduring
combination of above loadings. installation. Design andproceduresforinstallation
A841.32 Operational Loads. Operational loads that pressure,bendingmoment,axial,andtorsionalloads
shall be considered are thoseforcesimposed on the andpipeout-of-roundness.Considerationshouldalso
pipelinesystemunderstaticenvironmentalconditions be giventothebucklepropagationphenomenon.
(i.e., excluding wind, waves, current, and other dynamic
loadings). A842.12 Collapse. The pipe wall thickness shall be
Loads that should be considered as operational loads designedtoresistcollapseduetoexternalhydrostatic
include pressure.Considerationsshallincludetheeffectsof
(a) weight of unsupportedspanofpipe,including mill tolerances in the wall thickness, out-of-roundness,
(asappropriate)theweight of andanyotherapplicablefactors.
( 1 ) Pipe
(2) coatingsandtheirabsorbedwater A842.13 Allowable Longitudinal Stress. The maxi-
(3) attachmentstothepipe mum longitudinal stress due to axial and bending loads
(4) transportedcontents duringinstallationshallbelimitedtoavaluethat
prevents pipe buckling and will not impair the service-
(b) internalandexternalpressure
ability of theinstalledpipeline.
(c) thermalexpansion and contraction
(d) buoyancy A842.14AllowableStrains. Instead of thestress
(e) prestressing(exclusiveofstructurallyrestrained criteria of para. A842.13, an allowable installation strain
pipe configurations, such as in apull-tuberiserbend) limit maybe used.Themaximumlongitudinalstrain
cf) staticsoilinducedloadings(e.g.,overburden) due to axial and bending loads during installation shall
The effects of prestressing, such as permanent curva- be limited to
a thatpreventspipebuckling
tures inducedby installation, shouldbe considered when andwillnot impairtheserviceability of the installed
theyaffecttheserviceability of thepipeline. pipeline.
A841.33DesignEnvironmentalLoads. Loadings A842.15 Installation Fatigue. Anticipated stress
that should be considered under this category include, fluctuationsofsufficientmagnitudeandfrequencyto
asappropriate,thosearisingdueto induce significant fatigue shall be considered in design.
(a) waves
(6) current A842.16SpecialAssemblies. Installation of pipe-
(c) wind lineswithspecialassemblies(such as tapvalvesand
( d ) seismicevents riser offsets) are subject to the same requirements stated
( e ) accidentalloadings(e.g.,trawlboards,anchors) in paras.A842.1 I throughA842.15.
cf) dynamicsoilinducedloadings(e.&mudslides,
A842.17Residual Stresses. The pipeline system
shall normally be installedin a manner so as to minimize
(g) ice loads (e.g., weight, floating impacts, scouring) residualstresses.Theexceptionshall be
cold springing of risers, pull-tube risers).When residual
A842STRENGTHCONSIDERATIONS stressesaresignificant,theyshould beconsidered in
Designandinstallationanalysesshall be basedon the operating design of the pipeline system (see para.
acceptedengineeringmethods,materialstrength, and A842.2).
applicable design conditions.
A842.18FlexiblePipe. Themanufacturersrecom- 199)
mendedmaximumloadingsand minimum bending ra-
AS42.1 StrengthConsiderationDuringInstallation diusshallbeadheredtoduringinstallation.Flexible
The following subsections define theminimum safety pipeshall be designed or selectedtopreventcollapse
requirements against failure due to yieldingor buckling due to the combined effects of external pressure, axial
duringallphasesofpipelinesysteminstallation (¡.e., forces, andbending.Installationproceduresshall be
handling,laying,trenching,etc.,throughtesting). designedtopreventbuckling.(See API RP 178.)

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ASME B3181999 Edltion A842.2-A842.223

TABLE A84222 Pi = internaldesignpressure,psi

DESIGN FACTORS FOR OFFSHORE PIPELINES, S = specifiedminimumyield strength, psi
F1 fi 6 T = temperaturederatingfactorfromTable
Hoop Longitudinal Combined t = nominalwallthickness,in.
Location Stress Stress Stress
A842.222LongitudinalStress. Forpipelinesand (991
Pipeline 0.72 0.80 0.90 risersthelongitudinalstressshallnotexceedvalues
Platform piping and risen 0.50 0.80 0.90

A842.2 Strength Considerations During Operations

A84231 Operational and Design Criteria where
A = cross sectionalarea ofpipe material,in.2
A842.211 Pipelinesandrisersshall be designed
F, = axial force, lbs
againstthefollowingpossiblemodes of failure, as
F2 = longitudinal stress designfactorfromTable
(a) excessiveyielding
Mi = in-planebendingmoment, in.-lb
(b) buckling M, = out-planebendingmoment,in.-lb
(c) fatigue failure S = specifiedminimumyieldstrength,psi
(d) ductile fracture S, = maximum longitudinal stress, psi (positive ten-
(e) brittlefracture sile or negative compressive)
loss ofin-placestability = S, + Sb or S, - Sb, whicheverresults in the
(g) propagating fracture largerstressvalue
(h) corrosion S, = axial stress, psi (positive tensile or negative
(i) collapse compressive)
A842.212 Furthermore,considerationshall be = F,/A
givento impactsdue to Sb = resultantbending stress, psi
(a) foreignobjects = [(iiMi)' + ( i , ~ , ) ~ '"/z
( b ) anchors ii = in-plane stress intensification factor fromAp-
(c) trawlboards
pendix E
i, = out-plane stress intensification factor from Ap-
(d) vessels,ice keels, etc.
pendix E
A842.22DesignAgainstYielding z = sectionmodulus ofpipe,in.3
A842.221 Hoop Stress. Forpipelinesandrisers I 1 = absolutevalue
thetensilehoop stress duetothedifference between A842.223CombinedStress. For pipelinesand (SS)
internalandexternalpressuresshallnotexceedthe risersthecombinedstressshallnotexceedthevalue
valuesgivenbelow: givenbythemaximum shear stress equation(Tresca
NOTE: Sign convention is such that tension is positive and compres-
sion is negative.
2[ ( s e ) 2 + S , 2 ] 1 ' 2 S F $

S,, IF l S T
D A = cross-sectionalarea ofpipe material,in.2
sh = (pi- 5 F, = axialforce,lbs
F3 = combinedstressdesignfactorfromTable
where A842.22
D = nominaloutside diameter of pipe,in. Mi = in-planebendingmoment,in.-lb
F, = hoop stress design factor from Table A842.22 M, = out-planebendingmoment,in.-lb
P, = externalpressure,psi M, = torsionalmoment,in.-lb


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A842.223-A84229 ASME 8318-1999 Edition

S = specifiedminimumyieldstrength,psi A842.25 Design Against Fatigue. Stress fluctuations

S, = maximumlongitudinalstress,psi(positive of sufficient magnitude and frequency to induce signifi-
tensile or negative compressivej cantfatigueshould be considered indesign.
= S, + Sb or S, - Sb, whichever results in the Loadingsthat may affectfatigueinclude:
largerstressvalue (a) pipevibration,such as thatinduced by vortex
S, = axialstress,psi(positivetensile or negative shedding
compressive) (b) waveaction
= F,/A Pipe and riser spans shall be designed so that vortex
Sb = resultantbendingstress,psi inducedresonantvibrations are prevented,whenever
= [ ( i i ~ ~+l (i,
2 M,)'] "/z practical. When doing so is impractical, the total resul-
Sh = hoopstress,psi tant stresses shall be less than the allowable limits in
S, = torsionalstress,psi para. A842.22, and such that fatigue failure should not
ii = in-plane stress intensification factor fromAp- resultduringthedesignlife of thepipeline.
i, = out-plane stress intensificationfactorfrom
AppendixE A842.26DesignAgainstFracture. Materialsused
z = sectionmodulusofpipe,in.3 forpipelinestransportinggas or gas-liquidmixtures
Alternatively, the Maximum Distortional Energy under high pressure should have reasonably high resist-
Theory(VonMisescombinedstress)maybeused ance to propagating fractures at the design conditions,
forlimitingcombinedstressvalues.Accordingly,the or othermethodsshall be usedtolimittheextentof
combinedstressshouldnotexceedvaluesgiven by afracture.

(Sh2 - SLSh+ SL2 + 3S,2)"2I F3S A842.27 Design of Clamps and Supports. Clamps
and supportsshallbedesignedsuchthatasmooth
transfer of loads is made from the pipeline or riser to
A842.23 Alternate Design for Strain. In situations the supporting structure without highly localized stresses
where the pipeline experiences a predictable noncyclic due to stress concentrations. When members are to be
displacement of its support (e.g.. fault movement along welded tothepipetheyshallfullyencircle the pipe
the pipeline route or differential subsidence along the and be welded to the pipe by a full encirclement weld.
line) or pipe sag before support contact, the longitudinal The support shall be attached to the encircling member
andcombinedstresslimitsneednotbeusedasa andnotthepipe.
criterion for safety against excessive yielding, so long All welds to the pipe shall be nondestructively tested.
as the consequences of yielding are not detrimental to Clamps and supportsshallbedesigned in accordance
the integrity of the pipeline. The permissible maximum withtherequirements of API RP2A,Section 3.
longitudinalstraindependsontheductilityofthe Clamp and support design shall consider the corrosive
material, any previously experienced plastic strain, and effects of moistureretaininggapsandcrevicesand
the buckling behavior of the pipe. Where plastic strains galvanicallydissimilarmetals.
are anticipated, the pipe eccentricity, pipe out-of-round-
ness,andtheabilityoftheweldtoundergosuch A842.28 Design of Connectors and Flanges. Con-
strains without detrimental effect should be considered. nectors and flanges shall be such that smooth transfer
Similarly, the same criteria may be applied to the pipe ofloadsismadewithouthighlocalizedstressesor
duringconstruction(e.g.,pull-tube or bendingshoe excessivedeformationoftheattachedpipe.
risers). Connectorsandflangesshallhavea level of safety
againstfailure by yieldingandfailure by fatiguethat
A842.24 Design Against Buckling and Ovalization. is comparable to that of the attached pipeline or riser.
Avoidance of buckling of the pipeline and riser during
operationshallbeconsidered in design.Modesof A842.29 Design of Structural Pipeline Riser Pro-
bucklingthat may be possibleinclude tectors. Where pipeline risers are installed in locations
(a) localbucklingofthepipewall subject to impact from marine traffic, protective devices
(6) propagationbucklingfollowinglocalbuckling shall be installed in thezonesubjecttodamageto
(c) columnbuckling protectthepipeandcoating.


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ASME 831.81999 Edition A842.3O-A843.431

A84230 Design and Protection of Special Assem- A843.13 Exits. A minimum of two exits shall be Iss)
blies. Design of connectionsandspecialassemblies, providedforeachoperatinglevel of a compressor
such as subsea tie-in assemblies, expansion loops, sea- building. Any elevated walkway, including engine cat-
bedriserconnections,andsubseapipelinemanifolds, walksmorethan 10 ft abovethedeck,shall also be
shall consider the additional forces and effects imposed providedwithtwo exits. The maximum distance from
by a subsea environment. Such additional considerations anypointwithinthecompressorbuildingto an exit
include design storm currents and potential for seabed shallnotexceed 75 ft. Enclosureexitsshall be unob-
movement in soft sediments, soil liquefaction, increased structed andlocated so astoprovide a convenient
potential corrosion, thermal expansion and contraction, routeof escape andshallprovidecontinuousunob-
and stress due toinstallationprocedures. In areas of structed passage to a place of safety. Exit doors located
active fishing, protective measures may be appropriate on exteriorwallsshallswingoutwardandshall be
for connections and special assemblies. equipped with latches that can be readily opened from
theinsidewithout a key.
(99) A842.31Design of Flexible Pipe. Duetoitscompos-
ite makeup,themechanicalbehavior of Facilities
pipe A843.2 (99)
is significantly different from steel pipe. Flexible pipe
may be used for offshore pipelines if calculations and/ All
equipment and
or test results verify that the pipe can safely withstand offshorecompressionplatformsshallconformtothe
loadings consideredin paras. A841.32 through A84 1.33. requirements ofNFPA 70, if commerciallyavailable
In theselection of flexiblepipe,considerationshould equipmentpermits.
be giventoitspermeablenature.Thepossibilityof Electrical installations in offshore hazardous locations
implosion under the combined conditions of high pres- as defined in NFPA 70 Chapter 5 , Article 500 and
sure, high temperature, and very rapid depressurization that are to remainin operation during compressor station
should be investigatedwheresuchconditions may be emergencyshutdownasprovided inpara.A844.431
expected. Selection of flexible pipe shall be in accord- shall be designedtoconformtoNFPA 70, forClass
ancewithAPI RP 17B. I, Division I requirements.
The guidelines of API-RP-14F should be considered
in electricalfacilitydesign.

(99) A843
Equipment (99)

Devices Safety A843.43 Iss)

(99) A843.1CompressorStationDesign
A843.431EmergencyShutdownFacilities. All (99)
The requirements of this section recognize the unique gas compression equipment shall be provided with an
design conditions and space limitations imposed when emergencyshutdownsystemthat will block outthe
designing offshore compression facilities and therefore gas going to and from the compressorstation. Operation
relateonly to offshorecompression facilities. of theemergencyshutdownsystemshallcausethe
It is thefurtherintent of thissectiontomakethe shutdown ofall gascompressionequipmentandall
designeraware ofpersonnel safetyduringthedesign gas fired equipment and shall de-energize the electrical
andoperation of offshorecompressionfacilities. facilities in thecompressorbuilding,except for those
that provide emergency lightingfor personnel protection
(991 A843.11
Location of
Compressor Facilities. The and those that are necessary for protection of equipment.
compressorfacilitieslocated onplatformsshouldbe The emergency shutdown system shallbe operable from
designed to facilitate free movement of fire fighting or a minimum oftwo locations on eachdecklevel;that
otheremergencyequipment. is, should an offshore platform facility have more than
one clearly defined deck, each deck shall have a mini-
(991 A843.12 Enclosures. All enclosureslocated on an mum oftwo shutdownlocations.Blowdownpiping
offshore platform shall be constructed of noncombusti- shallextend to a locationwherethedischarge of gas
ble or limited combustible material as defined in NFPA is not likely to create a hazard to the platform facilities.
220, Chapter 2, Section 2-6 andSection 2-3. Design Considerationshould be giventopotentialentrained
of enclosures on offshore platforms shall consider the liquids, prevailing winds, and location of crew quarters
loadingconditionsdefined in para. A841.3. if part oftheplatformfacility.Underconditionsof


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A843.431-AS44.4 ASME B318-1999 E d i t h

heavyliquidentrainmentand poor prevailingwind A844.2StabilityAgainstWavesandCurrents

conditions, a separate structure for a blowdown facility
A844.21SubmergedWeight. Thesubmerged
shall be considered.
weight of the pipe may be designed (such as by weight
A843.44PressureLimitingRequirements for coating)toresist or limitmovementtoacceptable
OffshoreCompressionFacilities values.Hydrodynamic forces shallbebasedon the
wave and current values for the design storm condition
A843.443 Venting. Pressure relief valves shall be
Wave and current directionality and concurrency shall
be considered.
linesshallhavesufficientcapacity so thattheywill
not interfere with the performance of the relief device. A844.22 Bottom Soils. The pipe-soil interaction fac-
tors that are used shall be representative of the bottom
conditions at thesite.
A844.23Trenching. Thepipelineanditsappurte-
nances may be trenched below bottom grade to provide
governed byseafloorbathymetry,soilcharacteristics,
and by hydrodynamic, seismic, and soil behavior events
and current stability prior to trenching. Such stability,
having a significantprobability of occurrenceduring
however, need only be based on environmental condi-
thelifeofthe system. Design conditionstoconsider
tions expected during the period ofpipe exposure.
areprovidedin followingsubsections.
Thepipelinesystemshall be designedtoprevent A844.24 Backfilling. Backfilling or other protective
horizontal and vertical movements, or shall be designed coverings, when necessary,shallbeaccomplished by
so that anymovementswillbelimitedtovaluesnot using such materials and procedures to preclude damage
causing design strength to be exceeded (see para. A842). tothe pipeline and coatings.
Typical factors to be considered in the stability design
include A844.25 Anchoring. Anchoring may be used instead
(a) waveandcurrentforces of or in conjunction with submerged weight to maintain
( b ) scour and resultantspanning stability.Theanchorsshall be designedtowithstand
(c) liquefaction
storm condition. Anchorsshallbespacedtoprevent
(d) slopefailure
excessive stresses in the pipe sections between anchors.
Stability maybe obtained bysuchmeans including,
Theanchoringsystemandadjacentpipeshall be de-
signed to preventscourandresultantspanningfrom
ofpipebelow grade, and anchoring.
overstressingthe pipe. The effect of anchorsonthe
When calculatinghydrodynamicforces,thespatial
cathodicprotectionsystemshall be considered.
variance of wave forces along the length of the pipeline
may be takenintoaccount.
A844.1DesignStormConditions Pipeinthe shoreapproachzoneshall be trenched
or boredtothedepthnecessarytopreventscouring,
Design wave and current conditions for portionsof
spanning, or stability problems that affect integrity and
a pipeline that will not be trenchedshallbebasedon
safeoperation of the pipelineduring its anticipated
a stormhaving a minimum returninterval ofno less
service life. Seasonal variation in the near shore thick-
than five times the design life or 100 years, whichever
nessof seafloor sediments and shorelineerosionover
is smaller. Portionsof the pipeline system tobe trenched
thepipelineservicelifeshall be considered.
shall be designed for wave and current conditionsbased
on prudent assessment of the period of pipe exposure.
A844.4 Slope Failure
The mostunfavorableexpectedcombination ofwave
andcurrentconditionsshall beused.Maximumwave Thepipelineshall be designed for slope failure in
andmaximumcurrentconditions do notnecessarily zonesofknown or anticipatedoccurrence, such as
occur simultaneously. The most unfavorable condition mudslidezonesand areas of seismicslumping.The
selection shall account for the timing of occurrence of design exposure period shallbe no less than the expected
the waveand currentdirectionandmagnitude. lifeofthepipline. If it isnotpracticaltodesignthe


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pipeline system to survive the event, the pipeline shall A847.2TestPressure

be designed for controlled breakaway with check valving
to prevent blowdown of the pipeline. The installed pipeline system shall be hydrostatically
tested to at least1.25timesthemaximumallowable
A844.5 Soil Liquefaction operatingpressure.Offshoreplatformpipingand off-
shorepipelinerisersmust be tested to atleast 1.4
Design for the effects of liquefactionshall be per- times the maximum allowable operating pressure either
formed for areas ofknown or expectedoccurrence. before or afterinstallation.Prefabricatedportions of
Soil liquefactionnormallyresultsfromcyclicwave platformpipingthathavebeenpretestedto 1.4 times
overpressures or seismicloading of susceptiblesoils. themaximumallowableoperatingpressureneednot
Thebulkspecificgravity of thepipelineshall be be tested after installation ifall items are tied in by
designed, or alternativemethodsshall be selected to connectors, flanges,or welds that have been radiographi-
ensure both horizontalandverticalstability. callyinspected.
Seismic design conditions used to predict the occur-
rence of bottom liquefaction or slope failure shall have
A8473 TestMedium
the same recurrence interval as used for the operating
design strength calculationsfor the pipeline. Occurrence Thetestmediumforalloffshorepipelines will be
of soil liquefaction due to wave overpressures shall be water.Additivestomitigatethe effects of corrosion,
basedon a stormreturninterval ofno lessthan five biofouling,andfreezingshould be considered.Such
times the design life or 1 0 0 years, whichever is smaller. additives should be suitable for the methods of disposal
of the test medium.
In arctic areas where freezing ofwateris a hazard,
A845CONTROLANDLIMITING OF GAS the use of air, inert gas, or glycol is allowable. Platform
PRESSURE gas and compression piping may be tested with inert gas.
All applicableprovisions of para. 845 applyunless
otherwisestated. A847.4TestProcedure
Thehydrostaticpressuretestshall be conducted in
accordance with a specifiedprocedurethatshall,at a
A846VALVES minimum,provide for
Offshoretransmissionlinesshall be equippedwith (u) performance of thetestafterinstallationand
valves or other components to shut off the flow of gas beforeinitialoperation ofthe pipelinesystemexcept
to an offshore platforminan emergency. as providedinpara. A847.2
Block valvesshallbe accessible and protected from
(b) the inclusion of prefabricated, pretested portions
damage and tampering.If a blowdown valve is involved,
of offshore pipeline risers in the pipeline system hydro-
it shall be locatedwherethegascan be blownto the
static test,wheneverpractical
Blowdownvalvesshall be provided so thateach ( c ) maintenance of the test and recording of results
section of pipelinebetween mainlinevalvescanbe on pipelineandassembliesfor a minimumofeight
blown down. The sizes and capacity of the connections continuoushours at orabovethespecifiedpressure.
for blowingdownthelineshallbesuchthatunder All variations in testpressureshall be accountedfor.
emergency conditions the section of line can be blown Test duration of prefabricatedpiping may be 2 hr.
downasrapidlyasispracticable. (d) a retestif,duringtheholdtime, a rupture or
hazardous leak occursthatrendersthetestinvalid.
Retesting shall commence after repairshave been made.
A847.1GeneralProvisions The operating company shall maintain in its file, for
All offshore pipelines shall be tested after installation theusefullife of eachpipeline,recordsshowingthe
and prior to operationwithintheprovisions of this type of test fluid, the test procedure, the test pressure,
section. and the duration ofthetest.


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A847.6A851.2 ASME B31.8-1999Edition

A847.6Tie-ins ASSOA Essential Features of the Emergency Plan

It is recognizedthatit maynotbe possibleto A850.43 Liaison. Each operating company shall es-
hydrostatically test the tie-in between two test sections. tablish and maintain liaison with available offshore fire
Pressuretesting of tie-inwelds may be exempted if fighting entities (publicand or privatelyowned)that
the tie-in weld is inspected by radiographic and/or other might be designated for any particular offshore area.
applicable NDT methods.
A850.44 Educational Program. An educational pro-
gram shall be established to enable producers and the
A847.7Testing for Buckles
general public operatingin the offshore areato recognize
Testing for buckles, dents, and other diameter restric- and report a gas emergency to the appropriate officials.
tions shall be performed after installation. Testing shall The educational program called for underthissection
beaccomplished by passing a deformationdetection shouldbetailored to thetype of pipelineoperation
device through the pipeline section,or by other methods andthe environmenttraversed by thepipelineand
capable of detecting a change in pipediameter.Pipe should be conducted in each language that is significant
having excessive deformation whichaffects the service- inthecommunityserved.Operators of transmission
ability of thepipeline facilities shall berepaired or systems should communicate their programs to people,
replaced. Consideration shouldalso be given to repairing contractors, or others that usually work in the offshore
excessiveovality whichmay interfere withpigging area of concern. The programs of operators in the same
operation or internalinspection. areashould be coordinatedtoproperlydirectreports
of emergencies and to avoid inconsistencies.

PROCEDURESAFFECTINGTHE Eachoperatingcompanyshallestablishprocedures
SAFETY OF GASTRANSMISSIONAND forprotection of facilities inthe vicinity of blasting
DISTRIBUTIONFACILITIES activities. The operatingcompanyshall
(a) locate and mark its pipeline when explosives are
(99) A850.1
General to be detonated within distances as specifiedin company
plans.Considerationshould be giventothemarking
All provisions of Chapter V, which depend on loca- of minimum blasting distances from the pipelinesde-
tionclass, do notapply to offshore gas transmission pending on the type of blasting operation.
(6) determine the necessity and extent of observing
shoreline areas shall additionally be operated and main-
or monitoring blasting activities based on the proximity
tainedconsistentlywith class locationprovisionsas
of the blast considering the pipe materials, the operating
determined in section840.
conditions,the size of charge,andsoilconditions
(c) considerationshouldbegiven to
(991 A850.3EssentialFeatures of theOperatingand
(1) the effect of shock waves on the pipeline from
Theplanprescribedinpara.850.2(a)shallinclude (2) conducting a leak survey following completion
(u) detailedplansandinstructions for employees of the blasting program
covering operating and maintenance procedures for gas
facilities duringnormaloperationsandrepairs
(b) items recommended for inclusion in the plan for
specific classes of facilities, which are given in paras.
A851.2,A851.4,andA860 PatrollingPipeline A851.2 (99)

(c) plans to give particular attention to those portions Eachoperatingcompanyshallmaintain a periodic

of the facilitiespresentingthegreatesthazardtothe pipelinepatrolling program to observeconditions on
public and environment in the event of an emergency and adjacent to the pipeline right-of-way, indication of
or because of construction or extraordinary maintenance leaks,constructionactivityother thanthatperformed
requirements by thecompany,and any otherfactorsaffectingthe
(d) provisions for periodic inspections along the route safety and operation of the pipeline. These inspections
of existing pipelines should be made as often as necessary to maintain the


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ASME B31.8-1999 Edition A851.2-A8621

integrity of the pipeline, Records of these inspections Personnel working on pipeline repairs should under-
shall be maintained for the life of the facility. Provisions stand the need for careful job planning, be briefed on
of paras.851.2,851.21, and851.22 do notapply to procedures to befollowed in accomplishingrepairs,
thischapter. and follow necessary precautionary measures and proce-
When pipe is repaired, damaged coating should also
A851.4AboveWaterandHyperbaricRepair be repaired.Replacementpipeandcomponentsshall
ProceduresforSteelPipelines beprotectedfromcorrosion.
All abovewater andhyperbaricrepairprocedures AS51.46 Offshore Repair of FlexiblePipe. If the
forsteelpipelinesshallconformtotherequirements operability oftheflexiblepipeisimpaired,¡.e.,major
ofpara. 851.4asspecifiedforpipelinesoperatingat structural damage, the pipe shall be repaired by replace-
or above 4 0% of the specified minimum yield strength. mentofthedamagedsection. In theevent of surface
cuts andabrasions in theprotectivecoatingthat do
AS51.45 Offshore Below Water RepairProcedures not expose theload carryingmemberstopotential
for Steel Pipelines. Submerged offshore pipelines may corrosion,therepairshall be performed in a manner
recommended bythemanufacturer.
berepairedbyreplacementofthedamaged section or
by the use of a full encirclement split sleeve of appro-
priate design installed over the imperfection or damage.
Replacement sections and split sleeves shall be secured Permanentmarkersarenotrequiredforoffshore
by atmospheric dry or hyperbaric weldingor mechanical pipelines; however, suitable signs should be posted on
devices.Repairsshall bevisuallyinspected forleaks platformsto serve as a hazardareawarning.Where
after beingreturnedtoservice. appropriate, signs should display the operating company
Any offshorebelow-waterrepairproceduresshall identification and emergency communication proce-
conform to para.85 1.4 provisions for pipelines operating dures.
at or above 40% ofthespecifiedminimumyield
Repairs should be performed under qualified supervi-
sion by trainedpersonnelawareofandfamiliarwith There are nooperatinglocationclassesoffshore.
the maintenance planandoperatingconditions ofthe
pipeline, the company’ssafetyrequirements,andthe
hazards to publicsafety and environment. A860CORROSIONCONTROLOF
Evacuation andrepairoperationsshouldnotresult OFFSHOREPIPELINES
inimposedloads or deformationsthatwouldimpair
SCOPE weight, or protective
the integrity of the pipe materials, A861 (99)
The useof subsurfaceequipmentequipped with Since offshore pipelines cannot be, readily inspected
cutters, ejectors, jets, or air suction systems should be after installation and there is the possibility of damage
carefully controlled and monitored to avoid damaging tothecoatingsystem,specialconsiderationshould be
thepipeline,externalcoating, or cathodicprotection given to the selection, design, and application of como-
system. sioncontrolcoatings, the cathodicprotectionsystem,
and othercorrosiondesignelements.
Whenlifting or supportingpipeduringrepairs,the
curvature of a pipe sag bend and overbend should be
pipe coating damage, overstressing, dentingor buckling
during the repair operation, and lifting equipment should
be selectedaccordingly. Installations New AS62.1 (99)

Waveandcurrentloadsshouldbeconsidered in All submerged steel pipe, valves, and related fittings

determiningtotalimposedstressesandcyclicalloads shallbe externallycoatedandcathodicallyprotected.
in bothsurfaceandsubsurfacerepairs. All above-waterpipingandcomponentsshall be pro-


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A8621-A862.14 ASME B31.8-1999 Edition

tected from the particularly corrosive conditions of the system,particularlyduringlayingandtrenching of

saltwateratmosphereandcyclicwettinganddrying. thepipe.

(99) A862.11 Submerged

Facilities A862.13 Cathodic
Requirements (99)
( a ) Design Criteria. An offshore facility is considered
to be cathodically protected when it meets one or more
(99) A862.12 Coating
Requirements of thecriteriaestablished inAppendix K.
( a ) Coating Design. Thedesignofcoatingsystems (b) Impressed Currents. Whereimpressedcurrent
for offshore installation should reflect the type of envi- systemsareused,thesystemshallbedesignedto
ronment in which the facility is to be installed. Selection minimizeoutages,and the outputshall besuchthat
of the protective coating should be based on thedesigncriterionismet.Also,considerationshould
( I ) lowwater-absorption be giventominimizetheinterferenceeffectonother
(2) compatibility with the type of cathodic protec- pipelines or structures.
tion to be appliedtothesystem (c) Galvanic Anodes. Wheregalvanicanodesare
(3) compatibilitywiththesystemoperatingtem- used for protection, consideration shall be given to the
perature quality of thecoating(i.e.,thepercentofexposed
(4) sufficient ductility to minimize detrimental pipe). Also, the design formula for the system should
cracking include the outputoftheanodes,thedesiredlife of
( 5 ) sufficient toughness to withstand damage dur-
thesystem,anodematerial, andutilizationefficiency.
temperature of the pipeline and the marine environment.
(6) resistance to futuredeterioration inasub-
( d ) Other. Considerationshouldbegiventothe
merged environment
effects on cathodic protection of variations in oxygen
(7) ease of repair
content,temperature, andwater/soilresistivity of the
(b) Cleaning and Surface Preparation. Thére may particularoffshoreenvironment in whichthe pipeline
be additional cleaning and surface preparation require- isinstalled.
ments, such as a near white metal finish and an anchor
patterntopromoteagoodbondforallepoxy-based A862.14 ElectricalIsolation. Underwaterpipeline (99)
thin film coatings. Welds shouldbe inspected for irregu- systems shall be electrically isolated from other metallic
laritiesthatcouldprotrudethroughthepipecoating, structures so that cathodic protection can be effective.
andanysuchirregularitiesshouldberemoved. An exceptioncanbemadewhenboththeforeign
( c ) Application and Inspection. Thecoatingshould structure and the pipeline are designed to be protected
be applied under controlled conditions and have a high asa unit. Othergeneralconsiderationsincludethe
resistancetodisbondment.Furtherinformationcan be following:
obtainedfromNACE RP-06-75,Section 4. Aholiday ( a ) Tie-Ins. Isolationfromforeignpipelinesattie-
detector, suitable for the type of coating applied, shall ins may be made by installing insulation flanges, unions,
be used to detect flaws. Flaws noted shall be repaired or otherinsulatingdevices.Whenmakingatie-in of
and retested, Weightsor weight coating shall not damage acoated line toabareline, the twolinesshall be
the protective coating during application or installation. electricallyisolated.
( d ) Coating for Weld Joints, Appurtenances, and (b) Foreign Pipeline Crossings. When crossinga
Patching. Weld joints and appurtenances shallbe coated foreignpipeline,careshallbeexercisedtoensure
with material that is compatible with the basic coating. adequateseparationbetweenthetwolines so thatthe
A holiday detector, designed for the type of field joint possibilityforelectricalinterferenceisminimized.
materialapplied,maybeusedtodetectflaws,and ( c ) Pipeline Riser SupportandSecondary Piping.
flawsshall be repairedandretested. When installingriserpiping at platforms,supporting
(e) Field Inspection. Thepipeshall bevisuallyin- devices such as clamps and pipe supports shall isolate
spected prior to installation to ensure that unacceptable thepipingfrom the structure.Insulatingdevicesshall
damagehasnotoccurredduringloading,welding,or be installedwhereelectricalisolationofaportion of
other laying activities prior to submergence of the pipe. the pipingsystemfromproductionpiping,tanks,and
Any significant damage to the coating shall be repaired otherfacilitiesisnecessary to facilitateapplication
with material compatible with the pipeline coating. Care of cathodicprotection.Electricalinterferencebetween
should be exercised to minimize damage to the coating electrically isolated structures shall be minimized. Wir-


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ASME B3181999 Edition A%62.l&A863.1

ingandpipingconnections to anisolatedpipeline a good contact to thepipelinesismade by the test

shall also have insulation between the pipeline and the connection.
platform. Tests shall be made to ensure adequate isola- A862.215ElectricalInterference. Periodictests (99)
tion,andappropriateactionshall be taken to ensure shall be madetoensurethatelectricalisolationfrom
suchisolation whennecessary. foreign pipelines or other structures remains complete.
A862.15 Electrical ConnectionsandMonitoring Some indications of electrical interference are changes
Points. Test leadsshallbeinstalled so thatthey are in pipe to electrolytepotential,changes in current
mechanically secure, electrically conductive, and acces- magnitude or direction, localized pitting,and coating
sible for testing. It is considered impractical to locate breakdown. When new foreign pipelines are laidin
test leads in deep or open water. Test leads installations the vicinity of existing lines, inspections shall be made
are usually limited to platforms and the pipeline entrance to ensure electricalisolation in accordance with para.
totheshore. 862.1 14. If electrical isolation cannot be attained, mea-
sures shall be taken to minimize electrical interference.
A862.16AtmosphericProtection Electrical isolation from the platform shouldbe checked
( a ) The splashzone area, wherethepipelineis and maintained unless the system was specifically de-
intermittently wet and dry, shall be designed with signed to be jointly protected.
additionalprotectionagainstcorrosion. This shallbe A862.216ExaminationWhen Exposed. When a Iss)
accomplished by one or moreof the following: pipeline is lifted above water for maintenance or repair,
( 1 ) specialcoating theoperatingcompanyshallvisuallyinspectfor evi-
(2) specialprotectivesystemsandtechniques dence of coating deterioration, external corrosion, and
(3) other suitable measures, including selection of where possible,thecondition ofany exposedanode.
pipematerial If excessive corrosion is present, remedial action shall
(b) Coatingsandotherprotectivesystemsshall be be taken as necessary.
installed on a properly prepared surface and in accord- If repairsaremadebelowwater,inspection for
ancewithestablishedspecifications or manufacturer’s evidence of external corrosion or coating deterioration
recommendations. The coating should resist water ac- shall be made, andnecessarycorrectiveactionshall
tion, atmospheric deterioration, mechanical damage, and be takentomaintainthecorrosionprotection of the
cathodicdisbondment. pipeline.
A862.2ExistingInstallations A862.25AtmosphericCorrosion. Detailedinspec- (99)
tionsshall be madeperiodicallyofallpiping for
The operatingcompany must rely on monitoring, atmosphericcorrosion.Thisinspectionshallinclude
investigation, inspections, and corrective action to con- those areas most susceptible to corrosion such as flanges,
trol corrosion.Suchactivitiesshall be performedat flange bolts, areas under pipe straps, areas where pipe
periodicintervalssufficient to ensurethatadequate isin contact with supports,andotherplaces where
corrosion control is maintained. Where it is determined moisture collects. Where atmospheric corrosionis found,
that corrosion that is taking place may be detrimental promptcorrectiveactionshall be taken.Corrective
topublic or employeesafety,thefacilityshall be action shall consist of painting, replacement of compo-
repaired or replaced, and corrosioncontrolmeasures nents as necessary, or other action deemed appropriate
shall be applied or augmented. by theoperatingcompany.
A862.214CathodicProtectionCriteria A863
( a ) Criteria. The criteria for cathodic protection are
General A863.1 (99)
specified in Appendix K.
(b) Electrical Checks. The operating company shall Thedesign and maintenance of offshorepipeline
take electrical readings periodically at each test location facilitiesthat may carrynaturalgascontainingcarbon
availabletoensurethatthecathodicprotectionlevel dioxide, chlorides, hydrogen sulfide, organic acids, sol-
meets one of thecriteria in Appendix K. ids or precipitates, sulfur-bearing compounds, oxygen,
Before each electrical test is performed,an inspection or free water require special consideration for the control
shall be madetoensure electrical continuityandthat of internalcorrosion.


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ASME 831.8-1999 Edition B800-B803



hardness: resistance of metaltoplasticdeformation
B801GENERAL usually by indentation. For carbon steels, hardness can
be relatedtotheultimatetensilestrength.
Chapter IX pertains only to gas pipeline service that Brinell Hardness Number (BHN): a value to express
contains hydrogen sulfide levels defined as “sour gas” the hardness of metals obtained by forcing a hard steel
inthisChapter.ThisChapterisorganizedtoparallel ball of specified diameter into the metal under a specified
thenumberingandcontent ofthefirstsevenchapters load.Forthestandard3,000-kgload,numbersrange
of the Code. All provisions of the first seven chapters from 81 to 945.
of the Code are also requirements of this Chapter unless Microhardness: any hardnessmeasurement using
specifically modified herein. Paragraph headings follow anindentorloadlessthan 10 kg.
thoseinthefirstsevenchapterswiththeprefix “B”. Rockwell Hardness: aseries of hardnessscalesfor
If a paragraph appearing in Chapters I through VII metals.
does not have a corresponding paragraph in this Chapter, ( a ) TheRockwell “C” (HRC)scaleusesacone
the provisions apply to sour gas service without modifi- diamondindentorandaload of 150 kg. Thescale
cation. If a paragraph in this Chapter hasno correspond- starts at 20 for soft steels and reaches a maximumof
ing paragraph in Chapters I through VII, the provisions about 67 forveryhardalloys.
apply to sour gas only. (6) TheRockwell “B” (HRB)scaleusesahard
metal ballindentorandstarts at O forextremelysoft
metalsandreachesamaximum of 1 0 0 for soft steels
B802SCOPEANDINTENT and alloys. HRB 1 0 0 = HRC 20.
Vickers Hardness HVIO: avalueachieved byuse
of a diamond pyramid indentor with a load of 10 kg.
B802.1 Scope
heatajtiectedzone (HAZ): theportion of thebase
This Chapter of the Code covers the design, material metalthatwasnotmeltedduringbrazing,cutting, or
requirements,fabrication,installation,inspection,test- welding, but whose microstructure and properties were
ing, and safetyaspectsofoperationandmaintenance affected by theheat of theseprocesses.
hydrogeninducedcracking (HIC): acrackingmecha-
B802.2 Intent nism of susceptible materials causedby atomic hydrogen
diffusion in the metal.Theatomichydrogenusually
The intent of thisChapteristoprovideadequate is created by the corrosive reaction of hydrogen sulfide
requirements for the safe and reliable design, installa- onsteel in thepresence of water.
pipeline systems. Requirements of this Chapter supple- hydrogen sulfide (&S): a toxic gaseous impurity found
ment the requirements of theremainder oftheCode. in somewellgasstreams. It also can be generated in
It is not the intent of this Chapter to be all inclusive. situ as aresultofmicrobiologicactivity.
Provisions must be made for special considerations that partialpressure: determined by multiplyingthemol
arenotspecificallyaddressed.ThisChapterisnot fraction(molpercentdivided by 1 0 0 ) of hydrogen
intendedtopreventthedevelopment andapplication sulfide in thegas by thetotalsystempressure.
ofnew equipmentandtechnology.Suchactivityis
encouraged as long as the safety and reliability require- radius of exposure (ROE): thedistance from apoint
mentsoftheCodearesatisfied. of release at which the hydrogen sulfide concentrations

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BS03-BS245 ASME B31.8-1999 Edition

reachedaspecifiedlevel(frequently 100 ppm or 500 B822PREPARATIONFORWELDING

ppm)determined by dispersioncalculations.
sour gas:gas
sulfide (H$) at B822.3
65 psia (4.5 Bar) or greateratapartialpressure of
0.05 psia (3.5 m Bar) or greater. See NACE MR0175, Seal welds shall have a separate qualified procedure.
titledSulJide Stress Cracking Resistant-Metallic Materi-
als for Oiljïeld Equipment. B822.4Cleaning

sulfide stress cracking (SSC):a corrosion-related Pipethathas been in sourgasserviceshall be

cracking mechanism caused by exposure of susceptible thoroughly cleaned to bright metal on the inside surfaces
materials to sulfide ions in the presence of free water. back 1 in.fromtheweldbevel.

NACE MR0175shall
be so identified AND
Therequirements of paras. 823.1 and 823.1 1 shall
Requirements for Qualifications of
and Systems
NACE B823.22 All procedure and performance
shall tions
MRO 175. on test
B820WELDINGSOURGASPIPELINES B823.24HardnessControl. Thehardnessofall
B821GENERAL zones on weldingqualificationtestspecimensshall
asspecified in NACEMR0175.Formostcommon
Thissectionconcernsthewelding of pipe in sour 22. It is the user's responsibility to ensure the welding
gasservice in bothwroughtandcaststeelmaterials qualificationspecimenismetallurgicallyrepresentative
and covers butt and fillet welded joints in pipe, valves, of full-scalepipelinewelds.
flanges,fittings,andfilletweldedjoints in pipe,slip-
on flanges,socketwelds,fittings,etc. as applied in NOTE: Bothmacrohardnessandmicrohardnesssurveys of properly
pipelines, components, and connections to apparatus or preparedqualificationspecimensarefrequently used todetermine
the presence of thin HAZ hard zones. A commonly accepted maximum
macrohardnesslimitneartheinsidesurface is 2-50 HVIO.

Thissectiondoes not apply to theweldingofthe
seam in themanufacture of pipe,buttheuseris B824PREHEATING
sourgasservice in theirinstalledcondition.
B824.5HydrogenBakeOut of Used Pipe
Pipe that has been used in sour gas service shall be
Thestandards of acceptabilityforweldsofpiping heated for at least 20 min ,at 400°F (204°C)or higher
systems as established in APL1 104, Section6, or ASME todrive off anyhydrogeninthemetal.Heatingshall
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division be done just prior to welding. This heating should be
1, shallbeused;however,additionalrequirementsfor in addition to and immediately preceding any preheating
hardnessandresidualstressshould be considered. specified in theweldingprocedurefor new pipe.


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STD- ASME B3L-B-ENGL L999 m 0759b30 Ob37373 '940 9

ASME B31.8-1999Edition B825-B841.231

B8252 Inadditiontopara. 830, all componentsshall meet
Thechemistryofthesteelandweldingprocedure therequirementsof NACEMR0175 as appropriate.
shall be controlled to limit the hardness of the weldment
as requiredbypara.B823.24.Whentheeffectiveness B831PIPINGSYSTEMCOMPONENTS
of such controls is questionable, consideration shall be
giventostressrelievingweldsinsourgasservice. In B831.1ValvesandPressureReducingDevices
general,temper beadwelding,peeningprocedures, or
low-temperature postweld heat treatment does not pro- B831.13
vide the equivalent protection from service cracking as (u) Instruments,instrumenttubing,controllers,
doesafullthermalstressrelief. gauges, and othercomponentsthatbecomeapart of
B825.6StressRelievingTemperature MR0175requirements.
(b) Most copper-based alloys suffer severe corrosion
(u) Stress relieving is normally performed at a tem- in sour service. Use of such alloys in any components
peratureof1,100"F(593°C)forcarbonsteels and shall be investigated for suitability.
relieving procedures maybe substituted when properly B831.2Flanges
supported with metallurgical evidence. The exact tem-
perature range shall be stated in the procedure specifi- B831.22Bolting
cation. (h) Boltingexposed to sourgasanddeniedaccess
(6) When stress relieving a joint between dissimilar to air due to thermalinsulation,flangeprotectors, or
metals having different stress relieving requirements, the certaindesignfeaturesshallmeettherequirementsof
material requiring the higher stress relieving temperature NACEMRO175 as appropriate. Designers should note
shallgovern.Specialconsiderations may be required that bolting meeting NACEMRO I75 requirements, such
for austeniticandotherhighalloys. as type ASTM A 193 grade B7M, have derated tensile
( c ) The parts heated shall be brought slowly to the properties, and the joint design shall be appropriate for
requiredtemperature andheldatthattemperaturefor suchderation.Boltingopened to atmosphere may be
a period of time proportioned on the basis of at least conventionalASTM A 193grade B7 bolting.
1hr/in. (L hr/25mm) of pipewallthickness,butin
nocaselessthan v2 hr,andshall be allowedtocool B840DESIGN,INSTALLATION,ANDTESTING
id) Records. A suitablerecordofthestressrelief
cycles shall be provided for each weld stress relieved. B841STEELPIPE
( e ) Temperature Control. A group of closely spaced
welds, such as three welds on a tee, can be controlled B841.1SteelPipingSystemsDesignRequirements
andrecorded by asinglethermocouple. B841.11Steel Pipe DesignFormula
( c ) Fracture Control. Fracturecontrolshould be
B841.114DesignFactors F andLocation
B826.2 Inspection and Tests for Quality Control of Classes. When using Table 841.1 14A, design factor F
WeldsonSour Gas PipingSystems of 0.80 shallnot be usedforsourgasservice.

sourgaslines in Clais 3 or 4locations,compressor

stations,majorornavigablerivercrossings,railroad B841.23Bends, Elbows, andMiters in Steel
crossings, androadcrossings,100% of allfieldwelds Pipelines
shall be checked by nondestructive inspection. Nonde- B841.231
structiveinspection may be conductedbefore or after cf) Bendsused in sourgas pipe shallmeetthe
stressrelieving. requirements of NACE MRO175 in the as-bent condi-


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BS41.231-B850.1 ASME B31.8-1999 Edition

tion.Hotbendsmay be neededtomeetNACEMR0175 B842OTHERMATERIALS

requirements. The first prototype bend may be needed
for testingtoensurehardnessrequirementsofNACE B842.1
MR0175 and that both toughness and tensile properties
miter MR0175 as
bends are permitted for sour gaslines.
B841.24 Pipe
SurfacesRequirements Applicable B842.39PlasticPipeandTubingJointsand
to PipelinesandMains to Operate at aHoopStressConnections
of 20% or More of theSpecifiedMinimumYield
B842.392JointRequirements. Fusionbonded
in sour gas service
&e acceptable. All cement, adhesive, and fusion bonding
B841*245 Arc Burns' arc burns have joining and joiners shall be qualified to
been foundtocauseseriousstressconcentrationin
written procedures using destructive test specimens of
pipelines andin sourgaslines,andshallbeprevented full scale plastic pipe
or eliminated in alllines.
or machining.Theresultingcavityshall be thoroughly B843COMPRESSORSTATIONS
cleaned and checked for complete removal of damaged
material by etchingwith
of Compressor Station
persulfate or a 5% solution of
alcohol B843.41 GasTreatingFacilities
(nital). If removalofdamagedmaterialiscomplete,
B843.413 All metallicmaterials in contactwith
thecavity may be mergedsmoothlyintotheoriginal
pressurized sour gasshall meet therequirements of
contour of the pipe by grinding, provided the remaining
NACEMR0175 as applicable.
Personal safety equipment should be considered for
use at sour gas facilities. Use of appropriate hydrogen
B841.26HotTaps. Inadditiontopara.841.26ofsulfidesensorscapable of actuating Stationemergency
ChapterIV, it shouldbenotedthathottapping of shutdownsystemsshould be considered.
sour gas lines presents special health and metallurgical
concernsandshallbedoneonlytowrittenoperating B w PIPE-TYPEANDBOTTLE-TYPE
roved company HOLDERS

B84127 PrecautionstoAvoidExPlosionsofGas- sourgas.Storageof sour gasisoutsidethescopeof
Mixtures or Uncontrolled
During his

B841.271 In addition to theprecautionsoutlined B850ADDITIONALOPERATINGAND

inpara.841.27 1 of ChapterIV,itshouldbenoted MAINTENANCECONSIDERATIONS
thatweldingandcuttingonsourgaslinespresents AFFECTING THE SAFETY OF SOUR
special health andmetallurgicalconcernsandshallbe
done only to written operating company approved plans.
Construction ( c ) exposure
of (ROE) to H2S calculations
shall be made using a suitable air dispersion equation
B841.31GeneralProvisions. In additiontopara.such as the Pasquelaifford equationgiven as follows:
it be notedthat
testing ( 1 ) Each
determine the hydrogen
with sour gaspresentsspecialhealthandmetallurgicalsulfideconcentration in thegaseousmixture in the
concernsandshall be done only to writtenoperatingsystem.Suitablestandards are ASTM D 2385,GPA
company 2265.
C-l. GPA


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ASME 83181999 Edition B850.1-B850.42

(2) Radius of ExposureEquations 100-ppmROE

(a) Radius of exposureequationtothe 100- ROE Release H2S
ppmlevelof HIS afterdispersal: fi. MMSCFD Mol
X MI .oO0.oO0) Fraction

1,165 I 0.05
X = [(1.589) M Q] o.6u8
3,191 5 0.05
4,924 IO 0.05
(b) Radius of exposureequationto the500- 7.597 20 0.05
ppmlevelof H2S after dispersal: 9,792 30 0.05
1,798 I o. I
4,924 5 o. I
1.591 IO o. I
X = [(1.4546) M Q]o.6258 I 1,723 20 o. I
15.109 30 o. I
2.7l5 I 0.2
1,591 5 0.2
where 1 1.723 IO 0.2
M = mol fraction of hydrogensulfide inthe gas- 0.2 18.090 20
eousmixture 0.2 23.3 I5 30
Q = maximum volume determined to be available
for escape in cubic feet per day corrected to
14.65 psiaand 60°F W p p m ROE
X = radius of exposure(ROE) in feet ROE Release HIS
(3) MetricEquations ft. Mol MMSCFD
X M I ,ooo.oO0) Fraction
(a) 100-ppmlevel of HIS afterdispersal:
533 I 0.05
I .458 5 0.05
X,,,= [(8.404)M Q,,,]'.'m 2.250 IO 0.05
3,412 20 0.05
4,414 30 0.05
(b) 500-ppmlevel of H2S afterdispersal: 822 I o. I
2,250 5 o. I
3.472 IO o. I
X,,,= [(2.404)M QI o.6u8
20 5,351 o. I
6,904 30 o. I
1,268 1 0.2
3,412 5 0.2
where 5,357 IO 0.2
M = mol fraction of hydrogen sulfide in the gaseous 0.2 8.266 20
mixture 10,654 U) 0.2
Qm = maximumvolumedetermined to be available
for escape in cubicmetersperdaycorrected
to I .O1 barsand 156°C.
x, = radiusof exposure(ROE) in meters B8SO.4 EssentialFeatures of theEmergencyPlan

B850.42 Training Program. In addition to conven-

NOTE. Theequationsassumea 24-hr release. Whena pipeline tional training, all sour gas operation and maintenance
segmentcan be isolated in less than 24 hr, appropriatereductions linepersonnelshall be trained in
in (Q) may be used.
(a) hazards and characteristics of H2S
(4) Examples of 100-ppm and 500-ppm ROE for ( b ) effect onmetalcomponentsofthelinesand
various 24-hr releasesand H$ mol fractionsareas equipment
follows. (c) safetyprecautions

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STDOASME B3L.B-ENGL L999 0759b70 Ob17174 b5T

B850AZB862.113 ASME 831.8-1999 Edition

(d) operation of safetyequipmentandlifesupport B860CORROSIONCONTROL OF

(e) correctiveactionandshutdownprocedures


B851.7 B861.1Scope
(d) In additiontoeachsignrequired in subpara. This section contains the minimum additiveor substi-
851.7(c)of Chapter V, for operations where the 100- tutiverequirements for corrosioncontrol of external
ppm radius of exposure is greater than 50 ft (15.2 m), and internal corrosion of sour gas piping and compo-
a “POISON GAS’ signshall be installed. nents. Where specific provisions are not set forth herein,
All surface facilities shall also be marked with “POI- the provisions of para. 860 of Chapter VI shall apply.
SON GAS”signs.
8851.10 When blowing down sour gas lines, consid-
eration shall be given to the use of suitable permanent Duetothecorrosivity of hydrogensulfideandthe
or temporaryflaresystems. frequentpresence ofcarbondioxideandsaltwater,
which also are corrosive,specialemphasisshall be
given to internalcorrosionmitigationandmonitoring.
B855CONCENTRATIONSOFPEOPLE IN Also,duetothecorrosiveandhazardousnature of
LOCATIONCLASSES 1 AND 2 the sour gas,specialconsiderationshall be givento
the selection ofthe corrosionallowance.
(c) Security. Unattended fixed surfacefacilities
shouldbeprotectedfrompublicaccesswhenlocated B862EXTERNALCORROSIONCONTROL
within !L4 mileof a residential,commercial, or other
inhabited or occupied structure; bus stop; public park;
or similarlypopulatedarea. B862.1NewInstallations
( I ) The protection should be provided by fencing
and locking or removal ofvalvesand instrumentation B862.11BuriedSteelFacilities
andpluggingofports, or other similar means. B862.113CathodicProtectionRequirements.
(2) Surfacepipelineis not considered a fixed Unless it can be demonstrated by tests or experience
surfacefacility. thatcathodicprotectionis notneeded,allburied or
(d) Additional control and safety proceduresor safety submerged facilities with insulatingtypecoatings, ex-
devicesshould be installedandmaintainedtoprevent cept facilities installed for a limitedservicelife,shall
theundetectedcontinuingrelease of hydrogensulfide be cathodically protected as soon as feasible following
ifanyofthe following conditions exist: installation,exceptthatminorreplacements or exten-
( I ) The100-ppmradius of exposureis in excess sionsshall be protectedascovered bypara.862.212.
of 50 ft (15.2 m) and includes any part of a public Facilities installed for a limited service life need not
area except a publicroad. be cathodically protected if it can be demonstrated that
(2) The 500-ppm radiusof exposure is greater than the facility will not experience corrosion that will cause
50 ft (15.2 m) and includes any part of a public road. it to be harmful to the public or environment. Cathodic
(3) The100-ppmradius of exposureisgreater protectionsystemsshall be designedtoprotectthe
than 3,000 ft (915 m). buried or submergedsystem in itsentirety.
(e) Contingency Plan. Operations subject to subpara. A facility is considered to be cathodically protected
(d) above shall have a written contingency plan prepared whenitmeets one or more of the criteria established
and given to state and local emergency response authori- in Appendix K.
ties. Plans shall include maps, location of block valves, Useof cathodic protection is encouraged to protect
valvekeys,andkeys for locks. buriedsourgasfacilities.


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ASME B31.8-1999 Edition 8863-8866.1

B863 INTERNALCORROSIONCONTROL ( 1 ) Sulfide stress cracking (SSC) occurs when the

alloys are too hard and/ortoohighlystressed inthe
B863.1 General presence of corrosionwithsourgas.NACE MR0175
outlinesall of theacceptablematerialscombinations
Sour gas facilities shall be assumed to be internally to resist this type of cracking.
corrosive unless proven by experience to be otherwise; (2) Hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) occurs when
Water dewpoint control frequentlyis used as a corrosion hydrogen causes inclusions in the steel to delaminate.
control method. Upset conditionsor operational changes Multiple shear cracks then develop to link the delamin-
may make this control method ineffective. The use of ations creating a stair step crack system. Use of HIC
inhibitors is also common. resistantmaterialsshould be consideredforsourgas
B863.2 New Installations (3) Stressorientedhydrogeninducedcracking
New installations should be designedwith (SOHIC) is anothervariant of HIC.SOHIC is HIC
(a) suitable dedicated fittings for corrosion inhibitor enhanced by high-tensilestress.
injection (4) Hydrogen blistering consistsof hydrogen atoms
diffusinginsidethesteel to delaminatedareas and
(b) suitable dedicatedfittingsandvalves to insert
recombiningtoformmolecules of hydrogengas.The
and retrieve corrosion measuringdevices such as probes
resultingpressurecan create largeblisterson either
and coupons
theinside or outside surfaces of thesteel.
(b) Chloridestresscorrosioncracking is causedby
BS66STRESSCORROSIONAND OTHER chlorides in theproducedwater.Austenitic stainless
PHENOMENA steelsareparticularlypronetothistype of cracking.
The sulfide ion has a synergistic effect with the chloride
B866.1 ion.Thenetresult is theoccurrence of cracking at
lower temperaturesand at lower chloride concentrations
Sour gas lines, particularlywhencombinedwith than normally expected. Except for small low stressed
carbon dioxide and produced salt water can suffer from partssuchasthermowells,useofalloysnotresistant
several corrosion related phenomena: to chloride stress cracking above 140°F is discouraged
( a ) Hydrogen Related Problems. The corrosion reac- inwet sour gas systems.
tion in the presence of the sulfide ion permits a high ( c ) Microbiologic induced corrosion (MIC). Microbi-
amount of liberated hydrogen atoms to enter the steel. ologic activity can create severe pitting-type corrosion
The hydrogencausesmanyproblemsthathave been andhydrogen-relatedcrackinginsourgaslines.Use
givendifferentnames: of appropriate biocides and monitoring may be needed.

I I7

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ASME B31.8-1999 Edition Appendix A


These specifications maybe immediately applied to *ASME B 1.1,UnifiedInchScrew Threads

materials purchased for use under this Code and shall *ASMEB1.20.1,Pipe Threads(ExceptDryseal)
be appliedtoallmaterialspurchased12months *ASMEB16.1, CastIronPipeFlangesandFlanged
later after the date of issuance of the reference’s latest Fittings
edition, including addenda, if applicable. A component *ASME B16.5, Steel Pipe Hanges and Flanged Fittings
or pipeconforming to an earlier approvedmaterial *ASME B16.9, Factory-Made Wrought Steel Buttweld-
specification edition purchased by theuserbeforethe ingFittings
date of issuance of a new edition or addenda may be *ASME B 16.1 1, Forged Steel Fittings, Socket-Welding
used, provided the component or pipe is inspected and and Threaded
determinedtobesatisfactory *ASMEB16.20,Ring-JointGasketsandGroovesfor
for theserviceintended
by theuser. SteelPipeFlanges
Standards are incorporated in this Code by reference, *ASME B 16.24,BronzePipeFlangesandFlanged
and the names and addressesof the sponsoring organiza- Fittings
tions are shown in thisAppendix.Itisnotpractical *ASMEB16.33,SmallManuallyOperatedMetallic
to refer to a specific editionof each standard throughout GasValves in GasDistributionSystemsWhose
theCodetext;instead,thelatesteditionincluding MaximumAllowableOperatingPressureDoesNot
addenda, if applicable, shall beused unless otherwise Exceed 60 psig or 125psig
noted. *ASMEB16.34, Steel Valves (Flanged and Buttweld-
An asterisk (*) is used to indicatestandardsthat ingEnd)
havebeen accepted as AmericanNationalStandards *ASMEB16.38,LargeManuallyOperatedMetallic
bythe AmericanNationalStandardsInstitute(ANSI). GasValves in GasDistributionSystems,Whose
*AGA 2223.1, NationalFuelGasCode Exceed125psig (8.6bar, gage)
*ASME B 16.40, Manually Operated Thermoplastic Gas
Publisher: AmericanGas Association (AGA), 400 North Shut-OffsandValves in GasDistributionSystems
Capitol Street, W ,Washington, DC 20001 *ASME B 16.42, Ductile Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged
API 5L, LinePipe Fittings
API6A,WellheadEquipment *ASME B 18.2.1, Squareand Hex BoltsandScrews,
Including AskewHead Bolts, Hex Cap Screws, and
API 6D, PipelineValves
API 1104, Standard for Welding Pipelines and Related
*ASME B 18.2.2, Square and Hex Nuts
ASME B31G, Manual for Determining the Remaining
API RP 2A, Recommended Practicefor Planing, Design- Strength of Corroded Pipelines
ingandConstructingFixedOffshorePlatforms *ASMEB31.1,PowerPiping
API RP 5L1, Recommended Practice for Railroad Trans- *ASMEB31.2,FuelGasPiping
portationofLinePipe *ASME B31.3, Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery
API RP 5L5, Recommended Practice for Marine Trans- Piping
portation of LinePipe *ASME B3 1.4, Liquid Petroleum Transportation Piping
API RP 5L6, Recommended Practice for Transportation System
ofLinePipeonInlandWaterways ASME B36.10M,Weldedand SeamlessWrought
API RP 5LW, Transportation of LinePipeonBarges Steel Pipe
andMarineVessels *ASME BPV Code,Section VIII, PressureVessels,
API RP 17B, Recommended Practice for Flexible Pipe andSection IX, WeldingQualifications
Publisher: American Petroleum Institute (API), 1220 L ASME SI-1, ASME Orientation and Guide for Use of
Street, N W , Washington, DC 20005 SI (Metric) Units

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STD-ASME B33.B-ENGL 3777 0759b70 Ob37377 3b9 m

Appendix A ASME B3184999 Edition

Publisher: The American Society of Mechanical Engi- ASTM D 2837, Hydrostatic Design Basis for Thermo-
neers (ASME), Three Park Avenue, NewYork,NY plasticPipeMaterials,Obtaining
10016; Order Department: 22 Law Drive, Box 2300, ASTME 380, MetricPractice
Fairfìeld, NJ 07007 Publisher: American Society for Testing and Materials
ASTM A 53, Pipe, Steel, Black and Hot-Dipped, Zinc- hocken,PA19428
ASTMA105/A105M,Forgings,CarbonSteel, for *AWSA3.0WeldingTermsandDefinitions
PipingComponents AWSD3.6UnderwaterWelding,Type “ O Welds
ASTMA106,SeamlessCarbonSteelPipe for High- Publisher: American Welding Society (AWS), 550 NW
Temperature Service LeJeune Road, Miami, FL 33 135
ASTM A120,
Pipe, Steel, Black and
Hot-Dipped *AWWA A21.14, Ductile-Iron Fittings 3-Inch Through
Zinc-Coated (Galvanized) Welded and Seamless for 24-Inch for Gas
OrdinaryUse *AWWA A21.52, Ductile-Iron Pipe, Centrifugally Cast,
ASTM A 134, Electric-Fusion (Arc)-Welded Steel Plate inMetalMolds or Sand-LinedMolds for Gas
Pipe(Sizes 16 in. andOver) AWWA ClOl, ThicknessDesignofCastIron Pipe’
ASTM A 135,Electric-Resistance-WeldedSteelPipe *AWWA Cl 1 VA21.11, Rubber Gasket Joints for Duc-
ASTM A 139, Electric-Fusion (Arc)-Welded Steel Plate tile-IronandGray-IronPressurePipeandFittings
Pipe(Sizes4 in. andOver) *AWWA C1 50/A2I 30, Thickness Design of Ductile-
ASTM A 193/A 193M, Alloy-Steel and Stainless Steel IronPipe
BoltingMaterials for High-TemperatureService
ASTMA194/A194M,CarbonandAlloySteelNuts Publisher:AmericanWaterWorksAssociation
for Bolts for High-pressureandHigh-Temperature (AWWA), 6666 WestQuincyAvenue,Denver,CO
Service 80235
ASTMA21 1, Spiral-WeldedSteel or IronPipe EPRI EL-3 106 (Also published as AGA-L5 14IS, Power
ASTM A 307, Carbon Steel Externally Threaded Stan- Line-Induced AC Potential on Natural Gas Pipelines
dardFasteners for ComplexRights-of-wayConfigurations)
ASTMA320/A320M,AlloySteelBoltingMaterials Publisher:ElectricPowerResearchInstitute(EPRI),
for Low-Temperature Service 3412HillviewAvenue,P.O.Box10412,PaloAlto,
ASTMA333/A333M,SeamlessandWeldedSteel CA 94304
Pipe for Low-Temperature Service
ASTMA354,QuenchedandTemperedAlloySteel MSS SP-6, Standard Finishes for Contact Faces of Pipe
Bolts, Studs, and Other Externally Threaded Fasteners Flanges and Connecting End Flanges of Valves and
ASTM A 372/A 372M. Carbon and Alloy Steel Forgings Fittings
for Thin-WalledPressureVessels MSSSP-25,StandardMarkingSystem for Valves,
ASTM A381,Metal-Arc-Welded Steel Pipe for Use Fittings,Flanges,andUnions
WithHigh-pressureTransmissionSystems MSS SP-44,SteelPipeLineFlanges
ASTM A 395, Ferritic Ductile Iron Pressure-Retaining MSS SP-70,Cast Iron GateValves,Flangedand
Castings for Use at ElevatedTemperatures ThreadedEnds
ASTM A 449, QuenchedandTemperedSteelBolts MSS SP-71,CastIronSwingCheckValves,Flanged
and Studs andThreadedEnds
ASTMA 671, Electric-Fusion-WeldedSteelPipe for MSS SP-75, Specification for High Test Wrought Weld-
AtmosphericandLowerTemperatures ingFittings
ASTMA672,Electric-Fusion-WeldedSteelPipe for MSS SP-78,Cast IronPlugValves
High-pressureServiceatModerateTemperatures Publisher: Manufacturers Standardization Society of the
ASTM B 88,SeamlessCopperWaterTube ValveandFittingsIndustry(MSS),127ParkStreet,
ASTM D 696, Test for Coefficient of Linear Thermal NE,Vienna,VA22180
NACEMROl75,Sulfide Stress CrackingResistant-
ASTM D 25 13, Thermoplastic Gas Pressure Pipe, Tub-
MetallicMaterials for OilfieldEquipment
ASTM D2517,ReinforcedEpoxyResinGasPressure -
andPipe ’ This publication is no longer in print.
I 20

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ASME B31.8-1999 Edition Appendix A

NACE RP0169, Control of External Corrosion on Un- Publisher: National Association of Corrosion Engineers
dergroundorSubmergedMetallicPipingSystems (NACEInternational), P.O.Box218340,Houston,
NACERPO275,ApplicationofOrganic Coatings to TX77218
the External Surface of Steel Pipe for Underground *NFPA 10, PortableFireExtinguishers
Service *NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code
NACE RP0675, Control of External Corrosion on Off- *NFPA 58, LiquefiedPetroleumGases,Storageand
shoreSteelPipelines Handling
NACE RP0177, Mitigation of Alternating Current and *NFPA59,LiquefiedPetroleumGasesatUtilityGas
Lightning Effects on Metallic Structures andCorro- Plants
sionControlSystems *NFPA70,NationalElectricalCode
NACECorrosionDataSurvey' *NFPA 220, Types of BuildingConstruction
Publisher: National Fire Protection Assocation (NFPA)
' Thispublication is no longer in print. 1 BatterymarchPark,Quincy, MA 02269


COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers

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ASME 831.8-1999 Fdition Appendix B




ratedintoAppendix A.

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STD-ASME B I L - B - E N G L L777 m 0757b70 ObL7LBO 7 5 3

ASME B31.8-1999 Edition Appendix C


API 5B, Specification for Threading, Gaging, and Thread ASTM A 48, Gray Iron Castings
Inspection of Casing, Tubing, and Line Pipe Thread ASTM A 125, Heat-Treated Steel Helical Springs
API 5LU, Specificationfor Ultra High Test Heat Treated ASTM A 126, GrayIron Castings for Valves, Flanges
Line pipe' and Pipe Fittings
API 5LE, Specification for Polyethylene Line Pipe ASTM A 155. Electric-FusionWeldedSteel Pipe for
API 5LP. Specification for Thermoplastic Line Pipe High-pressure Service
API5LR,Specification for ReinforcedThermosetting ASTM A 181, Forgings, Carbon Steel for General Pur-
Resin Line Pipe pose Piping
API RP 5L4, Recommended Practice for Care and Use ASTM A 182, Forgedor Rolled Alloy Steel Pipe Flanges,
of Reinforced Thermosetting Resin Line Pipe Forged Fittings, and Valves and Parts for High-Tem-
API RP 1107, Recommended Pipeline Maintenance perature Service
Welding Practices ASTM A 197, Cupola Malleable Iron
Publisher: American Petroleum Institute (API), 1220 L ASTM A 216, Carbon-Steel Castings Suitable for Fusion
Street, N W , Washington, DC 20005 Welding for High-Temperature Service
ASTM A 217, Martensitic Stainless Steel and Alloy Steel
ASME B 1.20.3, Dryseal Pipe Threads
Castings for Pressure-Containing Parts Suitable for
ASME B16.3, Malleable Iron Threaded Fittings
High-Temperature Service
ASME B 16.4, Cast Iron Threaded Fittings
ASTM A 225, Pressure Vessel Plates, Alloy Steel, Man-
ASME B 16.14, Ferrous Pipe Plugs, Bushings, and Lock- ganese-Vanadium
nuts With Pipe Threads
ASTM A 234, Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel
ASME B16.15, Cast Bronze Threaded Fittings
and Alloy Steel for Moderate and Elevated Tempera-
ASME B 16.18, Cast Copper Alloy Solder Joint Pressure
ASTM A 242, High-Strength Low Alloy Structural Steel
ASME B 16.22, Wrought Copper and Copper Alloy Sol-
ASTM A 283, Low and Intermediate Tensile Strength
der-Joint Pressure Fittings
Carbon Steel Plates, Shapes, and Bars
ASME B 16.25, Buttwelding Ends
ASTM A 285, Pressure Vessel Plates, Carbon Steel, Low-
ASME B36.10M, Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel
and Intermediate-Tensile Strength
ASTM A 350, Forgings, Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel
Publisher: The American Society of Mechanical Engi- Requiring Notch Toughness Testing for Piping Com-
neers (ASME), Three Park Avenue, NewYork, NY ponents
10016; Order Department: 22 Law Drive, Box 2300, ASTM A 377, Cast Iron and Ductile Iron Pressure Pipe
Fairfield, NJ 07007 ASTM A 420, Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel
ASTM A 6, RolledSteelPlates,Shapes,SheetPiling, and Alloy Steel for Low-Temperature Service
and Bars for Structural Use ASTM A 44 1, High-Strength Low-Alloy Structural Man-
ASTM A 20, Steel Plates for Pressure Vessels ganese Vanadium Steel
ASTM A 29, Steel Bars, Carbon and Alloy, Hot-Rolled ASTM A 442, Pressure Vessel Plates, Carbon Steel, Im-
and Cold-Finished proved Transition Properties
ASTM A 36, Structural Steel ASTM A 487, Steel Castings Suitable for Pressure
ASTM A 47, Malleable Iron Castings Service
ASTM A 502, Steel Structural Rivets
ASTM A 515, Pressure Vessel Plates, Carbon Steel for
' This publication is obsolete: instead, refer to API 5L. Intermediate and Higher Temperature Service

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Appendix C ASME B31.8-1999 Edition

ASTM A 516, Pressure Vessel Plates, Carbon Steel, for ASTM B 584, Copper Alloy Sand Castings for General
Moderate- and Lower-Temperature Service Applications
ASTM A 539, Electric-Resistance-Welded Coiled Steel Publisher: American Society for Testing and Materials
Tubing for Gas and Fuel Oil Lines (ASTM), 100B m Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken,
ASTM A 575, Merchant Quality Hot Rolled Carbon PA 19428
Steel Bars
AWWA C207-55, Steel Pipe Flanges
ASTM A 576, Steel Bars, Carbon, Hot Rolled, Special
Quality Publisher:AmericanWaterWorksAssociation
ASTM A 691,CarbonandAlloySteelPipe,Electric- (AWWA),6666WestQuincyAvenue,Denver,CO
Fusion-Welded for High-pressure Service at High 80235
Temperatures MSS SP-55, Quality Standard for Steel Castings - Vi-
ASTM A 694, Forgings, Carbon and Alloy Steel for Pipe sual Method
Flanges, Fittings, Valves and Parts for High-pressure MSS SP-61, Pressure Testing of Steel Valves
Transmission Service Publisher: Manufacturers Standardization Societyof the
ASTM B 21, Naval Brass Rod, Bar, and Shapes Valve and Fittings Industry (MSS), 127 Park Street,
ASTM B 42, Seamless Copper Pipe, Standard Sizes NE, Vienna, CA 221 80
ASTM B 43, Seamless Red Brass Pipe
NACE MR0175, Sulfide Stress Cracking Resistant Me-
ASTM B 61, Steam or Valve Bronze Castings
tallic Material for Oil Field Equipment
ASTM B 62, Composition Bronze or Ounce Metal
Publisher: National Association of Corrosion Engineers
(NACE International),P.O. Box 2 18340, Houston,TX
ASTM B 68, Seamless Copper Tube, Bright Annealed
ASTM B 75, Seamless Copper Tube
ASTM B 249, Wrought Copper and Copper-Alloy Rod, NFPA 59A, Liquefied Natural Gas, Production,Storage,
Bar, and Shapes and Handling of
ASTM B 25 1, General Requirements for Wrought Seam- Publisher: National Fire Protection Association (NFPA),
less Copper and Copper-Alloy Tube (Metric) 1 Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02269


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ASME B31.8-1999 Edition TaMe Dl


Grade Spec. No. [Note (1)l SMYS, psi

API 5L [Note (213 A25 ERW, BW, S 25,000

API 5L [Note ( 2 ) l A ERW, S, DSA 30,000
API 5L [Note ( 2 ) l B ERW, S, DSA 35,000

A P I 5L [Note (2)l x42 ERW, S, DSA 42,000

A P I 5L [Note (2)l x46 ERW, S, DSA 46,000

API 5L [Note (211 x52 ERW, S, DSA 52,000

API 5L [Note (213 x56 ERW, S, DSA 56,000
API 5L [Note (213 x60 ERW, S, DSA 60,000

API 5L [Note ( 2 ) l x65 ERW, S, DSA 65,000

API 5L [Note ( 2 ) l x70 ERW, S, DSA 70,000

A P I 5L [Note (2)l x80 ERW, S, DSA 80,000

ASTM A 53 Type F BW 25,000

ASTM A 53 ERW, S 30,000

ASTM A 53 ERW, S 35,000

ASTM A 106 S 30,000

ASTM A 106 S 35,000
ASTM A 106 S 40,000

ASTM A 134 ... [Note EFW (3)l

ASTM A 135 A ERW 30,000

ASTM A 135 B ERW 35,000

ASTM A 139 EFW 30,000

ASTM A 139 EFW 35,000
ASTM A 139 EFW 42,000
ASTM A 139 EFW 46,000
ASTM A 139 EFW 52,000

ASTM A 333 1 S, ERW 30,000

ASTM A 333 3 S, ERW 35,000
ASTM A 333 4 S 35,000
ASTM A 333 6 S, ERW 35,000
ASTM A 333 7 S, ERW 35,000
ASTM A 333 8 S, ERW 75,000
ASTM A 333 9 S, ERW 46,000


' see para. 841.1.


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~~~ ~

STD=ASME 831.8-ENGL L777 0757670 Ob17183 bb2 m

Table D l ASME B31.8-1999 E d i t h

Spec. No. Grade [Note (111 SMYS, psi

ASTM A 381 Class Y-35 DSA 35,000

ASTM A 381 Class Y-42 DSA 42,000

ASTM A 381 Class Y-46 DSA 46,000
ASTM A 381 Class Y-48 DSA 48,000
ASTM A 381 Class Y-50 DSA 50,000

ASTM A 381 Class Y-52 DSA 52,000

ASTM A 381 Class Y-56 DSA 56,000
ASTM A 381 Class Y-60 DSA 60,000

ASTM A 381 Class Y-65 DSA 65,000

This Table is not complete. For the minimum specified yield strength of other grades and grades in other
approved specifications, refer to the particular specification.
(1) Abbreviations: BW = furnace buttwelded; DSA = double submerged-arcwelded; EFW = electric
fusion welded; ERW = electric resistancewelded; FW = flash welded; S = seamless.
(2) Intermediate grades are available in API 5L.
(3) See applicable plate specification for SMYS.

Long-Term Hydrostatic Strength Values for ThermoplasticPipesCoveredby ASTM D 2513. Thevalues

apply only to materials and pipes meeting all the requirements of the basic materials and ASTM D 2513.
They are based on engineering test data obtained in accordance with ASTMD 1599 and analyzed in accordance
with ASTM D 2837. A list of commercial compounds meeting these requirements is published yearly by the
Plastics Pipe Institute.

Plastic Pipe Material Long-Term Hydrostatic Strength

Designation ( D 2513) at 73"F, psi

PB 2110 2,000
PE 3406 1,250
PE 3306 1,250
PE 2306 1,250
PE 3408 1,600

PVC 1120 4,000

PVC 1220 4,000
PVC 2110 2,000
PVC 2116 3,150

Long- Term Hydrostatic Strengthfor Reinforced Thermosetting P i p s Covered by AS TM D 251 7 is 11,000

psi. The values apply only to materials and pipes meeting all the requirements of the basic materials and
ASTM D 2517. They are based on engineering test data obtained in accordance with ASTM D 1599 and
analyzed in accordance with ASTM D 2837.


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ASME B3181999 Edition Table El

Stress Intensification
Factor, iCNotes (1)and (2)l
Flexibility Flexibility
Inplane,Outplane, Factor, Characteristic,
Description k io ii h Sketch

Welding elbow or pipe
bend [Notes (114511
0.75 -
. radius

Closely spaced miter

bend [Notes (l),(2),
(31, and (511
- -
0.9 -

s e r, (1 + tan 9)
h% /r P3

Single miter bend or

widely spaced miter
bend S 2 r2 (1+ tan 8) -
1.52 -
[Notes (11, (21, h% Pl3
and (511

Welding tee per ANSI

816.9 with
- -
r0 2 H8
Tc2 1.5 T
1 -
0.9 3L4i
O + v4 4.4 -T
f l 3 r2
[Notes (11, (2), and

Reinforced fabricated tee

with pad or saddle
[Notes (11, (21, O ) ,
1 -
0.9 4
/' io+'/4 (r+ '/,te)=
(81, and (911
/r -Pr,

Unreinforced fabricated "- "_

tee [Notes (11, ( 2 4 1
and (911

Extruded outlet
r, 2 0.05d 0.9
Tc 1.5 7
1 - 3/4 ¡,+Y4
[Notes (l),(21, and (6)l


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Table E l ASME B31.8-1999 Edition

Stress Intensification
Factor, i [Notes (1) and (211
Flexibility Flexibility
Factor, Outplane, Inplane, Characteristic,
Description k C ii h Sketch

contour insert -
r, Z 1 -
0.9 i, T
34 +k4
Tc 2 1.5 7

ha3 r2
[Notes (11, (21, and ( l o ) ]

Branch welded-on fitting

(integrally reinforced)
[Notes (11, (21, (9), and - """.
1 0.9
- 0.9
- T
h2/3 h2t3
3.3 -

Flexibility Stress Intensification

Factor, Factor,

Buttweld [Notes (1)and (12)l

1.0 T 2 0.237 in., 1
S,,,, I V16 in.,
and S,,d?I 0.13

Buttweld [Notes (1) and (1211

T L 0.237 in.,
6,,,, Il/ain., 1.9 max. or-
and S,,, T = any value 1 C0.9 + 2.7(6,,dT)I,
but not less than
Buttweld [Notes ( 1 ) and (12)l
T I 0.237 in.,
6,,,, 2 in.,
and S,,d?S 0.33

1 1.9 max. or
Tapered transition per
ANSI 816.25 6
Do + 3.6 =
1.3 + 0.0036 1
[Note (111 T T

1 2.0 max. or
per reducer 0.5 + 0.01a ($)213

A N S I 616.9 [Notes ( 1 ) and

(1311 Dol



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STD-ASME f33LmB-ENGL L999 W 0759b70 ObL71Bb 373 W

ASME 831.8-1999 Edition Table EI

Flexibility Stress Intensification
Description Factor, k Factor, i

Double-welded slip-on 1 1.2

flange [Note (14)l

Socket welding flange or 1 2.1 max or 2.1 %cx

fitting [Notes (14)and but not less than 1.3

Lap joint flange (with 1 1.6

ANSI 816.9 lap joint
stub) [Note (1413

Threaded pipe joint or 1 2.3

threaded flange
[Note (1411

Corrugated straight pipe, 5 2.5

or corrugated or
creased bend
[Note (1613

(1) The nomenclature is as follows:
-RI = bend radius of welding elbow or pipe bend, in. (mm)
T = nominal wall thickness of piping compnent, in. (mm)
= for elbows and miter bends, the nominal wall thickness of the fitting, in. (mm)
= for welding tees, the nominal wall thickness of the matching pipe, in. (mm)
= for fabricatedtees, the nominal wall thickness of the run orheader (provided that if thickness is greater than thatof matching
pipe, increasedthickness must be maintained for atleast one run outside diameter t o each sideof the branch outside diameter),
in. (mm1
Tc = the crotch thickness of tees, in. (mm)
d = outside diameter of branch, in. (mm)
r. = radius of curvature of external contoured portion of outlet, measured in the plane containing the axes of the header and
branch, in. (mm)
r2 = mean radius of matching pipe, in. (mm)
J = miter spacing at center line,in. (mm)
= pad or saddle thickness, in. (mm)
9 = one-half angle between adjacent miter axes, deg
(2) The flexibility factor, k, applies to bending in any plane. The flexibility factors, k, and stress intensification factors, i, shall not beless
than unity; factors for torsion equal unity. Both factors apply over the effective arc length (shown by heavy center lines in the sketches)
for curved and miter bends and to the intersection point for tees.
The values of k and i c a n be read directly from Chart A by entering with the characteristic, h, computed from the formulas given.
(3) Where flanges are attached to one or both ends, the values of k and ishall be corrected by the factors, C, which can be read directly
from Chart B, entering with the computed h.
(4) The designer is cautioned that cast buttwelded fittings may have considerably heavier walls than that of the pipe with which they are used.
Large errors may be introduced unless the effect of these greater thicknesses is considered.
(5) I n large diameter thin-wall elbows and bends, pressure can significantly affect the magnitudes of kand i. To correct values from the Table,
divide k by

[ + (g)
1 6 ($r(:r]
divide iby

[l + 3.25

E, = cold modulus of elasticity
P = gagepressure


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STD.ASflE B 3 L - 8 - E N G L L999
m 0759b70 ObL7L87 208 m

Table E l ASME B31.8-1999 Edition

(6) I f the number of displacement cycles is less than 200, the radius and thickness limits specified need to be met. When the radius and
thickness limits are not met and the number of design cycles exceeds 200, the out-plane and in-plane stress intensification factors shall
be calculated as 1.12//?’~ and (0.67/h2‘3) + l/q, respectively.
(7)When Cf,) > 1!L2T, use h = 4.05 nr,.
(8) The minimum value of the stress intensification factor shall be 1.2.
(9) When the branch-to-run diameter ratio exceeds 0.5 and the number of design displacement cycles exceeds 200, the out-plane and in-plane
stress intensification factors shall be calculated as 1.8/h2I3 and (0.67//?’’) + respectively, unless the transition weld between the branch
and run is blended to a smooth concave contour. I