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Physics 424, Fall 2017 Homework 5

Due Wednesday October 18th Turn in the homework in at the start of lecture.

Problem 1: Hydrogen Atom Nodes

(a) The only φ dependence of ψ nlm comes from the factor e imφ in the spherical harmonic Y

m (θ, φ),

which is just a constant when we take the magnitude squared |ψ nlm | 2 . Therefore, all the probability densities are rotationally symmetric about the z axis. The fact that the plots are left-right symmetric (i.e, the same for φ = 0 and φ = π) is consistent with the conclusion that the probability densities are rotationally symmetric, but not suﬃcient to prove rotational symmetry.

(b) The nodes of the radial function (which appear as nodal points in 1D plots of R nl (r)) are nodal

circles in these 2D plots. In a full 3D plot, they would be nodal spheres. Note that we do not count r = 0 as a node. This matrix gives the number of radial nodes in each plot in the grid:

l

3

0

4

2

2

1

0

3

1

0

1

2

m (θ, φ)) are straight

(half-inﬁnite) nodal lines in these 2D plots. In a full 3D plot, they would be nodal cones. Note that the

xy plane in 3D is just a special case of a cone, with an opening angle of 180 . This matrix gives the number of radial nodes in each plot in the grid:

(c) The nodes of the angular function (which appear as nodal points in 1D plots of Y

l

3

0

1

0

2

1

2

0

3

4

2

1

(d) For all of the examples shown here, the general relationship is that the total number of radial plus

angular nodes equals n 1. However, note that it is the number of nodes of Re( ψ nlm ) that matters, not |ψ nlm | 2 as plotted here, but these examples all have m = 0 so all the nodes are visible.

(e) Since these examples all have m = 0, all the nodes are visible and the conclusion is the same as

in (d): the total number of radial plus angular (θ and φ) nodes equals n 1.

Problem 2: Hydrogen Atom I

The angular part is

R 2,1 =

3

1

2a 0 3/2 r

1

a

0

e r/2a 0

1

Y

1

=

8π sin θe iφ

3

1

Figure 1: Drawing of the 2p (left) radial wavefunction and (right) angular dependence.

(b) The probability density is

r 2 R

2

2.1 =

2a 0 3 r 4

1

1

3

a

0

e

r/a 0

Diﬀerentiate it and set the result to zero

2a 0 3 a r 3

1

1

3

0 e r/a 0 4

r 0 = 0

a

so we obtain r = 4a 0 , where the radial probability density is a maximum.

(c) The initial state energy of the electron is

E 2 = 13.6

4

eV = 3.4eV

The ﬁnal state energy of the electron is

E 1 = 13.6

1

eV = 13.6eV

Thus the energy of the emitted photon is

E = E 2 E 1 = 3.4 + 16.3 = 10.2eV

Problem 3: Hydrogen Atom II

Consider an electron in the ground state (n = 1, l = 0, m = 0) of the hydrogen atom.

(a) The ground state wavefunction is spherically symmetric so only depends on r

ψ 100 (r) =

1

πa 3 e r/a

and the relevant integral is (with exponent p = 1 or 2)

r p = 4π dr r 2+p

0

|ψ 100 (r)| 2 =

2

a

p

2 p+1 Γ(p + 3)

where the factor of 4π comes from the angular integrals,

π

0

sin(θ) 2π = 4π

0

and Γ(x) is the gamma function that generalizes the factorial function, with Γ(n) = (n 1)! when n is

a positive integer. Using p = 1, we obtain:

r =

3

2 a

and with p = 2,

r 2 = 3a 2 .

Since the ground state is spherically symmetric, it is also symmetric under the interchange y ↔ −y and therefore we must have y = 0. Similarly x = z = 0. To ﬁnd y 2 we note that

r 2 = x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ,

and again appeal to spherical symmetry to argue that

Therefore we must have

x 2 = y 2 = z 2 .

x 2 = y 2 = z 2 = 1

3 r 2 = a 2

(b) The probability of measuring r in the interval [r, r + dr] for the ground state is p(r)dr where p(r)

is the radial probability density deﬁned such that:

0

p(r) = 1

Comparing with the normalization integral for an arbitrary state

0

r 2 dr π sin(θ) 2π |ψ 100 (r)| 2 = 1,

0

0

we can identify the radial probability density as

p(r) = r 2 π sin(θ) 2π |ψ 100 (r)| 2 .

0

0

In the case of the ground state ψ 100 (r), the angular integrals just give the constant 4π (surface area of the unit sphere) and

p(r)

= 4πr 2 |ψ 100 (r)| 2 = 4r

2

a 3 e 2r a.

(c) To ﬁnd the most probable value of r , look for an extremum of p(r ):

dp = 8 r(a r)

dr

a

4

e 2r a = 0

The solutions to this equation are r = 0 and r = a, but r = 0 corresponds to a minimum of p(r) so r = a corresponds to the maximum (most probable value) that we seek.

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(d) We expect to ﬁnd a most probable value of r (a) that is less than the expectation value of r (3a/2) since p(r) is asymmetric about its maximum r = a due to the constraint r 0.

Problem 4: Pionic Atom

In class we saw that

Therefore

Thus

±1

Y

1

(θ, φ) = 8π sin θe ±iφ and Y (θ, φ) = 4π cos θ

3

0

1

3

1

2 Y

1

2i Y

1

1

1

1

+

+

1

2 Y

1

1

= 8π sin θ cos φ =

3

3

x

8π r

1

2i Y

1

1

= 8π sin θ sin φ =

3

3

y

8π r

0

Y

1

= 4π cos θ =

3

3

z

4π r

x+y+z = r

3

8π 2 Y

1

1

1 +

1 2 Y

1

1

1

2i Y

1

1 +

1

2i Y

1

1

0 = r

1

8π 1 i

3

2

+ Y

1

Y

1

+ 1 + i

2

1

Y

1

+

1

0

1

2 Y

If we look at this expression as a superposition of the form

1

c 1 Y

1

+

0

c 0 Y

1

+

1

c 1 Y

1

we see that (a) and (b) The pion is in a p orbital since the only spherical harmonics involved in the

superposition are the Y

m

1

.

 (b) For l = 1, |L| = l(l + 1)¯h = √ 2¯h. (c) The probabilities are |c 1 | 2 = |c 0 | 2 = |c −1 | 2 , so there is a 1/3 probability of obtaining L z = 0 if a

measurement of L z is carried out.

Problem 5: Hydrogenic Atom - Griffiths 4.16

In this problem, we are asked to consider the generalization of the formulae deﬁning the hydrogen atom to nuclei with greater charge, so-called hydrogenic atoms. To do so, we will simply make the change e 2 Ze 2 . The energies depend on e 4 , the Bohr radius depends on e 2 and the Rydberg constant as e 4 . Thus, the dependence on Z for a hydrogenic atom is

E(Z) = Z 2 E, a(Z) = Z 1 a, R(Z) = Z 2 R

where the terms on the right sides of the equations are those quantities from the hydrogen atom.

We are also asked to compute where in the electromagnetic spectrum the Lyman series falls for Z = 2 and Z = 3. This is straightforward and only requires us to plug the result into Eq. [4.93] on page 158 in Griﬃths.

What is important to note is that the wavelength is proportional to Z 2 and so the wavelength decreases as Z grows. As the Lyman series is initially in the ultraviolet for hydrogen, for Z = 2, 3 the wavelength is only shorter and so stays in the ultraviolet.

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