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Packet Scheduler

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NokiaEDU
Packet Scheduler

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Packet Scheduler

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Packet Scheduler

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Packet Scheduler
Module Objectives

At the end of the module you will be able to:


• Describe the functions of the R99 Packet Scheduler on overview level

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Note: due to the decreasing relevance of R99 traffic this chapter is reduced to overview level. Please
check product documentation or courses RN3163 or RN3167 for more details.

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Packet Scheduler

• Introduction
• Packet Scheduler Functions
• RRC states & transitions

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Why Packet Scheduling?

• Suitable for controllable load (= best effort NRT)


• Requires fast resource allocation
Planned
Load Load/Power
(~ Power) Free Capacity Target

HSDPA
(dynamic power and codes
allocation possible)

Non-Controllable Load
• CS real time traffic (also CS Voice over HSPA)
• UL: Interference from other cell users
• UL: Noise
• DL: Common channels

time
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Why Packet Scheduling?


It is characteristic for RT traffic that it’s load cannot be controlled in efficient way. Load caused by RT traffic,
interference from other cell users and noise together is called non-controllable load. The available capacity,
which is not used by non-controllable load, can be used for NRT radio bearers on best effort basis. To fill the
whole load budget and achieve the maximum capacity, the allocation of NRT traffic needs to be fast.
The Packet scheduler is a general feature, which takes care of scheduling radio resources for NRT radio bearers
for both UL & DL directions; Packet scheduling happens periodically (with the period of tens of milliseconds) and
is implemented for both dedicated (DCH) and common control transport channels (RACH/FACH).
Additionally, packet access is implemented for HS-DSCH when using HSDPA and for E-DCH in the case
of HSUPA.
Packet scheduler is not applicable to the HS-DSCH MAC-d flow in DL and E-DCH in UL.
Scheduled capacity depends on the UE capabilities, Node B capabilities, current load of the cell as well as the
availability of the physical radio resources.
PS and MAC layer together make the decision of the used channel type for DL direction, data transmission on
dedicated channel is initiated when MAC layer requests transmission capacity
For UL direction the decision of the used channel type is based on UE measurements and parameters controlled
by network. Data transmission on dedicated channels is initiated when a capacity request is received from UE.
The selection of the channel type is done fast - taking into account the data amount in the buffers and the current
radio conditions

CS Voice over HSPA is non-controllable load and impacts also RT DCH admission. If CS voice over HSPA is
in the cell, then the target for the non-controllable transmitted carrier power is dynamic. Despite it, power of the
DCH traffic cannot exceed PtxTarget.

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Packet Scheduler (PS) functions

PS consists of multiple different functions which can be categorised based on the scope of the
function
• UE-specific part: Functions working based on single radio link/bearer status, measurements &
conditions
• Cell-specific part: Functions working based on cell level measurements & conditions

UE Specific: Cell Specific:


• Capacity Request CR & Traffic Volume • Cell Load measurement & averaging
Measurements TVM • Queuing of capacity requests
• NRT DCH throughput measurements & • Channel type selection
minimum utilisation
• Power budget for packet scheduling
• Flexible upgrade of the NRT DCH &
• Bit rate allocation process/method
High throughput measurement
• Load increase - Bit rate upgrade
• Dynamic Link Optimization DyLO for
• Load decrease - Overload control
NRT traffic coverage
• Enhanced Priority based Scheduling PBS

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Bit rate upgrading & downgrading


• The DCH of a NRT RAB can be upgraded due to:
1) High amount of data in buffer – Capacity Request CR / Bit rate upgrade
2) High utilisation/throughput – Flexible upgrade of the NRT DCH data rate
• It is possible to upgrade the NRT DCH data rate from any bit rate below the maximum allowed bit rate to the
maximum allowed bit rate
• The DCH upgrade procedure is performed in CELL_DCH state and it requires the reconfiguration of RL,
transmission & RNC internal resources

• The DCH of a NRT RAB can be downgraded or released due to multiple causes:
1) Excessive DL power – DyLO for NRT traffic coverage feature
2) Different congestion situations – Enhanced PBS and overload control
3) Low utilisation/throughput – Throughput-based optimization of the PS
4) Maximum bit rate limitation – Another RAB is setup for the same UE or during Mass Events Handling
UL DCH max bit rate is temporary limited
5) Inactivity of the radio bearer – possible specific handling of UE identified as Smartphone's by Fast
Dormancy Profiling
• The DCH downgrade procedure is performed in CELL_DCH state and it can be performed by
• RB Reconfiguration (also transmission, WBTS & RNC resources)
• Limitation of the maximum Transport Format Combinations TFC (temporary)
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Packet Scheduler actions during call – Unloaded cell

AC - AC makes admission decision and allocates a 0 bit rate to the NRT radio bearer
PS1 - “Bit rate allocation”, after receiving a capacity request PS allocates initial bit rate
PS2 - “Flexible upgrade”, After receiving a capacity request PS allocates maximum (high) bit rate
PS3 - “Throughput-based optimization“, PS performs RB reconfiguration to lower bit rate
PS4 - “Flexible upgrade”, PS performs RB reconfiguration to higher bit rate
PS5 - “RRC state transition”, PS initiates state transition to CELL_FACH due to inactivity
MaxBitRateDL/ ULPSNRT
[8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 320, 384]
PS2 PS3 PS4 PS5 kbps, 384 kbps
Max. bit rate
Allocated bit rate

InitialBitRateUL/DL
PS1 8..384 kbps; 64 kbps

Initial bit rate


Actual throughput
AC
0 bit rate

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Packet Scheduler actions during call – Loaded cell

Overload
Load Margin

Normal load

PS4 PS5
Allocated bit rate
Max. bit rate
PS2 PS3

InitialBitRateUL/DL
PS1 8..384 kbps; 64 kbps
Initial bit rate

AC Minimum bit rate


Actual throughput
MinAllowedBitRateUL/DL
8..384 kbps; 8 kbps
PBS FLXU PBS: Priority based scheduling
EOLC FLXU
FLXU: Flexible upgrade
EOLC: Enhanced Overload control
PS5: Inactivity  RRC state transition

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AC - AC makes admission decision and allocates a 0 bit rate to the NRT radio bearer
PS1 - “Priority based scheduling”, after receiving a capacity request PS allocates initial bit rate after downgrading
an existing bearer (load margin)
PS2 - “Flexible upgrade”, After receiving a capacity request PS allocates higher bit rate (normal load)
PS3 - “Enhanced Overload control“, PS performs radio bearer reconfiguration to until minimum bit rate (overload)
PS4 - “Flexible upgrade”, PS performs radio bearer reconfiguration to higher bit rate (normal load)
PS5 - “RRC state transition”, PS initiates state transition to CELL_FACH due to inactivity

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