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United States Patent [191 [11] Patent Number: 4,696,156

Burr et al. [45] Date of Patent: Sep. 29, 1987

[54] FUEL AND OIL HEAT MANAGEMENT 3,779,007 12/1973 Lavash ........................... .. 60/3928]
SYSTEM FOR A GAS TURBINE ENGINE 4,020,632 5/1977 Cof?nberry et al. .. 60/3903
4,104,873 8/1978 Cof?nberry 60/3908
[75] Inventors: Donald N. Burr, Glastonbury; Paul S. 4,151,710 5/1979 Grif?n et a1. .. 60/3908
Danilowicz, Manchester; Thomas C. 4,354,345 10/1982 Dreisbach et a1. ............... .. 60/3908
Franz; Thomas P. Mortimer, both of . . .
Bolton‘ Edward B‘ Pew Somers an Primary Exammer—l.ou1s J. Casaregola
of Con’n ’ ’ Attorney, Agent, or Ftrm-Tmxell K. Snyder
[73] Assignee: United Technologies Corporation, [57] ABSTRACr
Hartford, Conn. A heat management system is provided for a gas turbine
21 A l‘ N _: .870 192 engine (10) having ?rst and second oil cooling loops
[ 1 PP o ’ (14, 16). The system distributes excess fuel ?ow from a
[22] Flledi Jlllh 33 1986 main fuel pump (44) among a plurality of upstream
[51] int. Cl.‘ ........................ .. F02C 7/06; FOZC 7/224 locations (58, 6°, 68) for managing the transfer of heat
[52] us. (:1. ................................ .. 60/3908; 60/736 between the Oil loops (14, 161mm! the ?owing fhel- A
[58] Field of Search ............... .. 60/3902, 39.08, 39.83, diverter valve (62) regulates the distribution of the by
60/736; 184/611 pass fuel responsive to engine heat generation, oil tem
. perature, and/or fuel temperature. A passive fuel distri
[56] References Clted ’ bution con?guration using one or more fuel ?ow re
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS strictors (72, 74, 76) is also disclosed.
3,300,965 I/ 1967 Sherlaw et al. .................. .. 60/3908
3,382,672 5/ 1968 French ........................... .. 60/3928] 7 Claims, 2 Drawing Figures

34/
U. S. Patent Sep. 29, 1987 Sheetl of2 4,696,156

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U. S. Patent Sep. 29, 1987 Shéet2 of2 4,696,156

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4,696,156
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Against the heat production of the main engine lubri
FUEL AND OIL HEAT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM cation system and the accessory drive, the needs of the
FOR A GAS TURBINE ENGINE fuel stream must also be considered and balanced. It is
typical in gas turbine engine installations to deliver the
FIELD OF THE INVENTION fuel to the engine combustor by a positive displacement
The present invention relates to a system for transfer pump connected mechanically to the rotating engine
ring heat energy between the fuel and lubricating oil of shaft. It will be appreciated by those skilled in the art ‘
a gas turbine engine'or the like. that a positive displacement pump, such as a gear pump
or the like, delivers a volumetric ?ow rate directly
BACKGROUND lo proportional to the speed of the pump. As the flow rate
The cooling requirements of gas turbine engines are from a pump turning proportional to engine shaft speed
well known to the designers of today’s high perfor could never be made to match the fuel flow require
mance aircraft powerplants. Certain internal structures, ments of an aircraft gas turbine engine operating under
such as bearings, are both cooled and lubricated by a a variety of power level demands and environmental
circulating ?ow of oil which is distributed and collected conditions, it is common in the industry to size the posi
throughout the main engine structure, returning to a tive displacement main fuel pump with an excess flow
central collection point after having absorbed signi? capacity under all engine operating conditions. The fuel
cant heat energy. Another source of heat is the acces system thus must include a fuel control valve and a
sory drive system coupled to the main engine by a me 20 bypass or return fuel line for routing the excess main
chanical drive and clutch system. Such accessory fuel pump output back to the low pressure side of the
drives, for example a constant speed drive for the air pump.
craft service electrical generator, are also provided with The use of a pump bypass, common in many ?uid
an independent circulating flow of oil for lubricating ?ow applications, normally does not impact the opera
and cooling purposes. ‘
25
tion of the fuel supply subsystem in an aircraft applica
One method of cooling the circulating oil loops de tion. Under certain operating conditions, however, such
scribed above is through the use of air-oil coolers and a as engine idling either in flight or on the ground, it will
flow of relatively cool compressor bleed air. Such cool be nonetheless apparent that the amount of fresh fuel
ers, while effective, diminish the overall engine operat entering the fuel system is small while the relative vol
ing ef?ciency since the extraction of bleed air increases 30 ume of fuel being bypassed back to the pump inlet is
overall engine power demand for a given level of useful quite large. The combination of pump inefficiency and
thrust. This power penalty results in an increase in en recirculation of the excess main fuel pump output
gine thrust speci?c fuel consumption. . through the bypass line can heat the circulating fuel to
Another method, often used in conjunction with air an undesirably high temperature making it necessary to
cooling, is to reject heat, from the circulating oil loops 35 provide at least temporary cooling to the fuel supply
into the ?ow of fuel entering the engine combustion system for idle operation.
chamber. This method uses the fuel flow as a conve Various methods have been proposed in the art for
nient, recuperative heat sink and incurs few of the pen accommodating the widely varying needs of the fuel
alties of air cooling, but is limited in effectiveness by the supply system, main engine lubrication system, and the
maximum temperature tolerable by the fuel. accessory drive unit. U.S. Pat. No. 4,151,710 “Lubrica
In order to appreciate the design problems associated tion Cooling System for Aircraft Engine Accessory”
with the management of heat generated in these sys issued May 1, 1979 to Griffin et a1, shows disposing the
tems, a brief discussion of the function and heat output accessory drive fuel-oil heat exchanger downstream
of each is required. Cooling oil circulating through the with respect to the engine fuel-oil heat exchanger in the
main engine lubrication system receives heat energy at 45 fuel supply line. The circulating accessory oil is routed
a rate related to the product of engine rotor speed and through or around the accessory fuel-oil heat exchanger
power output. The cooling needs of the main engine and an air-oil cooler in order to manage the accessory
lubrication loop are thus at a minimum during periods drive heat rejection. The reference also discloses re
of low power operation, such as idling, and at a maxi moving heat energy from the fuel stream during periods
mum during high or full power operation, such as take of excessive fuel temperature, such as during ground
off. Normal engine operation under cruise conditions idle. The total fuel flow passes through both the engine
would fall between the two ranges but closer to the lubrication system fuel-oil cooler and the accessory
higher power conditions. drive fuel-oil cooler .
The lubricating and cooling oil of the accessory Such prior art systems, while effective, lack the ?exi
drive, and particularly for an accessory drive provided 55 bility for ef?ciently accommodating the wide variations
for the airframe electrical generator, does not receive in heat generation occurring in the various systems
heat energy proportional to the engine speed and power described. In the subject reference, for example, by
sizing the accessory fuel-oil cooler to accommodate the
level but rather as a function of the electrical demand of
the airframe. The accessory drive’s maximum heat re maximum mass ?ow of fuel in the fuel supply line, it is
jection demand may therefore occur at nearly any time 60 necessary to increase the size of the accessory fuel-oil
in the operation of the aircraft, depending on the num heat exchanger so as to accommodate the higher fuel
ber of ovens, coffee makers, reading lamps, electrical throughput. Additionally, by placing the accessory
heaters, or other power consuming devices switched on drive heat exchanger downstream of the engine lubrica
in the airframe at any particular time. The accessory tion system fuel-oil heat exchanger, the referenced ar
heat rejection demand also varies less overall than that 65 rangement limits the fuel cooling available to the acces
of the engine lubrication system, with the minimum heat sory drive unit, requiring additional air-oil cooling ca
rate being about one-half of the maximum heat rejection pacity to achieve current stringent accessory drive oil
rate. temperature requirements.
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fuel ?ow rates reducing the total fuel pressure drop
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
between the boost pump and the main fuel pump.
It is an object of the present invention to provide a The present invention thus optimally matches ?uid
system for transferring heat energy generated in a gas temperatures and heat exchange rates between the fuel
turbine engine among a ?rst oil loop for cooling an supplied to the engine and the oil loops under all engine
engine accessory drive, a second oil loop for cooling operating conditions, thereby reducing the requirement
and lubricating the engine bearings and other internal for auxiliary oil cooling with compressed engine air or
structures, and the fuel stream supplied to-the engine for the like. The invention further provides, for those situa
combustion therein. tions wherein the rate of heat buildup in the fuel stream
It is further an object of the present invention to is excessive due to a high bypass ?ow as compared to
distribute said heat energy responsive to the current the metered ?ow, a means for cooling the recirculating
rate of heat generation occurring within the accessory fuel through a reverse transfer of heat energy from the
drive, engine, and fuel stream for achieving ef?cient fuel into the circulating oil loops.
and reliable operation over the engine power output Still another advantage of the allocating function
range. > 15 according to the present invention is a reduction in the
It is further an object of the present invention to maximum rate of fuel ?owing through an individual
provide a heat transfer system able to cool the fuel fuel-oil heat exchanger relative to the minimum rate,
stream by one or more oil loops during low power thus reducing exchanger size while providing suf?cient
engine operation, and to cool the oil loops with the fuel heat transfer capacity under all cooling conditions.
stream during high power engine operation. 20 Both these and other advantages will be apparent to
It is still further an object of the present invention to those skilled in the art upon careful inspection of the
accomplish the distribution of heat energy by directing following description and the appended claims and
a bypass ?ow of fuel among a plurality of return loca drawing ?gures.
tions in the fuel stream responsive to the desired heat
transfer performance. 25 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
According to the present invention, heat is trans FIG. 1 shows a ?ow schematic of a ?rst embodiment
ferred between each oil loop and a ?owing fuel stream of a fuel and oil heat management system according to
by a pair of fuel-oil heat exchangers receiving the fuel the present invention.
‘ stream in series. The fuel stream passing through the FIG. 2 shows a ?ow schematic of a second embodi
fuel-oil heat exchangers includes at least a portion of the 30 ment of a fuel and oil heat management system accord
I ' fuel supplied from the aircraft fuel tank by a boost pump ing to the present invention.
7 at a metered rate equal to that currently being delivered
to the gas turbine engine combustor. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE
The fuel stream enters a main fuel pump operating at PREFERRED AND ALTERNATIVE
a fuel ?ow rate in excess of the metered rate, hence EMBODIMENTS
requiring a portion of the fuel ?owing therefrom to be FIG. 1 shows a schematic representation of the fuel
~ returned to the fuel stream prior to the main fuel pump. and oil ?ow systems for a gas turbine engine 10. An
This diversion of the main pump outlet ?ow is accom accessory drive 12 is mechanically linked (not shown)
'~ plished by a fuel controller which determines the me to the engine 10 and is cooled by a ?rst oil loop 14
‘2 tered fuel flow rate responsive to the demanded engine 40 wherein oil ?owing from the accessory drive 12 passes
power level. in sequence through a ?rst air-oil cooler 18 and a ?rst
According to the present invention, a bypass conduit fuel-oil heat exchanger 20 before being returned to the
having at least two branches is provided for returning accessory drive unit 12. Cooling air 22, extracted from
the bypass ?ow to two or more locations in the stream the compressor or fan section of the engine 10, passes
?owing to the main fuel pump, thus altering the fuel 45 through the air-oil cooler 18 and is regulated by a ?rst
?ow rate and effectiveness of one or both of the fuel-oil air control valve 24.
heat exchangers. Lubricating and cooling oil for the main engine bear
The bypass fuel is allocated among the return loca ings and other internal components circulates in a
tions responsive to the engine power level. Speci?cally, wholly separate oil loop 16, passing in sequence
one embodiment of a system according to the present through a second air-oil cooler 26 and a second fuel-oil
invention returns the bypass fuel to ?rst and second heat exchanger 28 before returning to the engine 10.
locations disposed respectively upstream of the ?rst Cooling air 30 for the second air-oil cooler 26 is also
loop fuel-oil heat exchanger and intermediate the ?rst extracted from the engine fan or compressor and is
and second loop fuel-oil heat exchangers. Allocation of regulated by a second air control valve 32.
the bypass fuel ?ow between the ?rst and second loca 55 Combustion fuel is supplied to the engine from the
tions is accomplished by a diverter valve manipulated main fuel tank 34 by a fuel system including an engine
responsive to the engine power level. driven boost pump 36. Boost pumps are typically cen
A second embodiment according to the present in trifugal pumps designed to operate at an essentially
vention returns the bypass fuel ?ow to ?rst and third constant pressure for a given engine speed, independent
locations disposed respectively upstream of the ?rst 60 of the volumetric ?ow rate of fuel therethrough. Boost
loop fuel-oil cooler and downstream of the second fuel pump 36 supplies fuel to a fuel conduit 38 at a ?ow rate
oil cooler prior to the main fuel pump. Allocation of the equivalent to the current fuel demand of the gas turbine
bypass fuel between the ?rst and third locations is ac engine 10. This ?ow rate, termed the “metered fuel ?ow
complished passively by the effect of one or more ?ow rate”, is determined by the main engine fuel control 40
restrictors placed in the bypass return line. It is an addi 65 as discussed hereinbelow.
tional feature of this second embodiment that the fresh The metered fuel ?ow enters the ?rst fuel oil heat
metered fuel entering the system from the boost pump exchanger 20, passing therethrough and ?owing subse
may bypass the fuel-oil heat exchangers at high metered quently through the second fuel-oil exchanger 28, a fuel
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?lter 42, and a positive displacement main fuel pump 44, ing fuel is rejected from the system through the air-oil
?nally entering the fuel controller 40. It should be noted coolers 18, 26.
that the main fuel pump 44 is driven by the engine 10 During periods of full power or cruise engine opera
and thus has a pump speed proportional to the engine tion, the diverter valve 62 is moved to the second posi
speed. tion wherein the entire ?ow of bypass fuel is returned to
As discussed in the preceding section, the main fuel the second return location 60 through the branch 56. In
pump 44 develops a volumetric ?ow rate dependent this con?guration, the fresh supply of fuel from the fuel
upon the pump shaft speed and is therefore sized to tank 34 forms the entire fuel ?ow through the ?rst
provide a fuel ?ow at the pump outlet 46 in excess of the fuel-oil heat exchanger 20 wherein the fuel absorbs heat
metered fuel ?ow rate. The fuel controller 40 accepts 10 from the circulating oil in the ?rst loop 14. The second
the fuel from the pump outlet 46 and divides the ?ow fuel-oi] heat exchanger 28 receives both the bypass fuel
stream between a supply line 48 which is routed to the returned by the controller 40 as well as the fuel ?owing
combustion section 50 of the gas turbine engine 10, and from the ?rst fuel-oil heat exchanger 20. This combined
a bypass line 52. The fuel ?ow rate in the supply line 48 fuel ?ow passes through the second fuel-oil heat ex
is the metered fuel ?ow rate as determined by the fuel changer 28, cooling the oil circulating in the second oil
controller 40 while the fuel ?ow in the bypass line 52 is loop 16, and passing subsequently through the ?lter 42
equal to the excess main pump fuel delivery. and main fuel pump 44.
In this ?rst embodiment of the present invention, the It will be appreciated that during operation at these
bypass line 52 includes two branches, a ?rst branch 54 higher power levels, both the metered fuel flow rate
and a second branch 56 together providing a means for 20 and the main fuel pump delivery rate are considerably
returning and distributing the bypass ?ow between two higher than those under idle conditions. The high me
return locations 58, 60, respectively. The ?rst and sec tered fuel ?ow rate provides adequate total heat capac
ond return locations 58, 60 are disposed respectively ity in the supplied fuel stream for absorbing all the heat
upstream of the ?rst fuel-oil heat exchanger 20, and energy generated by the accessory drive 12 and the
intermediate the ?rst and second fuel-oil heat exchang 25 engine 10 thus allowing closure of the ?rst and second
ers 20, 28. The ?ow of bypass fuel is allocated between air?ow regulating valves 24, 32 improving overall en
the locations 58, 60 by a diverter valve 62 operable gine ef?ciency.
between a ?rst position wherein the entire ?ow of by Additionally, by redirecting the bypass fuel return
pass fuel in the bypass line 52 is directed to the ?rst ?ow from the ?rst location 58 to the second location 60
return location 58, and a second position (not shown) 30 downstream of the ?rst'fuel-oil heat exchanger 20 in
wherein the entire bypass fuel ?ow is directed to the creases the temperature effectiveness of the ?rst fuel-oil
second location 60. It should be noted at this time that heat exchanger 20 which receives only fresh fuel from
although the diverter valve 62 is disclosed as operating the fuel tank 34, unmixed with the warmer bypass fuel
in an either/or fashion for diverting the entire bypass stream. This ?ow con?guration insures that the maxi
fuel stream, it may be useful under some circumstances 35 mum cooling capacity of the fresh fuel stream is avail~
to employ a partial diverter valve operable for dividing able to the accessory drive unit 12 through the ?rst oil
the bypass fuel between the ?rst and second branches cooling loop 14 when the engine operates at full or
54, 56 in a proportional manner. cruising power
It is preferable to operate the diverter valve 62 re One ?nal feature of the embodiment of FIG. 1 are oil
sponsive to an engine operating parameter related to the 40 bypass lines 64, 65 disposed in the oil loops 14, 16 for
rate of heat rejection to the oil loops 14, 16. One such directing oil around the respective fuel-oil heat ex
parameter is the fuel pressure rise across the engine changers 20, 28. The bypass ?ows are regulated by
driven boost pump 36 which is related to engine speed. control valves 66, 67 which are opened responsive to
In operation, fuel and oil ?ow in the above~described fuel and oil temperature during periods, such as at idle,
systems with heat exchange therebetween accom 45 wherein the fuel is too hot to absorb additional heat
plished in the fuel-oil heat exchangers 20, 28. Under energy, thereby allowing the system to more ?exibly
conditions of low engine power, such as idling either on accommodate the needs of the various systems.
the ground or in flight, the metered fuel ?ow rate is By placing the fuel-oil heat exchangers 20, 28 up
relatively low, matching the fuel demand of the engine stream of the main fuel pump 44 and the fuel ?lter 42,
10. As the engine shaft speed at idle is also relatively 50 the heat management system according to the present
low as compared to cruise or full power levels, the invention also reduces or eliminates the need for auxil
output of the positive displacement main fuel pump 44, iary fuel heating to avoid icing up of the fuel ?lter 42
although much greater than the metered fuel ?ow rate, under extremely cold operating conditions.
is also reduced. The diverter valve 62 is positioned FIG. 2 shows a schematic representation of a second
during these periods to direct the entire bypass fuel ?ow 55 embodiment of the heat management system according
to the ?rst return location 58 through the ?rst return to the present invention wherein like reference numer
branch 54. In this con?guration, the entire bypass fuel als are used to denote elements in common with the
?ow and metered fuel ?ow pass sequentially through embodiment shown in FIG. 1. The second embodiment
the ?rst and second fuel-oil heat exchangers 20, 28. according to the present invention distributes the by
During extended periods of idling resulting in exces 60 pass fuel ?owing in bypass line 52 between two return
sive heat buildup in therecirculating fuel, the ?rst fuel locations on the low pressure side of the main fuel pump
oil heat exchanger 20 acts to remove heat from the fuel 44, a ?rst location 58 via a ?rst branch 54, and a third
by transferring heat in the reverse direction into the ?rst location 68, via a third branch 70. It will be appreciated
oil loop 14. This heat is removed from the loop 14 by that the return location and branch denoted by refer
opening the valve 24 to admit a flow of cooling air 22 65 ence numerals 68 and 70, while forming the only other
through the ?rst air-oil cooler 18. Similarly, during location and branch in the disclosed second embodi
periods of in?ight engine shutdown, heat removed from ment according to the present invention, are termed the
the windmilling engine, accessory drive, and recirculat third -location and third branch to distinguish from the
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second location and second branch discussed herein As discussed above with respect to the ?rst embodi
above with respect to the ?rst embodiment. ment, the higher metered fuel ?ow rate present at nor
The second embodiment uses passive means for allo mal engine power levels is more than sufficient to cool
cating the bypass fuel ?ow between the ?rst and third the accessory drive 12 and the engine 10 without the
locations 58, 68 comprising one or more ?ow restrictors need for diverting cooling air 22, 30 from the engine fan
72, 74, 76, disposed respectively in the ?rst branch 54, or compressor sections and thereby avoiding any loss of
the fuel inlet of the ?rst fuel-oil heat exchanger 20, ef?ciency resulting therefrom. It will be appreciated,
and/or the third branch 70. Based on differential pres however, that the cooling air regulating valves 24, 32
sures and fuel ?ow rates at different points in the vari may be controlled responsive to the fuel and/or oil
ous fuel lines, the ?ow restrictors 72, 74, 76 allocate not 0 temperatures in the respective loops 14, 16 as necessary
only the bypass fuel ?owing in bypass line 52 between to optimize system performance over the entire range of
the ?rst location 58 and the second location 68, but may engine operation.
additionally allocate the ?ow of fresh fuel from the fuel
The present invention thus provides a heat manage
tank 34 between the inlet of the ?rst fuel-oil heat ex~
changer 20 and the second return location 68 as dis
ment system for bene?cally distributing fuel in the fuel
cussed hereinbelow. supply system of a gas turbine engine among various
During periods of low power or idle engine operation locations with respect to ?rst and second fuel-oil heat
when the metered fuel ?ow rate is low, bypass fuel in exchangers disposed in a heat transfer relationship with
the bypass line 52 flows into branches 54, 70 and is the fresh and bypass fuel streams for the purpose of
returned to the supply side of the main fuel pump 44 at maximizing the internal heat transfer between the circu
return locations 58 and 68. During such periods of oper lating cooling oil and the fuel. The foregoing discussion,
ation, suf?cient ?ow of recirculating bypass fuel is pres while attempting to disclose the invention in broad
ent through the ?rst fuel-oil heat exchanger 20 to permit terms commensurate with the scope thereof, nonethe
cooling of the fuel by the ?rst oil loop 14 and the ?rst less has been directed to an explanation of only two
air-oil cooler 18. The exact distribution of the bypass 25 embodiments thereof and should therefore not be inter
fuel between the ?rst and second locations 58, 68 are preted as limiting, but rather as an illustration of what
determined by the needs of the individual systems, and applicants believe is the best mode for carrying out the
effected by sizing the flow restrictors 72, 74, 76 appro invention.
priately. We claim:
During periods of high engine power operation, such 30 1. A system for transferring heat energy among a heat
as while cruising or during takeoff, fresh fuel supplied generating gas turbine engine, a heat generating acces
from the fuel tank 34 is split at location 58 between the sory drive coupled to the gas turbine engine, a stream of
?rst fuel-oil heat exchanger 20 and the ?rst branch 54. fuel ?owing at a metered ?ow rate, and a stream of
The fresh unmixed fuel bypasses the exchangers 20, 28, cooling air, comprising:
joining the bypass fuel in the third branch 70, entering 35 a ?rst oil circulation loop wherein a ?rst flow of oil
the main fuel pump supply at the third return location circulates through the accessory drive, a ?rst air
68. The ?ow restrictors 72, 74, 76 are again used to oil cooler having a ?rst, regulated portion of the
insure a proper distribution of fresh fuel between the cooling air stream also passing therethrough, and a
fuel-oil heat exchangers 20, 28 and the ?rst branch 54 ?rst fuel-oil heat exchanger;
according to the heat transfer needs of the joined loops. a second oil circulation loop wherein a second ?ow
It should be noted that although the second embodi of oil circulates through the gas turbine engine, a
ment is shown in FIG. 2 as utilizing ?xed ori?ce type second air-oil cooler having a second, regulated
?ow restrictors, it is within the scope of the present portion of the cooling air stream also passing there
invention to utilize ?ow restrictors having different through, and a second fuel-oil heat exchanger;
?ow coef?cients depending on the direction of the fuel 45 means for conducting at least a portion of the metered
flowing therethrough as well as active fuel ?ow di
fuel stream, in sequence, through the ?rst fuel-oil
verter means such as flow control valves or the like.
Since the actual sizing and distribution of the recycle heat exchanger, the second fuel-oil heat exchanger,
and a main fuel pump, the main fuel pump operat
and fresh fuel between the ?rst and third locations 58,
ing at a fuel delivery rate in excess of the metered
68 is dependent upon the heat transfer needs of the 50
engine 10 and the accessory drive 12 over the entire fuel ?ow rate;
engine and drive operating envelope, no speci?c restric a fuel controller for receiving the fuel ?owing from
tor sizes or ?ow proportions are disclosed herein. Such the main fuel pump and dividing the received fuel
parameters would be developed for each individual between a supply stream having a ?ow rate equal
engine application based on test results, predicted heat 55 to the metered ?ow rate, and a bypass stream hav
generation rates, required operating environments, and ing a ?ow rate equal to the excess of the main pump
the speci?cations of the individual engine manufacturer. delivery rate over the metered ?ow rate; and
The second embodiment according to the present means, in ?uid communication with the fuel control
invention thus reduces the proportional range of fuel ler and the conducting means, for returning the
flow rate in both the ?rst fuel-oil heat exchanger 20 and 60 bypass fuel stream into the fuel conducting means
the second fuel-oil heat exchanger 28 by diverting a upstream of the main fuel pump at a plurality of
portion of the fresh fuel from the tank 34 through the distinct locations.
?rst branch 54 and third branch 70. The use of ?ow 2. The system for transferring heat energy as recited
restrictors 72, 74, 76 to effect the reversing ?ow 73 in in claim 1, further comprising
the ?rst branch 54 provides a passive means for allocat 65 means, responsive to an operating parameter of the
ing the ?ow of both fresh and bypass fuel between the gas turbine engine, for apportioning the bypass
?rst and third return locations 58, 68 over the range of ?ow stream among each of the distinct locations in
engine operation. the fuel conducting means.
9 4,696,156 10
3. The system for transferring heat energy as recited a ?rst location disposed upstream of the ?rst fuel-Oil
in claim 1, wherein the plurality of distinct locations heat exchanger’ and
includes a second location disposed intermediate the second
fuel-oil heat exchanger and the main fuel pump.
a ?rst ‘location disposed upstream of the ?rst fuel-oil 5 6. The system for transferring heat energy as recited
heat exchang?r» and in claim 5, wherein the apportioning means includes
a second location disposed intermediate the ?rst and a ?ow restrictor disposed in the returning means
second fuel-oil heat exchangers. intermediate the ?rst and second locations.
4. The system for transferring heat energy as recited 7- The system for transferring heat energy as recited
in claim 2, wherein the apportioning means comprises 10 m clam‘ 6’ wherem
a diverter valve for actively directing the bypass fuel th? ?ow refsmctor dlsposed m the returpmg means
. . . . intermediate the ?rst and second locations further
stream among the plurality
_
of distinct locations.' provides a different coef?cient of ?uid ?ow depen
5. The system for transferring heat energy as recited dent upon the direction of fuel ?owing there_
in claim 2, wherein the plurality of distinct locations 15 through
includes * “ * "‘ *

20

25

30

35

40

50

55

65