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There is no single methodology for creating the perfect product—but

M E N T A L M O D E L S by INDI YOUNG
you can increase your odds. One of the best ways is to understand
users’ reasons for doing things. Mental Models gives you the tools
to help you grasp, and design for, those reasons. Adaptive Path
co-founder Indi Young has written a roll-up-your-sleeves book for
designers, managers, and anyone else interested in making design
strategic, and successful.

“Indi Young’s mental models are the perfect way for your team to integrate your user’s perspective
into your design. I’ll be giving this book out to all our important clients and insisting they make it
part of their process.”
JARED SPOOL
CEO and Founding Principal
User Interface Engineering

“Indi’s book provides a systematic and invaluable means for applying mental models; having used
her method on many large projects, I’m a true believer.”
CAMILLE SOBALVARRO
Senior Director, Web Marketing & Communications
Sybase Inc.

“Indi Young’s common-sense approach focuses on user behavior, diagrammatic representations,


and the participation of all stakeholders in collaborative discovery. It is a book that designers and
students alike will find useful.”
RICHARD BUCHANAN
Professor of Design
Carnegie Mellon University School of Design

MENTAL MODEL S
www.rosenfeldmedia.com
Aligning Design Strategy with Human Behavior
MORE ON MENTAL MODELS
www.rosenfeldmedia.com/books/mental-models/ by INDI YOUNG foreword by Jeff Veen
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Find a parking space Write part of a screenplay


Run through the parking lot because I'm late Act out a movie with friends
Boo and hiss at the villan Act in character; make up my own adventures
Applaud the hero Make my own costume
Scream at the scary parts Buy a costume
Make out with my date Become a favorite character for Halloween
Drive to the theater Talk to my friends about my favorite characters
Take public transit to the theater Talk to friends about my favorite actor/actress
Walk to the theater Talk to my friends about my favorite director
Blink eyes to adjust to daylight upon exiting Put up posters of my favorite movies
Watch all the credits Collect posters of my favorite movies
Leave before the credits roll Put up posters of my favorite actor/actress
Leave a film I don't like before the end Collect fan memorabilia
Hide my eyes at the scary parts Buy and make a model from a movie
Lift my feet from the floor at the scary parts Collect models from movies (like Godzilla)
Clutch my friend's arm at the scary parts Search for rare movie memorabilia
Tell my friend the ending I have guessed Bid on rare movie memoriabilia
Go back for a refill on popcorn or soda Attend movie/genre conferences (like Star Trek)
Spill soda/popcorn Speak lines along with actors during movie
Leave container/wrapper on the floor Sing songs from the movie
Put wrapper in the garbage on my way out Get the movie soundtrack
Dream of meeting the leading man/lady Buy other music from the composer
Buy action figures Pick movie based on the composer
Buy the DVD/video when it comes out Collect props from movies
Buy the t-shirt Watch "the making of…"
Buy clothes like the characters wore Watch actor interviews
Dress up in costume like the characters Tune in when actors are interviewed on TV
Write a movie review Watch director interviews
Tell my friends about the movie Watch composer interviews
Read the book first Make my own props
Read the book afterwards Buy reproductions of movie props
Complain how the movie veered from book Create a home theater
Exclaim how movie was adapted from book Buy a surround sound system
Complain about the violence/sex Buy a DVD Player/VCR
Buy products placed in the movie Buy a better TV
Recite lines from a movie Buy a projector and a screen
Pretend I'm the hero/villan Rearrange furniture for best viewing
Pretend I'm the leading lady/man Close curtains/dim lights
Learn a skill I saw in a movie Collect cards based on the movie (Pokemon?)

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Watch all the credits Go to movies alone


Watch all the credits Go to movies alone

Leave before the credits roll Dissect a film with friends


Leave before the credits roll Complain how movie veered from book
Exclaim how movie was adapted from book
Leave a film I don't like before the end Complain about the violence/sex
Leave a film I don't like before the end Discuss movie with friends

Leave mess for janitors Tell everyone to see a film I enjoyed


Spill soda/popcorn Tell my friends about the movie
Leave container/wrapper on the floor
Share enthusiasm about movies
Throw away own garbage Talk to my friends about my favorite characters
Put wrapper in the garbage on my way out Talk to friends about my favorite actor/actress
Talk to my friends about my favorite director
Blink eyes to adjust daylight upon exiting
Blink eyes to adjust to daylight upon exiting Write a movie review
Write a movie review
See movies on opening night
See most movies on opening night Go out with friends after a movie for food
See a movie on opening night/at a gala Go out with friends after a movie for food

Go to a film festival Listen to the soundtrack and related music


Study the festival schedule Get the movie soundtrack
Study the festival schedule with a friend Buy other music from the composer
Choose schedule of films to watch at festival
Attend a film festival Read the book
Read the book first
Watch movie multiple times in theater Read the book afterwards
Watch movie multiple times in theater
Watch programs about the movies
Decide where/when to see a movie Watch "the making of…"
Find out playing schedules Watch actor interviews
Pick a theater nearby Tune in when actors are interviewed on TV
Check friends' schedules Watch director interviews
Watch composer interviews
Go to movie with friends
Meet friends at the theater Recite/sing from the movie
Go to movies with co-workers Recite lines from a movie
Sing songs from the movie

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Group Entertainment Organizer


Submerse in Another World

Director/Composer Fan
Technical Moviegoer
Youth with Friends

Actor/Actress Fan
Child with Parent

Movie Snob

Genre Fan

Dating
Choose film based on actor/actress x x x
Go to movies alone x x x
Dissect a film with friends x x x x x x x
Tell everyone to see a film I enjoyed x x x x x x x
Share enthusiasm about movies x x x x x x x
Write a movie review x x x x x
Go out with friends after a movie for food x x x x x x
Listen to the soundtrack and related music x x x x x x
Read the book x x x
Watch programs about the movies x x x x x
Recite/sing from the movie x x x x x
Make preparations to re-enact the movie x x x
Re-enact the movie x x x
Act like the characters in play x x x
Act like the characters in normal life x x
Wear a costume to a film event x x x x
Wear a costume to an unrelated event x x x
Dream of being the character in the movie x x x
Attend movie/genre conference x
Create my own movie x x x x
Collect memorabilia x x x x x x
Collect actual props and wardrobe x x x
Put together a model from a movie x x x x x
Trade memorabilia with friends x x x x x
Put up posters x x x x

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Group Entertainment Organizer


Submerse in Another World

Director/Composer Fan
Technical Moviegoer
Youth with Friends

Actor/Actress Fan
Child with Parent

Movie Snob

Genre Fan

Dating
Put together a model from a movie x x x x x
Trade memorabilia with friends x x x x x
Put up posters x x x x
Collect memorabilia x x x x x x
Watch the movie multiple times in the theater x x x x x x
Surmount difficulty to get to seat x x x x x x
Sneak in to theater x
Choose seat for immersion x x x x x
Choose film based on actor/actress x x

Go to movies alone x x x
Throw away own garbage x x x
Leave a film I don't like before the end x x
React soundlessly x x x x x
Choose seat for privacy x x x x x x
Skip/Postpone movies I might not like x x x x x
Create a home theater x x x x
Collect editions of films x x x x
Watch programs about the movies x x x x x
Buy the movie for repeat viewing x x x x x
Dissect a film with friends x x x x x x x
Write a movie review x x x x x
Watch all the credits x x x x x x
Avoid leaving in middle of film x x x x x x

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Brainstorm Audience
Primary Tasks Performers Segment Name
Social Movie Goer
React out loud to the movie Child with Parent Entertainment Enthusiast
Participate in movie Child with Friends Social Climber
Tell everyone to see film I enjoyed Submerse in Another World Raging Hormones
Share enthusiasm about movies Genre Fan Social Movie-Goer
Just Entertain Me
Go out after movie for food Actor/Actress Fan Blockbuster Fan
Go to movie with friends Dating Experience Immersion
Leave mess for janitors Group Entertainment Organizer Audience Immersion Fan
Indulge in refreshments Gain Social Acceptance Group Experience
Pop Culture Fan
Indulging Urges
Movie Buff
Get to theater on time Submerse in Another World
Buy tickets ahead of time Movie Snob
Make sacrifice to get tickets Technical Moviegoer Serious Movie Buff
Methodical
Stand in line for the movie Genre Fan Selective
Make sacrifice to get good seats Director/Composer Fan Film Aficionado
Watch movie at home Friend Bringing Friend Movie Expert
Choose film based on genre Dating An Authority
Watches Everything
See movies on opening night Group Entertainment Organizer Knowledgeable
Go to a film festival Gain Social Acceptance Movie Fan
Cut school/work to see a movie Serious Collector
Book Reader
Big Fan
Put together a model from a movie
Trade memorabilia with friends Child with Parent Fan Club
Child with Friends Focused on One Thing
Put up posters Genre Aficionado
Collect memorabilia Submerse in Another World Fan of the Director
Watch movie multiple times Technical Moviegoer Celebrity Spotter
Surmount difficulty to get to seat Actor/Actress Fan Rub Shoulders w/Famous
Serious Collector Belong to the Clique
Sneak in to theater Elitist
Choose film based on actor/actress Technical Buff
Choose seat for immersion

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Learn/See
Passing
Enjoyment Something New Excitement Re-Creation
Interest
(Edification)

S T O R Y S T O R Y

This person chooses the This person has (Film Purist) This person (Big Fan) This person (Make Believe Artist)
film that is most likely probably heard of the carefully chooses films will make a sacrifice to Wants to be a part of
to entertain her from a film, decided a while that will educate her, get tickets and a good the world illustrated in
given set of films. Most ago to see it, looks show her a different seat. She is likely to see the movie. She is likely
likely the fact she is forward to the perspective, explore films on opening night to wear a costume like
going to see a movie is experience, and feels unfamiliar cultures, because the crowd is those worn in the
pre-determined, and pleased with her choice. show far-away places, more energetic. When movie, or speak and
she merely selects from The film successfully certain emotions, etc. watching the film, she behave like her favorite
the stories available. entertains her. She may She is after an wants total audio/visual character(s). Back
talk about the film with intellectual or immersion. She feels a home, she may re-enact
friends afterwards to perception-changing strong connection to the scenes from the film or
compare notes about experience, and usually story. Afterwards, she is pull elements from that
the story and this is not mainstream likely to quote from the world into her own. She
characters. films. She may look up movie, sing songs from may read the book to
additional information at the movie, and listen to experience the film’s
home afterwards. She the soundtrack. She will world in more depth.
wants to get the full buy memorabilia of the She is likely to choose
experience the director film, such as posters, films with familiar
wanted the audience to action figures, and characters.
have. She avoids props. She will buy a
crowds. She will not copy of the film for
react out loud in the repeat viewing.
theater. She will try to
let the feeling linger.

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C R A F T C R A F T

This person suspends This person is aware of This person has an (Movie Buff) This person
disbelief and accepts all the choices made interest in an actor, has knowledge of how
that is shown on the behind the scenes to director, or another films are created. This
screen without thinking present the film, such as figure creating the film. person studies films.
about how it was made. choreography, the Certain star actors may She may have taken
The actors are the real score, cinematography, attract her attention, formal classes about
characters. costumes, special since she would want to film making and most
effects, acting, see all of their work. likely tracks what’s
directing, etc., and She may be interested being developed,
appreciates seeing the in what the director has release dates, critics
beauty that was to say and the reason reviews, and box office
created. This person is he created the film, and success. She observes
likely to talk with friends she will sit and different directing styles
after the movie to respectfully observe the and understands how
explore suggestions how artists’ work. She will the screenplay was
the film could have been look for in-jokes. She written. She may write
different. will attend Film film reviews for her
Festivals. friends.

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Alone Social Enabler

C O M P A N I O N S H I P

This person avoids (Social Movie-goer) This (Enabler) This person is


crowds. She prefers to person enjoys being going to the movie
see a film without with friends at films. purely to make someone
distraction from others, She will pick (or agree else happy. Perhaps she
and will not react out to) whichever film is taking a dependent
loud in the theater. appeals to everyone. who has chosen the
She usually goes to a film, or perhaps she is
theater she knows, has there at the bequest of
easy parking, no someone else, to make
crowds, no waiting, and them happy or avoid
no lines for tickets. She friction. Perhaps she is
likes to watch her there to make an
companions’ reactions impression on another
during the film. She will person. This person is
interact with her friends likely to leave the
during the movie with theater at the end of the
eye contact or film, before the credits
comments. She will roll, as well as leave
spend a few hours with temporarily during the
her friends right before film, to use the
or after the movie, and restroom or get
usually dinner or a cafe refreshments. Most
is involved. She likes to likely this person is
talk about the films more focused on the
afterwards with friends other(s) she is with than
to find out what on the film itself.
interests they have in
common or what she
liked or not.

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Recommended Total
Recommended
Audience Segments
Typical Moviegoer (story enjoyment, craft appreciation) 4 16
Craft Aficionado (story enjoyment, craft aficionado) 4
Story Fanatic (story excitement, craft appreciation) 4
Total Film Buff (story excitement, craft aficionado) 4
How many movies per month?
Three or more movies 16
Less than three movies 0
Region
West, Northwest, Southwest US 2
Central US 2
Northeastern US 2
Southeast US 2
Western Canada 2
Central Canada 2
Atlantic Seaboard Canada 2
French-Speaking Canada 2
Gender
Female 5 16
Male 11

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Desired Number of Recruits by:


Audience Segment
The Good Samaritan 3
Will Participate If Asked 2
Social Connector 3 14
Self Conscious 3
Expand the Possiblities 3
Location
Northwest Urban Area (Seattle) 2
Southwest Urban Area (San Francisco Bay Area) 3
North Central Urban Area (Chicago) 2 14
South Central Urban Area (Dallas) 2
Northeast Urban Area (NYC) 3
Southeast Urban Area (Atlanta) 2
Gender
Female 9 14
Male 5
Age
Out of College 14 14
In High School or College 0
Dating Experience
Two to Five Years After College 5 14
Five to Ten Years After College 5
Ten Years or More After College 4
Status
Dating 10 14
Taken 4
(If Single) Dating Goal
Marriage Soon 7 10
Marriage Probably Down the Road 3
Casual Dating 0
Education
No College Education 0 14
College Degree or Above 14

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Participant
101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116
How many movies do you watch per month?
Three or more movies 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Less than three movies
In what part of the country do you live?
West, Northwest, Southwest US 1 1
Central US 1 1
Northeastern US 1 1
Southeast US 1 1
Western Canada 1 1
Central Canada 1 1
Atlantic Seaboard Canada 1 1
French-Speaking Canada 1 1
And you are ________?
Female 1 1 1 1 1
Male 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

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How do you typically approach the story and characters of a movie?


Choose the film that is most likely to distract me. (Passing Interest)

Look forward to seeing it; believe I will enjoy it. (Enjoyment)

Looking for an intellectual or perception-changing experience; may look up additional


information at home. (Edification)

Prepare for the experience; make a sacrifice to get ticket or a good seat; go on opening
night; likely to see the film multiple times. (Excitement)

Wear a costume like those in movie; speak and behave like favorite character. (Make
Believe)
In general, how much do you notice the craft of how a movie is made?
Accept all that is shown on the screen without thinking about how it was made; actors
are the real characters. (Low Awareness)

Aware of the choices made behind the scenes; appreciate seeing the beauty that was
created. (Appreciation)

Have interest in an actor, director, what the director has to say; look for in-jokes; attend
film festivals. (Aficionado)

Knowledge of how films are created; study films; track what’s being developed, release
dates, critics reviews, and box office success; observe different directing styles;
understand screenplays. (Technical Knowledge)

Do you ordinarily attend movies with a companion?


Avoid crowds; prefer to see a film without distraction from others. (Mostly/Prefer Alone)

Like to watch companions’ reactions during the film; interact with friends during the
movie with eye contact or comments; spend a few hours with friends before or after the
movie; usually dinner or a cafe is involved. (Social)

Take dependents who chose the film, or there at the request of someone else; focused
on the other(s) rather than on the film itself. (Facilitator)

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Participant
101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116
(Check if we have required number for each segment. Check which segments are under represented.)
Typical Moviegoer 3 3 3 3 4
Craft Aficionado 3 3 3 3 4
Story Fanatic 3 3 3 3 4
Total Film Buff 3 3 3 3 4

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If you won $1000, what would you do with it, and why? (Judge
whether they are articulate or not.)
Articulate interlocutor
Short answer, not articulate
(Does the participant speak clearly?)
Speaks clearly
Hesitates, doesn't understand, garbled, cagey
The interview will be confidential & anonymous, but we will record it
for transcription purposes. Is this okay with you?
Yes, recording is okay
No, please do not record me
Can you arrange a time in your schedule the week of September 13th
for an hour phone interview?
Yes, arrange a time
No, cannot find time

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Time Available
Possibly Available
Not Available
Interviewers
PDT MDT CDT EDT Indi Sarah ID #
Tue 7:00 8:00 9:00 10:00
14-Sep 8:00 9:00 10:00 11:00
9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00
10:00 11:00 12:00 1:00 Indi 103
11:00 12:00 1:00 2:00
12:00 1:00 2:00 3:00 Sarah 114
1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00
2:00 3:00 4:00 5:00
3:00 4:00 5:00 6:00 Indi Sarah 115/104
4:00 5:00 6:00 7:00
5:00 6:00 7:00 8:00
6:00 7:00 8:00 9:00
7:00 8:00 9:00 10:00
8:00 9:00 10:00 11:00
9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00

Wed 7:00 8:00 9:00 10:00


15-Sep 8:00 9:00 10:00 11:00
9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00
10:00 11:00 12:00 1:00
11:00 12:00 1:00 2:00 Indi 105
12:00 1:00 2:00 3:00
1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00
2:00 3:00 4:00 5:00 Sarah 106
3:00 4:00 5:00 6:00 Indi 108
4:00 5:00 6:00 7:00
5:00 6:00 7:00 8:00
6:00 7:00 8:00 9:00
7:00 8:00 9:00 10:00
8:00 9:00 10:00 11:00
9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00

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Time Available
Possibly Available
Not Available
Interviewers Stipend
PDT MDT CDT EDT Indi Sarah ID # Stipend Selected Sent
Tue 7:00 8:00 9:00 10:00
14-Sep 8:00 9:00 10:00 11:00
9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00
10:00 11:00 12:00 1:00 Indi 103 Target sent
11:00 12:00 1:00 2:00
12:00 1:00 2:00 3:00 Sarah 114 Target sent
1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00
2:00 3:00 4:00 5:00
3:00 4:00 5:00 6:00 Indi Sarah 115/104 Starbucks/Fandango sent/sent
4:00 5:00 6:00 7:00
5:00 6:00 7:00 8:00
6:00 7:00 8:00 9:00
7:00 8:00 9:00 10:00
8:00 9:00 10:00 11:00
9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00

Wed 7:00 8:00 9:00 10:00


15-Sep 8:00 9:00 10:00 11:00
9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00
10:00 11:00 12:00 1:00
11:00 12:00 1:00 2:00 Indi 105 Fandango sent
12:00 1:00 2:00 3:00
1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00
2:00 3:00 4:00 5:00 Sarah 106 Fandango sent
3:00 4:00 5:00 6:00 Indi 108 Home Depot sent
4:00 5:00 6:00 7:00
5:00 6:00 7:00 8:00
6:00 7:00 8:00 9:00
7:00 8:00 9:00 10:00
8:00 9:00 10:00 11:00
9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00

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Selected Participants
ID # Name Audience Segment Notes
101 Kat Craft Aficionado Lives alone near downtown art theater
102 Jerry Story Fanatic New college graduate, lives in city
103 Marie Story Fanatic Urban, mom of toddler, likes to watch DVDs at home
104 Larry Total Film Buff Former film student, wants to write movie
105 James Craft Aficionado Goes to movies with wife every Friday night
106 Joseph Total Film Buff Sees all movies on opening night
107 Jeffrey Craft Aficionado Lives alone, no TV, works for special effects company
108 Daniel Story Fanatic Single dad, works a lot
109 Gregory Typical Moviegoer Probably pretty average movie-goer
110 Juan Total Film Buff Actually making his own copy of original Star Wars
111 Jennie Typical Moviegoer Newlywed, go to movies every Sunday with mother-in-law
112 David Craft Aficionado Lives alone, sees movies with friends
113 Rich Total Film Buff Has home theater, organizes outings to movies w/ friends
114 Carol Typical Moviegoer Mother of three, husband orders movies on Netflix
115 Lowell Story Fanatic Creates CDs based on soundtracks his 2-year-old likes
116 Jeanne Typical Moviegoer Retired, watches movie channel with retired husband

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Choose the Movie
- playing times
- find out
- locations
- reviews/opinions
- parking/transportation
- plot
- director/actors
- read the book
At the Theater
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- seat
After the Movie - experience while watching
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- habits
- food
- unique relationship to movie

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Typical Moviegoer
- someone else chooses Story Fanatic
- react out loud - opening night
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- genre
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Craft Aficionado
- opening night
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- leave film early Total Film Buff
- variety of films - observe craft of film making
- watch others for their reactions - never leave film early
- good audience makes the film - variety of films
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Atomic Task ID# Aud Loc Quote


Seg

Pursue BI Concepts from 101A PSN NA Because I read industry magazines. IT


Industry Magazines magazines have been mentioning
business intelligence.
Read industry magazines, 104 PrSOE NA I have lots of biz magazines… industry,
trade press MT trade press.
Subscribe to and read 112 PRESO NA Day to day through either weekly or
vertical industry publications T daily newsletters, which are either
business journals or industry tracking…
as well as a couple of specific telecom
Read neutral trade 104 PrSOE NA journals.
The trade newsletters would also do
newsletter vendor MT comparisons so I had an idea of what
comparison reports box compares with that box. I used
neutral sorts of sources
Use industry research 115 PRENB EU [Are these research things Forester and
newsletters to learn Gartner?] Yes. Newsletters.
Follow developments in DW 101A PSN NA very interested in and following
industry developments in [data warehousing]
work. Came to attention to several of us
in the IT dept way before the business
Actively survey and consider 104 PrSOE NA Ioffice
survey technology and have an opinion
new technology from MT about it, both from a technological side
business and tech side and from a business side
Research technologies and 115 PRENB EU dealing with research to find exactly
products to use what technologies and products we need
Keep up with the IT industry 101A PSN NA to use is no way to survive in the IT
There
to survive in IT world without reading something
Subscribe to and read 112 PRESO NA General IT industry
vertical industry publications T
Learn from tech team’s 105 PrSOE NA our technical people, their trade
expertise for latest industry MB magazines, internet searches or
developments reviews… industry group meetings… One
of the tech people might say, “This
might be of help to you.”
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Atomic Tasks A Ctry Supporting Quotes


Get New Product S JPN Every day the research lab receives people
Concept from from marketing and sales. Depends on the
Marketing topic, he spends 30 minutes to 2 hours a day
with the marketing and sales.

S JPN Marketing colleagues announce to my


development people that this concept is highly
evaluated by the consumer… This is a typical
starting point of a new product, of a local
product.

Collect New S JPN I meet customers, collect the needs from the
Product Needs customers… talk with their purchasing
from Customers department people or technical people… After
5pm, we have more social occasions, to
collect the needs, while drinking.

R ESP If one particular market segment has more


than 10 customers asking for the same
product we don’t have, and it looks to be a
product we can make, we need to get in
there.

S JPN Also have to cover other themes that come


from customers… Customer’s first contact
actually is Lintec, to tell the company what
the new needs are. They come to our
company: “Can you solve this?”… As for spot-
problem solving for the customer, they
receive 300 requests per month.

S GBR We’re the central development work. If a


customer has an application.

S DEU One aspect is what the customer of our


company requires, in some cases the
customer tells us this is what we need… sales
force direct contact with our customers, in
constant dialog… getting constant feedback
about new product development and what the
customer requires.

Get Specification BC* CHN The government they say, “We want ABC” and
from Government S we put ABC together.

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Give myself time to get to Look up weather forecast to


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meetings in each city Read reviews on nearby
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Reservation Reservation

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Discuss Film Directly After Viewing

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Discuss Film Afterwards

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Discuss Films with Friends Later

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weekend.”

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Discuss the Film


Go Somewhere to Sit and Discuss Film
Go Somewhere to Sit and Discuss Film
“…sit down and have that experience of …talking about the movie.”

Discuss Film Afterwards


Discuss Film Directly After Viewing
“My friend really likes talking about the movie, so we’ll end up talking.”

“…talk with afterwards… What we like or dislike… Whether it was good”

“I’m interested in hearing it after.”

Discuss Films with Friends Later


“...over lunch. We talk about movies we’ve seen over the weekend.”

Learn Craft from Discussion of Unusual Points

Discuss Bad Points of Film Afterwards


“We’ll usually trash it afterwards. I get ideas out of a bad experience…”

“If the movie fell short, we talk about things they could have done…”

Discuss the Quality Screenplay


“I like to say, ‘This director is good!’ or ‘This writer sucks!’”

Discuss Unusual Points of the Film Afterwards


“Talk about thinks I notice that were unusual.”

“If the subject matter is thought provoking or interesting…”

Discuss Good Points of the Film


“Talk about the movie… we analyze what we thought worked.”

Discuss Interpretation of Book

Discuss Interpretation of Book Afterwards


“We commented on it after… we debated…”

Ask Strangers Their Opinion After the Film

Ask Strangers Their Opinion After the Film


“I walked outside and there were some Russians, so I thought I’d…”

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Interact with People About the Film

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Go Somewhere to Sit and Discuss Film


Go Somewhere to Sit and Discuss Film

Discuss Film Afterwards


Discuss Film Directly After Viewing

Discuss Films with Friends Later

Learn Craft from Discussion of Unusual Points


Discuss Bad Points of Film Afterwards

Discuss the Quality Screenplay

Discuss Unusual Points of the Film Afterwards

Discuss Good Points of the Film

Discuss Interpretation of Book


Discuss Interpretation of Book Afterwards

Ask Strangers Their Opinion After the Film


Ask Strangers Their Opinion After the Film

Recommend a Film

Write a Review
Write a Review

Decide Writing Reviews is a Waste of Time

Recommend a Film When Asked


Recommend a Film When Asked

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Watch the Identify with Follow the
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the Film

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Tower
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Attend Films Alone
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Watch Certain DVDs Alone
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Watch a Film for Pleasure
Watch a Film to Avoid Something
Watch a Film to Achieve a Mood
Have a Date Night
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Share a Film with Friends
Watch a Film to Learn
Watch a Film in Theater for the Experience
Watch Films Regularly
Watch a Film Spontaneously
Attend Films with a Group
Watch Your Film Expenses
Encounter a Film You Haven’t Heard Of
Encounter a Film You Haven’t Heard Of
Choose Films
Look for Certain Qualities
Choose Films because of Familiarity
Watch a Certain Genre During Winter
Include Random Film Choices
Inherit Interest in a Genre from Family
Choose Films Together with Companions
Avoid Certain Films
Decide on Film Based on Reviewer’s Opinion
Postpone a Film
Learn More about a Film
Read Review to Get an Idea of the Film
Talk About Films You Want to See
Look for Trailers Online

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Logistics Examples
Task Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4
Anne
Conduct Interviews
Comb Transcripts
Group Concepts
Barbara
Conduct Interviews
Group Concepts
Eric
Comb Transcripts

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Mental Space

Conceptual Group

Popular
(5+ Voices)
Movie Goer Mental Model

Normal
(2-4 Voices)

Look for Trailers Anticipate a Film


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Look for
(1 Voice) Set
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Online
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Collect Film-Related
Stuff

Save Tickets in
Scrapbook Get the DVD Watch a Film Multiple
Times

Watch DVDs I
Collect Film Buy Special
Own More than
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(4 = really feasible) (4 = really important)

Label Name Description Technical Difficulty Resource Availability To the Business To the Customer
Toys Toy Store Collectibles by Film Ads for collectibles related to the 2.00 3.25 3.50 1.00
film from partner toy stores
eBay eBay Collectibles by Film Links to collectibles related to the 1.75 3.00 2.50 1.00
film on eBay
Seasonal Seasonal Marketing Campaigns "Have you seen your summer 3.75 3.50 3.50 1.00
blockbuster yet?" or "October is
the month to see a horror film!"
DVD Release DVD Release Date Lookup by Film Enter film title or choose from list 2.75 2.75 2.00 1.75
filtered by director, actor, other?
See the DVD release date.
DVD Co-Releases DVDs Released Around Same Time as List of other DVDs released within 2.75 2.75 2.00 1.50
Film default 14 days of a film. Can
adjust timeframe.
DVD Sales DVD Sales Numbers Sales of DVDs to date for selected 2.75 2.75 2.00 1.00
film.
Press Film Press News, press releases, reviews for 3.75 2.75 1.00 1.50
selected film.
Parking Park Once, Easy Walk Enter film to see or theater to 1.00 1.25 3.00 4.00
attend plus restaurant or cuisine,
see best parking location to walk
to both locations. Extend to
parking reservations?
Comparison Reviewer Comparisons to Book Summary of comparisons to the 3.75 3.25 1.00 3.00
book from reviewers.
Jokes Jokes & References List of in-jokes and "Easter eggs" 2.75 2.00 1.00 4.00
for selected film, for feature and

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OVERALL SCORING (4 = really feasible) (4 = really important)


Average Average Technical Resource To the To the
Label Name Description Feasibility Importance Difficulty Availability Business Customer
Toys Toy Store Collectibles by Ads for collectibles related to the film from 2.63 2.25 2.00 3.25 3.50 1.00
Film partner toy stores
eBay eBay Collectibles by Film Links to collectibles related to the film on eBay 2.38 1.75 1.75 3.00 2.50 1.00
Seasonal Seasonal Marketing "Have you seen your summer blockbuster 3.63 2.25 3.75 3.50 3.50 1.00
Campaigns yet?" or "October is the month to see a horror
DVD Release DVD Release Date Lookup Enter film title or choose from list filtered by 2.75 1.88 2.75 2.75 2.00 1.75
by Film director, actor, other? See the DVD release
DVD Co-Releases DVDs Released Around List of other DVDs released within default 14 2.75 1.75 2.75 2.75 2.00 1.50
Same Time as Film days of a film. Can adjust timeframe.
DVD Sales DVD Sales Numbers Sales of DVDs to date for selected film. 2.75 1.50 2.75 2.75 2.00 1.00
Press Film Press News, press releases, reviews for selected 3.25 1.25 3.75 2.75 1.00 1.50
Parking Park Once, Easy Walk Enter film to see or theater to attend plus 1.13 3.50 1.00 1.25 3.00 4.00
restaurant or cuisine, see best parking
location to walk to both locations. Extend to
Comparison Reviewer Comparisons to Summary of comparisons to the book from 3.50 2.00 3.75 3.25 1.00 3.00
Book reviewers.
Jokes Jokes & References List of in-jokes and "Easter eggs" for selected 2.38 2.50 2.75 2.00 1.00 4.00
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Prioritization Chart

4.00

Parking

3.00
DO NEXT DO FIRST

Jokes

Toys
* Seasonal
Importance

2.00 Comparison
DVD Release
X eBay + DVD Co-Releases

DVD Sales

Press

RECONSIDER PUT OFF UNTIL LATER


1.00

0.00
0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00

Feasibility

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Support
Your Products & Services

Company
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UTILITY NAVIGATION

Contact Us Shopping Cart


OUT OF SCOPE

Local News/Content Reference

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User’s Intentions:

Often moviegoers look forward to talking about the film with the companions they went to the
film with. People will ask each other their opinion of the film, relate scenes that affected them,
talk about the characters, and expound upon the work of the actors, directors, writers, etc. If
the film was based on a book, people will talk about the interpretation of the text onto the
Discuss the Film screen. Some movie fans will use this discussion to expand their understanding of the movie-
Afterwards
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Avoid happen days later, or over email, by telephone, or in online discussion groups. The rare
Discussions moviegoer actually writes up a review of the film, either recommending it or not, and sends it to
friends or posts it online. People are more likely to voice a recommendation when asked
Ask Stranger directly.
Their Opinion
After a Film Eat Dinner When discussing the film directly after viewing, people will go somewhere and sit, usually
accompanied by beverages and food. Sometimes the food is a formal meal, such as dinner or
Discuss Eat Dinner lunch. If the meal will take some time, moviegoers must decide whether it makes more sense
Interpretation with to eat before or after the film, and in order to decide they will need to know what time the
of Book Companion movie lets out at various theaters, as well as what restaurants are convenient and have
Learn Craft available tables. For certain restaurants, they may need reservations. If the meal is simply
Eat Lunch coffee at a café, the moviegoers will want to know which cafes are open when the movie ends,
Discuss. Un-
Recommend a Before a Film and whether they are within walking distance.
usual Points
Film
Recommend Assumptions About the Designed Environment:
Discuss Film Eat Dinner
a Film when
Afterwards After Film Decide When to Make Reservations
Asked - User has seen the movie
Eat Dinner
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Go to Sit and Write a Eat Dinner Decide When Make - User follows established etiquette of writing recommendations
Discuss Film Review Before Film to Eat Dinner Reservations- User will rate films honestly, not randomly or purposefully rate all films at one value
- User has something interesting to say

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There is no single methodology for creating the perfect product—but

M E N T A L M O D E L S by INDI YOUNG
you can increase your odds. One of the best ways is to understand
users’ reasons for doing things. Mental Models gives you the tools
to help you grasp, and design for, those reasons. Adaptive Path
co-founder Indi Young has written a roll-up-your-sleeves book for
designers, managers, and anyone else interested in making design
strategic, and successful.

“Indi Young’s mental models are the perfect way for your team to integrate your user’s perspective
into your design. I’ll be giving this book out to all our important clients and insisting they make it
part of their process.”
JARED SPOOL
CEO and Founding Principal
User Interface Engineering

“Indi’s book provides a systematic and invaluable means for applying mental models; having used
her method on many large projects, I’m a true believer.”
CAMILLE SOBALVARRO
Senior Director, Web Marketing & Communications
Sybase Inc.

“Indi Young’s common-sense approach focuses on user behavior, diagrammatic representations,


and the participation of all stakeholders in collaborative discovery. It is a book that designers and
students alike will find useful.”
RICHARD BUCHANAN
Professor of Design
Carnegie Mellon University School of Design

MENTAL MODEL S
www.rosenfeldmedia.com
Aligning Design Strategy with Human Behavior
MORE ON MENTAL MODELS
www.rosenfeldmedia.com/books/mental-models/ by INDI YOUNG foreword by Jeff Veen

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