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De La Salle University

COLLEGE OF LAW
Runifo Campus, Taguig City

SPECIAL ISSUES ON INTERNATIONAL LAW


Mondays, 7:00-9:00pm
Class of Banuar Reuben A. Falcon

PRELIMINARY READINGS

CONST., Art. II, Sec. 2


Art. VII, Sec. 21.

Commentary
Jorge R. Coquia & Miriam Defensor-Santiago, International Law and World Organizations (2005
ed.) at 12-14.
Isagani A. Cruz, International Law (2003 ed.) at 5-7.
Joaquin G. Bernas, Introduction to Public International Law (2009 ed.) at 60-62.

Cases
Agustin v. Edu, G.R. No. L-49112, Feb. 2, 1979, 88 SCRA 195, 212-213 (all of para. 9)
Reyes v. Bagatsing, G.R. No. L-65366, Nov. 9, 1983, 125 SCRA 553, 566-567 (all of para. 5)
Pharmaceutical and Health Care Association of the Philippines v. Duque III, G.R. No. 173034,
Oct. 9, 2007, 535 SCRA 265, 289-299 (up to footnote 40)
Razon, Jr. v. Tagitis, G.R. No. 182498, Dec. 3, 2009, 606 SCRA 598, 671-674 (up to footnote 21)

SOME ISSUE RELATING TO THE DOMESTICATION OF INTERNATIONAL LAW

Treaties v. Executive agreements

USAFFE Veterans Assoc., Inc. v. Treasurer, G.R. No. L-10500, Jun. 30, 1959, 105 Phil. 1030.
Commissioner of Customs v. Eastern Sea Trading, G.R. No. L-14279, Oct. 31, 1961, 3 SCRA
351.
Commissioner of Internal Revenue v. John Gotamco & Sons, Inc., G.R. No. L-31092, Feb. 27,
1987, 148 SCRA 36, 39 (last paragraph)-40 (first paragraph).
Bayan (Bagong Alyansang Makabayan) v. Zamora, G.R. No. 138570, Oct. 10, 2000, 342 SCRA
449, 488 (second paragraph)-493 (third paragraph)
Abaya v. Ebdane, Jr., G.R. No. 167919, Feb. 14, 2007, 515 SCRA 720, 768 (last paragraph)-
773.
Bayan Muna v. Romulo, G.R. No. 159618, Feb. 1, 2011, 641 SCRA 244, 257-263.
Saguisag v. Ochoa, Jr., G.R. Nos. 212426 & 212444, Jan. 12, 2016, 779 SCRA 241, 357-371
(entire discussion on part 4, “The President may generally enter into executive agreements…).
Intellectual Property Association of the Philippines v. Ochoa, G.R. No. 204605, Jul. 19, 2016,
accompanying text to notes 29-36.
Self-executing (direct applicability of) treaties

Singh v. Insular Collector of Customs, G.R. No. 13669, Oct. 25, 1918, 38 Phil. 862.
Guerrero’s Transport Services, Inc. v. Blaylock Transportation Services Employees Association-
KILUSAN, G.R. No. L-41518, Jun. 30, 1976, 71 SCRA 621.
Mirpuri vs. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 114508, Nov. 19, 1999, 318 SCRA 516, 541-543 (up to
footnote 54).
Sehwani, Inc. v. In-N-Out Burger, Inc., G.R. No. 171053, Oct. 15, 2007, 536 SCRA 225, 237
(whole page up to footnote 27); see also last paragraph of the decision at 241-242.

See also Air Canada v. Commissioner of Internal Revenue, G.R. No. 169507, Jan. 11, 2016, 778
SCRA 131, 156 (fourth paragraph)-166 (first paragraph); 173-176 (entire part IV).

International jurisprudence

Compare Bayan Muna, supra, 641 SCRA at 257 (second para.).


with
Central Bank Employees Association, Inc. v. Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, G.R. No. 148208, Dec.
15 2004, 446 SCRA 299, 387 (second paragraph).
Ang Ladlad LGBT Party v. Commission on Elections, G.R. No. 190582, Apr. 8, 2010, 618 SCRA
32, 66-69 (up to end of first paragraph).

Customary international law

Laude v. Ginez-Jabalde, G.R. No. 217456, November 24, 2015, 775 SCRA 408, 427-430 (all of
part II).

Jus cogens norms

Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, Art. 53

See Vinuya v. Executive Secretary, G.R. No. 162230, Apr. 28, 2010, 619 SCRA 533, 576-581 (up
to footnote 78).
See also obiter in Planas v. Commission on Elections, G.R. No. L-35941, Jan. 22, 1973 49 SCRA
105, 126 (second paragraph).

See, e.g., Questions relating to the Obligations to Prosecute or Extradite, (Belgium v. Sénégal),
Judgment of 20 July 2012 (Merits), I.C.J. Reports 2012, p. 422, 457, paras. 99-100.

SOME ISSUES RELATING TO SPECIFIC INTERNATIONAL INSTRUMENTS

1948 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide


Article 2

Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Croatia v.
Serbia), Judgment of 3 February 2015 (Merits), I.C.J. Reports 2015, p. 3, paras. 132-133, 136, 138-139,
142.
1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea (LOSC)

Islands, rocks, low-tide elevations


LOSC, Articles 121, 13, 47(4)

In the Matter of the South China Sea Arbitration (Republic of the Philippines v. The People’s
Republic of China), PCA Case Nº 2013-19, Award of 12 July 2016, paras. 479-480; 483-489;
492; 495-496; 498-503.

Maritime Delimitation and Territorial Questions between Qatar and Bahrain (Qatar v. Bahrain),
Merits, Judgment of 16 March 2001, I.C.J. Report 2001, p. 40, paras. 207-208.

See also Sovereignty over Pedra Branca/Pulau Batu Puteh, Middle Rocks and South Ledge
(Malaysia v. Singapore), Judgment of 23 May 2008, I.C.J. Reports 2008, p. 12, paras. 278, 288-
291, 295-299.

Internal waters and archipelagic waters


LOSC, arts. 8, 49, 50.

CONST., Art. I

See, generally, Rep. Act No. 9522 (2009)


See also Philippine Declaration, available at https://treaties.un.org/pages/ViewDetailsIII.aspx?
src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=XXI-6&chapter=21&Temp=mtdsg3&lang=en.

Magallona v. Ermita, G.R No. 187167, August 16, 2011, 655 SCRA 476, 498-504.

1998 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC Statute)

Crimes against humanity


ICC Statute, Article 7(1) chapeau in rel. (2)(a)
Elements of Crimes, Article 7, Introduction, para. 3
Republic Act No. 9851 (December 11, 2009), Section 6, chapeau.

Id.; widespread
Prosecutor v. Akayeshu, Case No. ICTR-96-4-T, Trial Chamber (I) Decision of 2
September 1998 [“Akayeshu”], paras. 580-581.

Id.; systematic
Prosecutor v. Blaškić, Case No. IT-95-14-T, Trial Chamber Decision of 3 March 2000,
paras. 203-204.

Id; attack
ICC Statute, Article 7(2)(a)
See also Additional Protocol II to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 (AP-II),
Article 13(2), in rel. AP-I, Article 49(1).

Republic Act No. 9851 (Dec. 11, 2009), Section 3(e).


Id.; civilian population
Prosecutor v. Kunarac, Case Nos. IT-96-23 & IT-96-23/1-A, Appeals Chamber Judgment
of 12 June 2002 [“Kunarac Appeals”], paras. 90-91.

Id.; non-state actors


Prosecutor v. Tadić, Case No. IT-94-1-T, Trial Chamber Opinion and Judgment of 7 May
1997, para. 654-655.

War crimes
ICC Statute, Article 82(1).
Kunarac Appeals, supra at paras. 58-59.

Id.; armed conflict


Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, common Article 2.

Prosecutor v. Tadić, Appeals Chamber Decision of 2 October 1995 [“Tadić Appeals”],


para. 70.
Akayeshu, supra at paras. 619-620.

Id.; non-international armed conflict


Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, common Article 3.
AP-II, Article 1.

ICC Statute, Article 8(2)(c) chapeau, (2)(d), and (2)(f).


Elements of Crimes, Article 8, Introduction.
See also id., Article 8 (2) (c) (i)-1 (elements of the war crime of murder)

Republic Act No. 9851 (Dec. 11, 2009), Section 4(b)(1)-(2) in rel. Section 3(c).

Id.; cessation of hostilities


See Geneva Convention IV, Article 6, second paragraph.
See also Tadić Appeals, supra.

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