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Sentence connectors

Sentence connectors are used to link ideas from one sentence to the next and to give
paragraphs coherence. Sentence connectors perform different functions and are placed at
the beginning of a sentence. They are used to introduce, order, contrast, sequence ideas,
theory, data etc. The following table lists useful connectors.

Useful sentence connectors

Logical / sequential order Order of importance


 Firstly, secondly, thirdly etc
 Next, last, finally  Most / more importantly
 In addition  Most significantly
 Furthermore  Above all
 Also  Primarily
 At present / presently
 It is essential / essentially

Contrast Result

 However  As a result
 On the other hand  As a consequence
 On the contrary  Therefore
 By (in) comparison  Thus
 Consequently
 In contrast
 Hence
Comparison Reason

 Similarily  The cause of


 Likewise
 The reason for
 Also

Activity 1
Put the correct sentence connector to its appropriate place.

Time management skills are essential for study success. there are several
useful strategies that can be used to improve your time management skills.
have clear goals in mind. plan your time by using a yearly and
weekly planner. Careful planning will enable you to keep on top of your work and avoid
stress. reward yourself when the job is done.

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Firstly, Finally, Secondly, In fact,

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Subordinators
Subordinators are linking words that are used to join clauses together. They are used at
the beginning or in the middle of a sentence. A clause is a group of words that must
contain a subject and predicate. There are two types of clauses:

 independent clauses - these can stand alone as a sentence by themselves


 dependent clauses - these make no sense by themselves.

Example

Common subordinators
Below are some examples of commonly used subordinators.

Comparison &
Cause / effect Time
Contrast
 Although  Since  After
 Though  So that  When
 Even though  Until
 While  Because  Whenever

 Whereas  Before
Possibility Place & manner
 if  Wherever
 as if  Where
 whether
 How
 unless

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Linking words and phrases
Although some of these words have already been mentioned as sentence connectors, they
can also be used to develop coherence within a paragraph, that is linking one idea /
argument to another. Print off this page to keep as a reference of useful linking words and
phrases.

Sequence Result Emphasis


 First / firstly, second /  So  Undoubtedly
secondly, third /  As a result  Indeed
thirdly etc  As a  Obviously
 Next, last, finally consequence (of)  Generally
 In addition, moreover  Therefore  Admittedly
 Further / furthermore  Thus  In fact
 Another  Consequently  Particularly / in
 Also  Hence particular
 In conclusion  Especially
 Due to  Clearly
 To summarise
 Importantly
Addition Reason Example
 And  For  For example
 In addition /  Because  For instance
additionally / an  Since  That is (ie)
additional  As  Such as
 Furthermore  Including
 Also  Because of
 Too  Namely

 As well as
Contrast Comparison

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 However
 Nevertheless
 Nonetheless
 Still
 Although / even
though
 Though
 But
 Yet
 Despite / in spite of
 In contrast (to) / in
comparison
 While
 Whereas
 On the other hand

 On the contrary

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Activity 2
Fill in the blanks with a logical or sequence connector each

1. There is no more food left. ______ there is plenty of drinks.

2. The Interact Club has done well to help the poor. ______ the Welfare
Club has done well too.

3. The documents will be scrutinized by the police. ______ they will be


sent back tot he relevant authority.

4. The retailer has been making losses. ______ he intends to wind up his
business.

5. Wash the potatoes first. ______ you can boil them.

6. We have been trying to contact Michael for the past few days. ______
we managed to trace him to a hotel in town.

7. Life in the country may not be as exciting as life in the city. ______ you
are close to nature which provides peace and quietness.

8. The dog will bark without fail every time the ice-cream man passes by.
______ it will start howling.

9. Let us not be complacent with ourselves. ______ we may lose out in the
final round.

10. Lopez has experienced poverty and hardship before. ______ he has a
sympathetic heart towards the poor and needy.

Activity 3
Fill in the blanks with suitable logical connectors

1. Susie refused to take part in the concert. ______, she changed her mind the next day.
2. The car beat the red traffic light. ______, the driver was issued a summons by the
traffic policeman.
3. "Fira won the gold medal after three months of intensive training. ______, you too
could win if you practice hard enough," Liza's mother said to her.

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4. "I don't think she can handle this task. ______, she already has a lot of other
responsibilities," said the head prefect to his assistant.
5. The cadets were given new uniforms to wear. ______, they received free passes to the
match.
6. The people strongly opposed the move to build a golf course near their house. ______,
the proposed plan was cancelled.
7. "The final examinations are coming soon. ______, it would be advisable for you to
begin revising more systematically," the teacher told her class.
8. The neighbors often helped each other, ______ creating a feeling of harmony in the
neighborhood.
9. The teenager was caught shoplifting. ______, he was let off with a warning.
10. Shaun is directing the movie. ______, he is playing the lead role in it.
11. Thomas Edison failed several times before he successfully invented the first light
bulb. ______, you too could attain your dreams if you never give up trying.
12. The bungalow had seven rooms, each with an attached bathroom. ______, there was a
large garden and a swimming pool.

Activity 4
Fill in the blanks with the most suitable sequence connectors
from the brackets

1. My sister was in the dentist's office for ten minutes. ______, I sat in the waiting room
with an old magazine in my hands. (First, Meanwhile, Later)

2. An hour passed but there was no sign of Mike. ______, we decided to go home. (Until,
Before, Finally)

3. We bumped into Salsa during our trip to Lang Island. A few weeks ______, we met
him again (after, then, later)

4. The teacher had trouble telling the twins apart. ______ she realized one had a mole
above her lips. (Subsequently, Finally, Meanwhile)

5. The men went to a nearby restaurant for breakfast. ______, they drove off towards the
Penang Bridge (After, Afterwards, Meanwhile)

6. The football coach announced, "Today, we will begin practicing for the coming
match." ______ he added, "Let's warm up first." (Then, After, Eventually)

7. ______, heat the oil in the frying pan. Then put in all the marinated chicken pieces.
(Before, After, First)

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8. Many customers bought the delicious chicken pies. ______ all the pies were sold out.
(Eventually, Afterwards, Next)

9. Many people wanted to buy the tickets. ______ a while, the queue was quite long.
(Before, After, Finally)

10. Zulina will be back in fifteen minutes. ______, make yourself at home. (Later,
Subsequently, Meanwhile)

Activity 5
Fill in the blanks with the correct sequence connectors from
the brackets

1. He did not like the film. ______ he left the cinema hall. (However, So, Then)

2. We went to the market. ______, we looked for our cat. (However, Nor, There)

3. Our doctor was out. ______, we had to look for another doctor. (Neither, Therefore,
Nor)

4. Halim was tired. ______ as Henry. (Nor, So, Next)

5. She wanted to study. ______, she had a bad headache. (However, Therefore, Nor)

6. She brought the kitten home and fed it. ______, she gave it a bath. (Neither, Nor,
Later)

7. "There are many things we have to do. ______, we have to clean this room," Mrs Raj
said. (Consequently, First, Neither)

8. Mr Lim did not want to go out. ______ did Mrs Lim. (First, So, Neither)

Activity 6
For each of the numbered blanks, write down a suitable
connector

A. This is how you make a call from a public telephone. ___1___, lift the receiver.
___2___, drop your money into the slot fo the coin box. Note: there are three slots,

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___3___ be sure that you drop your coin into the correct one. ___4___ will be the slot
that is about the size of the coin. ___5___ dial the number you want. When the other side
answers, press Button A. Do not press Button A ___6___ you are sure that your call has
got through.

Do not misuse public telephones. If you damage a public telephone you may regret it
___7___ when you need to make an urgent call. For example, last Wednesday, Raja was
very happy when he managed to get a "free" telephone call. ___8___ his mother was ill
and he could not phone for an ambulance because he had damaged the telephone.

B. There are may reasons why girls should be sent to school. ___1___, a girl's
intelligence is not lower than that of a boy's. A girl has as much chance of doing well in
schoolwork as a boy does. ___2___, not all girls want to stay at home and become
housewives and mothers. Some girls do not like housework. Some girls will not be happy
staying at home all the time. ___3___, even though a girl might want nothing more than
to be a wife and mother, she may not find anyone she would like to marry. ___4___, it
must be stressed that girls are people with feelings too and should be given a choice to
decide on their own future.

Activity 7
1. No one expected ______ Felix ______ Ben to be selected. They must be extremely
happy.

(A) neither ... nor


(B) both ... and
(C) both ... or
(D) not only ... and

2. I don't think we can make it ______ you pitch in.

(A) if
(B) unless
(C) and
(D) and yet

3. ______ night fell, the children packed their things and were ready to leave.

(A) Despite
(B) Unless
(C) As

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(D) For

4. They did not do well in the physical test. ______, they were accepted.

(A) Yet
(B) Consequently
(C) Thus
(D) Therefore

5. We mentioned it to him ______ we ran into him outside the school.

(A) when
(B) whenever
(C) where
(D) wherever

6. They were told to practice more ______ they would face elimination in the final
game.

(A) or
(B) and
(C) so
(D) but

7. _______ the blue dress ______ the yellow one look cheap. I like neither.

(A) Either ... or


(B) Neither ... nor
(C) Both ... or
(D) Both ... and

8. ______ we comforted her, she could not seem to get over the bad experience.

(A) Although
(B) For
(C) Since
(D) Therefore
9. No one expected ______ Felix ______ Ben to be selected. They must be extremely
happy.

(A) neither ... nor


(B) both ... and
(C) both ... or
(D) not only ... and

10. I don't think we can make it ______ you pitch in.

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(A) if
(B) unless
(C) and
(D) and yet

11. ______ night fell, the children packed their things and were ready to leave.

(A) Despite
(B) Unless
(C) As
(D) For

12. They did not do well in the physical test. ______, they were accepted.

(A) Yet
(B) Consequently
(C) Thus
(D) Therefore

13. We mentioned it to him ______ we ran into him outside the school.

(A) when
(B) whenever
(C) where
(D) wherever

14. They were told to practice more ______ they would face elimination in the final
game.

(A) or
(B) and
(C) so
(D) but

15. _______ the blue dress ______ the yellow one look cheap. I like neither.

(A) Either ... or


(B) Neither ... nor
(C) Both ... or
(D) Both ... and

16. ______ we comforted her, she could not seem to get over the bad experience.

(A) Although
(B) For

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(C) Since
(D) Therefore
17. He realized that he only stood a slim chance ______ he didn't give up.

(A) and yet


(B) or else
(C) but also
(D) and then

18. The children, ______ the teacher, were all enjoying the hilarious show.

(A) as well
(B) as well as
(C) but also
(D) not only

19. The teacher has explained the method to her many times. ______, she does not
seem to get it.

(A) Still
(B) Therefore
(C) Consequently
(D) Thus

20. They started the variety show according to schedule ______ the poor attendance.

(A) although
(B) in spite of
(C) but for
(D) and yet

21. The center will be closed ______ renovation works until further notice.

(A) even with


(B) because
(C) due to
(D) despite

22. ______ Tim ______ I am a club member. ______, we cannot go in.

(A) Either ... or ... Yet


(B) Neither ... nor ... Therefore
(C) Both .. and ... Still
(D) Both ... and ... Consequently

23. Ellen's grandparents dote on her very much, ______ she is their only grandchild.

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(A) for
(B) when
(C) and
(D) yet

24. ______ the lesson proceeded, we started to understand the topic better.

(A) Although
(B) Even
(C) For
(D) As

25. I will let you know ______ I receive the report.

(A) when
(B) whenever
(C) since
(D) and

26. They waited for her for almost an hour. ______, she did not turn up.

(A) Therefore
(B) Consequently
(C) However
(D) Thus

27. ______ you never asked, how would I know you wanted the document ?

(A) Since
(B) Although
(C) Yet
(D) Even if

28. I was busy doing my homework ______ my brothers were busy playing video
games.

(A) whenever
(B) while
(C) so that
(D) or else

29. She takes her sister with her ______ she goes.

(A) when
(B) where
(C) whenever

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(D) wherever

30. ______ you can show him the membership card, he will let you in.

(A) If
(B) While
(C) Although
(D) Unless

31. They offered to do it for her ______ she declined their offer.

(A) or
(B) when
(C) but
(D) for

32. They were told to switch off all the lights ______ going to bed.

(A) after
(B) whenever
(C) before
(D) unless

33. Do not give up so readily ______ you will regret it later.

(A) and
(B) or
(C) but
(D) since

34. I am not going to the concert with you ______ I have to visit my ailing
grandmother.

(A) when
(B) and yet
(C) because
(D) but

35. ______ she had invited me, I would not have attended her party.

(A) If
(B) Since
(C) Despite
(D) Even if

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36. ______ we have one more day, it is impossible for us to complete the work on
time.

(A) In spite of
(B) Unless
(C) Since
(D) Despite

37. ______ repeated warnings, they still went ahead with their plan.

(A) Despite
(B) In spite
(C) Because of
(D) Due to

38. I reminded him to go early ______ he would not arrive late.

(A) or else
(B) and yet
(C) so that
(D) but also

39. The meeting was ______ productive ______ ended as scheduled.

(A) not only ... and yet


(B) both ... and
(C) both ... as well as
(D) not only ... but also

40. ______ Janet ______ Teresa should be held responsible for the mistake. It will not
be fair to do so.

(A) Either ... or


(B) Neither ... nor
(C) Both ... and
(D) Both ... or

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