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Thermodynamics II

Lec-03, AE-210
Isentropic Flow
Free Energy
• Helmholtz Free Energy : A=U-TS

• Gibbs Free Energy: H-TS


Thermal Equations of State
• Vander Waals equation of state

• Redlich-Kwong; equation of state


• Compressibility Factor:

Z for Nitrogen
Properties of a Gaseous Mixture
• Molecular Weight :

• Gas Constant:

• Cp:

• 𝐶𝑣 = 𝐶𝑝 − 𝑅

𝐶𝑝
•𝛾=
𝐶𝑣
Thermally Perfect Gas

Variation of Cp Variation of γ
Air mixture Composition
Species considered Molecular weight (m) Gas constant Mass fraction of each
(g/mol) R = Runi/m species
(J/Kg-K)

N2 28.1348 10.2030 0.7547

O2 31.9988 8.9710 0.2380

CO2 44.0098 6.5226 4.6e-4

H2 2.01588 142.3993 ̴0

He 2.01588 142.3993 7e-7

Ar 39.48 7.2710 0.0128

Kr 83.80 3.4255 3e-6

Xe 131.29 2.1865 4e-7

Ne 20.1797 14.2252 1.2e-5


NASA 8 constant polynomial form
Formulation
𝐶𝑝
• = 𝐴1 𝑇 −2 + 𝐴2 𝑇 −1 + 𝐴3 + 𝐴4 𝑇 + 𝐴5 𝑇 2 +
𝑅 𝑖
𝐴6 𝑇 3 + 𝐴7 𝑇 4 + 𝐴8 𝑇 5
• 𝐶𝑝 = σ𝑁 𝑖=1 𝐶𝑝 𝜒𝑖
𝑖
𝐶𝑝
•𝛾=
𝐶𝑝 −𝑅
• ℎ/𝑅 = −𝐴1 𝑇 −1 + 𝐴2 log(𝑇) + 𝐴3 𝑇 + (𝐴4 /2)𝑇 2 +
(𝐴5 /3)𝑇 3 + (𝐴6 /4)𝑇 4 + (𝐴7 /5)𝑇 5 + 𝑏1
• 𝑆 = −(𝐴1 /2)𝑇 −2 − 𝐴2 𝑇 −1 + 𝐴3 log(𝑇) + 𝐴4 𝑇 +
(𝐴5 /2)𝑇 2 + (𝐴6 /3)𝑇 3 + (𝐴7 /4)𝑇 4 + 𝑏2
Polynomial coefficients for individual species (8
coefficient form)-
Species Temp Range A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 b1 b2

H2 200-1000 4.08E+04 -8.01E+02 8.214702 -1.27E-02 1.75E-05 -1.20E-08 3.37E-12 0.00E+00 2.68E+03 -3.04E+01

1000-6000 5.60E+05 -8.37E+02 2.975363 1.25E-03 -3.74E-07 5.94E-11 -3.61E-15 0.00E+00 5.34E+03 -2.20E+00

He 200-1000 2.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -7.45E+02 9.29E-01

1000-6000 2.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -7.45E+02 9.29E-01

Kr 200-1000 2.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -7.45E+02 5.49E+00

1000-6000 2.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -7.45E+02 5.49E+00

N2 200-1000 2.21E+04 -3.82E+02 6.082738 -8.53E-03 1.38E-05 -9.63E-09 2.52E-12 0.00E+00 7.11E+02 -1.08E+01

1000-6000 5.88E+05 -2.24E+03 6.066943 -6.14E-04 1.49E-07 -1.92E-11 1.06E-15 0.00E+00 1.28E+04 -1.59E+01

O2 200-1000 -3.43E+04 4.85E+02 1.119012 4.29E-03 -6.84E-07 -2.02E-09 1.04E-12 0.00E+00 -3.39E+03 1.85E+01

1000-6000 -1.04E+06 2.34E+03 1.819729 1.27E-03 -2.19E-07 2.05E-11 2.34E+03 0.00E+00 -1.69E+04 1.74E+01

Xe 200-1000 6.61E-03 -9.54E-05 2.500001 -1.50E-09 2.21E-12 -1.65E-03 4.85E-19 0 -7.45E+02 6.164417

1000-6000 1.10E+03 -3.32E+00 2.503878 -2.25E-06 6.87E-10 -1.05E-13 6.29E-18 0.00E+00 -7.24E+02 6.14E+00

Ar 200-1000 2.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -7.45E+02 4.379675


1000-6000 2.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -7.45E+02 4.379675

CO2 200-1000 4.94E+04 -6.26E+02 5.301725 2.50E-03 -2.13E-07 -7.689988780e-I0 2.85E-13 0.00E+00 -4.53E+04 -7.04828

1000-6000 1.18E+05 -1.79E+03 8.291523 -9.22E-05 4.86E-09 -1.89E-12 6.33E-16 0.00E+00 -3.91E+04 -2.65E+01

Ne 200-1000 2.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -7.45E+02 3.355323

1000-6000 2.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -7.45E+02 3.355323


Polynomial coefficients for air (8 coefficient
form)
Temperature 𝐴1 𝐴2 𝐴3 𝐴4 𝐴5 𝐴6 𝐴7 𝑏1 𝑏2
Range
(K)

200-1000 2.8691e6 -5.5999e4 1.4313e3 -1.6436 0.0030 2.3106e- 0 6.2463e- -5.1854e4


6 10

1000-6000 6.8518e7 -3.5822e5 1.4703e3 -0.0605 2.0082e- -3.0512e- 0 1.8751e-- 1.8384e6


5 9 13
Xenon need not be considered in the
air species due to very low
concentrations in 8- constant form. It
was also found to be a reason for
certain numerical oscillations and non-
convergences in subsequent gas
dynamic calculations.
Variation of 𝐶𝑝 and γ withTemperature
(K), 8 constant polynomial
𝐶𝑝 v/s T γ v/s T
NASA 5 coefficient polynomial form
Formulation -
𝐶𝑝
• = 𝐴1 +𝐴2 𝑇 + 𝐴3 𝑇 2 + 𝐴4 𝑇 3 + 𝐴5 𝑇 4
𝑅 𝑖
• 𝐶𝑝 = σ𝑁
𝑖=1 𝐶𝑝 𝑖 𝜒𝑖
𝐶𝑝
•𝛾=
𝐶𝑝 −𝑅

• = 𝐴1 𝑇 + (𝐴2 /2)𝑇 2 + (𝐴3 /3)𝑇 3 + (𝐴4 /4)𝑇 4 +
𝑅
(𝐴5 /5)𝑇 5 + 𝑏1
• 𝑆/𝑅 = 𝐴1 𝑙𝑜𝑔𝑇 + 𝐴2 𝑇 + (𝐴3 /2)𝑇 2 + (𝐴4 /3)𝑇 3 +
(𝐴5 /4)𝑇 4 + 𝑏2
Polynomial coefficients for individual species (5 coefficient
form)-
Species Temp Range A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 b1 b2
H2 200-1000 2.34433112 7.98E-03 -1.95E-05 2.02E-08 -7.38E-12 -9.18E+02 6.83E-01
1000-6000 2.9386579 8.27E-04 -1.46E-07 1.54E-11 -6.89E-16 -8.13E+02 -1.02E+00
He 200-1000 2.5 0 0 0 0 -7.45E+02 9.29E-01
1000-6000 2.5 0 0 0 0 -7.45E+02 9.29E-01
Kr 200-1000 2.5 0 0 0 0 -7.45E+02 5.49E+00
1000-6000 2.5 0 0 0 0 -7.45E+02 5.49E+00
N2 200-1000 3.53100528 -1.24E-04 -5.03E-07 2.44E-09 -1.41E-12 -1.05E+03 2.97E+00
1000-6000 2.952527626 1.40E-03 -4.93E-07 7.86E-11 -4.61E-15 -9.24E+02 5.87E+00
O2 200-1000 3.78245636 -3.00E-03 9.85E-06 -9.68E-09 3.24E-12 -1.06E+03 3.66E+00
1000-6000 3.66096083 6.56E-04 -1.41E-07 2.06E-11 -1.30E-15 -1.22E+03 3.42E+00
Xe 200-1000 2.5 -8.99E-14 2.52E-16 -2.92E-19 1.19E-22 -7.45E+02 6.16E+00
1000-6000 2.50005322 -1.05E-07 6.75E-11 -1.71E-14 1.48E-18 -7.45E+02 6.16E+00
Ar 200-1000 2.5 0 0 0 0 -7.45E+02 4.379675
1000-6000 2.5 0 0 0 0 -7.45E+02 4.379675

CO2 200-1000 2.35677352 8.98E-03 -7.12E-06 2.46E-09 -1.44E-13 -4.84E+04 9.90E+00

1000-6000 3.86E+00 4.41E-03 -2.21E-06 5.23E-10 -4.72E-14 -4.88E+04 2.27E+00

Ne 200-1000 2.5 0 0 0 0 -7.45E+02 3.355323


1000-6000 2.5 0 0 0 0 -7.45E+02 3.355323
Polynomial coefficients for air (5 conefficient
form)
Temperat A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 b1 b2
ure
Range

200-1000

1022.5023
72 -0.20772 0.000481 -3.91E-08 -1.19E-10 -304303 895.722
1000-
6000
886.29058
78 0.352172 -0.00012 1.88E-08 -1.11E-12 -285881 1527.381
Variation of 𝐶𝑝 and γ with Temperature
(K) (5 constant form)
𝐶𝑝 v/s T γ v/s T