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American Journal of Life Science Researches Original Article

Oct2016, Volume 4, Issue 4

Eco-friendly Management of Lesser Grain Borer,
Rhizopertha dominica f. (bostrichidae: coleoptera) on
Wheat in Storage
Md. Abdul Ahad*1, Mohammad Mosharof Hossain Bhuyain1,
Md. Muzammel2, Md. Fazlul Hoque3
Department of Entomology, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology
University, Dinajpur (5200), Bangladesh
National Scientific and Technical Documentation Center (BANSDOC), Dhaka,
Department of Medicine Surgery and Obstetrics, Hajee Mohammad Danesh
Science and Technology University, Dinajpur, Bangladesh
* Corresponding author: Md. Abdul Ahad, Department of Entomology, Hajee Mo-
hammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur (5200), Bangladesh.
DOI: 10.21859/ajlsr-040407 E-mail: maahadhstu@gmail.com
Submited: 06.10.2016 Abstract
Accepted: 08.13.2016 An experiment was conducted for the “eco-friendly management of lesser grain borer
Rhizopertha dominica F. on wheat in storage” at the Department of Entomology, Hajee
Keywords: Mohammad Danesh Science and technology University Dinajpur. N-hexane extracts of
Rhizopertha dominica 10 weeds such as Clerodendrumviscosum, Xanthium indicum, Mimosa pudica, Polygonum
N-hexane hydropiper, Argemonemexicana, Croton bonpalandianum, Leucus aspara, Dryoptrisfilix-max,
Polygonum hydropiper Cassia tora, Blumealacera were used. All the experiments were conducted in incubitor at
Xanthium indicum 32°C. However, among the 10 weeds extracts the highest mortality was found in the extract
Cassia tora of Polygonum hydropiper at 1.5% and was statistically best following extract of Xanthium
indicum at 1.5% but none died in the control. All the weeds extract showed more or less
© 2016. American Journal of Life performance for the protection of Rhizoperthadominica. However, the lowest seed damage
Science Researches. was found in the extract at 1.5% in Polygonum hydropiper followed by Clerodendrumviscosum;
Cassia tora;Argemonemexicana; Blumealacera; Leucus aspara. In respect of adult emergence
the lowest number of Rhizoperthadominica was found in the extract at 1.5% in Polygonum
hydropiper followed by Cassia tora.All the plants at 0.50% and 1.0% gave 100% protections
up to 32 days.

Agriculture is the major occupation of most of the people all be expected to be lower than in the tropics and subtropics.
over the world and more than 70% of Indian population de- Current losses are about 30% apparently occurring through-
pends on agriculture for their livelihood [1-3]. Bangladesh out the world [10]. In the stores and godowns this pest cause
is predominantly an agricultural country and about 90% of not only damage of the products but also make them unfit for
its population lives on agriculture. Wheat (Triticumaestivum human consumption [11, 12]. Huge loss incurred each year
L.) is the leading crop of the world. It ranks first according to due to the severe damage of food grains. To overcome short-
acreage of cultivation and production among the grain crops fall of food grains each year, a huge amount of food grains are
of the world [4, 5]. In Bangladesh wheat occupies the second imported from abroad which may carry some insects and that
position as grain crops, next to the rice which covers an area also cause severe damages and deteriorates the quality of the
of 0.5 million hectare and producing 1.025 million tons [6]. grains [13].
Cereal grains are staples in the diets of human beings and do- Lesser grain borer, Rhizopertha dominica Fabr. is a serious
mestic animals. Consequently, their conservation is essential pests of stored wheat [14] and distributed in all the countries
to have this basic food available on an ongoing basis [7]. In of the world [15, 16]. It is a very destructive pest of wheat,
stored grains, the main agents diminishing production are buckwheat, rice, maize, sorghum, barley, rye, millets etc.[15].
insects [8], which can destroy up to 50% of the harvest in 6 Both the adults and grubs of R. dominica cause serious dam-
months [9]. According to FAO, worldwide annual losses in age to the grains by feeding inside them and reducing them to
store is 10% of all stored grain i.e., 13 million tons of grain more shells with many irregulars’ holes. The adults are pow-
is lost due to insect and 100 million tons to failure to store erful fliers and migrate from one godown to another, caus-
properly. But losses in the temperate regions of the world can ing infestation. When the infestation is occurred the adults
Ahad, et al

produce a considerable amount of dust (frass) and spoiling sterilized in an electrical oven to a temperature of 55°C for 4
more than what they eat. The flour, so produced, is not fit for hours to prevent the growth of biological agent, which may
human consumption; even by animal. Lin [17] noted that be present in the seeds. Sound and healthy wheat seeds were
R. dominica had completed 5 to 6 generations per year. So, it selected for this experiment. 100 grams of wheat grains and
destroys the stored grain all over the year. Rabbi and Begum the treatment of various doses were taken in plastic jar of 0.25
[18] showed that in Bangladesh it destroys 60.0% stored rice litre capacity.
and reduced viability 53.7% annually.
Today pest control is a serious problem of developing coun- Collection and Preparation of Weeds Used
tries [19]. Generally management of stored product pests
are done through fumigation [20] as well as synthetic insec-
ticides has also been considered the most effective and ac- Collection of Test Weeds
cessible means to control [7]. Uses of insecticides have many
limitations and undesirable side effects. If it has been used Bhat, Clerodendrum viscosum (Verbenaceace) (ii) Ghagra, Xan-
for a long time it may cause serious health hazards as well as thium indicum (Compositae) (iii) Lazzabati, Mimosa pudica
destruction of beneficial insects and increasing costs of appli- (Leguminosae) (iv) Biskatali, Polygonum hydropiper (Polygo-
cation [21-25]. Plants are a rich of bioactive organic chemical naceae) (v) Shialcata, Argemone mexicana (Papaveraceae) (vi)
such as terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, unusual aminoacids Wild capsicum, Croton bonpalandianum (Euphorbiacae) (vii)
etc. There are about 2121 plant species have been reported to White verticilia, Leucus aspara (Labiate), (viii) Fern Dryoptris-
possess pest control properties [26]. filix-max (Polypodiacae), (ix) Ariach, Cassia tora (Legumino-
So, instead the used of synthetic insecticides have directed sae) (x) Shialmutra, Blumea lacera (Compositae). These weeds
the need for effective eco-friendly management of insect [27- extracts were used as experimental purposes.
33]. Many workers at home and abroad studied on the insec-
ticidal properties of plant materials [3, 28, 34-40]. Although Chemical Used
lesser grain borer, R. dominica is a serious pests, infesting N-hexane was used as a solvent for the collection of plants
large variety of stored products and worldwide distributed extracts.
but it is seen from review and literature a little information
is available for ecofriendly management of this pest through
weed extracts, indigenous plant oils, varietals resistance and Collection and Processing of Weeds Materials
admixture is about scanty. Leaf of test weeds plants were collected from HSTU Campus.
Considering the above problem of synthetic insecticides These collected materials were washed in running tap water
and benefit of use of botanical insecticides, admixture etc. and then it dried under room temperature. Finally, the dried
and this research work was undertaken by eco-friendly man- plant materials were powdered by the grinding machine.
agement of this destructive pest for protecting wheat seeds
through the use of N-hexane extracts of 10 weeds such as
Clerodendrum viscosum, Xanthium indicum, Mimosa pudica,
Preparation of Weeds Extracts
Polygonum hydropiper, Argemonemexicana, Croton bonpaland- The powder of 100 g of each leaf of weeds plants were taken
ianum, Leucus aspara, Dryoptrisfilix-max, Cassia tora, Blumea in 1.5 liter separated funnel and 100 ml N-hexane was added
lacera (at0.25%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% w/v). in this separated funnels. Then it was kept for 72 hours and
shaking time to time. After 72 hours it was filtered by What-
man paper No.10. The filtrates were aqueous extract.
The experiments were conducted in the laboratory of the Isolation of Crude Compounds
Department of Entomology, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Sci-
The aqueous extract was collected in a beaker. The solvent
ence and technology University Dinajpur (HSTU), during
was evaporated by using thin film rotary evaporator under
June 2011 to June 2012 using completely randomized design
reduced pressure. Obtain crude compound was also stored in
(CRD) with three replications at controlled temperature of
refrigerator at 0˚C for further investigation.
30°C in an incubator.
Procedure of Use of Rhizopertha dominica
Mass Culture of Rhizopertha dominica
Ten male and female (1:1) adults of R.dominica of age group
The original culture of lesser grain borers were collected 1-2 days old were released in each plastic pot. The mouth of
from an “Auto Rice Mill” of Dinajpur. Stock cultures were set the pot was cover with muslin cloth and was tighten with
up for the experiments by placing about 1000 adults lesser rubber band. During the day time the plastic pot was covered
grain borers on 500 grams of wheat grain in a glass jar (15 with thick paper to provide a favorable semi-dark environ-
cm height × 12 cm diameter) whose top portion was cov- ment to the lesser grain borer for egg deposition. Release in-
ered by a muslin cloth fasten with rubber band. The adults sects was allowed remaining plastic pot with the grains/treat-
were allowed to lay eggs for 48 hours in this medium. The ment at 10 days for oviposition and then removed (Released
same procedure were repeated for oviposition in similar jars. pairs were allowed inside the plastic pot for oviposition at 10
Thus a huse amount of stock cultures were maintained to get days and then pairs were removed). Effects of different treat-
a constant supply of insect during the experiment. The media ments was judge by studying on the following parameters
were always disinfested by heating in an electrical oven at a (within 32) such as no. of egg, population build up, percent-
temperature of 55°C for 4 hours [41]. The seeds were also age of grain damage.
American Journal of Life Science Researches

Completion of Different Test the mortality of R. dominica.

Direct Toxicity/ Mortality Test by Dipping Method Mortality (%) at 48 Hours

The crude extracts of desired weed extract was diluted with Data were statistically significant of each treatment and dos-
N-hexane to make 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5, (w/v) solutions. A piece age. However, among the 10 weeds extracts highest mortality
of filter paper was dipped in diluted extract/control solution was found in the extract of Polygonum hydropiper at 1.5% and
for 35 secondsand then were air-dried. Five pair of adult R. was statistically best (mortality was 2.33%) following extract
dominica (2-3 day old) was placed at the center of petridish. of Xanthium indicumat 1.5% (mortality was 2.0%). The next
Mortality was observed at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after treat- statistically best and highest mortality was found in seed ex-
ment. Three replications were made for each dose. tract of Leucus aspara at 1.5% (mortality was 1.67%). Rest
weeds extracts showed none or negligible performance for
Adult Emergence Test the mortality of R. dominica.

The R.dominica was started to emerge after 30 days of ovipo-

sition. The emerge beetles were counted and remove every Mortality (%) at 72 Hours
day from the container.The numbers of adult beetles were Data were statistically significant of each treatment and dos-
counted daily from the date of first emergence to at least 10 age. However, among the 10 weeds extracts highest mortali-
days. The adult emergence rate were calculated and the inhi- ty was found in the extract of Polygonum hydropiper at 1.5%
bition rates (IR%) werealso calculated by using the following and were statistically best (mortality was 2.33%) following
formula: extract of Xanthium indicum at 1.5% (mortality was 2%); as
well as they showed second category best performance.Third
IR % = ∗ 100 category statistically best and highest mortality was found in
seed extract of Leucus aspara at 1.5% (mortality was 1.67%).
Where, Rest weed extracts showed no or negligible performance for
Cn = Number of insects in control pot. the mortality of Rhizoperthadominica.
Tn = Number of insects in treated pot.
Mortality (%) at 96 Hours
Seed Damage Test
Data were statistically significant of each treatment and dos-
Each wheat grains were taken out from the pot to determine age. However, among the 10 weeds extracts highest mortality
the presence/absence of feeding hole(s) on each seed. Seeds was found in the extract of Polygonum hydropiper at 1.5% and
containing hole(s) was considered as damaged seeds. The was statistically best (mortality was 1.67%) following extract
number of damaged wheat seeds were counted and were re- ofits (Polygonum hydropiper) at 1.0%, Clerodendrumviscos-
corded for each replication. um; Croton bonpalandianum at 1.0% and 1.5%, Cassia tora at
1.5%, Blumealaceraat 1.5% (mortality was 1%) as well as they
Statistical Analysis showed second category best performance. The rest weed ex-
tracts showed no or negligible performance for the mortality
The experimental data was statistically analyzed by Com- of R.dominica.
pletely Randomized Design using MSTAT-C statistical soft-
ware in a microcomputer. The mean values were adjusted by Determination of Total Residual Toxicity on
Duncan Multiple range test (P ≤ 0.05). R .Dominica
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Total residual toxicity (effect of 10 weeds extracts)of n-hex-
ane solvent extracts (at 0.5%, 1% and 1.5% concentration) on
Effect of Weeds Extract R. dominica were calculated byobserving% seed damage and
mean number of adult emergence of R. dominica test (Table
Direct Toxicity Test 2), which are described below-
Direct toxicity effect of different weeds extracts in n-hexane
Seed Damage Test
solvent (at 0.5%, 1% and 1.5% concentration) on R. dominica
were calculated byobserving% mortalityat 24 hours, 48 hours, All the weeds extract showed more or less performance for
72 hours, and 96 hours (Table 1), which are described below. the protection against lesser grain borer, R. dominica. How-
ever, lowest seed damage was found in the extract of Polygo-
num hydropiper at 1.5% (seed damage was 1.06%) followed
Mortality (%) at 24 Hours
by Clerodendrum viscosum (seed damage was 4.12%); Cassia
Data were statistically significant of each treatment and dos- tora (seed damage was 4.33%); Argemone mexicana (seed
age. However, among the 10 weeds extracts highest mortality damage was 4.9%); Blumealacera (seed damage was 5.12%);
rate was found in the extract of Polygonum hydropiper at 1.5% Leucus aspara (seed damage was 5.87%) and Xanthium in-
and were statistically best (mortality was 2.33%) following dicum (seed damage was 8.26%) and were statisticlly best,
extract of Xanthium indicumat 1.5% (mortality was 2.0%) respectively. On the other hand, highest % seed damage was
and Leucus aspara at 1.5% (mortality was 1.67%). Rest of the in the control and it was 42.04% followed by Mimosa pudica
weeds extracts showed none or negligible performance for (21.79% seed damage) (Table 2).

Ahad, et al

Table 1: Percent (%) Mortality of R.dominica After Exposure of 24 Hours, 48 Hours, 72 Hours and 96 Hours in n-hexane Extracts in
Different Treatments (Interaction of Extract Concentration and Time)
Treatments (different weed plant)/ Dose Concentration (%) 24 h 48 h 72 h 96 h
i) Bhat: Clerodendrum viscosum
0.25 0.000 f 0.000 f 0.000 e 0.000 d
0.50 0.000 f 0.000 f 0.000 e 0.000 d
1.00 0.000 f 0.333 ef 0.667 cd 0.333 cd
1.5 1.333 bcd 0.333 ef 0.667 cd 1.000 b
ii) Wild capsicum: Croton bonpalandianum
0.25 0.000 f 0.000 f 0.000 e 0.000 d
0.50 0.000 f 0.000 f 0.000 e 0.333 cd
1.00 0.000 f 0.667 def 1.000 bc 1.000 b
1.5 1.000 cde 0.667 def 1.000 bc 1.000 b
iii) Ariach: Cassia tora
0.25 0.000 f 0.000 f 0.000 e 0.000 d
0.50 0.000 f 0.000 f 0.000 e 0.667 bc
1.00 0.000 f 0.000 f 1.000 bc 0.333 cd
1.5 1.000 cde 0.667 def 1.333 ab 1.000 b
iv) Shialmutra: Blumea lacera
0.25 0.333 ef 0.000 f 0.000 e 0.000 d
0.50 0.000 f 0.000 f 0.000 e 0.333 cd
1.00 0.000 f 1.000 cde 0.333 de 1.000 b
1.5 1.333 bcd 1.000 cde 0.333 de 1.000 b
v) Shial cata: Argemone mexicana
0.25 0.000 f 0.000 f 0.000 e 0.000 d
0.50 0.333 ef 0.000 f 0.000 e 0.000 d
1.00 1.000 cde 0.000 f 0.000 e 0.000 d
1.5 1.333 bcd 1.333 bcd 0.000 e 0.000 d
vi) Lazzabati: Mimosa pudica
0.25 0.000 f 0.000 f 0.000 e 0.000 d
0.50 0.000 f 0.000 f 0.000 e 0.000 d
1.00 0.000 f 0.000 f 0.000 e 0.000 d
1.5 0.000 f 0.000 f 0.000 e 0.000 d
vii) White verticilia: Leucus aspara
0.25 0.333 ef 0.000 f 0.000 e 0.000 d
0.50 0.667 def 0.333 ef 0.000 e 0.000 d
1.00 1.667 abc 1.667 abc 0.000 e 0.000 d
1.5 1.667 abc 2.000 ab 0.667 cd 0.000 d
viii) Ghagra: Xanthium indicum
0.25 0.000 f 0.000 f 0.000 e 0.000 d
0.50 0.000 f 0.667 def 0.667 cd 0.000 d
1.00 1.667 abc 1.000 cde 0.667 cd 0.333 cd
1.5 2.000 ab 1.333 bcd 1.000 bc 0.667 bc
ix) Biskatali: Polygonum hydropiper
0.25 0.000 f 0.000 f 0.000 e 0.000 d
0.50 0.667 def 0.333 ef 0.000 e 0.000 d
1.00 1.000 cde 0.333 ef 1.000 bc 1.000 b
1.5 2.333 a 2.333 a 1.667 a 1.667 a
x) Fern: Dryoptrisfilix-max
0.25 0.000 f 0.000 f 0.000 e 0.000 d
0.50 0.000 f 0.000 f 0.000 e 0.000 d
1.00 0.000 f 0.667 def 0.333 de 0.000 d
1.5 1.000 cde 0.667 def 0.000 e 0.000 d
Control (n-hexane only) 0.000 f 0.000 f 0.000 e 0.000 d
Lsd (0.05%) 0.653 0.665 0.526 0.415
CV (%) 80.0 97.2 108.1 90.2
Mean within a column followed by no common letter(s) are significantly different (DMRT, P ≤ 0.05)

American Journal of Life Science Researches

Mean Number of Adult Emergence

All the weeds extract showed more or less performance ber of adult emergence was 30.67); Clerodendrum viscos-
for the protection against lesser grain borer, R.dominicain um (mean number of adult emergence was 35). On the
respect of adult emergence. However, lowest number of other hand, highest number of mean adult emergence of
lesser grain borer, R.dominica were found in the extract R.dominicawas in the control and it was 397 followed by
Polygonum hydropiper at 1.5% (mean number of adult Mimosa pudicaat 1.5% (mean number of adult emergence
emergence was 8) followed by Cassia tora (mean num- was 119.3) (Table 2).

Table 2: Total Residual Toxicity of 10 Weeds Extract

Treatments/ Dosages (%) Adult Emergence Percent Damage
Dhakishak (Fern): Dryoptrisfilix-max
0.25 172.3 b 16.1 d
0.50 151.7 bc 13.9 def
1.00 120.3 cdefg 11.3 fghijk
1.5 85.7 hijkl 8.7 ijklmno
Shialmutra: Blumealacera
0.25 113.7 defgh 13.4 defg
0.50 129.0 cdef 8.0 jklmnop
1.00 59.0 lmnop 6.6l mnopqrs
1.5 40.3 nopq 5.2 nopqrst
Biskatali: Polygonum hydropiper
0.25 29.0 pqr 3.7 rstu
0.50 25.3 qr 2.9 stu
1.00 17.3 qr 2.3 tu
1.5 8.0 r 1.1 u

Bone Morich (Wild capsicum): Croton bonpalandianum

0.25 150.0 bc 14.3 def
0.50 131.3 cde 12.5 defghi
1.00 91.3 ghijk 9.9 ghijkl
1.5 58.3 lmnop 8.9 ijklmn
Ariach: Cassia tora
0.25 116.7 defgh 11.2 fghijk
0.50 98.3 fghij 10.1 ghijkl
1.00 74.7 ijklm 7.9 klmnopq
1.5 30.7 pqr 4.3 pqrstu

Bhat: Clerodendrumviscosum
0.25 115.0 defgh 15.1 de
0.50 74.0 ijklm 8.6 ijklmno
1.00 64.0 klmno 7.4 klmnopqr
1.5 35.0 opqr 4.1 rstu
Shetrodron (White verticilia): Leucus aspara
0.25 149.3 bc 14.9def
0.50 80.7 ijkl 8.9ijklmn
1.00 67.7 jklmn 7.3lmnopqr
1.5 44.7 mnopq 5.9mnopqrst
Shialcata: Argemonemexicana
0.25 145.3 bcd 15.1 de
0.50 115.3 defgh 12.9defgh

Ahad, et al

1.00 75.0 ijklm 9.4 hijklm

1.5 44.3 mnopq 4.9 opqrst
Lazzabati: Mimosa pudica
0.25 143.0 bcd 26.4 b
0.50 137.0 cd 24.4 bc
1.00 131.7 cde 23.3 bc
1.5 119.3 cdefg 21.8 c
Ghagra: Xanthium indicum
0.25 127.7 cdef 15.9 d
0.50 100.7 efghi 11.8efghij
1.00 120.0 cdefg 14.3def
1.5 74.3 ijklm 8.3jklmno
Control (only n-hexane) 397.0 a 42.0 a
CV% 16.8 17.2
Mean within a column followed by no common letter(s) are significantly different (DMRT, P ≤ 0.05)

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