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CLIMATE CHANGE AND

WATER RESOURCES
due to a supply inadequate water,
The temperature regimes humidity are sanitation and poor hygiene.
some of the variables determining the In certain areas, the scarcity of water will
distribution key, growth productivity and cause the overexploitation of groundwater,
plant and animal breeding. Hydrological which will entail a higher cost of water
changes may affect various species ways, supply for all uses, due to the need to pump
but the best processes. They are known it to a greater depth and from further afield.
linking the moisture availability intrinsic In addition, the overexploitation of
thresholds that govern the processes Groundwater may cause in some cases
Metabolic and reproductive. Estimates of deterioration water quality. In some
the fourth Informed the IPCC assessment regions India, Bangladesh, China, North
global warming are among
Africa, Mexico and Argentina, more than
0.5 ° C in the Northern Hemisphere and 2
° C the northern polar region here 100 million people suffer arsenic
2030. Human health, which covers the poisoning fluorosis and dental disease
physical, social and psychological well- bone caused by intake fluoride excessive
being, it depends on the adequacy of water potable; the situation could worsen
water supply and environmental if people are forced to saw consume more
safety. The Humans are exposed to groundwater by lack of reliable sources of
climate change both directly, at the mercy water in the surface. It is likely that most
of weather patterns (More intense shortages water, coupled with increased
extreme events and Frequently) and demand food and/or increased use of
indirectly Under experienced changes in irrigation water because of increased
relation to water, air, quality and quantity temperatures, amounts to a greater water
of food, ecosystems, agriculture, means
reuse. In areas with inadequate sanitation
subsistence and infrastructure. Given the
could reach practiced (for the first time,
considerable number of people who could
be affected by malnutrition and shortages or greater extent) reuse uncontrolled
water, these could be the impact health water (with water poluidas, or waste). In
more important for climate change. The short, climate change It could have
joint WHO / UNICEF program positive effects both negative on services
Monitoring Water Supply and Sanitation water. It is therefore important to be
currently estimated that 1,100 million aware its effect locally, and develop plans
(17% global) population without access accordingly. In present, only some water
to water resources, meaning as the distribution companies of certain
availability of at least 20 liters of water countries, particularly countries
per person per day from a water source Netherlands, United Kingdom, Canada
Improved located less than 1 km. Almost and the United States have begun to
two thirds of the people without access to
consider implications of climate change
water live in Asia. In Sub-Saharan Africa,
42% of the population has no access to the context of flood control and
water improved. WHO estimated at 1.7 management of water supply.
million deaths per year full load disease

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WATER AS A NATURAL Also campsites and places campgrounds
RESOURCE: are located near the basin of the rivers or
USES. QUANTITY AND QUALITY. beaches.
 Fishing. Extracting it considered fish
In recent decades, water use it has for commercial purposes recreational.
increased relative to the amount of  Environmental uses. Ecosystems Water
it available. More than 60% of water need a supply of water minimum.
abstraction level world was allocated to  Agricultural uses. Eg. Agricultural
irrigation of crops and 23% to industry. consumption due to irrigate fields and
Conventional resources represents the highest percentage of
Surface waters are rivers, lakes, streams consumption in the world.
and marshes. Most Part of this water is The water needs depend directly from the
sweet. But There saltwater lakes and the climate, type of soil and crop types each
marshes that form gaps coastal. area.
Groundwater are those that they are  Applications ranchers. Includes the
stored in the subsoil or circulate slowly water requirements for the animal feed
for him. Come infiltration in the field of and for proper development as cleaning,
rainwater, snowmelt, rivers, lakes. When cooling and humidification
the filtered water finds impervious environmental. Municipal uses. Supply it
covers urban water needs housing, that is,
surface that retains, form an underground
use domestic, and shops, schools and
reservoir called aquifer.
utilities.
Unconventional resources  Industrial and mining uses. The water
used in industry advantage as raw
The means water no conventional are material, coolant, discharges and
water recycled and desalinated. The water transport agent. In mining, Water is used
You can re-serve if he is returned to his to separate minerals rocks. Water in the
half after being used For example, in World: If water is spread on the surface
areas Coastal can desalinate water Sea, Earth, form a layer of about 3000 meters.
which is a complement to meet the water But this distribution is different if the
needs certain areas where there is water is salty or sweet home. Of is this
abundant. form, 97.5% of water is in the seas and
"Drip irrigation reduces consumption oceans as salt, it is making it useless for
agricultural water, compared to food, agriculture and more part of
irrigation "a blanket", which consists of industrial applications. The 2.5% the
Flood plot" remaining water is sweet, but almost all
Uses: of it is on the ice pole or glaciers in
 Energy uses. Mainly for the production underground reservoirs or elsewhere
of electricity. The waterfalls are a system difficult to use. For all this, only 0.26% of
very effective to produce electricity. the total mass of the planet's water is
 Navigation. This transport goods and easily usable for applications human.
people allows communication between
countries and continents.
 Recreational uses. Water reservoirs,
numerous rivers and seas activities sport,
as sailing, rowing or motor.

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WATER RESOURCES OF PERU. It is noted that 97% of the Availability
surface is on the slope of the Amazon
Peru is a country with significant water region where there is less development
resources, however, that the availability of and lower economic demands use and
water in the region, which flows into the exploitation of water.
Pacific- coast is less than 2% of the total Surface Water.
available, although it is itself which Peru has a vast network of hydro
accounts for more than 55 % of the channels to use, several which also serve
population and produces between 75 % to to Use use of population with due
80 % of GDP of the country, which pretreatment. The bypass channels and
demands, therefore, improve the channels first to fourth order totaling
management of water resources. In early 45,920 channels representing 55.230 km
2009, the Water Resources Act, which channels, which 8,246 km (15%) are,
replaces the 1969, was modified, and
and the rest are coated channels earth. It
establishes a new institutional framework
also has 1,715 and 6,080 permanent
in line with the deconcentration and
intakes Rustic level intakes.
decentralization, takes place in the country.
Peru has an extension 1'285.000 km² and Underground water.
Ica aquifer is exploited in 543 million
a population, according to Population
Census 27.41 million inhabitants. For m³/year, while the Chicama aquifer
him 2009, the estimated population had yields 257 million m³ / year. Next in use
promoted to 29.13millones (INEI2010). Rimac aquifer, that of Lambayeque, the
Meanwhile, the country has three very Nazca Caplina, Milk, and Chillon among
different regions: the coast, The Sierra the most significant. The aquifer Rimac
and Selva (Amazon). used exclusively for case demand town
Peru has three major river watersheds or of Lime Metropolitan completing the
regions, the Pacific that flows into the Rimac river surface contributions. The
Pacific Ocean, the Amazon that includes Extraction according to the latest report
the areas of jungle and flat head jungle and
ANA (ANA, web 2010) is close to 165
Lake Titicaca endorreica account. Of the
three regions highlighted in the Amazon million m³ / year. Their concern
extension, which represents 75 % of the regarding the overexploitation of it, as it
country, followed by the Pacific region reports that have static levels dropped in
with 22 % and lake represents only 4 % of the order of 40 m in areas near the sea.
the territory. I n these three regions there Regarding the availability of
are 159 hydrographic units: 62 in the groundwater, Peru features 2,849 million
hydrographic region of the Pacific, 84 in of m³/year concentrated in the Coast
the river Amazon region and 13 in the
region.
water Titicaca region. Table 4 shows the
surface water availability (ANA, 2008)

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Forty-four of the forty- eight are riverbed is subject to alterations and minor
monitored by the ANA, through a damage when an avenue of some
network piezometric 5,215 points as well importance occurs.
as a network of Hydro geochemistry of The operation and maintenance times
5,250 points. The aquifer with most starts before finishing construction
points observation is Chicama, 209 levels work. From the when we started the
piezometric and 277 hydro cofferdams and diversion works are
geochemical. For his part, Rimac aquifer altering the river behavior. We have to
is monitored by the entity providing make river management. Studies,
services water and sanitation area building and maintenance go together to
Metropolitan Lima, SEDAPAL.
the 'long Project life. This is very
noticeable in the case of dams, especially
WATER PROJECT: PHASES. materials loose.
OBJECTIVES.
PROJECT CYCLE-SNIP
In engineering projects, usually three The National Investment System Public
phases differ or steps: (SNIP) is a system State administrative
Planning and studies. Construction certifying the quality of investment
Operation and maintenance. In water, projects Public (PIP) through a set
projects are given often-certain procedures and technical standards. The
characteristics and peculiarities that aim of SNIP is aimed at improve the
determine indicated that the three phases lending capacity State public services
not always constitute a sequence such so that efficiency occurs in the use
absolute. It occurs, however, which we of resources investment, sustainability
might call a presence standing three and enhanced socio-economic impact,
phases over Project life tending the which leads to greater prosperity for more
prevalence of each sequence of them. people.
Failures occurred in dams constitute a
major his knowledge sources behavior Functional and technical structure of
structural. The reservoir created by a dam SNIP
is subject to sedimentation, the same as It
should be studied. The curtain is subject
deformations and pressures they must be
measured for comparison with the
assumptions made in the design. Studies
are therefore an ongoing process.
Consideration could now, for example,
the behavior of structures in actual
operation and were conceived,
hydrologically, prior to El Niño of 1983.
The construction, as we have noted,
overlaps with the study phase. Before you
start building hydraulic works properly and
that, there are important investments in
roads and camps. Sometimes bridges and
other important structures. A system of
channeling dikes based on a deformable
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Actors involved in the SNIP technical specifications, the program
conservation and replenishment
Operative Body: Higher authority equipment, and requirements
Executive of the (EU) Executive Unit can Estimated staff. Within the investment
be Mayors, Presidents Regional stage, actor Foremost is
governments, ministries, etc. the (EU) Executive Unit, because it is
Formulators units (UF): Body responsible for the development of the
responsible for formulating the pre- study of detail, execution, closure and
investment studies. transfer the project to the entity
Offices of Programming Of responsible PIP operation. Finally, it has
Investments (OPI): Responsible for to phase post investment, comprising the
evaluation and viability statement of operation and maintenance project and
public investment projects. appraisal post. This phase begins once the
Implementation Units PIP has It has been transferred to the
(EU): Commissioned of the Institution responsible for its operation.
implementation, operation, maintenance During the stage of operation and
and ex post evaluation PIP. Maintenance must ensure that the project
has been an improvement in the provision
of goods and services Entity, for which
prioritize resources to those shares.
It stressed that no priority SNIP projects,
as are the authorities each sector or level
of government who define what project
execute and when. The SNIP certifies
quality of projects and promotes
generating a portfolio that groups these
projects according to their level
Cycles Investment Project profitability and social benefit.

Within the project cycle are 3 phases: Pre


investment, Investment and investment
Pos. During the pre-investment, it
evaluated whether to or not to perform a
particular PIP. For this it is necessary to
have studies to support, the project is
socially profitable, sustainable and is
consistent with the policy guidelines
established by the appropriate authorities.
When the project satisfactorily meets the
pre-investment studies and has been
declared feasible by the corresponding
IPO, the investment phase starts.
Within this phase are the stages of design
and implementation of the PIP. For the
first stage, it is made the detailed study of
the project; It is including
implementation planning, budget and
physical goals projected, so as the
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CONCEPTUALIZATION OF THE and water resources are distributed
SMALL, MEDIUM AND LARGE unevenly throughout the country, which
IRRIGATION creates very different realities. The
Peruvian Government is carrying out
Irrigations are classified as small, medium
various programs that aim to meet the key
and large. This classification, in order of
challenges of the irrigation sector,
magnitude, not due to a rigid definition, but
including the deterioration of the water
is the natural result of the long experience
quality, low efficiency of irrigation and
gained in the formulation, implementation
drainage systems
and evaluation of irrigation projects. The
large irrigation include projects that exceed PROJECTS OF IRRIGATION IN
10,000 hectares. Usually they are PERU
multipurpose, designed to supply irrigation
An irrigation, is a project of hydraulic use
water to agricultural activities - through
for agricultural development purposes or
technical irrigation-, generate electricity
irrigation purposes; therefore, basic and
and provide drinking water to populations.
indispensable resources are origin to the
They are used in its construction a
project, are the water-soil binomial. La
combination of different infrastructure
viability d and an irrigation project, is
projects such as dams, irrigation and
based on the availability of resources
drainage channels, tunnels and other
water-soil, this is important studies that
complementary works that demand large
identify and assess the existence and
investments. Budgetary requirements
availability of both resources. Likewise, it
generated by a large number of years and
will be necessary to economic and social
forcing the conclusion of external loans.
assessment of the project, where economic
Almost entirely these irrigation are on the
indicators as the VAN and the Social TIR
coast as special projects of the National
qualify it how profitable in social terms. In
Development Institute (INADE).
addition, will take into account the
They are considered small irrigation sensitivity analysis for different parameters
projects that include up to 5 thousand (such as the taut cost and the expected
hectares and medium-sized ones that benefits with the implementation of the
benefit surfaces greater than this figure but project), the study and evaluation of the
lower than the 10 thousand hectares. They environmental impact and sustainability of
are projects whose hydraulic approaches the same.
require comparatively minor investments,
Irrigation projects, normally, its financing
can be adapted easily to the budgetary
requires credit conditions associated with
conditions prevailing in the country, and
the potential to be developed. In general,
they can be executed in a few years. They
these investments are profitable
are mainly located in the sierra and the
economically and socially, when your
jungle.
design has referred to a range of factors.
There are large, small and medium
irrigation projects.
IRRIGATION
Investments in major infrastructure of
Irrigation in the Peru has been and
agricultural irrigation projects have three
continues to be a determining factor in
components:
increasing food security, agricultural and
productive growth, and human (a) The investments related to the
development in rural areas of the country. incorporation of agricultural land.
The hydraulic infrastructure for irrigation

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(b) Investments related to the improvement irrigation, taking advantage of the shift to
of irrigation. the slope of the Pacific Ocean from a global
mass 2,050 million m3 of water, from the
(c) The investments related to the
Huancabamba River and other rivers in the
generation of electric power.
Amazon basin. The works of the project are
With these irrigation projects, are divided into three components: transfer
accomplished to irrigate land that are works, hydroelectric generation, and works
capable of being profitable and sustainable of conduction and distribution of irrigation
in the agricultural activity, involving water.
social, political and economic aspects. The
State of the process:
irrigation systems in these projects are the
infrastructure that makes large Peruvian First phase: Corresponds to the works of
areas can be cultivated with the diversion, which has already been granted
implementation of the necessary water. to the Odebrecht Company through a
This infrastructure is: contract signed in July 2004. Will it be a
company qualified for the supervision of
Works of header:
the transfer. There are seven prequalified
consortia
Second phase: Grant electric works will be
part of a process of concession. Advances
in the realization of respective feasibility
Conveyance works: studies, in coordination with the Regional
Government of Lambayeque
Third phase: Works of conduction and
distribution of irrigation water required
feasibility studies to be carried out this
bridges, culverts).

channels.
Main hydraulic projects of the coast of
the Peru.
Investments in major infrastructure of
agricultural irrigation projects are,
basically, three components: a) the
investments related to the incorporation of
agricultural land, b) investments related to
the improvement of irrigation, and c) year.
investments related to the generation of
electric power.
Among the major projects in the Peru we
have:
The OLMOS project
Project description: The Olmos project
comprises a complex hydropower and
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of the mentioned basins. The total irrigated
area benefited by the system is 144 385 ha,
of which have earned desert 66 075 has, in
JEQUETEPEQUE ZANA irrigation areas between valleys. Also ensures the
project water supply to 78 310 has land of valleys
that were already cultivated, but had the
In 1963, the Jequetepeque Valley farmers water guaranteed every year.
offered to the Government, finance
relevant studies, in order to achieve
regulation of the waters of the
Among other major projects such as:
Jequetepeque River, to meet the
requirements of the Valley and increase Irrigation project large grass
farmland and overcome contingencies of
Irrigation project MAJES SIGUAS
the irregular and uncertain of the rio
regime. To carry out its purpose, they Project of irrigation TAMBO
requested to establish an assessment to its CCARACOCHA
main rice and cotton crops. Attended this
request, the Government promulgated on Irrigation project CHINECAS
June 11, 1963, Decree Law No. 14554
which creates the Special Committee of the
Valley Jequetepeque, entrusting him hire
the execution of the definitive studies of
regulation and harnessing hydroelectricity
from the Jequetepeque Valley.

The CHAVIMOCHIC special project


The Chavimochic special project is an
irrigation system, which extends largely on
the coast of the Department of La Libertad,
on the North coast of the Peru. The
National Institute for development
(INADE), the Peruvian central
Government, started it in the 1960. In 2003
was the transfer of its administration in the
Regional Government of freedom.
The objective of the special project is the
guarantee of irrigation water in the
perimeters of irrigation of the lower parts
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