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ES 200-S1

Module A : Solid Waste Management


and Other Aspects of Environmental
Management

Professor Anurag Garg


a.garg@iitb.ac.in
What is MSW?
• Solid Waste: Solid or semi-solid domestic waste, sanitary,
commercial, institutional, catering and market waste and
other non residential wastes, street sweepings, silt
removed or collected from the surface drains, horticulture
waste, agriculture and dairy waste, treated bio-medical
waste excluding industrial waste, bio-medical waste and e-
waste, battery waste, radio-active

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Classification of MSW
MSW components

Organic Inorganic
(e.g. metals, inerts)

Biodegradable Non-biodegradable
(e.g. plastics)

Readily degradable Slowly or partially


(e.g. food waste) degradable (e.g. paper,
textile) 3
MSW Data in Different Countries Based on
Income Groups (Srivastava et al., 2014)

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Waste Generation Rates (kg/ capita/d)
Countries Waste generation rate
Current 2025
Bangladesh 0.43 0.75
China 1.02 1.70
India 0.34 0.70
Malaysia 1.52 1.90
Nepal 0.12 0.70
Philippines 0.50 0.90
Thailand 1.76 1.95
Vietnam 1.46 1.80

Source: Srivastava et al., 2014


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Source: Sharholy et al., 2008 6
Composition of MSW in Different Countries
Average MSW composition (as % wet basis)
USA UK China Thailand India
Type of Waste
(USEPA, (Burnley, (Zhang et (Nithikul et
(NSWAI)
2009) 2006) al., 2010) al., 2011)
Compostable (Yard
27.8 33.2 52.6 42.1 48
trimmings, Food scraps)
Paper 28.2 20.2 6.9 14 8
Plastics 12.3 10.2 7.3 16.2 9
Rubber, leather and
8.3 5 4.7 8.3 -
textiles
Metals 8.6 7.3 0.5 0.44 1
Wood 6.5 - 6.9 12.7 -
Glass 4.8 9.3 1.6 2.2 1
Miscellaneous 3.5 16.7 19.5 3.9 33
Moisture content (%) 30 – 40 32.4 56.50 50.8 40-60
Ash content (%) 25 – 35 22.3 19.2 10.8 -
Lower calorific value
11.0-12.0 10.1 3.0- 6.7 5.9 - 6.1 3.4 - 4.6
(MJ/kg) 7
MSW Composition In Indian Metro Cities
(in percent and on wet basis)

MSW components Delhi* Mumbai** Chennai*** Kolkata†


Biodegradable fraction 38.6 62 47.24 55.06
Paper 5.6 7.5 6.45 6.07
Plastic 6.0 10 7.04 4.88
Glass 1.0 0.7 - 0.34
Metals 0.2 0.2 0.03 0.19
Inert (stones, bricks etc) 34.7 15 34.65 29.6
Miscellaneous (leather, cotton 13.9 4.6 4.59 3.86
rubber, bones etc)
Moisture*† 49 54 47 46
C/N*† 34.87 39.04 29.25 31.81
High calorific value (HCV) 7.53 7.47 10.84 5.02
(MJ/kg)*†
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MSW Composition…
MSW components Hyderabad‡ Bangalore†‡ Ahmedabad‡ Pune‡
Biodegradable fraction 40.00 72 40.00 55.00
Paper 7.00 11.6 6.0 5.0
Plastic 1.3 6.2 3.0 5.0
Glass - 1.4 - 10.0
Metals - 0.2 - -
Inert (stones, bricks etc) 50.00 6.5 50.00 15.0
Miscellaneous (leather, 1.7 2.1 1.00 10.00
rubber, bones etc)
Moisture*† 46 55 32 63
C/N*† 25.90 35.12 29.64 35.54
High calorific value 8.23 9.97 4.93 10.57
(HCV) (MJ/kg)*†

Talyan et al. (2008), ** URL 1, *** Jha et al. (2008), † Chattopadhyay et 9


al. (2009), ‡ Sharholy et al. (2008), †‡ Lakshmikanta (2006) , *† URL 2
Open Dumping

More than 90% of the total MSW is landfilled or open


dumped. 10
Existing Generalized MSW Management
System in India

Collection system (House to


MSW house and/ or by sweepers

Junkyard/ community
Ragpickers
dustbin

Processing of waste
Transportation by
for material and
vehicle
energy recovery

Landfilling in low
lying areas

Source: Srivastava et al., 2014 11


Existing MSW Recycling System in India
Source: Srivastava et al., 2014

Municipal Solid
Waste

Household Hotels and


Parks Street waste Junkyard waste markets

Ragpickers Scrap dealers

Recycling Recyclers Scrap wholesalers


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Adverse Impacts of Unsustainable Waste
Disposal
• Health impacts
 Can cause direct and indirect impacts

• Environmental impacts
 Soil
 Water
 Air

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Need to Shift from Landfilling to 3Rs

http://www.downtoearth.org.in/coverage/waste-smart-cities-54119#0 14
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Integrated Solid Waste Management
(ISWM)
• ISWM can be defined as the selection and
application of suitable techniques,
technologies and management programs to
achieve specific waste management
objectives and goals.

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Integrated Solid Waste Management System

Stakeholders: NGOs, Local


and regulatory authorities,
service users

Public Environmental
health protection

ISWM
System
Elements: Generation and Aspects: Socio-cultural,
separation, collection, transfer, financial, policies and
treatment and disposal, implementation, Laws/
recovery, 3Rs Legislation, Political,
Institutional
Resource
management

Source: Srivastava et al., 2014 17


Waste Hierarchy – A Shift in Thinking

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Energy Savings Of Recycling

Material Relative energy needed to


manufacture vs energy
generated from incineration
Newspaper 2.6 times
Office paper 4.3 times
Glass containers 30 times
Tin cans 30 times
Aluminum cans 350 times
Plastics 3 – 5 times
Textiles 5 – 8 times 19
Challenges/ Issues Related to MSWM

• Source segregation
• Technical issues
• Financial issues
• Social issues
• Education/ awareness programs
• Legislative issues

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Some Important Information required
about MSW
• Types and quantities
• Rates at which various types of material will arrive
• Properties of MSW (as received)
• Temporal and seasonal variation in MSW property
• Changes in property during processing
• The properties which makes the MSW of economic
value

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Typical Data on Various MSW Constituents
(Tchobanoglous et al., 1993)

Waste type Moisture C (%) N (%) Calorific Biodegradability


(%) value
(MJ/kg) (ar)
Food waste 40 – 80 48 2.6 3.5 – 6.7 0.82
Paper 3 – 10 44 0.3 12 - 17 0.22 (newsprint)
– 0.82 (office
paper)
Plastics 0.2 60 - 25 - 38 -
Textiles 10 55 4.6 14 - 17 -
Yard waste 60 47.8 3.4 2.3 - 17 0.72
Wood 20 – 50 49.5 0.2 15 - 18 -
Metals 2–5 4.5 < 0.1 0.7 -
Glass 2 0.5 < 0.1 0.2 - 22
Physical Properties of MSW
• Specific weight
 It can vary from 180 – 415 kg/m3 with an average of around 300
kg/m3.

• Moisture content
• Particle size and size distribution
• Field Capacity
 Total amount of moisture which can be retained in a waste
sample

• Permeability of compacted waste

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Chemical Properties of MSW

• Proximate analysis
 Moisture
 Volatile combustible matter
 Fixed carbon
 Ash content

• Ultimate analysis
 C, H, O, N, S and ash
 The determination of halogens can also be included in
the analysis

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Chemical Properties of MSW……

• Energy content
 HHV and LHV
 By calculation
 Modified Dulong formula
Heating value (Btu/lb) = 145C + 610(H – 0.125O) + 40S + 10N

• Essential nutrients and other elements

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Major Treatment Processes for MSW
Major outputs

Biological Composting Compost


processes
Anaerobic Biogas,
digestion digestate
Waste
processing
methods
Incineration Heat, gases,
ash
Thermal
processes
Producer
Gasification/
gas, solid
Pyrolysis 26
fuel, tar
Solid Waste Management
Rules, 2016
Terminology
• Solid Waste: Solid or semi-solid domestic waste, sanitary,
commercial, institutional, catering and market waste and other non
residential wastes, street sweepings, silt removed or collected from the
surface drains, horticulture waste, agriculture and dairy waste, treated
bio-medical waste excluding industrial waste, bio-medical waste and e-
waste, battery waste, radio-active

• Combustible Waste: Non-biodegradable, non-recyclable, non-


reusable, non-hazardous solid waste with minimum calorific value
(C.V.) 1500 kcal/kg excluding chlorinated materials

• Extended Producer’s Responsibility: Responsibility of


producer of packaging products for environmentally sound
management till end-of-life of products

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Terminology…..
• Co-processing: Use of non-biodegradable and non recyclable
solid waste having CV > 1500 kcal/kg as raw material or as a source of
energy or both to replace or supplement the natural mineral resources
and fossil fuels in industrial processes

• Decentralized processing: Establishment of dispersed facilities


for maximizing the processing of recovery of wastes, closest to the
source of generation to minimize transportation

• Refuse Derived Fuel: Fuel derived from combustible waste


fraction of solid waste in the form of pellets produced by drying,
shredding, dehydrating and compacting of solid waste

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Duties of Waste Generators
• Segregate and store the waste generated in three streams: bio-
degradable, non-biodegradable and domestic hazardous wastes and
handover these to authorised waste pickers
• Should not burn or bury the solid waste on streets, open public spaces
or in the drain or water bodies
• All waste generators should pay user fee for solid waste management
• To organise a gathering of more than hundred persons at any
unlicensed place, intimate the local body, at least three working days in
advance and ensure segregation at source and handing over of waste
• Every street vendor shall keep suitable containers for storage of waste
generated during the course of his activity
• All gated communities and institutions with more than 5,000 m2 area,
hotels and restaurants should ensure segregation. The bio-degradable
waste shall be processed, treated and disposed off through composting
or bio-methanation within the premises
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Major Changes
• Name: The name has been changed from “Municipal Solid Waste
(Management and Handling) Rules” to “Solid Waste Management
Rules”
• Jurisdiction: The jurisdiction of the rules has been extended beyond
Municipal area to cover industrial townships, areas under control of
Indian Railways, airports, defense establishments etc.
• Duties:
 Duties of waste generators have been introduced in the new rules
 Manufacturers have been allotted the duty to provide pouch or wrapper
for safe disposal of sanitary napkins and diapers
• Compulsory use of RDF: All industrial units within 100 km of RDF
plants shall replace at least 5% of their fuel by RDF
• Energy recovery: Non recyclable waste with C.V.>1500 kcal/kg shall
not be landfilled and used for RDF
• Criteria for compost: Minimum 90% of the compost should be less
than 4 mm.
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Major Changes contd…
• Co-marketing of compost:
The Department of Fertilisers, Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers
should ensure promotion of co-marketing of compost with chemical
fertilizers
• Setting up WtE Plants:
MoUD shall formulate policies and Ministry of New and Renewable
Energy Sources shall facilitate infrastructure and subsidy for creation for
WtE Plants.
• Promotion of WtE Plants:
Ministry of Power shall fix tariff and ensure compulsory purchase of
power generated from WtE plants by DISCOMs
• Financial assistance to local bodies:
The manufacturers of disposable products such as tin, glass, plastics
etc. shall provide financial assistance to local authorities for
establishment of waste management system

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Community Participation (CPHEEO, 2000)
• Public participation is key to success for sustainable
SWM.
• ULBs should adopt appropriate strategy to ensure
facilitating community participation during the
selection of waste management system
• The local body should take proper measures to
ensure public participation after making a decision on
waste management system.
• Public awareness programs should be arranged to
bring about a change in public behaviour.

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Strategy of Community Participation
• Identification of groups of people to be addressed
 Based on residential areas
 Based on markets/ commercial areas/ offices/ banks etc
• Identification of the stages in SWM where
community participation is essential
• Reach the community
 Identification of problems
 Finding out optimal solutions
 Consult community on options available
 Workout the strategy for implementation

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Key References

• Srivastava et al., 2014. Urban solid waste management in developing


world with emphasis on India: Challenges and Opportunities. Reviews in
Environmental Science and Biotechnology, pages 17. (Available online)

• Sharholy, M., Ahmad, K., Mahmood, G., Trivedi, R.C., 2008. Municipal
solid waste management in Indian cities – A review. Waste Manage. 28,
459-467.

• CPHEEO, 2000. Ministry of Urban Development, New Delhi, India

• The Municipal Solids Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 2000.


www.moef.nic.in/legis/hsm/mswmhr.html

• Tchobanoglous G, Theisen H, Vigil SA (1993) Integrated solid waste


management- engineering principals and management issues. McGraw-
Hill Newyork ISBN:0-07-112865-4.

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