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Assignment 1

Per Unit (PU) System

1. Obtain the per unit impedance (reactance) diagram of the power system of Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. One- line representation of a simple power system

Generator No. 1 30 MVA 13.5 kV, X” = 1.6 ohms

Generator No. 2 19 MVA 11.6 kV, X” = 1.2 ohms


Generator No. 3 30 MVA 11.6 kV, X” = 0.56 ohms

Transformer T1 16 MVA, (3 phase) 33/ 11 kV, X = 15.2 ohms per


phase on high tension
side
Transformer T2 17 MVA, (3 phase) 33/ 6.2 kV, X = 16 ohms per phase
on high tension side

Transmission line 20.5 ohms/ phase


Load A 46 MW, 11 kV, 0.99 lagging power
factor

Load B 47 MW, 6.6 kV, 0.9 lagging power


factor

2. The reactance data of generators and transformers is usually specified in pu (or percent) values, based
on equipment ratings rather than in actual ohmic values as given in Question 1.; while the transmission
line impedances may be given in actual values. Resolve Question 1 by assuming the following per unit
values of reactances

Transformer T1: 0.223

Transformer T2: 0.249

Generator G1: 0.263

Generator G2: 0.072

Generator G3: 0.1248


3. Show that the per- unit impedance of a single- phase, two- winding transformer calculated using rated
primary voltage and primary referred impedances is the same as that calculated using rated secondary
voltage and secondary referred impedances.

Calculate the per- unit impedance of a 5 kVA, 200/ 400 V 50 Hz transformer having an equivalent series
impedance of (0.12+ j0.32) ohm referred to the primary (low- voltage) side, using first the primary
referred values and then the secondary referred values. Take the rated value of voltage as the voltage
base.

4. A generator (which may be rep-resented by an emf in series with an inductive reactance) is rated 500
MVA, 22 kV. Its Y- connected windings have a reactance of 1.1 p.u.. Find the ohmic value of the reactance
of the windings.

5. A 100 MVA, 13.2 kV generator (G) having a synchronous reactance of 10 % is connected to a star- star
transformer T1 which feeds a 132 kV line having an impedance per phase of 20+ j50 ohms. At the
receiving end of the line is a star- star step down transformer T 2. A load drawing 60 MVA at 0.9 power
factor lagging is connected to the secondary of transformer T 2. The transformer ratings are as follows:

Transformer T1: 120 MVA, 13.2/ 132 kV, XT1= 12 %.

Transformer T2: 100 MVA, 138/ 33 kV, XT2= 15 %.

(i) Using a base of 100 MVA and a voltage base of 33 kV in the load side of the circuit, draw a one-line
diagram for the above power system showing all the equipment parameters and the voltage base in
different sections of the system.

(ii) Draw an impedance diagram of the system expressing all values in per unit.

(iii) If the load voltage is maintained at 33 kV, calculate the current drawn by the load and the current
flowing in the transmission line.

(iv) Calculate the voltage at the generator terminals.