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Water Supply

The Role of Government

Chennai – RWH a Case study

Santha Sheela Nair IAS (R)


Vice Chairman (Planning Commission), Govt. of Tamil Nadu
Water Supply

 Both Government and Civic


body concerned play a role
in water supply.

2
Role of State Government &
Civic Body
Role of State Government
 Provide Policy
 Enable Legislations
 Financial Resources
Role of Local Government / Civic Body
 Implementation
 Supply of services
 Raising Resources
 Mobilization of Human / Financial 3
Chennai……… History – Local Body

Seven Wells - 1866 Redhills-1872 Poondi-1944

1866 100% usage started from local Ground water sources


by local body
1867 To 1966 (100 yrs) Strategies got shifted to use Surface water from distant
sources
1969 - 1987 Surface water not sufficient and again chose augment
supply by the use of ground water

1988 to Till date Due to large demands and dwindling Ground water,
again had to depend more on surface water which
changed the mix.
90% Surface water + 5% Ground water & 15%
Desalinated water 4
Chennai……… History – 1987 – State Govt.,
CHENNAI METROPOLITAN AREA GROUNDWATER (REGULATION)
ACT 27 OF 1987 Amended during Oct 2002

 Regulation on sinking of new wells


 Registration of existing wells
 Issue of licenses to extract water for non domestic use
 Issue of licenses for transportation through goods vehicle
Scheduled Area: Chennai city & Adjacent 243 Revenue villages in Tiruvallur &
Kancheepuram Districts. As per Amendment 59 additional villages
added totaling to 302 villages
Competent Authority : Chennai City - Metro water
Scheduled Villages - Respective District Revenue Officials
After 1997 no licenses were issued

Ground water Regulations Act implemented


by Civic Body (Metro water) 5
Chennai……… History – 1988 – Local Body
IMPLEMENTATION - IMPACT OF GROUNDWATER
(REGULATION) ACT – SOUTH OF CHENNAI
SOUTHERN COASTAL AQUIFER YEARWISE MINIMUM & MAXIMUM WATER
LEVEL FROM 1983 - 2012
Drought 1987 Drought 1994 Drought 2004
1983

1986

1989

1992

1995

1998

2001

2004

2007

2010
0
DEPTH IN 'METRES'

1
2
3
4
5
6
7 Water level improvement after the implementation
8
9 of Act

Water level in m

Challenge – Depleting Ground water level in well fields

Solution - Ground water (Regulation) Act

Result - Rise of water level from 8.00 m to 2.10 m


- Stabilization of ground water level
- Only Law in India, implemented in Chennai by Civic Body (Metro Water)
6
Chennai……… History – 1990 – Local Body
SEA WATER INTRUSION STUDIES

SPECIFIC CONDUCTIVITY AT DEEPER AQUIFER IN


LEGEND
SEA WATER
PULICAT NORTH
OBSERVATION WELLS (AROUND 30 M)
INTERFACE LINETO PONNERI

BURRIED CHANNEL

ZONE OF FRESH
WATER INJECTION 70000
LOCATION OF INJECTION
SALT
PAN 60000

E.C. VALUE IN MICRO MOHS / CM


KATTUR
50000
LAKSHMIPURAM ANICUT
40000
VAYALUR
30000
BAY OF BENGAL

20000
10000
0
1A 4A 5A 6A 10A 11A 12A 14A 15A
MINJUR
WELL FIELD MINJUR
OBSERVATION WELL NUMBER
NANDIAMBAKKAM
ATTIPATTU
TO CHENNAI

VALLUR ANICUT
PRIOR TO INJECTION OF RAIN WATER
AFTER INJECTION OF RAIN WATER

7
Phase-I - THE CHALLENGE OF RECURRING DROUGHTS
DROUGHT –1993 – Local Body

 Macro level initiatives of Rain water Harvesting –


Construction of Check dams
 Introduction of Rain water Harvesting as
mandatory requirement in Multi-storied
8
buildings
Chennai……… History – 1992-95 – Local Body

Construction of Check Dams


1. MELSEMBEDU 2. VELLIYUR 3 JAGANATHAPURAM

PANJETTY
WELL FIELD
KANNIGAIPER
WELL FIELD
FLOOD PLAINS
WELL FIELDS MINJUR
WELL FEILD
CHOLAVARAM
TANK
POONDI
RESERVOIR
TAMARAPAKKAM
WELL FEILD

POONDI REDHILLS
RESERVOIR
WELL FEILD

PORUR
LAKE
CHEMBARAMBAKKAM
TANK
9
Impact on water level fluctuation due to
construction of Check Dams

YEARS
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
0.00

Year of Construction of Checkdam

5.00

10.00
DEPTH IN 'METRES'

15.00

20.00

25.00

30.00
10
Average water level in 'm' Melsembedu Average water level in 'm' Velliyur
Average water level in 'm' Jagannathapuram
Phase-II - THE CHALLENGE OF RECURRING DROUGHTS

Chennai… May 2002 – State Govt.,

 Call for Roof top Rain Water Harvesting

 Provision of RWH structures is mandatory for


availing new Water/Sewer Connections

 After this provision of RWH only 13% of the


houses provided Rainwater Harvesting

 Amendments made in the Ground water


Regulations Act / Building Rules for
implementing rainwater harvesting
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GOVERNMENT INITIATIVE…… 11th Oct. 2002
AMENDMENTS & IMPROVEMENTS IN TAMILNADU
DISTRICT MUNICIPALITES BUILDING RULES – 1972.

• Provision of Rainwater harvesting


Structure in existing buildings (Tiled,
Sloped, Ordinary buildings and multi
storied buildings) one year from the
11th Oct.2002.

• Separation of bath and wash basin


water and reuse – multi storied and
public buildings
GOVERNMENT INITIATIVE…… 24th Oct. 2002

AMENDMENTS & IMPROVEMENTS IN GROUND WATER


ACT OF 1987

 Inclusion of additional villages to the list of


scheduled villages in the Act.
 Revision of fine amount from Rs.1,000/- to
Rs.5,000/-
 Mandatory requirement of Rainwater
Harvesting in all buildings.
 No extraction of ground water for
swimming pools, industrial uses and other
non-potable purposes.
 Restrictions to the depth of bore wells.
 No water body, Public or Private, to be
utilized for any other purpose, such as land
fill, garbage dumps, building activities etc.,
Amendment to the Tamilnadu Panchayat
Buildings Rules. …2002

“For effective conservation of rain water, no approval to


the construction or reconstruction or addition or
alteration to a building ( other than a hut) including
houses constructed by Government for below poverty
line families under the poverty alleviation programme
or building constructed by any agency under the control
of the Government, shall be given, if the applicant for
construction, alteration or addition to such a building
does not contain provision for water conservation and
rain water harvesting”
Phase-III - Chennai… 19th July 2002 - State Govt.,

Ordinance issued by the


Govt. of Tamil Nadu on
19.07.2003 making it
mandatory for all
buildings in the state to
have Rain Water
Harvesting structures
by 31.08.2003.
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INTENSIVE IEC CAMPAIGN ON RWH – Local Body

Dissemination of information on RWH


 Establishment of Rain Centre
 Organization of Seminars/ Workshop
 Massive rallies and Human Chains
 Advertisement through Papers / Dailies
 Booklets / Pamphlets
 Posters and Wall Paintings
 Door to Door campaign

16
INTENSIVE IEC CAMPAIGN ON RWH – Local Body

Creation of Rain Centre by Creation of Rain Centre by TWAD


CMWSS Board - Chennai Board - Chennai

Rain Centre created by Akash Ganga Trust an 17


NGO Organization, Chennai
INTENSIVE IEC CAMPAIGN ON RWH – Local Body

 Reaching out to the people


 Chief Minister’s appeal letter to the elected
representative
 Empanelment of Service Providers
 Involvement of SHG’s, NGO’s
 Technical guidance offered by TWAD and
CMWSSB on the lithology and soil types in
different areas and the types of RWH needed .
 Celebrity endorsement & Films on RWH
 Count down in dailies

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INVOLVEMENT OF MEDIA …

 Regular coverage in newspapers, articles, press


releases.
 Appeals to the citizens for rain water
harvesting.
 Print & Visual media as forum for regular
interactions between government, civic body
and citizens.
 Success stories and achievements of rain water
harvesting.

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Government Campaign Continues….

Information on RWH on various


Government agencies’ websites
TWAD Board - www.aboutrainwaterharvesting.com
Chennai Metrowater- www.chennaimetrowater.com

Installation of RWH structures in the buildings


constructed by:
TNSCB, TNHB, TN Police Housing Corp, PWD etc.

From Chennai to rest of the State

• District Collectors to implement Rainwater Harvesting


• All Municipalities & Town Panchayats to implement RWH

20
Implementation of Rain Water
Harvesting

 Ordinance issued on 19.07.2003 making it


mandatory for all buildings in the State to have Rain
Water Harvesting structures by 31.08.2003.and
100% compliance with in two months

 Second phase of Rain Water Harvesting to capture


run off water in open spaces

 First State in the country to have 100% coverage in


Rain Water Harvesting.

21
Rain Water Harvesting - 1

22
Thatched Roofs
Rain Water Harvesting - 2

In Slums 23
Rain Water Harvesting - 3

24
Rain Water Harvesting - 4

In school Buildings 25
Rain Water Harvesting – 4A

IN SCHOOL BUILDINGS 26
Rain Water Harvesting - 5

Roads

Multi storied buildings 27


Rain Water Harvesting - 6

28
Rain Water Harvesting - 7

Residence of Prime Importance – The Governor’s


Residence 29
Rainwater Harvesting Methods

30
Developing Landscapes through roof top
rain water harvesting - A Classic Example

31
PEOPLES’ PARTICIPATION
 NSS students of all college students

 Centre for science and Environment

 National Rainwater Harvesters’


Network

 Exnora International

 Resident’s Welfare Associations

 Rotary International

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RAINWATER HARVESTING HELPED IN
CHENNAI FLOOD MITIGATION

33
ROAD SIDE RAINWATER COLLECTION
THROUGH RECHARGE WELL

34
RAINWATER COLLECTION THROUGH
STORM WATER DRAIN

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Water levels in 'mts'

12.00
10.00
8.00
6.00
4.00
2.00
0.00
New Washermanpet

Tondiarpet

Vallalar Nagar

George Town

Chinthadripet

Chepauk

Mylapore

Besant Nagar

Thiruvanmiyur

Water level in 'mts' July '03


Kolathur

MKB Nagar

Pulianthope

Villivakkam

Anna Nagar

Purasaiwakkam

Chetpet

Nungambakkam
Location of Observation wells

Royapettah
WATER LEVEL

T.Nagar

Virugambakkam

K.K.Nagar

Saidapet
Water level in 'mts' Sep'12

Guindy

Taramani

Velachery
IMPACT ON RAIN WATER HARVESTING –

36
Total Dissolved Solids in 'ppm'

1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000

0
500
New Washermanpet

Tondiarpet

Vallalar Nagar

George Town

Chinthadripet

Chepauk

Mylapore

Besant Nagar

Thiruvanmiyur

Total Dissolved Solids in 'ppm' (July '03)


Kolathur

MKB Nagar

Pulianthope

Villivakkam

Anna Nagar

Purasaiwakkam

Chetpet

Nungambakkam
WATER QUALITY

Royapettah

T.Nagar

Virugambakkam

K.K.Nagar

Saidapet
Total Dissolved Solids in 'ppm' (Sep '12)

Guindy

Taramani

Velachery
IMPACT ON RAIN WATER HARVESTING –

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Quality changes Before and After
implementation of Rainwater Harvesting
Values in ‘ppm’ during
Parameters
1994 1999 2002 2004 2007 2010
Total Solids 3325 1835 1785 1650 1500 1300
Chlorides as 'Cl' 989 580 410 380 360 320
Total Hardness 900 540 400 360 350 325
Conductivity 4890 2700 2550 2250 2100 1600

6000
4890

5000

4000
Values in 'ppm'

3325

2700

2550
3000

2250

2100
1835

1785

1650

1600
2000

1500

1300
989
900

1000
580
540

410
400

380
360

360
350

325
320
0
1994 1999 2002 2004 2007 2010
year

Total Solids Chlorides as 'Cl' Total Hardness Conductivity

38
Form for Declaration of installation and
maintenance of Rainwater Harvesting
structures - CMWSSB

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Way Forward………

 Move from State civic body, private suppliers to


neighborhoods, citizens, households as the base for
securitizing drinking water availability.
 A movement towards involvement of Engineers, builders,
architects, planners, environment activists, scientists, hydro-
geologists & householders as ‘Stakeholders’ in a Metropolitan
city water supply system.
 Role of Government / Local / State in providing Legislative
framework:
 Reward & punitive action,
 Dissemination of information,
 Promotion of State’s intent in achieving sustainability both in
monetary as well as environmental terms in the provision of
drinking water.
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“Underneath the verandah in front of the room
in which the Mahatma was born, in the space
enclosed by the three wings of the house, is
an underground reservoir, 20 feet long, 20 feet
wide and 15 feet deep, with a capacity of
20 thousand gallons, for storing rainwater for
domestic use. The well water in Porbandar,
owing to its vicinity to the sea, is brackish,
hard and unfit for cooking. Rainwater was,
therefore, collected and stored in the
underground reservoir for use the year round.
The terrace on the top floor, carefully washed
before the first monsoon showers, served as
catchments for the water, running down a pipe
straight into the tank. A heap of lime at the
mouth of the pipe served to filter and purity the
water”.
In this house five generations of
Gandhis lived and prospered.

- Mahatma Gandhi
Vol 1(The Early Phase) by Shri Pyarelal
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FROM SUSTAINABLE SOLUTIONS – SCARCITY TO SECURITY

WIN WIN
WIN
Drought Proofing Recharging of Aquifers

DEMOCRATIZING
Meeting the Gap & Roof Top Harvesting –
Demand
AND Sustainable supply -
DECENTRALISING Household

WIN CITY WATER MANAGEMENT


FOR
Saving of Power
METROPOLITAN CITIES Decrease in Saline
A water ingression
WIN - WIN
Increased Water WIN
availability Improved Water Quality
WIN 42
WIN
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