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Chapter 4: Heat

CHAPTER 4: HEAT

4.1 : UNDERSTANDING THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM

By the end of this subtopic, you will be able to

Explain thermal equilibrium Thermal equilibrium

:Keseimbangan terma

Explain how a liquid-in glass thermometer works

A B

Equivalent to Equivalent to

Hot Cold

object object

1. The net heat will flow from A to B until the temperature of A is the ( same, zero as the

temperature of B. In this situation, the two bodies are said to have reached thermal

equilibrium.

2. When thermal equilibrium is reached, the net rate of heat flow between the two bodies is

(zero, equal)

3. There is no net flow of heat between two objects that are in thermal equilibrium. Two

objects in thermal equilibrium have the ……………… temperature.

4. The liquid used in glass thermometer should

……………………………………………………………………………..

(a) Be easily seen

……………………………………………………………………………….

(b) Expand and contract rapidly over a wide range of temperature

……………………………………………………………………………..

(c) Not stick to the glass wall of the capillary tube

5. List the characteristic of mercury

(a) ……………………………………………………………………………………..

Opaque liquid

(b) …………………………………………………………………………………….

Does not stick to the glass

(c) …………………………………………………………………………………….

Expands uniformly when heated

(d) …………………………………………………………………………………….

Freezing point -390C

(e) …………………………………………………………………………………….

Boiling point 3570C

…………………………………………………………………………………….

86

MBSSKL Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4: Heat

6. ( Heat, Temperature ) is a form of energy. It flows from a hot body to a cold body.

7. The SI unit for ( heat , temperature) is Joule, J.

8. ( Heat , Temperature ) is the degree of hotness of a body

9. The SI unit for (heat , temperature) is Kelvin, K.

10. ……………………………..…

Lower fixed point (l 0 )/ ice point : the temperature of pure melting ice/00C

…………………………………

11. Upper fixed point( l 100)/steam point: the temperature of steam from water that is boiling

under standard atmospheric pressure /1000C

l - l

Temperature, θ = θ 0 x 1000C

l100 - l0

l0 : length of mercury at ice point

l100 : length of mercury at steam point

lθ : length of mercury at θ point

Exercise 4.1

Section A: Choose the best answer

1. The figure shows two metal blocks. A. It warms the surroundings

Which the following statement is B. It warms the water of the tea

false? C. It turns into heat energy and

disappears.

corresponds to zero on the Kelvin

scale?

A. P and Q are in thermal contact A. 2730 C

B. P and Q are in thermal equilibrium B. 00C

C. Energy is transferred from P to Q C. -2730 C

D. Energy is transferred from Q to P D. 1000 C

2. When does the energy go when a cup in –glass thermometer be increased?

of hot tea cools?

87

MBSSKL Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4: Heat

conductor of heat 6. When shaking hands with Anwar,

B. Using a capillary tube with a Kent Hui niticed that Anwar’s hand

narrower bore. was cold. However, Anwar felt that

C. Using a longer capillary tube Kent Hui hand was warm. Why did

D. Using a thinner-walked bulb Anwar and Kent Hui not feel the

same sensation?

5. Which instrument is most suitable A. Both hands in contact are in

for measuring a rapidly changing thermal equilibrium.

temperature? B. Heat is flowing from Kent Hui’s

A. Alcohol-in –glass thermometer hand to Anawr’s hand

B. Thermocouple C. Heat is following from Anwar’s

C. Mercury-in-glass thermometer hand to Kent Hui hand.

D. Platinum resistance thermometer

1. The length of the mercury column at the ice point and steam point are 5.0 cm and 40.0cm

respectively. When the thermometer is immersed in the liquid P, the length of the mercury

column is 23.0 cm. What is the temperature of the liquid P?

2. The length of the mercury column at the steam point and ice point and are 65.0

cm and 5.0cm respectively. When the thermometer is immersed in the liquid Q, the length

of the mercury column is 27.0 cm. What is the temperature of the liquid Q?

Temperature, θ = lθ – l0 x 1000C

l100 – l0

θ = 27 – 5 x 1000C

65 - 5

θ = 36.670C

88

MBSSKL Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4: Heat

3. The distance between 00C and 1000C is 28.0 cm. When the thermometer is put into a

beaker of water, the length of mercury column is 24.5cm above the lower fixed point. What

is the temperature of the water?

4. The distance between 00C and 1000C is 25 cm. When the thermometer is put into a beaker

of water, the length of mercury column is 16cm above the lower fixed point. What is the

temperature of the water? What is the length of mercury column from the bulb at

temperatures i) 300C

89

MBSSKL Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4: Heat

1. Luqman uses an aluminium can, a drinking straw and some plasticine to make a simple

thermometer as shown in figure below. He pours a liquid with linear expansion into the

can.

…………………………………………………………………………………………….

(b) He chooses two fixed points of Celsius scale to calibrate his thermometer. State them

(2m)

………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………

(c) If the measurement length of the liquid inside the straw at the temperature of the lower

fixed point and the upper fixed point are 5cm and 16 cm respectively, find the length of

the liquid at 82.50C.

………………………………………………………………………………………………

(e) What kind of action should he take if he wants to increase the sensitivity of his

thermometer?

………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………

90

MBSSKL Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4: Heat

……………………………………………………………………………………………....

………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………

By the end of this subtopic, you will be able to

Define specific heat capacity

Heat capacity

State that c = Q/MCθ Muatan haba

Muatan haba tentu

Determine the specific heat capacity of a solid

Describe applications of specific heat capacity

Solve problems involving specific heat capacity

to the body to increase its temperature by 10C.

2. The heat capacity of an object depends on the

(a) ……………………………………………………………………………………….

(b) ……………………………………………………………………………………….

(c) ………………………………………………………………………………………

supplied to increase the temperature by 1 0C for a mass of 1 kg of the substance. Unit

Jkg-1 K-1 Q__

Specific heat capacity , c =

m∆θ

5. High specific heat capacity absorb a large amount of heat with only a ……………

temperature increase such as plastics.

91

MBSSKL Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4: Heat

6. Conversion of energy

Heater

Electrical energy

…………energy Heat energy

Power = P Pt = mcθ

…………..energy Heat energy

A high position mgh= mcθ

…………..energy Heat energy

due to friction ½ mv2= mcθ

Power = P

………. …………….

increase in increase in

temperature temperature

equal mass

Equal rate of

heat supplied

(a) Water as a coolant in a car engine

(i) ....................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................

92

MBSSKL Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4: Heat

………………………………………………………………………………………...

………………………………………………………………………………………...

………………………………………………………………………………………...

………………………………………………………………………………………...

(c) Sea breeze

………………………………………………

………………………………………………

………………………………………………

………………………………………………

………………………………………………

………………………………………………

………………………………………………

………………………………………………

………………………………………………

………………………………………………

………………………………………………

………………………………………………

………………………………………………

93

MBSSKL Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4: Heat

Exercise 4.2

SECTION A : Choose the best answer

1. The change in the temperature of 3. Heat energy is supplied at the

an object does not depend on same rate to 250g of water and 250g of

A. the mass of the object ethanol. The temperature of the ethanol

B. the type of substance the object is rises faster. This is because the ethanol..

made of A. is denser than water

C. the shape of the object B. is less dense than water

D. the quantity of heat received C. has a larger specific heat capacity

than water

D. has a smaller specific heat capacity

than water

2. Which of the following defines

the specific heat capacity of a substance 4. In the experiment to determine

correctly? the specific heat capacity of a metal

A. The amount of heat energy required block, some oil is poured into the hole

to raise the temperature of 1kg of the containing thermometer. Why is this

substance done?

B. The amount of heat energy required A. To ensure a better conduction of heat

to raise 1kg of the substance by 10C. B. To reduce the consumption of

C. The amount of heat energy required electrical energy

to change 1kg of the substance from C. To ensure the thermometer is in an

the solid state to the liquid state. upright position.

D. To reduce the friction between the

thermometer and the wall of the

block.

1. How much heat energy is required to raise the temperature of a 4kg iron bar from

320C to 520C? (Specific heat capacity of iron = 452 Jkg-1 0C-1).

94

MBSSKL Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4: Heat

copper from 350C to 600C. (Specific heat capacity of copper = 400 J kg-1 C-1).

water from 320C to 820C. (Specific heat capacity of water = 4200 J kg-1 C-1).

4. 750g block of a aluminium at 1200C is cooled until 450C. Find the amount of

heat is released. . (Specific heat capacity of aluminium = 900 J kg-1 C-1).

5. 0.2 kg of water at 700C is mixed with 0.6 kg of water at 30 0C. Assuming that

no heat is lost, find the final temperature of the mixture. (Specific heat capacity of water

= 4200 J kg-1 C-1)

95

MBSSKL Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4: Heat

another block B of mass 2.25kg at temperature 200C.

5kg

2.25kg

A

B

1000C 200C

(a) Find the final temperature of A and B if they are in thermal equilibrium.

Given the specific heat capacity of A and B are 900 Jkg-1 C-1 and 400 Jkg-1 C-1

respectively.

(c) Suggest one method to reduce the energy loss to the surroundings.

…………………………………………………………………………………………..

96

MBSSKL Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4: Heat

By the of this subtopic, you will be able to

State that transfer of heat during a change of phase does not cause a change in

temperature

Define specific latent heat

State that l = Q/m

Determine the specific latent heat of fusion and specific latent heat of vaporisation

Solve problem involving specific latent heat.

Gas

Boiling

Latent heat …………. Condensation

Latent heat …………

Solidification

Solid Latent heat ………… Liquid

2. The heat absorbed or the heat released at constant temperature during a change of

phase is known as latent heat. Q= ml

(a) Melting

………………………………………

Temperature

………………………………………

………………………………………

………………………………………

………………………………………

………………………………………

……………………………………….

Time 97

MBSSKL Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4: Heat

(b) Boiling

………………………………………

Temperature

………………………………………

………………………………………

………………………………………

………………………………………

………………………………………

……………………………………….

Time

(c) Solidification

Temperature ………………………………………

………………………………………

………………………………………

………………………………………

………………………………………

………………………………………

Time ……………………………………….

(d) Condensation

………………………………………

Temperature

………………………………………

………………………………………

………………………………………

………………………………………

………………………………………

……………………………………….

Time

98

MBSSKL Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4: Heat

latent heat of fusion is the quantity of the heat needed to change 1kg of solid to a liquid at

its melting point without any increase in ……………………….. The S.I unit of the

specific latent heat of fusion is Jkg-1.

ice water

boiling. The specific latent heat of vaporisation is the quantity of heat needed to change 1kg

of liquid into gas or vapour of its boiling point without any change in

…………………….. The S.I unit is Jkg-1.

gas

water

99

MBSSKL Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4: Heat

:

(d) Cooling of beverage

………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………

(e) Preservation of Food

………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………

(f) Steaming Food

………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………

(g) Killing of Germs and Bacteria

………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………

100

MBSSKL Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4: Heat

EXERCISE 4.3

Section A:

1. The graph in figure below shows

how the temperature of some wax

changes as it cools from liquid to solid. 3. It is possible to cook food much

Which section of the graph would the faster with a pressure cooker as shown

wax be a mixture of solid and liquid? above. Why is it easier to cook food

using a pressure cooker?

A. PQ

B. QR

C. RS A. More heat energy can be supplied to

D. ST the pressure cooker

B. Heat loss from the pressure cooker

2. Figure show a joulemeter used for can be reduced.

measuring the electrical energy to melt C. Boiling point of water in the pressure

some ice in an experiment. To find the cooker is raised

specific latent heat of fusion of ice, what D. Food absorbs more heat energy from

must be measured? the high pressure steam

characteristics of water that makes it

widely used as a cooling agent?

A. Water is readily available

B. Water does not react with many other

substance

C. Water has a large specific heat

capacity

D. Water has a large density

A. The time taken for the ice to melt

B. The voltage of the electricity supply

C. The mass of water produced by

melting ice

D. The temperature change of the ice.

101

MBSSKL Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4: Heat

B. ensuring that the ice does not melt

5. Figure below shows the experiment too fast.

set up to determine the specific latent C. determining the average value of the

heat of fusion of ice. A control of the specific latent heat of fusion of ice.

experiment is set up as shown in Figure D. determining the mass of ice that

(a) with the aim of melts as a result of heat from the

surroundings

is less serious then by steam. This is

because…

A. the boiling point of water is less than

the temperature of steam

B. the heat of boiling water is quickly

lost to the surroundings

C. steam has a high specific latent heat.

D. Steam has a high specific heat

capacity.

1. 300g of ice at 00C melts. How much energy is required for this

Specific heat capacity of water = 4 200 J kg-1 C-1

Specific heat capacity of ice = 2 100 J kg-1 C-1

Specific latent heat of fusion of ice = 3.34 X 105J kg-1

Specific latent heat of vaporization of water = 2.26 X 106 J kg-1

2. An immersion heater rated at 500 W is fitted into a large block of ice at 0 0C.

How long does it take to melt 1.5kg of ice?

102

MBSSKL Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4: Heat

temperature of the mixture is 700C. Find the value of x

water at 00C.

300C.

6. Find the amount of heat needed to convert 0.5 kg of ice at —15 0C into steam

at 1000C

7. Calculate the amount of heat needed to convert 100 g of ice at 0 0C into steam

at 1000C.

8. The specific latent heat of vaporization of water is 2300 kJ kg-1. How much

heat will be absorbed when 3.2 kg of water is boiled off at its boiling point.

103

MBSSKL Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4: Heat

Explain gas pressure, temperature and volume in terms of the behaviour of gas

molecules.

Determine the relationship between

(i) pressure and volume

(ii) volume and temperature

(iii) pressure and temperature

Explain absolute zero and the absolute/Kelvin scale of temperature

Solve problems involving pressure, temperature and volume of a fixed mass of gas

Volume,V

m3

Temperature,T

K (Kelvin)

Pressure,P

Pa(Pascal)

104

MBSSKL Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4: Heat

................................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................................

Pα1

V

That is PV = constant Small volume

molecules hit wall

Or P V = P V more often, greater

1 1 2 2

pressure

……………………………………………………............................................................................

P

P

0 V 0 1/V

105

MBSSKL Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4: Heat

3. The volume of an air bubble at the base of a sea of 50 m deep is 250cm 3. If the

atmospheric pressure is 10m of water, find the volume of the air bubble when it reaches

the surface of the sea.

P2= 10m

PI=50m + 10m

V1=250cm3

VαT

that is V = constant

T

Higher temperature,

Relationship between faster molecules,

volume and temperature larger volume to keep

the pressure constant

Lower temperature

…………………………………………………………………………………………… ………

The temperature -2730C is the lowest possible temperature and is known as the absolute zero of

temperature.

106

MBSSKL Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4: Heat

Temperature Celsius scale (0C) Kelvin Scale(K)

Absolute zero

Ice point

Steam point

Unknown point

Pα T

That is P = constant

T

Higher temperature

molecules move

faster, greater

pressure

Relationship between pressure

and temperature

………………………………………………………………………………………………..

107

MBSSKL Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4: Heat

1. A mixture of air and petrol vapour is injected into the cylinder of a car engine when

the cylinder volume is 100 cm3. Its pressure is then 1.0 atm. The valve closes and the

mixture is compressed to 20 cm3. Find the pressure now.

2. The volume of an air bubble at the base of a sea of 50 in deep is 200 cm3. If the

atmospheric pressure is 10 in of water, find the volume of the air bubble when it reaches the

surface of the sea.

3. The volume of an air bubble is 5 mm3 when it is at a depth of h in below the water

surface. Given that its volume is 15 mm3 when it is at a depth of 2 in, find the value of h.

(Atmospheric pressure = 10 m of water)

108

MBSSKL Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4: Heat

4. An air bubble has a volume of V cm3 when it is released at a depth of 45m from the

water surface. Find its volume (V) when it reaches the water surface. (Atmospheric pressure

= 10 m of water)

5. A gas of volume 20m3 at 370C is heated until its temperature becomes 870C at

constant pressure. What is the increase in volume?

6. The air pressure in a container at 330C is 1.4 X 1O5 N m2. The container is heated

until the temperature is 550C. What is the final air pressure if the volume of the container is

fixed?

7. The volume of a gas is 1 cm 3 at 150C. The gas is heated at fixed pressure until the

volume becomes triple the initial volume. Calculate the final temperature of the gas.

109

MBSSKL Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4: Heat

pressure. The container is heated and temperature of the gas increases to 98 0C. Find the new

pressure of the gas if the volume of the container is constant.(Atmospheric pressure = 1.0 X

105N rn2)

9. The pressure of a gas decreases from 1.2 x 10 5 Pa to 9 x 105 Pa at 400C. If the volume

of the gas is constant, find the initial temperature of the gas.

110

MBSSKL Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4: Heat

PART A: CHAPTER 4

500C is put in contact with a 1kg 4. Water is generally used to put out

copper sphere of temperature 273K fire. Which of the following

and they are put inside an insulated explanation is not correct?

box. Which of the following A. Water has a high specific heat

statements is correct when they reach capacity

thermal equilibrium? B. Steam can cut off the supply of

D. A iron sphere will have a oxygen

temperature of 273K C. Water is easily available

E. The copper sphere will have a D. Water can react with some

temperature of 500C. material

F.Both the sphere have the same

temperature. 5. Given that the heat capacity of a

G. The temperature of the iron certain sample is 5000 J0C-1. Which

sphere will be lower than 500C of the following is correct?

A. The mass of this sample is 1kg.

2. In the process to transfer heat from B. The energy needed to increase

one object to another object, which the temperature of 1 kg of this

of the following processes does not sample is 5000 J.

involve a transfer to material? C. The energy needed to increase

A. Convection the temperature of 0.5kg of this

B. Vaporisation sample is 2500J.

C. Radiation D. The temperature of this sample

D. Evaporation will increase 10C when 5 000 J

energy is absorbed by this

3. When we use a microwave oven to sample.

heat up some food in a lunch box, we

should open the lid slightly. Which 6. Which of the following statement is

of the following explanations is correct?

correct? A. The total mass of the object is

A. To allow microwave to go inside kept constant when fusion

the lunch box occurs.

B. To allow the water vapors to go B. The internal energy of the object

out, otherwise the box will is increased when condensation

explode occurs

C. To allow microwave to reflect C. Energy is absorbed when

more times inside the lunch box condensation occurs.

D. To allow microwave to penetrate D. Energy is absorbed when

deeper into the lunch box. vaporization occurs.

111

MBSSKL Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4: Heat

molecules increases

7. Water molecules change their states B. the number of gas molecules

between the liquid and gaseous states increases

A. only when water vapour is C. the average distance between the

saturated gas molecules increases

B. at all times because evaporation D. the rate of collision between the

and condensation occur any time gas molecules and the walls

C. only when the vapour molecules increases

produce a pressure as the same as

the atmospheric pressure 10. A plastic bag is filled with air. It is

D. only when the water is boiling immersed in the boiling water as

shown in diagram below.

8. Based on the kinetic theory of gas

which one of the following does not

explain the behaviour of gas

molecules in a container?

A. Gas molecules move randomly

B. Gas molecules collide elastically Which of the following statements is

with the walls of the container false?

C. Gas molecules move faster as A. The volume of the plastic bag

temperature increases increases.

D. Gas molecules collide B. The pressure of air molecules

inelastically with each other increases

C. The air molecules in the bag

9. A cylinder which contains gas is move faster

compressed at constant temperature D. The repulsive force of boiling

of the gas increase because water slows down the movement

of air molecule

112

MBSSKL Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4: Heat

PART B;

1. A research student wishes to carry out an investigation on the temperature change of the

substance in the temperature range -500C to 500C. The instrument used to measure the

temperature is a liquid in glass thermometer.

Thermometer A B C D

Liquid Mercury Mercury Alcohol Alcohol

Freezing point of liquid (0C) -39 -39 -112 -112

Boiling point of liquid (0C) 360 360 360 360

Diameter of capillary tube Large Small Large Small

Cross section

Table 1

(a) (i) State the principle used in a liquid- in –glass thermometer.(1m)

........................................................................................................................................

(ii) Briefly explain the principle stated in (a)(i) (3m)

………………………………………………………………………………………….

………………………………………………………………………………………….

………………………………………………………………………………………….

(b) Table 1 shows the characteristic of 4 types of thermometer: A,B C and D. On the basis

of the information given in Table 1, explain the characteristics of, and suggest a suitable

thermometer for the experiment.(5 m)

…………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………

…..

113

MBSSKL Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4: Heat

(c) The length of the mercury column in uncalibrated thermometer is 6.0cm and 18.5 cm at

00C and 1000C. respectively. When the thermometer is placed in a liquid, the length of

the mercury column is 14.0cm

(i) Calculate the temperature of the liquid

(ii) State two thermometric properties which can be used to calibrate a thermometer. (6m)

………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………

Block P is then transferred into the water at a temperature of 300C in a polystyrene cup.

The mass of water in the polystyrene cup is 250 g. After 2 minutes, the water temperature

rises to 420C.

Figure 2

Assuming that the heat absorbed by the polystyrene cup and heat loss to the

surroundings are negligible.{Specific heat capacity of water 4 200 j kg-1 C-1)

Calculate

(a) the quantity of heat gained by water the polystyrene cup

114

MBSSKL Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4: Heat

prepares a cardboard tube 50.0 cm long closed by a stopper at one end. Lead shot of

mass 500 g is placed in the tube and the other end of the tube is also closed by a stopper.

The height of the lead shot in the tube is 5.0 cm as shown in Figure 3.1. The student then

holds both ends of the tube and inverts it 100 times (Figure 3.2).

(a) State the energy change each time the tube is inverted.

…………………………………………………………………………………………..

…………………………………………………………………………………………..

(b) What is the average distance taken by the lead shot each time the tube is

inverted?

115

MBSSKL Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4: Heat

(c) Calculate the time taken by the lead shot to fall from the top to the

bottom of the tube.

(d) After inverting the tube 100 times, the temperature of the lead shot is

found to have increased by 30C.

i. Calculate the work done on the lead shot.

……………………………………………………………………………………………...

………………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

PART C: EXPERIMENT

1. Before travelling on a long journey, Luqman measured the air pressure the tyre of

his car as shown in Figure (a) He found that the air pressure of the tyre was 200 kPa.

After the journey, Luqman measured again the air pressure of the tyre as shown in Figure

(b) He found that the air pressure had increase to 245 kPa. Luqman also found that the

tyre was hotter after the journey although the size of the tyre did not change.

Using the information provided by Luqman and his observations on air pressure in the

tyre of his car:

116

MBSSKL Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4: Heat

(b) State appropriate hypothesis for an investigation. [1 mark]

(c) Design an experiment to investigate the hypothesis stated in (b).

Choose suitable apparatus such as pressure gauge, a round-bottomed flask and any other

apparatus that may he necessary. In your description, state clearly the following:

i. Aim of the experiment,

ii. Variables in the experiment,

iii. List of apparatus and materials,

iv. Arrangement of the apparatus,

v. The procedure of the experiment including the method of controlling the

manipulated variable and the method of measuring the responding variable,

vi. The way you would tabulate the data,

vii. The way you would analyse the data. [10 marks]

117

MBSSKL Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4: Heat

118

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