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# MBSSKL Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 4: Heat

CHAPTER 4: HEAT
4.1 : UNDERSTANDING THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM
By the end of this subtopic, you will be able to
 Explain thermal equilibrium Thermal equilibrium
:Keseimbangan terma
 Explain how a liquid-in glass thermometer works

## ………….. rate of energy transfer

A B
Equivalent to Equivalent to

Hot Cold
object object

## ………….. rate of energy transfer No net heat transfer

1. The net heat will flow from A to B until the temperature of A is the ( same, zero as the
temperature of B. In this situation, the two bodies are said to have reached thermal
equilibrium.
2. When thermal equilibrium is reached, the net rate of heat flow between the two bodies is
(zero, equal)
3. There is no net flow of heat between two objects that are in thermal equilibrium. Two
objects in thermal equilibrium have the ……………… temperature.
4. The liquid used in glass thermometer should
……………………………………………………………………………..
(a) Be easily seen
……………………………………………………………………………….
(b) Expand and contract rapidly over a wide range of temperature
……………………………………………………………………………..
(c) Not stick to the glass wall of the capillary tube
5. List the characteristic of mercury
(a) ……………………………………………………………………………………..
Opaque liquid
(b) …………………………………………………………………………………….
Does not stick to the glass
(c) …………………………………………………………………………………….
Expands uniformly when heated
(d) …………………………………………………………………………………….
Freezing point -390C
(e) …………………………………………………………………………………….
Boiling point 3570C
…………………………………………………………………………………….

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Chapter 4: Heat

6. ( Heat, Temperature ) is a form of energy. It flows from a hot body to a cold body.
7. The SI unit for ( heat , temperature) is Joule, J.
8. ( Heat , Temperature ) is the degree of hotness of a body
9. The SI unit for (heat , temperature) is Kelvin, K.
10. ……………………………..…
Lower fixed point (l 0 )/ ice point : the temperature of pure melting ice/00C
…………………………………
11. Upper fixed point( l 100)/steam point: the temperature of steam from water that is boiling
under standard atmospheric pressure /1000C

l - l
Temperature, θ = θ 0 x 1000C
l100 - l0
l0 : length of mercury at ice point
l100 : length of mercury at steam point
lθ : length of mercury at θ point

Exercise 4.1
Section A: Choose the best answer
1. The figure shows two metal blocks. A. It warms the surroundings
Which the following statement is B. It warms the water of the tea
false? C. It turns into heat energy and
disappears.

## 3. Which of the following temperature

corresponds to zero on the Kelvin
scale?
A. P and Q are in thermal contact A. 2730 C
B. P and Q are in thermal equilibrium B. 00C
C. Energy is transferred from P to Q C. -2730 C
D. Energy is transferred from Q to P D. 1000 C

## 4. How can the sensitivity of a liquid-

2. When does the energy go when a cup in –glass thermometer be increased?
of hot tea cools?

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Chapter 4: Heat

## A. Using a liquid which is a better

conductor of heat 6. When shaking hands with Anwar,
B. Using a capillary tube with a Kent Hui niticed that Anwar’s hand
narrower bore. was cold. However, Anwar felt that
C. Using a longer capillary tube Kent Hui hand was warm. Why did
D. Using a thinner-walked bulb Anwar and Kent Hui not feel the
same sensation?
5. Which instrument is most suitable A. Both hands in contact are in
for measuring a rapidly changing thermal equilibrium.
temperature? B. Heat is flowing from Kent Hui’s
A. Alcohol-in –glass thermometer hand to Anawr’s hand
B. Thermocouple C. Heat is following from Anwar’s
C. Mercury-in-glass thermometer hand to Kent Hui hand.
D. Platinum resistance thermometer

## Section B: Answer all the questions by showing the calculation

1. The length of the mercury column at the ice point and steam point are 5.0 cm and 40.0cm
respectively. When the thermometer is immersed in the liquid P, the length of the mercury
column is 23.0 cm. What is the temperature of the liquid P?

2. The length of the mercury column at the steam point and ice point and are 65.0
cm and 5.0cm respectively. When the thermometer is immersed in the liquid Q, the length
of the mercury column is 27.0 cm. What is the temperature of the liquid Q?

Temperature, θ = lθ – l0 x 1000C
l100 – l0
θ = 27 – 5 x 1000C
65 - 5
θ = 36.670C

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Chapter 4: Heat

3. The distance between 00C and 1000C is 28.0 cm. When the thermometer is put into a
beaker of water, the length of mercury column is 24.5cm above the lower fixed point. What
is the temperature of the water?

4. The distance between 00C and 1000C is 25 cm. When the thermometer is put into a beaker
of water, the length of mercury column is 16cm above the lower fixed point. What is the
temperature of the water? What is the length of mercury column from the bulb at
temperatures i) 300C

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Chapter 4: Heat

## SECTION C: Structured Questions

1. Luqman uses an aluminium can, a drinking straw and some plasticine to make a simple
thermometer as shown in figure below. He pours a liquid with linear expansion into the
can.

## (a) Suggest a kind of liquid that expands linearly. (1m)

…………………………………………………………………………………………….
(b) He chooses two fixed points of Celsius scale to calibrate his thermometer. State them
(2m)

………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………
(c) If the measurement length of the liquid inside the straw at the temperature of the lower
fixed point and the upper fixed point are 5cm and 16 cm respectively, find the length of
the liquid at 82.50C.

## (d) Why should he use a drinking straw of small diameter?

………………………………………………………………………………………………
(e) What kind of action should he take if he wants to increase the sensitivity of his
thermometer?
………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………

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Chapter 4: Heat

## 2. What do you mean by heat and temperature?

……………………………………………………………………………………………....
………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………

## : UNDERSTANDING SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY

By the end of this subtopic, you will be able to
 Define specific heat capacity
Heat capacity
 State that c = Q/MCθ Muatan haba

##  Determine the specific heat capacity of a liquid Specific heat capacity

Muatan haba tentu
 Determine the specific heat capacity of a solid
 Describe applications of specific heat capacity
 Solve problems involving specific heat capacity

## 1. The ……………….. of a body is the …………………….. that must be supplied

to the body to increase its temperature by 10C.
2. The heat capacity of an object depends on the
(a) ……………………………………………………………………………………….
(b) ……………………………………………………………………………………….
(c) ………………………………………………………………………………………

## 3. The ………………………of a substance is the amount of heat that must be

supplied to increase the temperature by 1 0C for a mass of 1 kg of the substance. Unit
Jkg-1 K-1 Q__
Specific heat capacity , c =
m∆θ

## 4. The heat energy absorbed or given out by an object is given by Q = mc∆O.

5. High specific heat capacity absorb a large amount of heat with only a ……………
temperature increase such as plastics.

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Chapter 4: Heat

6. Conversion of energy

Heater
Electrical energy
…………energy Heat energy
Power = P Pt = mcθ

## Object falls from

…………..energy Heat energy
A high position mgh= mcθ

## Moving object stopped

…………..energy Heat energy
due to friction ½ mv2= mcθ
Power = P

## 7. Applications of Specific Heat Capacity

………. …………….
increase in increase in
temperature temperature

equal mass

Equal rate of
heat supplied

## Explain the meaning of above application of specific heat capacity:

(a) Water as a coolant in a car engine
(i) ....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................

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Chapter 4: Heat

## (b) Household apparatus and utensils

………………………………………………………………………………………...
………………………………………………………………………………………...
………………………………………………………………………………………...
………………………………………………………………………………………...
(c) Sea breeze
………………………………………………
………………………………………………
………………………………………………
………………………………………………
………………………………………………
………………………………………………
………………………………………………

## (d) Land breeze

………………………………………………
………………………………………………
………………………………………………
………………………………………………
………………………………………………
………………………………………………

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Chapter 4: Heat

Exercise 4.2
SECTION A : Choose the best answer
1. The change in the temperature of 3. Heat energy is supplied at the
an object does not depend on same rate to 250g of water and 250g of
A. the mass of the object ethanol. The temperature of the ethanol
B. the type of substance the object is rises faster. This is because the ethanol..
made of A. is denser than water
C. the shape of the object B. is less dense than water
D. the quantity of heat received C. has a larger specific heat capacity
than water
D. has a smaller specific heat capacity
than water
2. Which of the following defines
the specific heat capacity of a substance 4. In the experiment to determine
correctly? the specific heat capacity of a metal
A. The amount of heat energy required block, some oil is poured into the hole
to raise the temperature of 1kg of the containing thermometer. Why is this
substance done?
B. The amount of heat energy required A. To ensure a better conduction of heat
to raise 1kg of the substance by 10C. B. To reduce the consumption of
C. The amount of heat energy required electrical energy
to change 1kg of the substance from C. To ensure the thermometer is in an
the solid state to the liquid state. upright position.
D. To reduce the friction between the
thermometer and the wall of the
block.

## SECTION B: Answer all questions by showing the calculation

1. How much heat energy is required to raise the temperature of a 4kg iron bar from
320C to 520C? (Specific heat capacity of iron = 452 Jkg-1 0C-1).

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## 2. Calculate the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 0.8 kg of

copper from 350C to 600C. (Specific heat capacity of copper = 400 J kg-1 C-1).

## 3. Calculate the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 2.5 kg of

water from 320C to 820C. (Specific heat capacity of water = 4200 J kg-1 C-1).

4. 750g block of a aluminium at 1200C is cooled until 450C. Find the amount of
heat is released. . (Specific heat capacity of aluminium = 900 J kg-1 C-1).

5. 0.2 kg of water at 700C is mixed with 0.6 kg of water at 30 0C. Assuming that
no heat is lost, find the final temperature of the mixture. (Specific heat capacity of water
= 4200 J kg-1 C-1)

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Chapter 4: Heat

## 1. In figure below, block A of mass 5kg at temperature 100 0C is in contact with

another block B of mass 2.25kg at temperature 200C.

5kg
2.25kg
A
B

1000C 200C

## Assume that there is no energy loss to the surroundings.

(a) Find the final temperature of A and B if they are in thermal equilibrium.
Given the specific heat capacity of A and B are 900 Jkg-1 C-1 and 400 Jkg-1 C-1
respectively.

## (b) Find the energy given by A during the process.

(c) Suggest one method to reduce the energy loss to the surroundings.
…………………………………………………………………………………………..

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Chapter 4: Heat

## UNDERSTANDING SPECIFIC LATENT HEAT

By the of this subtopic, you will be able to
 State that transfer of heat during a change of phase does not cause a change in
temperature
 Define specific latent heat
 State that l = Q/m
 Determine the specific latent heat of fusion and specific latent heat of vaporisation
 Solve problem involving specific latent heat.

## 1. Four main changes of phase.

Gas

Boiling
Latent heat …………. Condensation
Latent heat …………

Solidification
Solid Latent heat ………… Liquid

2. The heat absorbed or the heat released at constant temperature during a change of
phase is known as latent heat. Q= ml

## 3. Complete the diagrams below and summarized.

(a) Melting

………………………………………
Temperature
………………………………………
………………………………………
………………………………………
………………………………………
………………………………………
……………………………………….
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Chapter 4: Heat

(b) Boiling
………………………………………
Temperature
………………………………………
………………………………………
………………………………………
………………………………………
………………………………………
……………………………………….
Time

(c) Solidification
Temperature ………………………………………
………………………………………
………………………………………
………………………………………
………………………………………
………………………………………
Time ……………………………………….

(d) Condensation
………………………………………
Temperature
………………………………………
………………………………………
………………………………………
………………………………………
………………………………………
……………………………………….
Time

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## 4. …………………………………is the heat absorbed by a melting solid. The specific

latent heat of fusion is the quantity of the heat needed to change 1kg of solid to a liquid at
its melting point without any increase in ……………………….. The S.I unit of the
specific latent heat of fusion is Jkg-1.

ice water

## 5. …………………………………... is heat of vaporisation is heat absorbed during

boiling. The specific latent heat of vaporisation is the quantity of heat needed to change 1kg
of liquid into gas or vapour of its boiling point without any change in
…………………….. The S.I unit is Jkg-1.

gas
water

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## 6. Explain the application of Specific Latent Heat above:

:
(d) Cooling of beverage
………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………
(e) Preservation of Food
………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………
(f) Steaming Food
………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………
(g) Killing of Germs and Bacteria
………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………

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EXERCISE 4.3
Section A:
1. The graph in figure below shows
how the temperature of some wax
changes as it cools from liquid to solid. 3. It is possible to cook food much
Which section of the graph would the faster with a pressure cooker as shown
wax be a mixture of solid and liquid? above. Why is it easier to cook food
using a pressure cooker?

A. PQ
B. QR
C. RS A. More heat energy can be supplied to
D. ST the pressure cooker
B. Heat loss from the pressure cooker
2. Figure show a joulemeter used for can be reduced.
measuring the electrical energy to melt C. Boiling point of water in the pressure
some ice in an experiment. To find the cooker is raised
specific latent heat of fusion of ice, what D. Food absorbs more heat energy from
must be measured? the high pressure steam

## 4. Which of the following is not a

characteristics of water that makes it
widely used as a cooling agent?
A. Water is readily available
B. Water does not react with many other
substance
C. Water has a large specific heat
capacity
D. Water has a large density
A. The time taken for the ice to melt
B. The voltage of the electricity supply
C. The mass of water produced by
melting ice
D. The temperature change of the ice.

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## A. determining the rate of melting of ice

B. ensuring that the ice does not melt
5. Figure below shows the experiment too fast.
set up to determine the specific latent C. determining the average value of the
heat of fusion of ice. A control of the specific latent heat of fusion of ice.
experiment is set up as shown in Figure D. determining the mass of ice that
(a) with the aim of melts as a result of heat from the
surroundings

## 6. Scalding of the skin by boiling water

is less serious then by steam. This is
because…
A. the boiling point of water is less than
the temperature of steam
B. the heat of boiling water is quickly
lost to the surroundings
C. steam has a high specific latent heat.
D. Steam has a high specific heat
capacity.

## SECTION B: Answer the question by showing the calculation

1. 300g of ice at 00C melts. How much energy is required for this

## Question 2-7 are based on the following information

 Specific heat capacity of water = 4 200 J kg-1 C-1
 Specific heat capacity of ice = 2 100 J kg-1 C-1
 Specific latent heat of fusion of ice = 3.34 X 105J kg-1
 Specific latent heat of vaporization of water = 2.26 X 106 J kg-1
2. An immersion heater rated at 500 W is fitted into a large block of ice at 0 0C.
How long does it take to melt 1.5kg of ice?

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## 3. 300 g of water at 400C is mixed with x g of water at 800C. The final

temperature of the mixture is 700C. Find the value of x

water at 00C.

## 5. Calculate the amount of heat needed to convert 3 kg of ice at 0 0C to water at

300C.

6. Find the amount of heat needed to convert 0.5 kg of ice at —15 0C into steam
at 1000C

7. Calculate the amount of heat needed to convert 100 g of ice at 0 0C into steam
at 1000C.

8. The specific latent heat of vaporization of water is 2300 kJ kg-1. How much
heat will be absorbed when 3.2 kg of water is boiled off at its boiling point.

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Chapter 4: Heat

## By the end of this subtopic; you will be able to :

 Explain gas pressure, temperature and volume in terms of the behaviour of gas
molecules.
 Determine the relationship between
(i) pressure and volume
(ii) volume and temperature
(iii) pressure and temperature
 Explain absolute zero and the absolute/Kelvin scale of temperature
 Solve problems involving pressure, temperature and volume of a fixed mass of gas

Volume,V
 m3

Temperature,T
 K (Kelvin)

Pressure,P
 Pa(Pascal)

## 2. The kinetic theory of gas is based on the following assumptions:

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Chapter 4: Heat

................................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................

## 4.4.1 Boyle’s Law

Pα1
V
That is PV = constant Small volume
molecules hit wall
Or P V = P V more often, greater
1 1 2 2
pressure

## 1. Boyle’s law states that……………………………………………………………………...

……………………………………………………............................................................................

P
P

0 V 0 1/V

## (a) P inversely proportional to V (b) P directly proportional to 1/V

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Chapter 4: Heat

3. The volume of an air bubble at the base of a sea of 50 m deep is 250cm 3. If the
atmospheric pressure is 10m of water, find the volume of the air bubble when it reaches
the surface of the sea.

P2= 10m

PI=50m + 10m

V1=250cm3

## 4.4.2 Charles’s Law

VαT
that is V = constant
T

Higher temperature,
Relationship between faster molecules,
volume and temperature larger volume to keep
the pressure constant

Lower temperature

## 1. Charles’ law states ……………………………………………………………………….

…………………………………………………………………………………………… ………
The temperature -2730C is the lowest possible temperature and is known as the absolute zero of
temperature.

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Chapter 4: Heat

## 2. Fill the table below.

Temperature Celsius scale (0C) Kelvin Scale(K)
Absolute zero
Ice point
Steam point
Unknown point

## 4.4.3 Pressure’s Law

Pα T
That is P = constant
T
Higher temperature
molecules move
faster, greater
pressure
Relationship between pressure
and temperature

## 1. The pressure law states ………………………………………………………………....

………………………………………………………………………………………………..

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Chapter 4: Heat

## EXERSICE 4.4:Gas Law

1. A mixture of air and petrol vapour is injected into the cylinder of a car engine when
the cylinder volume is 100 cm3. Its pressure is then 1.0 atm. The valve closes and the
mixture is compressed to 20 cm3. Find the pressure now.

2. The volume of an air bubble at the base of a sea of 50 in deep is 200 cm3. If the
atmospheric pressure is 10 in of water, find the volume of the air bubble when it reaches the
surface of the sea.

3. The volume of an air bubble is 5 mm3 when it is at a depth of h in below the water
surface. Given that its volume is 15 mm3 when it is at a depth of 2 in, find the value of h.
(Atmospheric pressure = 10 m of water)

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Chapter 4: Heat

4. An air bubble has a volume of V cm3 when it is released at a depth of 45m from the
water surface. Find its volume (V) when it reaches the water surface. (Atmospheric pressure
= 10 m of water)

5. A gas of volume 20m3 at 370C is heated until its temperature becomes 870C at
constant pressure. What is the increase in volume?

6. The air pressure in a container at 330C is 1.4 X 1O5 N m2. The container is heated
until the temperature is 550C. What is the final air pressure if the volume of the container is
fixed?

7. The volume of a gas is 1 cm 3 at 150C. The gas is heated at fixed pressure until the
volume becomes triple the initial volume. Calculate the final temperature of the gas.

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Chapter 4: Heat

## 8. An enclosed container contains a fixed mass of gas at 25 0C and at the atmospheric

pressure. The container is heated and temperature of the gas increases to 98 0C. Find the new
pressure of the gas if the volume of the container is constant.(Atmospheric pressure = 1.0 X
105N rn2)

9. The pressure of a gas decreases from 1.2 x 10 5 Pa to 9 x 105 Pa at 400C. If the volume
of the gas is constant, find the initial temperature of the gas.

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Chapter 4: Heat

PART A: CHAPTER 4

## 1. A 5kg iron sphere of temperature

500C is put in contact with a 1kg 4. Water is generally used to put out
copper sphere of temperature 273K fire. Which of the following
and they are put inside an insulated explanation is not correct?
box. Which of the following A. Water has a high specific heat
statements is correct when they reach capacity
thermal equilibrium? B. Steam can cut off the supply of
D. A iron sphere will have a oxygen
temperature of 273K C. Water is easily available
E. The copper sphere will have a D. Water can react with some
temperature of 500C. material
F.Both the sphere have the same
temperature. 5. Given that the heat capacity of a
G. The temperature of the iron certain sample is 5000 J0C-1. Which
sphere will be lower than 500C of the following is correct?
A. The mass of this sample is 1kg.
2. In the process to transfer heat from B. The energy needed to increase
one object to another object, which the temperature of 1 kg of this
of the following processes does not sample is 5000 J.
involve a transfer to material? C. The energy needed to increase
A. Convection the temperature of 0.5kg of this
B. Vaporisation sample is 2500J.
C. Radiation D. The temperature of this sample
D. Evaporation will increase 10C when 5 000 J
energy is absorbed by this
3. When we use a microwave oven to sample.
heat up some food in a lunch box, we
should open the lid slightly. Which 6. Which of the following statement is
of the following explanations is correct?
correct? A. The total mass of the object is
A. To allow microwave to go inside kept constant when fusion
the lunch box occurs.
B. To allow the water vapors to go B. The internal energy of the object
out, otherwise the box will is increased when condensation
explode occurs
C. To allow microwave to reflect C. Energy is absorbed when
more times inside the lunch box condensation occurs.
D. To allow microwave to penetrate D. Energy is absorbed when
deeper into the lunch box. vaporization occurs.

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Chapter 4: Heat

## A. the average speed of gas

molecules increases
7. Water molecules change their states B. the number of gas molecules
between the liquid and gaseous states increases
A. only when water vapour is C. the average distance between the
saturated gas molecules increases
B. at all times because evaporation D. the rate of collision between the
and condensation occur any time gas molecules and the walls
C. only when the vapour molecules increases
produce a pressure as the same as
the atmospheric pressure 10. A plastic bag is filled with air. It is
D. only when the water is boiling immersed in the boiling water as
shown in diagram below.
8. Based on the kinetic theory of gas
which one of the following does not
explain the behaviour of gas
molecules in a container?
A. Gas molecules move randomly
B. Gas molecules collide elastically Which of the following statements is
with the walls of the container false?
C. Gas molecules move faster as A. The volume of the plastic bag
temperature increases increases.
D. Gas molecules collide B. The pressure of air molecules
inelastically with each other increases
C. The air molecules in the bag
9. A cylinder which contains gas is move faster
compressed at constant temperature D. The repulsive force of boiling
of the gas increase because water slows down the movement
of air molecule

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Chapter 4: Heat

PART B;
1. A research student wishes to carry out an investigation on the temperature change of the
substance in the temperature range -500C to 500C. The instrument used to measure the
temperature is a liquid in glass thermometer.

Thermometer A B C D
Liquid Mercury Mercury Alcohol Alcohol
Freezing point of liquid (0C) -39 -39 -112 -112
Boiling point of liquid (0C) 360 360 360 360
Diameter of capillary tube Large Small Large Small
Cross section

Table 1
(a) (i) State the principle used in a liquid- in –glass thermometer.(1m)
........................................................................................................................................
(ii) Briefly explain the principle stated in (a)(i) (3m)
………………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………………….
(b) Table 1 shows the characteristic of 4 types of thermometer: A,B C and D. On the basis
of the information given in Table 1, explain the characteristics of, and suggest a suitable
thermometer for the experiment.(5 m)
…………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………
…..

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Chapter 4: Heat

(c) The length of the mercury column in uncalibrated thermometer is 6.0cm and 18.5 cm at
00C and 1000C. respectively. When the thermometer is placed in a liquid, the length of
the mercury column is 14.0cm
(i) Calculate the temperature of the liquid

(ii) State two thermometric properties which can be used to calibrate a thermometer. (6m)
………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………

## 2. A metal block P of mass 500 g is heated is boiling water at a temperature of 1000C.

Block P is then transferred into the water at a temperature of 300C in a polystyrene cup.
The mass of water in the polystyrene cup is 250 g. After 2 minutes, the water temperature
rises to 420C.

Figure 2

Assuming that the heat absorbed by the polystyrene cup and heat loss to the
surroundings are negligible.{Specific heat capacity of water 4 200 j kg-1 C-1)
Calculate
(a) the quantity of heat gained by water the polystyrene cup

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Chapter 4: Heat

## 3. A student performs an experiment to investigate the energy change in a system. He

prepares a cardboard tube 50.0 cm long closed by a stopper at one end. Lead shot of
mass 500 g is placed in the tube and the other end of the tube is also closed by a stopper.
The height of the lead shot in the tube is 5.0 cm as shown in Figure 3.1. The student then
holds both ends of the tube and inverts it 100 times (Figure 3.2).

## Figure 3.1 Figure 3.2

(a) State the energy change each time the tube is inverted.
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(b) What is the average distance taken by the lead shot each time the tube is
inverted?

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MBSSKL Physics Module Form 4
Chapter 4: Heat

(c) Calculate the time taken by the lead shot to fall from the top to the
bottom of the tube.

(d) After inverting the tube 100 times, the temperature of the lead shot is
found to have increased by 30C.
i. Calculate the work done on the lead shot.

## iii. State the assumption used in your calculation in (d)ii.

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PART C: EXPERIMENT

1. Before travelling on a long journey, Luqman measured the air pressure the tyre of
his car as shown in Figure (a) He found that the air pressure of the tyre was 200 kPa.
After the journey, Luqman measured again the air pressure of the tyre as shown in Figure
(b) He found that the air pressure had increase to 245 kPa. Luqman also found that the
tyre was hotter after the journey although the size of the tyre did not change.
Using the information provided by Luqman and his observations on air pressure in the
tyre of his car:

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## Figure (a) Figure (b)

MBSSKL Physics Module Form 4
Chapter 4: Heat

## (a) State one suitable inference that can be made. [1 mark]

(b) State appropriate hypothesis for an investigation. [1 mark]
(c) Design an experiment to investigate the hypothesis stated in (b).

Choose suitable apparatus such as pressure gauge, a round-bottomed flask and any other
apparatus that may he necessary. In your description, state clearly the following:
i. Aim of the experiment,
ii. Variables in the experiment,
iii. List of apparatus and materials,
iv. Arrangement of the apparatus,
v. The procedure of the experiment including the method of controlling the
manipulated variable and the method of measuring the responding variable,
vi. The way you would tabulate the data,
vii. The way you would analyse the data. [10 marks]

117
MBSSKL Physics Module Form 4
Chapter 4: Heat

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