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Considerations in Application of MCPT in Evaluating

ASR Potential of Job Concrete Mixtures

Prasad Rangaraju
Enamur Latifee
Sai Sudhir Reddy Enugula
Clemson University, SC

Advances in AAR Test Methods for Evaluation


of Job Concrete Mixtures, Part I
Acknowledgements
o Federal Highway Administration
o Portland Cement Association
o Lehigh Cement
o ARGOS Cement
o Aggregate Suppliers

Clemson University 2/36


Overview
o Brief Review of Existing Test Methods for ASR

o Review of Mini Concrete Prism Test (MCPT)

o Field Concrete Factors that affect ASR Testing

o Experimental Investigation To Evaluate Role of


Specific Concrete Mixture Variables (Job Concrete)
on Expansion due to ASR

o Conclusions

Clemson University 3/36


Existing AAR Test Methods in ASTM
ASR
o ASTM C 227 – Mortar Bar Test
o ASTM C 289 – Quick Chemical Test
o ASTM C 295 – Petrographic Examination
o ASTM C 1260 – Accelerated Mortar Bar Test (AMBT)
o ASTM C 1293 – Concrete Prism Test (CPT)

ACR
o ASTM C 295 – Petrographic Examination
o ASTM C 586 – Rock Cylinder Test
o ASTM C 1105 – Concrete Prism Test

Clemson University 4/36


Miniature Concrete Prism Test
(AASHTO TP110)
o MCPT is developed based on modifications to CPT
and AMBT methods. The improvements over the
standard test methods are :
o No significant aggregate crushing is involved
o No alkali leaching
o Short test duration
o 56 days (8 Weeks) for majority of aggregates
o 84 days (12 weeks) for slow reacting aggregates
o Can detect both ASR and ACR
o Can evaluate both aggregate reactivity and SCM
effectiveness
o Potential to evaluate job concrete mixtures

Clemson University 5/36


MCPT Method (AASHTO TP 110)
o Cement Content = 708 lb/yd3 (420
kg/m3)
o Cement Alkali Content = 0.9% ± 0.1% Na2Oeq.
o Alkali Boost, (Total Alkali Content) = 1.25% Na2Oeq.
o Water-to-cement ratio (fixed) = 0.45
o Coarse Agg. Dry-Rodded Vol. Frac. = 0.65 (MSA: ½ in.)
o Storage Environment* = 1N NaOH Solution
(Soak)
o Storage Temperature = 60⁰C
o Specimen Size = 2 in. x 2 in. x 11.75 in.

1 N NaOH @ 60ºC

Clemson University 6/36


MCPT Measurements
o 1st Day = Water bath at 60 ⁰C
o Subsequent Storage = 1N NaOH @ 60⁰C
o Length Change Measurement = 1, 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 42,
56, 70, 84 days

o Non-reactive sand is used with reactive coarse agg, and vice-


versa.
Clemson University 7/36
MCPT Specimen Size

Clemson University 8/36


MCPT Validation
o Evaluated 33 aggregates with known field
performance

o Limited set of 12 aggregates were tested in


MCPT, CPT and AMBT for correlations

o Evaluated 20 different SCMs (fly ash, slag,


meta-kaolin, silica fume)

Clemson University 9/36


MCPT-56 day versus CPT – 365 day

Clemson University 10/36


MCPT-56 day versus AMBT – 14 day

Clemson University 11/36


Expansion Criteria for Classifying Aggregate Reactivity
(Latifee and Rangaraju, 2015)

Clemson University 12/36


Expansion Criteria for characterizing
effectiveness of ASR Mitigation measures (MCPT)

Clemson University 13/36


Multi-lab Testing of MCPT
Correlation between 56-Day % Exp. and COV

Mix 4 (Avg.Exp = 0.015%)

Mix 3 (Avg, Exp = 0.033%)

Mix 1 (Avg. Exp = 0.134%)

Mix 2 (Avg. Exp = 0.578%)

Clemson University 14/36


MCPT - AASHTO TP 110

o AASHTO has
approved this
method as a
provisional
standard
AASHTO TP 110

Clemson University 15/36


MCPT for Evaluating ASR
Potential of Job Mixtures
Influence of Job mix parameters on
ASR expansion
o Typical job mix parameters that differ from the standard MCPT
method were considered.

o Univariate analysis:
o Influence of w/c (0.40 – 0.50)
o Influence of total cement content (600 -800 lb/yd3)
o Influence of total alkali loading in concrete (2.9 – 10lb/yd3)
o Influence of dosage of SCM (15% - 35% Class F fly ash)
o Influence of vol. fraction of CA content in concrete (0.65 –
0.75)

o Influence of pore solution alkalinity

Clemson University 17/36


Effect of pore solution on the % expansion in the MPCT

o SHRP C-342 (Helmuth et.al. 1993) proposed the following:


o [OH-] = 0.339 Na2O % / (w/c) + 0.022 +/- 0.06 mol/L

0.200 0.160
HighAlk, boosted 1.25%, 1N sol Expansion at 56-day
0.140
0.160 AC 0.82%, 0.7 N sol R² = 0.895
0.120 Expansion at 28-day

% Expansion
AC 0.49%, 0.45N sol
0.100
Expansion, %

0.120
0.080 R² = 0.9969
0.080 0.060
0.040
0.040
0.020
0.000 0.000
0 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70 77 84 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1
Age, Days Soak Solution Alk., N NaOH

Clemson University 18/36


Effect of w/c ratio on the expansion of test
specimens with high- and low-alkali cement
0.200
0.50 w/c
Cement Content = 708 lb/yd3
0.160
Expansion, %

0.45 w/c
0.120 0.40 w/c

0.080
HA 0.200
High Alkali Cement
0.040 0.180 Low Alkali Cement

% Expansion at 56 days
0.160
0.000
0.140 0.1230
0 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70 77 84 0.1207 0.1235
0.120
Age, Days
0.100
0.200 0.080
0.50 w/c 0.060
0.160 0.45 w/c 0.0375
Expansion, %

0.40 w/c 0.040 0.0287 0.0310


0.120 0.020
0.080 0.000
LA 0.040
0.40 w/c 0.45 w/c
Water to Cement Ratio
0.50 w/c

0.000
0 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70 77 84
Age, Days

Clemson University 19/36


Effect of cement content on expansion in
MCPT with High and Low Alkali Cement
0.2000
800 lbs/yd3
700lbs/yd3
0.1600
600 lbs/yd3 w/c =0.45
Expansion, %

0.1200

HA 0.0800
0.160
0.0400 y = 0.0167x + 0.0843
0.140

% Expansion at 56-day
R² = 0.9287
0.0000
0.120
0 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70 77 84
High Alkali
Age, Days 0.100
0.2000 0.080 Low Alkali
800 lbs/yd3
0.1600 700lbs/yd3 0.060
600 lbs/yd3 y = 0.0059x + 0.0202
Expansion, %

0.040 R² = 0.9767
0.1200
0.020
LA 0.0800
0.000
600 lb/yd3 700 lb/yd3 800 lb/yd3
0.0400 Cement Content

0.0000
0 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70 77 84
Age, Days

Clemson University 20/36


Effect of total alkali loading in concrete on
MCPT expansion

Cement Content, Total Alkali 56-Day Expansion (%)


lb/yd3 Loading
(lb/yd3)
600 (Na2Oeq. = 0.49%) 2.94 0.027
700 (Na2Oeq. = 0.49%) 3.43 0.031
800 (Na2Oeq. = 0.49%) 3.92 0.039
600 (Na2Oeq. = 1.25%) 7.5 0.098
700 (Na2Oeq. = 1.25%) 8.75 0.123
800 (Na2Oeq. = 1.25%) 10 0.132

Clemson University 21/36


Effect of Alkali Loading in Concrete on
Expansion in MCPT

0.160
% Expansion at 56 Days

0.140 R² = 0.9937
0.120
HA Cement
0.100
0.080
0.060
0.040 LA Cement
0.020
0.000
0 5 10 15
Alkali loading Na2Oe%, lb/yd3

Clemson University 22/36


Effect of Vol.Fraction of CA on Expansion in
MCPT

Clemson University 23/36


Effect of Fly Ash Dosage on Expansion in MCPT

0.120
Low Lime
0.100
High Lime
0.080
Expansion, %

0.060

0.040

0.020

0.000
0% 10% 20% 30% 40%
Dosage %

Clemson University 24/36


Evaluating Job Mixture ASR Potential

o (a) Standard MCPT tests


o Control Test - 100% Cement (Std. Test Proportions)
o Mitigation Test – SCM Dosage (Std. Test Proportions)

o (b) Job MCPT test


o Control Test – 100 % Cement (per job mix proportions)
o Mitigation Test – SCM Dosage (per job mix proportions)

Clemson University 25/36


ASR Performance Index of Concrete (PI)

o ASR Performance Index (PI) can be defined as follows:


PI = [(Ec- Ej) x100%] / Ec

o Ec = 56-day MCPT expansion of control MCPT mixture


o Ej = 56-day MCPT expansion of mitigated MCPT mixture

Clemson University 26/36


Job mix and Job control mix expansion curves

0.20 0.20
Victor Job Mix (40% slag) Soak Sln = Tango Control (100% cement) Soak Soln.
0.16 0.55N NaOH 0.16 0.55N

Expansion, %
Expansion, %

Victor Control Mix (100% cement) Soak 0.12 Tango Job-mix (15% fly ash) Soak soln.
0.12
Sln = 0.55N NaOH 0.55N

0.08 0.08
0.0550 0.0515
0.04 0.04

0.00 0.0070 0.00


0 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70 77 84 0 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70 77 84
Age, Days Age, Days

Pijob = 87% Pijob = 1%

Clemson University 27/36


ASR Performance Index of Concrete (PI)
o PIstandard = [(Esc- Esm) x100%] / Esc

o PIJob = [(Ejc- Ejm) x100%] / Ejc

o Example Specification Could be:


PIJob > 0.90 x PIstandard

Clemson University 28/36


Conclusions
o The proposed MCPT method overcomes many of the
deficiencies of existing standard ASR test methods

o MCPT Method shows potential to be a reliable and a rapid test


method to evaluate wide range of aggregates and ASR
mitigation measures and provides a result comparable to
ASTM C 1293 test in a much shorter duration of only 8 to 12
weeks.

o Among the mixture proportion variables considered, the alkali


loading in concrete and SCM dosage level appear to be the
dominant factors affecting the ASR expansion.

o Preliminary testing to evaluate job mixtures using MCPT


appears to be promising, and the performance index (PI) may
provide a quantifiable way to assess ASR potential of job mix.
Clemson University 29/36
Questions?

prasad@clemson.edu
Key Questions for MCPT
o Why 56 days?
o Why 60ºC storage temperature?
o Why 1N NaOH Soak Solution?
o Why a dry-rodded aggregate volume
fraction of 0.65 in the concrete?

Clemson University 31/36