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 My Name : Saidi Issa .  Admission number : B-10-022.  DEPART: Civil

My Name : Saidi Issa. Admission number : B-10-022.

DEPART: Civil Engineering

Location of IPT: Zonal irrigation & Technical

Services Unit Tabora is located at Tabora

Region within the administrative location of Cheyo Ward about 10km from Tabora bus stand. During this training at Zonal irrigation

office I supervised by Eng.Eliafie Mwanga .

about 10km from Tabora bus stand. During this training at Zonal irrigation office I supervised by
about 10km from Tabora bus stand. During this training at Zonal irrigation office I supervised by
about 10km from Tabora bus stand. During this training at Zonal irrigation office I supervised by
about 10km from Tabora bus stand. During this training at Zonal irrigation office I supervised by
 My IPT at Zonal irrigation-Tabora is divided into
My IPT at Zonal irrigation-Tabora is divided into

three categories;

1.)Theory of Crop water requirement, construction and supervision on the site.

2.)Designing of KASUGA DAM(Involved drawing, Preparation of B.O.Q and all details)

3.)Site supervision & construction of weir and lined canal at Inala dam.(but the dialed of weir I was written on logbook)

supervision & construction of weir and lined canal at Inala dam.(but the dialed of weir I
supervision & construction of weir and lined canal at Inala dam.(but the dialed of weir I
 The activities which is interested are;  Design of kasuga dam and  Site

The activities which is interested are;

Design of kasuga dam and

Site supervision & construction of lined canal at Inala irrigation

scheme.

Kasuga dam

INTRODUCTION Background Kasuga dam is located in Kasuga Village, within the

administrative location of Kasuga Ward, Kakonko Division in Kibondo District, at a geographical location of 9638860N and 0268261E, about 55km North- West of Kibondo Town. In the

year 2007/08 the village community of Kasuga requested

assistance from Government of Tanzania to construct a dam at the proposed dam location site that would supply water for domestic, livestock and horticultural crops.

construct a dam at the proposed dam location site that would supply water for domestic, livestock
construct a dam at the proposed dam location site that would supply water for domestic, livestock
construct a dam at the proposed dam location site that would supply water for domestic, livestock
construct a dam at the proposed dam location site that would supply water for domestic, livestock
DESIGN DESCRIPTION OF KASUGA EARTH DAM  The successful design, construction, and operation of a

DESIGN DESCRIPTION OF KASUGA EARTH DAM

The successful design, construction, and operation of a reservoir project

over the full design period required a comprehensive site classification,

a detailed design of each feature, construction supervision, continuous

measurement and monitoring of performance of the project features during operation. The design and construction of dams are normally complex activities because of the nature of the varying foundation conditions and range of properties of the materials available for use in the embankment, however under proper engineering analysis the above

said problems are overcome. The design of this project was carried out

prior to the following steps:

The first step was to conduct detailed geological and subsurface investigations, which illustrate the extent of hard strata of dam foundation, abutments and potential borrow areas.

The next step was to conduct a study of the type and physical properties of materials to be placed in the embankment. This study incorporates

determination of quantities and sequence in which they became

available. The design includes all of the studies, testing, analysis and assessment to ensure that the embankment met all technical criteria and the requirements of a dam as outlined hereunder.

assessment to ensure that the embankment met all technical criteria and the requirements of a dam
assessment to ensure that the embankment met all technical criteria and the requirements of a dam
assessment to ensure that the embankment met all technical criteria and the requirements of a dam
assessment to ensure that the embankment met all technical criteria and the requirements of a dam

Embankment shall be safe against overtopping by

provision of adequate spillway capacity and sufficient free

board.

Embankment shall be safe against sliding and overturning by providing adequate cut-off and by using suitable soil material for embankment construction

Water should not infiltrate through bed or cracks of dam

embankment and hence proper compaction is necessary.

The upstream and downstream slopes of the embankment should be stable under all conditions. This will be taken care by provision of stone pitching/ riprap to the upstream face to protect the embankment against wave action. And grass plantation on the downstream face to avoid

possibility of soil erosion.

the embankment against wave action. And grass plantation on the downstream face to avoid possibility of
the embankment against wave action. And grass plantation on the downstream face to avoid possibility of
the embankment against wave action. And grass plantation on the downstream face to avoid possibility of
the embankment against wave action. And grass plantation on the downstream face to avoid possibility of
RESISTING MOMENT FORCE kN P1=0.5*19.82*9.91* Lever Arm(m) Moment(kNm) 13.21 22,054.62 17.00=1669.54 P2=4.5*9.91*17.00

RESISTING MOMENT FORCE kN

P1=0.5*19.82*9.91*

Lever Arm(m) Moment(kNm)

13.21

22,054.62

17.00=1669.54

P2=4.5*9.91*17.00

22.07

16731.71

=758.12

P3=0.5*9.91*29.73*17.0

=2,504.31

DISTURBING MOMENT

P4=0.5*8.4*25.23*9.81

=1,039.53

P5=0.5*8.4*9.81*8.4

=346.92

U1=0.5*9.91*54.05*9.81

34.23

45.64

3.30

36.03

=2,627.30

P5=0.5*8.4*9.81*8.4 =346.92 U1=0.5*9.91*54.05*9.81 34.23 45.64 3.30 36.03 =2,627.30 85,722.53 47,444.15 1,144.84 94,661.62
P5=0.5*8.4*9.81*8.4 =346.92 U1=0.5*9.91*54.05*9.81 34.23 45.64 3.30 36.03 =2,627.30 85,722.53 47,444.15 1,144.84 94,661.62
P5=0.5*8.4*9.81*8.4 =346.92 U1=0.5*9.91*54.05*9.81 34.23 45.64 3.30 36.03 =2,627.30 85,722.53 47,444.15 1,144.84 94,661.62
P5=0.5*8.4*9.81*8.4 =346.92 U1=0.5*9.91*54.05*9.81 34.23 45.64 3.30 36.03 =2,627.30 85,722.53 47,444.15 1,144.84 94,661.62

85,722.53

47,444.15

1,144.84

94,661.62

F.Srotation=Rest. Moment /Dist.Moment

=171,953.01/95,806.456

=1.80>1.50 Ok

Factor of Safety against factor Sliding

o

Assuming friction coefficient u=tan Q=tan12

F.S

={u[sum of vert.force/sum of

sliding

hor.force]}

=0.213*3,344.2/346.92

=2.05>1.50

Ok

coefficient u=tan Q =tan12 F.S ={u[sum of vert.force/sum of sliding hor.force]} =0.213*3,344.2/346.92 =2.05>1.50 Ok
coefficient u=tan Q =tan12 F.S ={u[sum of vert.force/sum of sliding hor.force]} =0.213*3,344.2/346.92 =2.05>1.50 Ok
coefficient u=tan Q =tan12 F.S ={u[sum of vert.force/sum of sliding hor.force]} =0.213*3,344.2/346.92 =2.05>1.50 Ok
coefficient u=tan Q =tan12 F.S ={u[sum of vert.force/sum of sliding hor.force]} =0.213*3,344.2/346.92 =2.05>1.50 Ok
The outlet structure usually includes an intake structure located at a low level in the

The outlet structure usually includes an intake structure located at a low level in the reservoir close to the upstream slope of the dam, the outlet structure link a pipe laid from the embankment valve

chamber and the toe of the downstream slope.

Kasuga dam will be provided with the outlet chamber system that will convey water where people could get water for irrigation and domestic

purposes. Outlet pipes of 150mm diameter will be

provided at the entrance to the bottom of outlet. The end of the pipe should be protected with a trash filter chamber to keep debris from entering the pipe.

    where Discharge in pipes is given by the formula: Q=(C.A.Square root

where

Discharge in pipes is given by the formula:

Q=(C.A.Square root of 2.g.h) m 3 /s

C = discharge coefficient A = pipe cross-sectional area, m 2 h = head, difference in upstream and downstream water surface levels, m

Value of the discharge coefficient C is obtained by the

formula

in upstream and downstream water surface levels, m  Value of the discharge coefficient C is
in upstream and downstream water surface levels, m  Value of the discharge coefficient C is
in upstream and downstream water surface levels, m  Value of the discharge coefficient C is
in upstream and downstream water surface levels, m  Value of the discharge coefficient C is
 where  k e = 0.5 = entrance friction coefficient l = 0.02 =

where

k e = 0.5 = entrance friction coefficient

l = 0.02 = friction factor for PVC pipe

L= pipe length, m

D = pipe diameter Therefore C=0.32

friction coefficient l = 0.02 = friction factor for PVC pipe L= pipe length, m D
friction coefficient l = 0.02 = friction factor for PVC pipe L= pipe length, m D
friction coefficient l = 0.02 = friction factor for PVC pipe L= pipe length, m D
friction coefficient l = 0.02 = friction factor for PVC pipe L= pipe length, m D

PVC pipes having 150mm dia. must be provided to allow discharge greater than 0.02m 3 /sec to flow along irrigation canals.

having 150mm dia. must be provided to allow discharge greater than 0.02m 3 /sec to flow
having 150mm dia. must be provided to allow discharge greater than 0.02m 3 /sec to flow
having 150mm dia. must be provided to allow discharge greater than 0.02m 3 /sec to flow
having 150mm dia. must be provided to allow discharge greater than 0.02m 3 /sec to flow
 The spillway allows excess water to flow downstream so that the dam does not

The spillway allows excess water to flow downstream so that the dam does not overtop during flood events. The spillway is located either in the center of the embankment or to one side of the valley. The spillway has to resist erosion caused by flowing water.

Spillway cross section and bed slope Cross section of spillway channel is trapezoidal shape with side slopes 1:1, bed width of spillway 50m below weir crest is estimated to be 25.0m. A spillway gauge width shall be 0.40m, downstream slope (S = 0.020) shall be provided with lined concrete to protect spillway bed slope against scouring.

Spillway design flood The e estimated design flood is 19.20m 3 /sec. Even though a dam at full supply level is assumed that approximately estimated volume of flood will pass through the spillway channel. For safety purposes, spillway is designed to accommodate flood magnitude of 62.73m 3 /sec.

the spillway channel. For safety purposes, spillway is designed to accommodate flood magnitude of 62.73m 3
the spillway channel. For safety purposes, spillway is designed to accommodate flood magnitude of 62.73m 3
the spillway channel. For safety purposes, spillway is designed to accommodate flood magnitude of 62.73m 3
the spillway channel. For safety purposes, spillway is designed to accommodate flood magnitude of 62.73m 3

The types of soil considered suitable for use as earth fill dam must be indicated in the design

specifications. Organic or peaty soils containing more

than about 5% organic material should not be used. Clay soils that are too wet should be avoided since they are difficult to compact to an acceptable density

and will not be easy to dry out. In order to obtain a

reasonable compacted density and an impervious

earth fill, an embankment dam constructed with one homogenous soil type requires the following soil

characteristics:

percentage of fines (<0.075 mm) >25%

liquid limit (LL)

plasticity index (PI)

< 50%

>8%

Laboratory test result shows that safe above detail.

liquid limit (LL) ◦ plasticity index (PI) < 50% >8%  Laboratory test result shows that
liquid limit (LL) ◦ plasticity index (PI) < 50% >8%  Laboratory test result shows that
liquid limit (LL) ◦ plasticity index (PI) < 50% >8%  Laboratory test result shows that
liquid limit (LL) ◦ plasticity index (PI) < 50% >8%  Laboratory test result shows that

The rip rap materials (stone pitching) must be placed on the upstream side of the dam embankment to break the wave action

Core trench must be excavated alongside of the proposed dam embankment and if it happened to encounter sand deposit below the proposed dam embankment axis, all sand materials must be removed up to hard strata

The total designed storage capacity of Kasuga dam at full supply

level is 758,685.381m

3

of water. This dam is designed to supply

water for multipurpose use for irrigation, domestic and livestock. However, Hydrological Assessment report shows that

757,101.812m

3

of water is needed to satisfy irrigation of 150Ha

of paddy, domestic and Livestock uses annually at Twabagondozi Village.

The cropping calendar and pattern of crops shall be given high

consideration for efficient utilization of water and better yield.

calendar and pattern of crops shall be given high consideration for efficient utilization of water and
calendar and pattern of crops shall be given high consideration for efficient utilization of water and
calendar and pattern of crops shall be given high consideration for efficient utilization of water and
calendar and pattern of crops shall be given high consideration for efficient utilization of water and

Inala irrigation scheme is located at 5Km

from Inala village while Inala village is located

at 25Km from Tabora Town. In this scheme the work conducted is the Lining of main canal (trapezoidal canal)

The first step is reshaping of unlined main

canal to trapezoidal shape.

Arranging of hardcore near to the canal .

Preparation of concrete for lined of canal

(1:3:6)

And laying of concrete.

of hardcore near to the canal .  Preparation of concrete for lined of canal (1:3:6)
of hardcore near to the canal .  Preparation of concrete for lined of canal (1:3:6)
of hardcore near to the canal .  Preparation of concrete for lined of canal (1:3:6)
of hardcore near to the canal .  Preparation of concrete for lined of canal (1:3:6)


Lined canal - It is a canal which has bed and side slopes lined with impervious materials. Conservation of water supplies is increasingly important as the demand continues to increase and new sources of supply are becoming increasingly scarce. The principle of conservation requires that full use of available water be made by minimizing the water loss due to seepage during conveyance in the canals.

Canal lining offers the solution because it helps

conserve the costly impounded water otherwise

lost during conveyance due to high seepage losses in unlined section.

helps conserve the costly impounded water otherwise lost during conveyance due to high seepage losses in
helps conserve the costly impounded water otherwise lost during conveyance due to high seepage losses in
helps conserve the costly impounded water otherwise lost during conveyance due to high seepage losses in
helps conserve the costly impounded water otherwise lost during conveyance due to high seepage losses in
 Objectives of Canal Lining  To minimize the losses due to seepage  To

Objectives of Canal Lining

To minimize the losses due to seepage

To protect the area prone to water logging due to rise in water table

To increase the discharge capacity of the canal

To protect the area prone to water logging due to rise in water table  To
To protect the area prone to water logging due to rise in water table  To
To protect the area prone to water logging due to rise in water table  To
To protect the area prone to water logging due to rise in water table  To
 Advantages  Reduction in seepage losses  Low maintenance cost  Minimizes the possibility

Advantages

Reduction in seepage losses

Low maintenance cost

Minimizes the possibility of breaching of

canals

Prevents weed growth

Improved hydraulic efficiency of canals

Reduces cross sectional dimensions of canal

 Prevents weed growth  Improved hydraulic efficiency of canals  Reduces cross sectional dimensions of
 Prevents weed growth  Improved hydraulic efficiency of canals  Reduces cross sectional dimensions of
 Prevents weed growth  Improved hydraulic efficiency of canals  Reduces cross sectional dimensions of
 Prevents weed growth  Improved hydraulic efficiency of canals  Reduces cross sectional dimensions of
 Disadvantages  Higher initial investment  Repair is costly.  Longer construction period 

Disadvantages

Higher initial investment

Repair is costly.

Longer construction period

Sophisticated construction equipments and

labours is needed.

 Repair is costly.  Longer construction period  Sophisticated construction equipments and labours is needed.
 Repair is costly.  Longer construction period  Sophisticated construction equipments and labours is needed.
 Repair is costly.  Longer construction period  Sophisticated construction equipments and labours is needed.
 Repair is costly.  Longer construction period  Sophisticated construction equipments and labours is needed.
1.The designing of a DAM. 2.The construction of Lined canal.

1.The designing of a DAM.

2.The construction of Lined canal.

1.The designing of a DAM. 2.The construction of Lined canal.
1.The designing of a DAM. 2.The construction of Lined canal.
1.The designing of a DAM. 2.The construction of Lined canal.
1.The designing of a DAM. 2.The construction of Lined canal.
 At the site, there is shortage(un adequate) of tools and equipments so that its

At the site, there is shortage(un adequate) of tools and equipments so that its difficult to achieve the desire work.

Poor supervision of site agent from contractors also is the main problem.

Lack of a person who have a full knowledge of designing of a dam and irrigation scheme that to tell a real challenge

irrigation as well as dam.

The government failure provide enough funds so that the scheme will takes a long for completion.

as well as dam.  The government failure provide enough funds so that the scheme will
as well as dam.  The government failure provide enough funds so that the scheme will
as well as dam.  The government failure provide enough funds so that the scheme will
as well as dam.  The government failure provide enough funds so that the scheme will
 Contractors must sure have adequate tools and equipments so as to achieves the objective

Contractors must sure have adequate tools

and equipments so as to achieves the

objective of the work.

Daily check and supervise of the site is very

important so as to achieves the goals.

Its now the chance for Civil and Irrigation engineers to solve the real challenge/problem irrigation as well as dam construction.

the chance for Civil and Irrigation engineers to solve the real challenge/problem irrigation as well as
the chance for Civil and Irrigation engineers to solve the real challenge/problem irrigation as well as
the chance for Civil and Irrigation engineers to solve the real challenge/problem irrigation as well as
the chance for Civil and Irrigation engineers to solve the real challenge/problem irrigation as well as
 All in all IPT was helpful considering the subjects covered in last two semesters

All in all IPT was helpful considering the subjects covered in last two semesters

concerning civil & irrigation and enabled me to fit the theory part in my lessons to reality in the field.

The IPT preparation through zonal irrigation offices approach was helpful as students were able to cover more projects covered in a

particular zone districts.

offices approach was helpful as students were able to cover more projects covered in a particular
offices approach was helpful as students were able to cover more projects covered in a particular
offices approach was helpful as students were able to cover more projects covered in a particular
offices approach was helpful as students were able to cover more projects covered in a particular