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• The examination lasts for 5 hours. There are 3 problems Answer Sheets. There are also Draft papers; use these

worth in total 30 points. Please note that the point for writing things which you don’t want to be graded.

values of the three theoretical problems are not If you have written something that you don’t want to

equal. be graded onto the Solution Sheets (such as initial and

incorrect solutions), cross these out.

• You must not open the envelope with the prob-

lems before the signal of the beginning of compet- • If you need more paper for a certain problem, please raise

ition. your hand and tell an organizer the problem number; you

• You are not allowed to leave your working place are given two Solution sheets (you can do this more than

without permission. If you need any assistance (broken once).

calculator, need to visit a restroom, etc), please raise your

• You should use as little text as possible: try to

hand until an organizer arrives.

explain your solution mainly with equations, numbers,

• Use only the front side of the sheets of paper. symbols and diagrams. Though in some places textual

explanation may be unavoidable.

• For each problem, there are dedicated Solution Sheets

(see header for the number and pictogram). Write your • After the signal signifying the end of examination

solutions onto the appropriate Solution Sheets. For each you must stop writing immediately. Put all the pa-

Problem, the Solution Sheets are numbered; use the sheets pers into the envelope at your desk. You are not al-

according to the enumeration. Always mark which lowed to take any sheet of paper out of the room.

Problem Part and Question you are dealing with. If you have finished solving before the final sound signal,

Copy the final answers into the appropriate boxes of the please raise your hand.

— page 1 of 5 —

Problem T1. Main sequence stars (11 points) sure, to a thermal expansion of the fusion plasma, and as a

In all your subsequent calculations you may use the following result, to a decrease of the reaction rate. The reaction rate

physical constants and their numerical values. grows very rapidly with temperature and because of that, even

Stefan-Boltzmann constant σ = 5.670 × 10−8 W/(m2 K4 ) if the reaction rates in different stars of different masses may

4

(Note that σT gives the black body thermal radiation power differ considerably, the interior temperatures remain fairly sim-

per unit area at temperature T .) ilar. In what follows, you may assume that the temperature

Boltzmann constant kB = 1.38 × 10−23 m2 · kg · s−2 · K−1 . of the nuclei of stars is independent of the stellar mass

The rest mass of a proton mp = 1.67 × 10−27 kg. and equal to

2

Rest energy of a proton mp c = 938 MeV, Tc = 1.8 × 106 K;

where 1 MeV = 1.6 × 10−13 J.

this approximation holds particularly well for stars larger than

Rest energy of a helium nucleus mHe c2 = 3727 MeV.

Sun.

Rest energy of an electron and positron me c2 = 0.5 MeV.

In order to make our next calculations mathematically easier,

Speed of light c = 3 × 108 m/s,

we make the following additional approximations.

Universal gas constant Rg = 8.31 J · K−1 · mol−1 M R0

(a) The mass of the stellar core is 8 and its radius is 2 , where

Avogadro’s number NA = 6.02 × 1023 mol−1

M is the total mass of the star and R0 — the radius of the star.

Part A. Lifetime of Sun (3 points)

(b) The mass density ρc , pressure pc , and temperature Tc in-

For this Part, the following values can be also used. side the stellar core can be approximately taken to be

The mass of Sun M = 2 × 1030 kg. constant throughout its volume.

The radius of Sun R = 7 × 108 m.

(c) For tasks i–iv, we assume also that all

Surface temperature of Sun T = 6 × 103 K.

the mass 78 M of the outer layers of the star

i. (0.7 pts) The Sun emits thermal radiation as a perfectly is concentrated into a very narrow spher-

black body. Determine the total radiation power of the Sun (in ical layer of radius R0 around the core, see

2

watts). figure. In reality, this is certainly not true — the layer is not

ii. (0.5 pts) The Sun maintains its temperature owing to narrow. However, this approximation will have only a minor

the fusion reaction, the net effect of which can be written as

effect on the expression for the pressure (in task iv).

4p+ →4 He2+ + 2e+ + 2νe , where p+ denotes a proton, 4He2+ i. (0.4 pts) Express the free fall acceleration immediately above

— a helium nucleus, e+ — a positron, and νe — an electron the narrow spherical layer (point Q in figure) in terms of M

neutrino of negligible rest energy. Show that the energy released and R0 .

by such a fusion of four protons is W0 = 24 MeV. ii. (0.4 pts) Express the free fall acceleration immediately

iii. (0.5 pts) Antimatter cannot co-exist with matter: upon beneath the narrow spherical layer (point P in figure).

meeting, a positron and an electron disappear by producing iii. (0.4 pts) Express the gravity force acting on a small piece

two photons. How much energy per each fusion of four protons of the narrow spherical layer in terms of its surface area A, M

into a helium nucleus must leave Sun (carried away by photons and R0 .

and neutrinos) in order to keep it at a thermal equilibrium? iv. (0.4 pts) Express the pressure pc in terms of the radius R0

iv. (1.3 pts) Assuming that only the central part of the Sun and mass M of the star; (we overestimate it only by a factor

1

(the Sun’s nucleus) which makes 8of the total mass of the Sun which is less than two).

is hot enough for fusion reaction to take place, and neglecting v. (1 pt) Derive another expression for the pressure pc , this

the energy carried away by neutrinos, estimate the total lifetime time in terms of R0 , M , and the core temperature Tc . Assume

of the Sun. Note that there is no convection in the central parts that the nucleus of a star is made of a fully ionised hydrogen,

of the Sun, and therefore the particles inside the Sun’s nucleus i.e. there are free protons and free electrons, both of which

remain trapped therein. Based on your result, comment on the can be described as an ideal gas.

current age of Sun, τ = 5 × 109 y. vi. (0.4 pts) Based on your previous results, express the radius

Part B. Mass-luminosity relationship of stars (4.5 points) R0 of a star in terms of its mass M and temperature Tc .

Inside the nuclei of the so-called main sequence stars (such as vii. (1.5 pts) The radiative power of a star is limited by at

our Sun), the fusion reaction takes place in a stable regime: which rate the produced heat can travel through the outer layers

if fluctuations were to increase the reaction rate slightly, the of the star and reach the surface. The heat conductivity κ is

increased thermal output would lead to an increase of the pres- defined as the proportionality coefficient between the heat flux

— page 2 of 5 —

density (thermal power per unit area) and temperature gradient be expressed using the base units (m, s, A, K, kg, mol).

dT

dr , where r is the distance from the centre of the star. For a ii. (1 pt) The first and limiting step in the fusion of four pro-

plasma, the heat conductivity is inversely proportional to its tons into a helium atom inside a star of sub-solar mass is the

density, κ = f (T )/ρ. Assume simplifyingly that κ is constant fusion of two protons,

throughout the bulk of a star, up to the near-surface regions

at r = R0 where the temperature T Tc , and is equal to p+ + p+ →2H+ + e+ + νe .

κ = f (Tc )/ρc . Show that the total radiative power P of a star

is proportional to M γ , and find the exponent γ. This process is obstructed, however, by a coulomb repulsion of

Part C. Proton-proton fusion chain (3.5 points) two protons. You may assume that until the distance between

We say that a constant is fundamental if it cannot be expressed the centres of two protons remains larger than the proton ra-

−15

in terms of other fundamental constants; for instance, the Stefan- dius rp = 0.85 × 10 m, there is only a Coulomb force; at

Boltzmann constant can be expressed in terms of kB , speed distances smaller than rp , an attractive strong force steps into

of light c, and Planck’s constant ~. However, majority of the play and dominates over the Coulomb force. Estimate the tem-

fundamental constants are created artificially by physicists due perature T 0 required for the fusion of two protons if there were

to a non-fundamental way of choosing the units. For instance, no quantum-mechanical effects. Compare this result with the

6

SI system of units needs electrostatic constant ke , but for value of Tc ≈ 1.8 × 10 K.

Gauss system of units, charge units are such that ke = 1. So, iii. (1 pt) What enables the fusion of stellar hydrogen is the

majority of the “fundamental” constants are not really that quantum-mechanical tunnel effect. With this task, you’ll learn

fundamental, and depend on our (essentially arbitrary) choice that the fusion reaction rate depends on the dimensionless para-

of units. However, there are also dimensionless combinations of meter α, thus we can say that the parameter α defines the

physical constants, which can be considered as the parameters production rate of heavier nuclei in our Universe. (It appears

of our Universe, and which define the way in which matter and that in a slightly different Universe with a slightly different

fields evolve. value of α, no carbon nuclei neccessary for the existance of life

1

i. (1.5 pts) Find a dimensionless combination α−1 and calcu- would have been produced .)

late its value using the following subset of fundamental constants It appears that a particle can tunnel through an energy

(it may happen that only few constants will enter the expression barrier (a region in space where the potential energy Π(r) is

−1 larger than the total energy W ) with probability

for α ):

8

c = 3 × 10 m/s, Z p

−11 3 −1 −2 −1

G = 6.67 × 10 m · kg s , p ≈ exp{−2~ 2m[Π(r) − W ]dr},

kB = 1.38 × 10−23 J · K−1 ,

NA = 6.02 × 1023 mol−1 , where the integral is to be taken over the range at which

h −34 Π(r) > W . Express the tunnelling probability for the proton-

~= 2π = 1.05 × 10 J · s,

−19 proton fusion reaction for head-on collision of two counter-

e = 1.6 × 10 C,

1 9 −1 moving protons of speed v in terms of α, v and c. You may

ke = 4πε0 = 8.99 × 10 m · F .

Note that any power of α is also dimensionless; you are asked to assume that the proton radius rp is much smaller than the ra-

find the simplest combination of constants which yields α−1 > 1. dius r? at which the proton “divesq

into the tunnel” [Π(r? ) = W ],

π√

Ra 1 1

Hint: before applying dimensional analysis, all units need to and make use of the equality 0 x − a dx = 2 a.

— page 3 of 5 —

Problem T2. Water tube (8 points) i. (0.5 pts) Let pP denote the pressure at a point P at the

Consider a tube which is obtained bottom of the water column, and pQ — at a point Q at the

when two metallic cylinders are welded bottom. Find pP − pQ .

together as shown in the figure. Up- ii. (1.5 pts) Consider the two pistons, steel bar, and water

per cylinder has internal cross-sectional column as a single compound body. Make a sketch and mark

2

area A = 10 cm , and the lower one — on it all the forces acting on this compound body by arrows

1.1A = 11 cm2 . Two pistons are connec- (denote them by letters — F~1 , F~2 , etc.). Determine the values

ted with a narrow (rigid but light) steel of all these forces.

bar of length H = 30 cm; the distance iii. (1.2 pts) Determine the values of pP and pQ .

from the lower piston to the welding iv. (0.8 pts) Determine the tension force T in the steel bar.

area is h = 10 cm. The space between v. (1 pt) Now, the whole system is slowly raised to a height

the pistons is filled with water of density L = 25 cm (this is the distance between the horizontal surface

3 ◦

ρ = 1000 kg/m and temperature T = 20 C. The mass of each and the bottom edge of the tube), and released. The system

m

of the pistons 2 = 50 g (neglect the mass of the rod connecting falls due to gravity, hits the surface (assume the impact to be

them) free fall acceleration g ≈ 10 m/s2 and the atmospheric plastic, i.e. the kinetic energy of the metallic tube is converted

pressure p0 = 1 × 105 Pa. The tube stands vertically on a solid into heat), remains standing vertically on the horizontal surface

horizontal surface; the pistons can move freely up and down, for a brief period of time τ , and jumps up into air. Why does

friction force can be neglected. The distance between the bot- it jump? Provide a qualitative explanation.

tom of the lower piston and the horizontal surface is more than vi. (3 pts) Find the duration τ during which the tube remains

20 cm. standing on the surface (after falling and before jumping).

— page 4 of 5 —

Problem T3. Accelerating shock wave (11 points) m and B.

In interstellar space, shock waves can accelerate charged vii. (1 pt) From now on, let us consider the limit

particles to very high energies. We shall use an idealized model t 2πm . Determine the average y-directional acceleration

Be

of a shock wave, and assume that it is a potential barrier of a ay of the electron (express it in terms of e, m and B or constant

constant height −V0 which moves with a constant velocity w k introduced by task vi).

along the x-axis: viii. (1 pt) It appears that at the limit t 2πm

Be , the time

interval τ between subsequent collisions becomes shorter and

V (x, y, z, t) = −V0 if x < wt; 2πm

shorter, hence we can assume that τ Be . This means that

V (x, y, z, t) = 0 if x > wt.

during a time interval between two subsequent collisions the

In the frame where the shock wave is at rest, the energy of an velocity vector of the electron will change only by a very small

electron is conserved. This means that as long as the kinetic angle and hence, its acceleration vector ~a = (ax , ay ) can be

energy of an electron of mass m and charge −e moving towards assumed to be constant.

the shock wave is insufficient ( 12 mu2 < eV0 , where u denotes the Let us use now the shock wave’s frame of reference, and

speed with which the electron is approaching the shock wave), consider the electron’s phase diagram, i.e. a diagram which

0 0

it is reflected back from the shock wave in the same way as describes the state of the electron as a point in the x − px -

0

an elastic ball bounces from a rigid wall. In what fol- plane, where the vertical axis px = m(vx − w) corresponds to

0 0

R

lows, unless otherwise mentioned, we assume that the the x -component of the momentum, and x = (vx − w)dt

electron is bounced elastically by the shock wave. You denotes the distance from the shock wave. Depict qualitatively

can always use the parameters e, V0 , m, B, and w to express the electron’s phase trajectory, i.e. the curve drawn in phase

your answers. Unless otherwise specified, the velocity of the diagram during one period (between two subsequent collisions

electron is assumed to be non-relativistic. of the electron with the shock wave). Grades for this task are

i. (1 pt) Let the initial speed of the electron be ~v = (vx , vy , vz ), based purely on the shape of the curve.

with vx < w. Determine the velocity ~v 0 (i.e. the components ix. (1.5 pts) As time goes on, the width and height of the phase

vx0 , vy0 , vz0 ) of the electron after being hit by the shock wave. trajectory will change; however, it appears that the surface area

ii. (1 pt) Now, there is also an homogeneous magnetic field of of the region surrounded by the phase trajectory (referred to as

induction B, parallel to the z-axis. At the beginning, electron the adiabatic invariant) will remain constant with a very good

rests at the origin, and at t = 0 is hit by the shock wave. Sketch precision. For an initially resting electron, the adiabatic invari-

1.36(mw)2

qualitatively the trajectory drawn by the electron; cover the ant appears to be approximately equal to Be . Determine

πm the total kinetic energy Wf of the electron when it falls behind

time period from t = 0 until at least t = Be .

iii. (0.5 pts) Find the curvature radius of the electron’s tra- the shock wave; express it in terms of e, V0 , and ε, which is

2eV

jectory immediately after its first collision with the shock wave. defined as ε ≡ mw02 ; assume that ε 1.

iv. (1 pt) The electron undergoes soon, at t = t2 , a second im- x. (2 pts) This final task is independent from the previous

pact; write down an equation for determining t2 . Use numerical tasks. Consider the propagation of a shock wave as described

calculation to obtain an expression for t2 . before, but under the absence of a magnetic field. A relativistic

v. (0.5 pts) Determine the average x-directional velocity vx electron moves parallel to the front (in the laboratory frame,

of the electron (averaged over the time interval τ between two the perpendicular component of its velocity is strictly zero).

subsequent collisions of the electron with the shock wave). Assuming that mw2 < eV0 and w c (with c denoting the

vi. (1.5 pts) As time goes on, the electron undergoes many speed of light), what should be the relativistic energy of the

collisions with the shock wave. Show that during its motion, electron so that it could fall behind the shock wave? You can

vy + kx = const, where k is a constant; express k in terms of e, use any reasonable approximations.

— page 5 of 5 —

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