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Sara Jameson

Mrs. Stevens

Life Science

31 January 2018

Which Soda Is Affected the Most by Fabric Dye, Sprite or 7Up?

Did you know that the man made creation of dye was an accident? It was created by

William Perkin when he tried to synthesize quinine. That was the start of synthetic dying. Now

there are many different ways to dye and a variety of materials that people use today. In this

experiment a new material was mixed with the dye instead of water. ​I hypothesized that if I mix

fabric dye with Sprite and 7Up, then the color will show up most from the Sprite.

How Does Fabric Dye Work on Cloth?

Fabric dye has a mordant which is alizarin attaching itself to cloth that is intertwined with

a metal compound. Alizarin is a material extracted from plants mostly used in dyes. The metal

compound attaches itself to the dye and intertwines forming chelate rings. The colored

substances from the dye absorbs radiation from the visible spectrum which creates change in the

electric energy. This movement combined, the electrons changes to an excited state. Some

electrons that change are lone pairs and outer bonding electrons (Gould).

How Do You Measure the Absorbency of Fabric?

Absorbance has many different definitions, however, there is a specific definition for this

question. From Dictionary.com, absorbance means “​The capacity of a substance to absorb

radiation, expressed as the common logarithm of the reciprocal of the transmittance of the

substance.” To measure the absorbance of a fabric, knowing the definition is helpful


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(Absorbance). Another definition of absorbance can be used. From asdi.com, “​Absorbance is a

measure of the amount of light absorbed by a material.​” This definition is more specific and

helps explain the answer to this question (What). Usually, absorbance is used to measure gases

or liquids and can be measured with a dual-beam spectrometer (Zeiss). You can find the

concentration pigments (also known as mg/L) by the formula: ​absorbance units/specific

absorption coefficient times 1000 (Theory).

Which Type of Cloth Absorbs Dye the Best?

There are many different kinds of dyes and some work better than others on certain

cloths. With the RIT dye, you should use raime, wool, nylon and viscose rayon. Fiber reactive

dye is a good option for silk and spandex. When using cotton you should use RIT, Dylon or fiber

reactive dye. When using linen, the best dye to use would be RIT or Dylon. When using rayon

material you could use RIT or Dylon. Cotton is the most common for dying (How).

What Is Carbonation? And How Are Sodas Carbonated?

To get a clear definition for carbonation, the dictionary is the right place to look. In

dictionary.com, carbonation is “Saturation with carbon dioxide, as in making soda water.”

Carbonation is what is used in soda (Carbonation). To carbonate soda, the temperature of the

liquid is important. The carbon dioxide that’s added to carbonate the drink absorbs better in

colder liquids. The first step to carbonation is to insert the carbon dioxide with plenty of extra

space. After putting in the gas, the second step is to shake the bottle or object that is holding the

soon to be soda. The shakes create more surface area so the carbon dioxide can dissolve into it

(Kohler).

Why Are Artificial Colorings Typically Not Used in Carbonated Beverages?


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Some coloring that people use in beverages contain 4-methylimidazole. The

4-methylimidazole is possibly cancerous to humans because it caused cancer to mice. Some

people believe that people put too much of that product into the beverage, raising the risks

(Caramel). There was a study called the Southampton Study which showed how the ingredients

in artificial colorings affected children’s behavior. They cut artificial food colorings from usually

hyperactive kids and they started to behave better. The three most common dyes are , Red No.

40, Yellow No. 6 and Yellow No. 5, could cause hypersensitivity in all ages of humans (Eldred).

The artificial colorings is a solvent to the beverage. According to the book, Science

Encyclopedia by Chris Oxlade, solvent is “A substance in which a solute dissolves, to form a

solution.” They are mixed to create a solution, which is the soda (Graham 247).

What’s the Difference in Ingredients in 7Up and Sprite?

Sprite and 7Up have many differences despite what most people think. In Sprite, they use

filtered carbonated water with potassium citrate. To preserve the taste, they use calcium

disodium edta (Sprite). In 7Up, they do not use carbonated water and uses sodium citrate instead

of potassium citrate. To preserve the taste, 7Up uses sodium benzoate (7Up Mix). Potassium salt

gives 7Up a tangy flavor compared to Sprite. The Sprite uses sodium salt for more of a citrus

flavor (7Up).

I hypothesized that ​if I mix fabric dye with Sprite and 7Up, then the color will show up

most from the Sprite. ​When compared to the fabric that was dyed with water, the fabrics from the

Sprite and 7Up did not show much difference. The carbonation did not seem to have an effect on

the dye. The highest average was with the 7Up with a 0.9 when the lowest average was the Sprite

with a 0.75. The water based one was in between with an average of 0.8. When I mix fabric dye
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with Sprite and 7Up, then the color will show up the most from the 7Up.
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Works Cited

“Absorbance.” Dictionary.com, Dictionary.com, 2017,

www.dictionary.com/browse/absorbance?s=t​.

“Caramel Color: The Health Risk That May Be in Your Soda.” Consumer Reports, Consumer

Reports, 10 Feb. 2014, 9:45,

www.consumerreports.org/cro/news/2014/01/caramel-color-the-health-risk-that-may-be-i

n-your-soda/index.htm.

“Carbonation.” Dictionary.com, Dictionary.com, ​www.dictionary.com/browse/carbonation​.

Eldred, Sheila Mulrooney, et al. “The Truth About Artificial Food Colorings.” Experience Life,

Life Time, Inc., 1 June 2014,

experiencelife.com/article/the-truth-about-artificial-food-colorings/.

Gould, David. “Dyes and Colour.” Article Gems Scinet: Chemistry Revision, Article Gems, 2006,

articlegems.co.uk/scinet/chemistry/cd/dyes.php

Graham, Ian, Barbara Taylor, John Farndon, and Chris Oxlade. "Glossary." Science

Encyclopedia. New York: Barnes & Noble, 2002. 247. Print.

"How Do I Choose Which Fabric Dye to Use? RIT vs Dylon vs Procion MX vs IDye vs Jacquard

Acid." Manhattan Wardrobe Supply. Manhattan Wardrobe Supply, 21 May 2014. Web.

19 Oct. 2017.

Kohler, Dan. “How-To - The Science Behind Carbonation | Home & Family.” Hallmark Channel,

Crown Media, 2017,

www.hallmarkchannel.com/home-and-family/how-to/the-science-behind-carbonation​.
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“Sprite.” Coca-Cola Product Facts, Coca-Cola Company, 2017,

www.coca-colaproductfacts.com/en/products/sprite/.

“What Are Absorbance Units?” ASD, ASD Inc., 2017,

www.asdi.com/learn/faqs/what-are-absorbance-units.

Zeiss, Carl. “Absorbance Measurement.” Absorbance,

www.zeiss.com/spectroscopy/solutions-applications/measuring-principle/absorbance.htm

l​.

7Up. “7 Up.” 7 Up Mix It Up A Little, Dr. Pepper/Seven Up Inc., 2017,

www.7up.com/en#/products/7up​.

“7UP And Sprite; Comparison.” Difference Between, NOVELTY, 1 Dec. 2014, 10:27,

www.differencein.com/7up-and-sprite-comparison/.