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Treaty of Paris 903

100. Hawaii Annexation Act, 1898 or may be assigned for the use of the local government, shall be
used solely for the benefit of the inhabitants of the Hawaiian Islands

Introduction for educational and other public purposes.

American missionaries first came to Hawaii in 1820, introducing

schools, written language, Christianity, and a constitution. The Until Congress shall provide for the government of such islands all the

United States and European powers formally recognized Hawai- civil, judicial, and military powers exercised by the officers of the ex-
ian autonomy while maneuvering behind the scenes for domi- isting government in said islands shall be vested in such person or

nance. In 1875, the United States and Hawaii signed a reciprocity persons and shall be exercised in such manner as the President of the

treaty that placed Hawaii firmly under U.S. domination. Ameri- United States shall direct; and the President shall have the power to

can fruit and sugar growers had acquired substantial landhold- remove said officers and fill the vacancies so occasioned.

ings in Hawaii. In 1893, they engineered a coup that overthrew

Hawaii’s monarchy and immediately sought annexation by the The existing treaties of the Hawaiian Islands with foreign nations

United States. Queen Liliuokalani, who had recently ascended to shall forthwith cease and determine, being replaced by such treaties

the throne of Hawaii, stepped down in order to avoid bloodshed. as may exist, or as may be hereafter concluded, between the United

However, the election as U.S. president of Grover Cleveland, who States and such foreign nations. The municipal legislation of the

opposed expansion, forced the usurpers to establish the Repub- Hawaiian Islands, not enacted for the fulfillment of the treaties so
lic of Hawaii. As relations with Spain deteriorated, U.S. authori- extinguished, and not inconsistent with this joint resolution nor

ties began to see the strategic advantages of annexing Hawaii. In contrary to the Constitution of the United States nor to any existing

1897, the American-dominated republic signed a treaty of an- treaty of the United States, shall remain in force until the Congress

nexation with the United States. The deposed queen issued a for- of the United States shall otherwise determine.

mal protest, to no avail. The outbreak of war with Spain

encouraged Congress to act, and on July 7, 1898, the United States Until legislation shall be enacted extending the United States cus-

formally annexed the Hawaiian Islands. Hawaii became a U.S. ter- toms laws and regulations to the Hawaiian Islands the existing cus-

ritory in 1900 and the 50th state in 1959. toms relations of the Hawaiian Islands with the United States and

other countries shall remain unchanged.

Primary Source

Whereas the Government of the Republic of Hawaii having, in due The public debt of the Republic of Hawaii, unlawfully existing at

form, signified its consent, in the manner provided by its constitu- the date of the passage of this joint resolution, including the

tion, to cede absolutely and without reserve to the United States of amounts due to the depositors in the Hawaiian Postal Savings Bank,

America all rights of sovereignty of whatsoever kind in and over is hereby assumed by the Government of the United States; but the

the Hawaiian Islands and their dependencies, and also to cede and liability of the United States in this regard shall in no case exceed
transfer to the United States the absolute fee and ownership of all four million dollars. So long, however, as the existing Government

public, Government, or Crown lands, public buildings or edifices, and the present commercial relations of the Hawaiian Islands are

ports, harbors, military equipment, and all other public property continued as hereinbefore provided said Government shall con-

of every kind and description belonging to the Government of the tinue to pay the interest on said debt.

Hawaiian Islands, together with every right and appurtenance

thereunto appertaining; Therefore There shall be no further immigration of Chinese into the Hawaiian

Islands, except upon such conditions as are now or may hereafter

Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United be allowed by the laws of the United States; no Chinese, by reason

States of America in Congress Assembled, That said cession is accepted, of anything herein contained, shall be allowed to enter the United

ratified, and confirmed, and that the said Hawaiian Islands and their States from the Hawaiian Islands.
dependencies be, and they are hereby, annexed as part of the territory

of the United States and are subject to the sovereign dominion Source: Hawaii Annexation Act (1898), U.S. Congress, Congressional

thereof, and that all and singular the property and rights hereinbefore Record, 55th Cong., 2nd sess., 1898.

mentioned are vested in the United States of America.

The existing laws of the United States relative to public lands shall

not apply to such lands in the Hawaiian Islands; but the Congress 101. Treaty of Paris, 1898

of the United States shall enact special laws for their management

and disposition: Provided, That all revenue from or proceeds of the Introduction

same, except as regards such part thereof as may be used or occu- Just three months after the outbreak of the Spanish-American
pied for the civil, military, or naval purposes of the United States, War, Spain sued for peace. A July 22, 1898, letter from Spain’s top