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DOI 10.1007/s00170-016-9957-6

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

improvement of cracked structure repaired by high interference

fit bushing

A. Bahloul 1 & A. Ben Ahmed 1 & M. M. Mhala 1 & C. H. Bouraoui 1

Received: 11 October 2016 / Accepted: 20 December 2016 / Published online: 30 December 2016

# Springer-Verlag London 2016

Abstract The purpose of this paper consists in developing a Keywords Residual stress . Finite element analysis .

probabilistic approach for predicting fatigue life improvement Interference fit process . Monte Carlo simulation . Life

of 7075-T6 cracked Single Edge Notch Tension (SENT) spec- prediction . Probability density function PDF . P-S-N curves

imen repaired by high interference fit bushing. The developed

approach is carried out by coupling FE-analysis and Monte

Carlo reliability method. In this context, a 2D- finite element Nomenclature

analysis of the cracked SENT specimen using ABAQUS com- a Crack size [mm]

mercial software is established to: (i) simulate the interference b Fatigue strength exponent

fit process and (ii) to predict the fatigue life improvement after c Fatigue ductility exponent

repair. The non-linear isotropic/kinematic hardening model em- D Hole diameter [mm]

bedded in ABAQUS is used to characterize the material behav- Dc Critical damage

ior. Different stress levels, different interference fit sizes and DPSWT SWT damage parameter

different expanded hole diameters are investigated. As a result, E Modulus of elasticity [MPa]

crack arrest hole diameter equals to 6 mm with larger interfer- f{X}({Xi}) Joint probability density function

ence fit size (IFS = 0.2 mm) provides higher beneficial com- f X i ð xi Þ Probability density function of the element xi

pressive residual stress distribution and higher fatigue life im- I({x}) Indicator failure function

provement than drilling hole near the crack tip. The iso- IFS Interference fit size [mm]

probabilistic S-N curves and the Reliability-Life curves after L Load function

repair can be determined for different interference fit sizes and N Number of random sampling in the MCS

different expanded hole diameters. This probabilistic approach MCS Monte Carlo simulation

can be used with the interference fit process as an interesting Pf Failure probability

and practical tool to ensure an optimal maintenance planning R Stress ratio

for cracked structures and to improve the fatigue lives of these S Strength function

cracked components that cannot be replaced as soon as the SENT Single Edge Notch Tension specimen

cracks are observed, especially in the aeronautical filed. t Thickness of specimen [mm]

W Width of specimen [mm]

Δε/2 Strain amplitude

0

* A. Bahloul εf Fatigue ductility coefficient

bahloulahmad@hotmail.fr εD Initial critical deformation

εR Deformation at rupture

0

1

Laboratoire de Mécanique de Sousse, Ecole Nationale d’Ingénieurs

σf Fatigue strength coefficient [MPa]

de Sousse, Université de Sousse, Bp.264 Erriadh, σm Mean stress [MPa]

4023 Sousse, Tunisia σmax Maximum normal stress [MPa]

2162 Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2017) 91:2161–2173

σres Residual stress [MPa] Moreover, it was demonstrated that the application of over-

σy Yield strength [MPa] load in cracked structure can produce a retardation period in

2-D Two dimensional fatigue crack growth rate. This retardation period is affected

by the compressive residual stress distribution arising from the

overload step. In this context, many retardation models

1 Introduction [14–17] were proposed in order to predict the fatigue life after

overloading. But, it should be mentioned that Shin et al. [18]

Failure analysis of cracked structures is among the most sig- showed that drilling hole near the crack tip is safer and more

nificant challenging point in the engineering industry. Crack practical than applying overload.

propagation life estimation is often used in the aeronautical In the aerospace industry, the cold expansion technique or

field to determine the optimal inspection time [1] for a grow- the interference fit process has been used for over 40 years

ing crack before it becomes critical. Therefore, looking for a [19–27]. The beneficial effect of this process for improving

procedure/method to arrest fatigue crack growth before failure the fatigue life of aerospace structures needs no more intro-

is very useful. In this context, Several investigations have duction. It should be noted that all the previous studies used

dealt with the idea of arresting fatigue crack growth [2] such essentially the cold expansion process to improve the fatigue

as: repairing the cracked zone by application of composite life of fastener holes or joints in the mechanical components.

patches [3], indentation [4, 5], cold expansion hole technique There are few studies which investigated the interference fit

[6], drilling holes near the crack tip [7–9], and applying an process as a technique to arrest existing crack before it be-

overloading step [10]. comes critical [6, 28].

Drilling holes near the crack tip is among the most suitable The aim of the present paper is to investigate the interfer-

and practical method for improving the fatigue life of struc- ence fit process as a technique for crack repair and to develop

tures containing cracks. In this context, and based on experi- a probabilistic approach that take into account the material

mental tests carried out in 6005-A-T6 aluminum alloy cracked parameters scattering for predicting fatigue life improvement

specimens, Ghfiri et al. [6] proved that the cold expansion of of repaired cracked structures. The developed approach is car-

drilling hole improves the residual fatigue life. Murdami et al. ried out by coupling FE-analysis and Monte Carlo reliability

[11] investigated arresting crack by introducing a new techni- method. Therefore, a 2D FE-analysis for a 7075-T6

cal method which consists in drilling ancillary holes near the Aluminum alloy cracked specimen using the non-linear

stop hole in order to reduce the stress concentration. Later, isotropic/kinematic hardening model is established. The

Makabe et al. [12] studied crack retardation by redirecting Reliability-Life curves and the iso-probabilistic S-N curves

crack growth. They inserted pins into the drilling hole and after interference fit repair are determined for different inter-

they proved the method’s capability for extending fatigue life. ference fit sizes, different expanded hole diameters and differ-

Recent works have investigated numerically crack-growth ent material dispersion levels.

arresting methods by drilling holes in the cracked zone.

Ayatollahi et al. [7] studied the effect of the stop drill hole

for a cracked specimen under mixed mode loading. They 2 Theoretical background

proved that the stop drill hole technique is more efficient for

improving fatigue life under mixed mode loading than under 2.1 Computational procedure for crack improvement life

pure mode I. According to Ayatollahi et al. [8], drilling two

symmetric holes in the vicinity of the crack tip can improve Engineering structures are frequently subjected to fatigue

the residual fatigue life much greater than the stop crack tip loads in which cracks may be initiated and propagated.

hole. Looking for a procedure/model to predict the fatigue life of

Recently, Fanni et al. [9] proposed a new crack stop-hole these structures still remains among a challenging point in

method to arrest existing crack before it becomes critical. several industrial sectors. In this context, various multi-axial

They found that fatigue life extension using optimum hole fatigue models [29–32] generally based on three criteria: (i)

shape near the crack tip, is significantly higher than using a the critical plane approach, (ii) the strain/stress-based ap-

circular crack stop-hole. proach and (iii) the energy-based approach, were proposed.

More recently, Ravazi et al. [13] investigated the effect of The damage parameter DPSWT proposed by Smith et al. [32] is

new stop-hole method for arresting fatigue crack propagation. commonly accepted for engineering applications [9, 33].

The main aim of the proposed method is to drill double stop-

hole near the crack tip in order to reduce the stress concentra-

tion at the edge of the stop holes. They showed that the double 0 2

Δεmax σf

stop drill-hole method provides higher fatigue life improve- DPSWT ¼ σmax ¼

0 0

ð2N i Þ2b þ ε f σ f ð2N i Þbþc ð1Þ

ment than the stop hole method. 2 E

Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2017) 91:2161–2173 2163

(a)

Where Ni, σmax, Δε2max , E are the number of cycles, the

maximum normal stress, the total strain amplitude and the

0

modulus of elasticity, respectively. ε f and c present the low-

0

cycle fatigue coefficients. σ f and b are the high-cycle fatigue

constants. In the present paper, the fatigue life improvement of

cracked SENT specimen repaired by high interference fit

bushing is investigated using the SWT model. According to

Ref. [33], the SWT‘s fatigue parameters for Al alloy 7075 –T6

are presented in Table 1.

interesting tool for studying uncertain scenarios and providing

statistical and probabilistic analysis. MCS method is exten-

sively used in engineering disciplines [34–37] to evaluate risk

measurements with uncertain parameters, to study the sensi-

tivity effect of input factors on the desiring response at differ- A

ent dispersion levels and to compute their reliability.

(b)

To compute the reliability, let X be a vector of random

variable in which xi is an element of this vector, having f X i

ðxi Þ as a probability density function (PDF). Consider G(xi),

the performance function separating the unsafe and safe zone. Specimen

Where L(xi) and S(xi) are the load function and the strength Interference fit bushing

function [38], respectively. The probability of failure Pf can be

expressed as follows:

Fig. 1 (a) Specimen dimensions (mm) and (b) Interference fit process

Where Pr and f{X}({Xi}) represent the probability operator

and the joint PDF of the vector X, respectively. Three cases

can be observed: (i) structural safety condition G(xi) > 0 , (ii)

Where Nf(G(xi) < 0) is the number of failure events and

structural failure condition G(xi) < 0 and (iii) limit state func-

I({x}) represents the indicator failure function:

tion G(xi) = 0 .

Let N be the total number of MC simulation, for the N 1 if GðfxgÞ < 0

I ð f xgÞ ¼ ð5Þ

obtained value of G(xi), it is assumed that the failure event 0 if GðfxgÞ≥ 0

(i.e. G({x}) < 0 ) extends towards the failure probability Pf

when N → + ∞ [39]. Finally, the reliability R is computed as follows:

R ¼ 1−P f ð6Þ

N f ðGðxi Þ < 0Þ 1 N

P f ¼ lim ¼ lim ∑ I ð f xgÞ ð4Þ The generation of N random samplings of each input pa-

N→∞ N N →∞ N i¼1

rameters consists to define the following steps:

Table 1 Al 7075-T6 Strain-life data

(ii) The coefficient of variation (Cov) of each parameter

0

Fatigue strength coefficient σ f (MPa) 1466 which defines the dispersion range in terms of (%).

0

Fatigue ductility coefficient ε f 0.262 (iii) The probability density function (PDF) (i.e. it consists in

Fatigue ductilityexponent c -0.619 simulating several random samplings of input parame-

Fatigue strengthexponent b -0.143 ters according to their PDF, which are assumed to be

normally distributed in this case).

2164 Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2017) 91:2161–2173

element analysis at the edge of the hole, opposite from the

point where crack intersects the hole, is used to predict the

fatigue life improvement after repair. Different interference fit

sizes and hole diameters are considered in the present study.

In order to take into account the mean stress relaxation, the

Baushinger effect and the cyclic hardening during cyclic load-

ing, Lemaitre and Chaboche kinematic hardening model em-

bedded in the commercial code ABAQUS is used. The basic

equations of this plasticity model are described as follows

[40]:

2 p

X ¼ Cε −γX p ð7Þ

3

Y ¼ σy þ Q 1−e−bp ð8Þ

Fig. 2 Finite element mesh of the SENT specimen tensor and the radius of the yield surface, respectively. C, γ, Q

and b are the experimental material parameters and p represent

(iv) The total number of simulation events N (i.e. in this the accumulated plastic strain defined by the following equa-

case, the number of MCS is assumed to be equals to tion:

104 because from N = 104, the reliability values con- rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

verge (we obtain almost the same relative reliability 2 p p

p¼ ε :ε ð9Þ

values)). 3

duce a beneficial compressive residual stress along the hole

Expirement [23], (R=0)

SWT model (present study)

In the present section, a 2D- FE analysis using ABAQUS 40

software is carried out. A Single Edge Notch Tension

(SENT) specimen with initial crack size is considered as

38

Maximum applied load (KN)

load steps. In the first step, the interference fit process was

simulated by applying a radial displacement on the nodes 36

(i.e. resulting in expansion similar to the insertion of pin). In 34

the second step, a cyclic axial loading (R = 0.1) is applied to

estimate the fatigue life improvement of the cracked SENT 32

specimen after repair. In order to capture the proper stress-

strain behavior arising from the interference fit process, a very

30

fine mesh is implemented near the hole edge as illustrated in

Table 2 Al 7075-T6 28

mechanical properties Young Modulus (MPa) 70,940 10

4

10

5

Poisson’s ratio 0.33 Fig. 3 Comparison between experimental data [23] and numerical

results

Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2017) 91:2161–2173 2165

probabilistic approach

crack length , interference fit level, hole

diameter, detailed geometry, stress ratio...)

Software

coefficient , Fatigueductility exponent c and Fatigue strength

exponent b.

- Coefficient of variation: Cov , Cov , Cov c and Cov b.

- Mean value: Mean_ , Mean_ ,Mean_c and Mean_b.

edge. However, this compressive residual stress’s effect be- Where Dc , εD , εR, p , σeq, σH and v are the critical damage,

comes unappreciable with the high level of the interference fit the initial critical deformation, the deformation at rupture,

size. In order to make a balance between the beneficial com- the accumulated plastic strain, the Von Mises equivalent

pressive residual stress distribution and the damage associated stress, the hydrostatic stress of the applied tensor stress

with the interference fit process, Lemaitre and Chaboche’s and the Poisson’s ratio, respectively. In the first step, the

damage model [41] is used in its integrated form. This damage damage parameter is evaluated using Eq.10 and then, the

model can be expressed as follows: Young’s modulus E is updated after each increment as

" 2 # ! follows:

Dc 2 σH

Da ≅ p ð1 þ vÞ þ 3ð1−2vÞ −εD ð10Þ

εR −εD 3 σeq E tþΔt ¼ E t ð1−Dt Þ ð11Þ

0 1466 1% Normal

σ f (MPa)

0 0.262 1% Normal

εf

c -0.619 1% Normal

b -0.143 1% Normal

2166 Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2017) 91:2161–2173

around the expanded hole

Where Et , Et + Δt and Dt are the Young’s modulus at loads. The SWT model is implemented to predict the fa-

the instant t, the Young’s modulus at the instant t + Δt tigue life improvement after repair. A comparison be-

and the damage value, respectively. The damage param- tween the available experimental data and the numerical

eters used in this application are Dc = 0.23 , εD = 0.03 results (Fig. 3) is carried out.

and εR = 0.25.

In this paper, User material subroutine is developed 4.2 Application 2: probabilistic approach and reliability

to integrate the Lemaitre and Chaboche’s damage model analysis

in the commercial FE code ABAQUS [42]. The Single

Edge Notch Tension (SENT) specimen used in this In this section, a probabilistic approach for predicting the fa-

study is assumed to be made from aluminum alloy. tigue life improvement of cracked SENT specimen (Fig. 1)

The Al 7075-T6 mechanical parameters and their cyclic repaired by high interference fit bushing is implemented.

fatigue parameters [43] are summarized in Table 2 and The main procedure for developing the probabilistic model

Table 3, respectively. using FE-analysis and Monte Carlo simulation method is sum-

marized as follows (Fig. 4):

4 Applications kinematic hardening model embedded in ABAQUS is car-

ried out. In the first step, the interference fit process was

4.1 Application 1: SWT model’s capability for predicting simulated in the cracked SENT specimen. In the second

fatigue life improvement after repair step, a cyclic axial loading (R = 0.1) for different applied

loads is applied to estimate the fatigue life improvement

The first application is established to validate the SWT after repair. Different interference fit sizes and hole expand-

model ‘effectiveness for predicting the fatigue life im- ed diameters are considered in this analysis. The % expan-

provement after repair. Therefore, a holed plate specimen sion (Ex) for each case can be computed as follows:

repaired by high interference fit bushing is considered.

The interference fit bushing diameter expanded into the

hole is equal to 5.05 mm. After the interference fit process

simulation, the specimen was applied to a cyclic fatigue

loading with zero load ratio (R = 0), for different applied IFS ¼ Rexpanded −Rinitial ð12Þ

Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2017) 91:2161–2173 2167

distribution (MPa) around

expanded hole for different

interference fit sizes: (a)

IFS = 0.1 mm (3.3%), (b)

IFS = 0.15 mm (5%) and (c)

IFS = 0.2 mm (6.7%)

(b)

(c)

IFS

%Ex ¼ 100 2 ð13Þ absolute failure and zone of absolute safety. Different

D dispersion levels can be applied.

Where Ex, IFS and D are the expansion level (%), (4) The reliability is computed for each material parameter

the interference fit size (mm) and the hole diameter, for different interference fit sizes and different expanded

respectively. hole diameters using the Monte Carlo simulation

(Strength-Load method).

(2) The cyclic stress-strain values obtained from finite ele- (5) The iso-probabilistic P-S-N curves of the repaired SENT

ment analysis (i.e. min and max strain at the control point specimen are determined for different interference fit

CP for each interference fit size IFS and hole diameter D) sizes and different expanded hole diameters.

are used to predict the fatigue life improvement after

repair using the SWT model.

(3) Due to the significant fatigue data scatter, the proposed

approach was developed by taking into account the ma-

terial property dispersion. Their dispersions are assumed 5 Discussion

to be normally distributed as illustrated in Table 4. The

generation of random sampling of each material param- (i) In order to validate the accuracy of the finite element re-

eter leads to transform the S-N diagram into three zones sults, a comparison between fatigue life experimental data

as shown in Fig. 8b: an uncertainty zone, a zone of and the obtained results for a holed plate specimen

2168 Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2017) 91:2161–2173

distribution (MPa) around

expanded hole for different hole

diameters: (a) D = 6 mm (3.3%),

(b) D = 8 mm (2.5%) and (c)

D = 10 mm (2%)

(b)

(c)

repaired by high interference fit bushing was carried out. interference fit sizes (IFS) and different expanded hole

Figure 3 shows a good agreement between the available diameters. It is observed that the highest compressive

experimental data and the SWT model results for residual stress is obtained for 0.2 mm interference fit size

predicting fatigue life improvement after interference fit and small expanded hole diameter. The magnitude of

process. maximum compressive residual stress in its absolute val-

(ii) In the second application, the use of the interference fit ue corresponding to 0.2 mm interference fit size is 1.12%

process as a crack repair method is investigated. The higher than 0.15 mm IFS and 7.37% higher than 0.1 mm

Single Edge Notch Tension (SENT) specimen is consid- IFS. The magnitude of maximum compressive residual

ered in this application as shown in Fig. 1a. Figure 5 stress at 0.1 mm IFS corresponding to 6 mm hole diam-

presents the Von Mises stress distribution along the hole eter is 12.21% higher than 8 mm hole diameter and

edge after interference fit technique simulation. It was 30.6% higher than 10 mm hole diameter.

assumed that the beneficial effect of high interference (iii) Figure 8a shows a comparison between the fatigue life

fit bushing is associated with the compressive residual improvement of cracked SENT specimen repaired by

stress distribution along the expanded hole. Figure 6 and crack arrest hole (CAH) method (i.e. Ex = 0%) and by

Fig. 7 demonstrate the variation of residual stress distri- interference fit bushing (i.e. Ex = 2.5%). It is found that

bution around the hole edge after repair for different the interference fit process provides significant fatigue

Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2017) 91:2161–2173 2169

improvement for different degrees

of expansion: Ex = 0% and

Ex = 2.5%. b: Material property

dispersion in the probabilistic S-N

curve

(b)

250 , ,b=-

= =

200

Uncertainty zone

Max imum Stres s Amplitude (MPa)

Zone of absolute

150 safety Zone of absolute

failure

100

50

4 5 6 7 8

10 10 10 10 10

Fatigue Life (Cycles)

life improvement compared to the conventional CAH A variation of the fatigue life improvement correspond-

method, extensively used in several research works [6, ing to 0% and 100% reliabilities is observed. It is ob-

7]. The effectiveness of this technique is attributed to the served that the fatigue life after repair for the SENT spec-

induced compressive residual stress around the hole imen and their corresponding reliabilities increase when

which shields it from the effect of cyclic loading. the interference fit size increases. This result is consistent

(iv) Figure 9 and Fig. 10 show the variation of fatigue life with the physical observations.

improvement of the repaired SENT specimen at differ- (vi) Figure 12 shows the computed reliability results with

ent stress amplitude levels. It is found that the highest the fatigue life improvement for the same cracked

fatigue life improvement is corresponding to small ex- SENT specimen after interference fit process

panded hole diameters (Fig. 9) and higher interference (IFS = 0.1 mm) at different expanded hole diameters

fit size (Fig. 10). (D = 6 mm, D = 8 mm and D = 10 mm). It is observed

(v) Figure 11 illustrates the change of the computed reliabil- that the change of the hole diameter leads to an impor-

ity with the fatigue life improvement of the cracked tant variation of the fatigue life corresponding to 0% and

SENT specimen after repair for different interference fit 100% reliabilities. In fact, the best fatigue reliability is

sizes (IFS =0.1 mm, IFS = 0.15 mm and IFS = 0.2 mm). obtained in the case of small expanded hole diameter.

2170 Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2017) 91:2161–2173

300

R=0.1, IFS=0.1 mm, D=6 mm 1

R=0.1, IFS=0.1 mm, D=8 mm IFS=0.1 mm

R=0.1, IFS=0.1 mm, D=10 mm 0.9 IFS=0.15 mm

250 IFS= 0.2 mm

Maximum Stress Amplitude (MPa)

0.8

200 0.7

0.6

Reliability (%)

150

0.5

100 0.4

0.3

50

0.2

0.1

0 4 5 6 7 8

10 10 10 10 10 0

0 2 4 6 8 10

Fatigue Life (Cycles)

6

Fatigue Life (Cycles) x 10

Fig. 9 Fatigue life improvement after repair at different expanded hole

diameters Fig. 11 Reliability-life curves for different interference fit sizes

This result can be explained by the fact that the higher and b, it is observed that the dispersion level (Cov val-

0

compressive residual stress arising from the interference ue) of the fatigue ductility coefficient ε f and the fatigue

fit process is obtained for small hole diameter as shown ductility exponent c has no appreciable effect in the

in Fig. 7. prediction of fatigue life after crack repair. However,

(vii) The effects of material parameters scatter for predicting the scatter of the fatigue life after crack repair increases

fatigue life extension after interference fit process were when the Cov value of the fatigue strength coefficient

0

investigated. Figure 13a, b, c and d illustrate the varia- σ f and the fatigue strength exponent b increase as

tion of the computed fatigue reliability with the fatigue shown in Fig. 13c and d. Due the statistical distribution

life improvement of the cracked SENT specimen after of the material parameters, the obtained reliability-life

repair (IFS = 0.1 mm, D = 6 mm and R = 0.1) for three curves are very useful for engineering applications to

supposed Cov values (1%, 3% and 5%). From Fig. 13a

300

R=0.1, D=6 mm, Ex=3.33% 1

R=0.1, D=6 mm, Ex=5% IFS= 0.1 mm, D=6 mm

R=0.1, D=6 mm, Ex=6.7% 0.9 IFS= 0.1 mm, D=8 mm

250

IFS= 0.1 mm, D=10 mm

Maximum Stress Amplitude (MPa)

0.8

200

0.7

0.6

Reliability (%)

150

0.5

100 0.4

0.3

50

0.2

0.1

0 4 5 6 7 8

10 10 10 10 10

0

Fatigue Life (Cycles) 0 2 4 6 8 10

6

Fatigue Life (Cycles) x 10

Fig. 10 Fatigue life improvement after repair at different interference fit

sizes (IFS) Fig. 12 Reliability-life curves for different expanded hole diameters

Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2017) 91:2161–2173 2171

1

Cov c=1%

0.9 Cov c=3%

Cov c=5%

0.8

0.7

0.6

Reliability(%)

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

0 2 4 6 8 10

Fatigue Life (Cycles) 6

x 10

(b) (d) 1

Cov b=1%

0.9 Cov b=3%

Cov b=5%

0.8

0.7

0.6

Reliability (%)

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

0 2 4 6 8 10

Fatigue Life (Cycles) 6

x 10

Fig. 13 Reliability-life curves for different Cov values

predict in a more efficient and reliable way the fatigue efficient and reliable way the fatigue life im-

life improvement of cracked structures after repair. provement after repair.

(viii) Figure 14 shows the iso-probabilistic S-N curves

(P-S-N) of cracked Single Edge Notch Tension

(SENT) specimen repaired by high interference

fit bushing for 5%, 50% and 95% reliabilities. 6 Conclusions

It is noted that the security zone is reduced when

the reliability values increase. These P-S-N This paper aims to investigate the interference fit process as a

curves are considered as a powerful technique technique to arrest existing crack (crack repair) in mechanical

for ensuring an optimal and safe maintenance structures. In this context, a cracked SENT specimen is con-

planning for cracked structures essentially in the sidered. The non-linear isotropic/kinematic hardening model

aeronautical field. It takes into account the influ- embedded in ABAQUS is used to characterize material be-

ence of material dispersion for predicting in more havior. Both, fatigue life improvement and compressive

2172 Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2017) 91:2161–2173

P-S-N curve after repair at 50% fatigue reliability for R=0.1

maintenance planning for a detectable crack size in me-

P-S-N curve after repair at 95% fatigue reliability for R=0.1 chanical structures.

Maximum Stress Amplitude (Mpa)

200

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