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GPA STDx8IIBb 8b m 3 8 2 L i b î î 00003LlLi II m

OPA Standard 8186-86

Measurement of Liq u id Hydrocarbon


by
Truck Scales

Adopted as a Standard, 1986

Gas Processors Association


6526 East 60th St.

Tulsa, Oklahoma 74145

9 ia1493-3872
Non-Members:
Single copies ...................... .$ 4.00

Members:
Single copies ......................... 2.50
1O or more copies. each .............2.00
I I
GPA STD*dLBb 86 3 8 2 L ) b î ï 00003L)b 5 =
Measurement of Liquid Hydrocarbon by Truck Scales
1. INTRODUCTION AND SCOPE 2.7 Load Cell-The basic weighing element of a load-cell
scale. The load cell, whether electric, hydraulic, or pneumatic,
1.1 This standard presents apparatus, procedures and produces a signal proportional to the load applied. A load cell
safety practices pertaining to measurement of liquid hydro-
may also be utilized on a mechanical lever type scale to
carbons at gas processing plants, refineries, tank farms,
convert mechanical force to an electronic signal.
marine and pipeline terminals by the use of truck scales.
Although many existing codes, standards, regulations and 2.8 Load-Receiving Element-The platform or deck of a
safety practices employed by the industry have been used in scale which is designed to receive the load to be weighed. Also
its preparation, it is not intended that this document be referred to as the weighbridge.
considered as a code or standard for loading or unloading
procedures of a liquid hydrocarbons facility design. 2.9 Net Weight-The weight of the load. The tare weight
subtracted from the gross weight equals net weight.
1.2 The GPA takes no position as to whether any method,
apparatus, or product mentioned herein is covered by an 2.10 Nominal CapacieThe nominal capacity of a scale is
existing patent, nor as to the validity of any patent alleged to (a) the largest weight indication that can be obtained by the
cover any such method, apparatus, or product. Furthermore, use of all of the reading or recording elements, or (b) the
nothing contained in this standard grants any right, by capacity marked on the scale by the manufacturer, whichever
implication or otherwise, for manufacture, sale or use in is less.
connection with any method, apparatus, or product covered
by letter patents; nor does it insure anyone against liability for 2.11 Overload-A load weight greater than that permitted
infringement of letter patent. by regulation or rating of equipment.
1.3 This standard may be used by anyone desiring to do 2.12 Repeatability-The ability to duplicate the indication
so, but the GPA shall not be held responsible or liable in any each time the same weight is applied, regardless of direction
way, either for any loss or damage resulting therefrom or from of approach.
any violation of any federal, state, or municipal regulations 2.13 Scale Diuision-The value of the smallest subdivision
with which it may conflict. In all instances, applicable federal, expressed in units of mass for analog indication or the
state, or municipal regulations should be followed. difference between two consecutively indicated or printed
1.4 Included in this standard are references to material values for digital indication or printing.
that pertain to design and operation of liquid hydrocarbons 2.14 Section Test-A test intended to disclose the weighing
installations. Although some states have regulations pertaining performance of each scale section individually.
to loading and unloading of liquid hydrocarbons into or out of
tank trucks, and tank cars at loading facilities which are a part 2.15 Shift Test-A test intended to disclose the weighing
of a gasoline plant, refinery, tank farm and pipeline terminal, performance of a scale under off-center loading.
references to individual state regulations have not been
included because many states either do not have existing, 2.16 Tare Weight-The weight of the vehicle without a
regulations or the regulations are not codified. load.
2.17 Ticket-Printer-A device whichissues a ticket or other
2. DEFINITIONS form containing printed information, including the identity
2.1 Accuracy-The slight deviation from standard limits. and quantity of the material being transferred.
The error which is the difference between the scale indication
and the true value of that which is being weighed. 2.18 Truck Scale-A scale adapted to weighing highway
motor trucks, loaded or unloaded.
2.2 Automatic-IndicatingScale-One on which the weights
of applied loads of various magnitudes are automatically 2.1 9 Weighbeam-An element comprising one or more bars,
indicated throughout all or a portion of the weighing range of equipped with movable poises or means for applying counter-
the scale. poise weights or both. ’

2.3 Balance Indicator-A combination of elements, one or 2.20 Zero Balanceshift Test-A test for a change or shift of
both of which will oscillate with respect to the other, for zero indication.
indicating the balance condition of a nonautomatic-indicating
2.21 Zero Setting Mechanism-Means provided to attain a
scale. The combination may consist of two indicating edges,
zero balance indication with no load on the load receiving
lines, or points, or a single edge, line, or point and a graduated element.
scale.
2.4 Beam Scale-One on which the weights of loads of 2.2111 Automatic Zero Setting Mechanism-Automatic
various magnitudes are indicated solely by means of one or means provided to maintain a zero balance indication without
more weighbeam bars either alone or in combination with the intervention of an operator.
counterpoise weights. 2.21.2 Manual Zero Setting Mechanism-Non-automatic
2.5 Gross Weight-Total weight of the vehicle loaded. means provided to attain a zero balance indication by the
direct operation of a control.
2.6 Liquid HydrocarbonsFor the purpose of this standard,
liquid hydrocarbons include but are not limited to liquefied 2.21.3 Semi-Automatic Zero Setting Mechanism-Semi-
petroleum gas (LP-gas), ethane-propane (EP) mixes and automatic means provided to attain a direct zero balance
natural gas liquids (NGL). indication requiring a single initiation by an operator.

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G P A STD*âLBb 8b 3 8 2 4 6 9 9 00003Ll7 7 I'

3. APPARATUS 4.1.3 When the index of an indicator extends along the


entire length of a graduation, that portion of the index that
3.1 Accuracy-The scale system shaii be capable of main- may be brought into coincidence with the graduation shall be
taining an accuracy of plus or minus one tenth of one percent of the same width throughout the length of the index. The
(f0.1%) of applied load. clearance between the index of an indicator and the grad-
3.2 Repeatability-The scale system shall repeat, per uations shall in no case be more than six-hundredths (0.06)
Section 2115, within one scale division. The value of the scale inch. Parallax effects shall be reduced to the practical
division shall not be greater than two hundredths of one minimum. The zone of uncertainty on digital indicating scales
percent (.02%) of the nominal capacity of the scale with the shall be no greater than three-tenths (0.3) the value of the
largest allowed scale division limited to twenty (20) pounds. minimum operating increment. A digital indicating element
and recording element shall not display or record any values
3.3 Scale when the gross platform load is in excess of one-hundred five
3.3.1 The scale shall be suitable for the service in which it percent (105%) of the nominal capacity of the system. A
is used with respect to elements of its design, including but digital indicating or recording element shall not display or
not limited to weighing capacity, computing capability; the record any usable values until the operating temperature
character, number, size and location of indicating or recording (warm-up time) necessary for accurate weighjng and a stable
elements; and the value of its smallest unit. zero balance condition has been attained.
3.3.2 The equipment shall be suitable for the environment 4.1.4 The weighing system shall be equipped with manual
in which it is used including but not limited to the effects of or semi-automatic means by which the zero-load balance or no
wind, weather, earthquakes, electromagnetic interference load reference value indication may be adjusted.
(EMI) and radio frequency interference (RFI). 4.1.5 Provision shall be made on scales equipped with
3.3.3 At all points at which a live part of the mechanism indicating or recording elements to either indicate or record a
may come into contact with another part in the course of zero balance condition, and on an automatic-indicating scale
normal usage, frictional effects shall be reduced to a minimum or balance indicator to indicate or record an out-of-balance
by suitable anti-friction means, in addition to the opposing condition on both sides of zero. A zero or center-of-zero
surfaces and points being properly shaped, finished and indication shall represent a balance condition that is within
hardened. plus or minus one-fourth (f0.25) the value of the minimum
scale division that can be indicated or recorded.
3.3.4 All adjustable components, such as potentiometers,
shall be held securely in adjustment, and shall not be 4.1.6 All systems shall be equipped with effective means
adjustable fróm outside of the device, except for level or no- necessary to bring the indications quickiy to a stable readable
load adjustments. equilibrium. Effective means shall also be provided to permit
the recording of weight values oniy when the indication is
3.3.5 All weighing systems shall be vented so that any stable within plus or minus one ( I l ) scale division, or less.
internal or external pressure will not affect the accuracy or
operation of the system. 4.1.7 The value of the scale division shall be conspicuously
marked adjacent to the weight display on any scale so
3.3.6 A manual zero-load or no-load reference setting constructed that the value of the scale division is immediately
mechanism shall be operable or accessible only by a tool apparent.
outside of or entirely separate from this mechanism or
enclosed in a cabinet. 4.1.8 On multi-range devices capable of indicating in two
or more units, each range and unit shall be marked.
3.3.7 A semi-automatic zero-load or no-load reference
value setting mechanism shall be operable only when the 4.2 Printer-Any printed ticket issued by a device shall
indication is stable within plus or minus one (1) scale division, have printed on it, as a minimum, gross weight and tare
and cannot be operated during a weighing operation. weight, other items to be either printed or hand written are:
Date, Time, Net Weight, Product and LD. Number.
3.3.8 The nominal capacity and the maximum state
weight limits shall be conspicuously marked. Example:
4. SCALE INDICATOR AND/OR PRINTER BRAND X Oil Company
4.1 Indicator 201 E. Main Street
Any Town, TX O0000
4.1.1 The index of an indicator shall be symmetrical with
respect to the graduations with which it is associated and at Time: 7 5 0 a.m.
least throughout that portion of its length that is associated Date: September 8, 1985
with the graduations. The index of an indicator shall reach to LD.: 99999
the finest graduations with which it is used, unless the Product: Propane
indicator and the graduations are in the same plane, in which
case the distance between the end of the indicator and the Weight
ends of the graduations, measured along the line of the 80,000 Gross
graduations, shall be not more than four-hundredths (0.04) 40,000 Tare
inch. The width of the index of an indicator in relation to the 40,000 Net
series of graduations with which it is used shail be not greater
than the width of the widest graduation or the width of the Driver Signature:
minimum clear interval between weight graduations.
Company Representative Signature
4.1.2 The indicator shall be installed in such a manner
that the operator has visual contact with the scales.

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6. RECOMMENDED PROTECTION 8.3 Testing Procedures
5.1 Surge Protection-When scales are equipped with 8.3.1 A Section Test shall be conducted by applying the
digital electronics devices shall be incorporated to provide identical weight(s) to each weighbridge section successively.
surge protection. As a minimum, the level of surge protection The indicator should indicate the same weight for each section
shall be such that the equipment and protective devices shall with the accuracy requirements of Section 3.1.
survive,without damage, the IEEE Surge Withstand Capability
(SWC) Test, IEEE Standard 472. 8.3.2 An increasing load test shall be conducted on all
5.2 Short CircuiVLightningProtection-The scale shall be scales. The test shall be conducted by applying weights of
grounded for short circuit protection in accordance with approximately twenty-five (25), fifty (50), seventy-five (75),
Article 250 of the National Electrical Code (NEC). Lightning and one hundred (100) percent of the nominal capacity of the
protection shall be in accordance with NFPA Code Number system. Certified test weights or a combination of certified
78. weights and uncertified weights may be used. Apply certified
weights to the scales and if the accuracy is within the
5.3 RFI and EMI Protection-Adequate radio frequency requirements of Section 3.1, then remove the certified
interference (RFI) and electromotive interference ( E m weights and apply the uncertified weights (the uncertified
protection shall be provided for the overall system, as per weights shall not exceed the weight of the certified weights).
IEEE Std. 518. Then the certified weights are reapplied and the scales
6. INSTALLATION checked for accuracy. This procedure shall be repeated until
100% of the capacity of the scales has been checked.
6.1 The foundation and supports of a scale installed in a
fixed location shall be such as to provide strength, rigidity and An example of this procedure is to apply increments of the
permanence of all components. Clearance shall be provided certified weights to the scale verifying each step to be within
around all live parts to the extent that no contacts may result tolerance until ail the certified weights are on the scales. Then
when the load-receiving element is empty, and throughout the remove certified weights from the scale. Drive a loaded tank
weighing range of the scale. truck onto the scales until onìy the front wheels are on the
scales, then take a scale reading, reapply the certified weights
6.2 Adequate provision shall be made for ready access to and verify the scale to be within tolerance by adding the front
ail components of a scale for inspection and maintenance. axle truck weight to the certified weight. This procedure is
6.3 The length of the scale shall be sufficient to accom- repeated for each axle until the truck is completely on the
modate any tractor trailer truck in one weighing. On the scales, or to the nominal capacity of the scale.
approach end or ends of the scale there shall be a straight
approach at least the width of the platform, and at least one- 8.3.3 A decreasing load test shall be conducted similar to
half (0.5) the length of the platform but not required to be the inreasing test, only in the opposite direction. The weight
more than forty (40) feet. Not less than ten (10) feet of any indications shall compare to those of the increasing load test
approach adjacent to the platform shall be constructed of within the repeatability requirements of Section 3.2.
concrete or similar durable material to insure that this portion 8.3.4 A zero balance shift test shall be conducted on all
remains relatively smooth and level, and in the same plane as scales after the removal of any test load.
the platform so as not to cause scale shifting which might
render the system less repeatable. However, grating of 8.3.5 A shift test shall be conducted by applying two (2)
sufficient strength to withstand all loads equal to the sectional different test weights of at least ten percent (10%) difference
capacity of the scale may be installed in this portion. Any in weight at opposite positions on the weighbridge. The
slope in the remaining portion of the approach shall insure indicator should indicate the value equal to the sum of the
ease of vehicle access, ease for testing purposes and drainage weights, within the requirements of Section 3.0.
away from the scale.
8.4 Calibration-If the test results indicate the scale is not
6.4 The scale system shall be constructed and installed to within the accuracy and repeatability requirements of Section
function safely in the potentially hazardous presence of 3.0, the scale shall be taken out of service and recalibrated,
hydrocarbon liquids and/or vapors, The system shall conform then each test repeated until the scale meets the requirements
to the National Electrical Code (NEC) and the National Fire of Section 3.0.
Protection Association Manual (NFPA) 58 requirements.
With an “as found” and “as left” calibration report, it will
7. WEIGHING AND LOADING PROCEDURES be possible for the contracting parties to closely determine an
amount the scale is out of calibration should a retroactive
7.1 The established loading and weighing procedures and calculation be required.
safety precautions as defiied in GPA publication 8162 shall
be adhered to at this time. When GPA Reference Bulletin 8.5 General
187-87 is published it will supersede 8162.
Due to the nature of truck scales, measurement errors
8. TESTING AND CALIBRATION found during the test can be minimized by operational
procedures. Entering the scale from one direction is rec-
8.1 Frequency of Testing and Calibration-Testing and ommended and if scales are used for different size or length of
calibration shall be conducted at a minimum of every six (6) trucks, it is suggested to spot the truckat the same location on
months and immediatelyfollowing any maintenance performed
the scale each time. Note: in general, scales which are found to
on the scales that may affect accuracy and/or repeatability. be out of tolerance at one point, either high or low, will be out
8.2 A Calibration Report shall be included with the scale of tolerance the same amount through the total span of the
calibration certificate. This report shall include at minimum scale, therefore, since the tare weight is subtracted from the
the data of the section test, load tests and shift tests; “as gross weight the error will cancel and the net weight will be
found” before calibration and “as left” after calibration. correct.

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9. CERTIFIED WEIGHTS determine the mass of each individual component. The


individual component masses are then converted to their
9.1 Weights used in verifying a weighing system shall have respective equivalent liquid volumes at Standard conditions
an accuracy of one hundredth of one percent (.01%)or better, using component density values from the latest version of
traceable to the National Bureau of Standards Weights and GPA-2 145.
Measures. A test weight shall be clearly marked to show its
value. The surface of a weight shall be smooth and shall not be 11.3 Density-When the density of the product is deter-
coated with thick, soft, or brittle material. Weights shall be mined directly, such as with the use of a density meter or
made of a metal, or a metal alloy, not softer than brass. pyenometer, the weight to volume conversion is made by
dividing the net weight of the material in the truck by the
10. RELATIVE DENSITY DETERMINATION density of the product.
10.1 PressUreHydrometer-A pressure hydrometer may be
used to determine Relative Density at 60/60”F in accordance *This value is from 2145-86. Values from the latest version of 2145
should be used.
with ASTM D 1657 “Standard Test Method for Density or
Relative Density of Light Hydrocarbons by Pressure
Hydrometer.” SOURCES OF INFORMATION
10.2 Density Meter/Gravitometelative density 60/60°F GPA Technical Standard 8162, “LP-Gas Loading Practices
may be determined through the use of an on-line density Manual”$
meter/gravitometer installed and operated in accordance
with API MPM, Chapter 14.6. National Electrical Code
10.3 Chromatograph-Relative Density 60/60”F may be GPA Technical Standard 8173, “A Standard for Converting
* determined from a chromatographic analysis. The analysis Natural Gas Liquids and Vapors to Equivalent Liquid
shall be performed in accordance with GPA 2177 “Standard Volumes”
for Analysis of Natural Gas Liquid Mixtures by Gas Chroma- GPA Technical Standard 2145, “Physical Constants for the
tggraphy.” . Paraffin Hydrocarbons and Other Components of Natural
10.4 General-Other methods to determine density may Gas’’
be used, such as the use of a pycnometer, as long as it is American Society of Testing and Material (ASTM) Standard
agreeable to both contracting parties. D1250, “MI Petroleum Measurement Tables” (Chapter
11. VOLUME DETERMINATION II, Section i)
11.1 Relative Density-The weight (mass) to volume con- ASTM Standard D1657, “Density or Relative Density of
version may be made by dividing the product of the Relative Eight Hydrocarbons by Pressure Hydrometer”
Density 60/60”F and the density of water (8.33712 lbs/gal)* Institute of Electronic and Electrical Engineers (IEEE)
into the net weight. Standard 472, “Surge With Standing Capabilities (SWC)”
Example: GPA Technical Standard 2165, “Method for Analysis of
Volume @ 60°F & Equilibrium Pressure = Natural Gas Liquid Mixtures by Gas Chromatography”
National Fire Protection Agency (NFPA) 78, “Lightning
Net Weight (Pounds) Protection Code”
Relative Density 60;/60°F X Density HzO @ 60°F*
American Petroleum Institute (API) Manual of Petroleum
lbs Measurement Chapter 14.6,“Continuous Density Measure-
= 9,500 gallons ment for Hydrocarbons and Other Related Fluids”
0.505 X 8.33712
IEEE Standard 518, “Guide for the Installation of Electrical
11.2 Chromatographic Analysis-The weight (mass) to vol- Equipment to MinimizeElectrical Noise Input to Controllers
ume conversion may also be made in accordance with the from External Sources”
methods outlined in GPA Standard 8173 “GPA Standard for $At the time of thisprinting this Standardis being combined with GPA
Convertimg Natural -Gas Liquids and Vapors to Equivalent Technical Standard 81 66, “Driver Attended Loading Practices
Liquid Volumes..” This Standard incorporates the use of Manual” into GPA Reference Bulletin 187-87,“LP-Gas Loading
representative sampling and chromatographic analysis to Practices” which should be available in late 1987.