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Reservoir

Management
Practices
M.L Trice Jr., SPE, and B.A. Dawe, Esso Production Malaysia Inc.

Summary. This paper describes Introduction lower Group J sandstone at Tinggi has
the reservoir management practices Reservoir management is a significant com- strong aquifer support and no gas cap, so
ponent of EPMI's development planning and injection is not required. The upper Group
used at fields developed and oper- J sandstone, however, which is in commu-
production operations. Reservoir manage-
ated by Esso Production Malaysia ment planning, which begins during prede- nication with the lower group J sandstone,
Inc. (EPMI). The goal of EPMl's reser- velopment phases, is emphasized throughout has a gas cap but weak aquifer support. Con-
the productive lives of the reservoir and field sequently, gas is reinjected. At the Tapis,
voir management activities is to max-
to maximize profitability and economical oil Guntong, and Tabu fields, the Group I and
imize profitability and economical recovery. J sandstones have weak aquifer support and
recovery of oil. Excellence in reser- As contractor to Petroleum Nasional Bhd. long oil columns, so both water and gas are
voir management is achieved with (PETRONAS), the Malaysian national oil injected to maximize recovery.
company, EPMI currently operates 12 oil
clearly defined and endorsed plans
fields with 66 active reservoirs in the South Re.ervolr Management Goal
for management of each reservoir China Sea. The fields are located within the and Key ObJective.
and a coordinated process to collect, 1976 production sharing contract 1 (PSC) The company's reservoir management
analyze, validate, and integrate reser- areas (Fig. 1) about 130 to 260 kIn [80 to program is an ongoing, dynamic process of
160 miles} offshore Peninsular Malaysia. collecting, analyzing, validating, and inte-
voir description and performance Production was initiated in 1978. By the end grating reservoir description data and perfor-
data into optimal development and of 1991, 28 platforms had been installed and mance data into an optimal reservoir devel-
depletion plans. Use of a multidis- developed with 755 completions. Five addi- opment and depletion plan. The goal of
tional platforms are planned to complete de- reservoir management is to maximize prof-
ciplinary team to identify problems
velopment of the Seligi, Guntong, Tabu, and itability and economical recovery of hydro-
and to implement timely, innovative Dulang fields. The reservoirs in all fields carbons. To achieve that goal, the following
solutions is a key ingredient. Through except Seligi, Guntong, Tabu, and Dulang three key objectives were established.
regular reports to management and are mature, having produced more than 50% 1. Mitigation of production decline in ex-
of their expected ultimate recovery. isting fields. With the mature fields exhibit-
frequent discussions among func-
ing a decline in productive capacity of more
tional groups, reservoir management Re.ervolr Type. and than 15%/yr, capacity enhancement is a key
objectives and stewardship perform- Drive Mechanl.m. requirement. Several programs implemented
ance are communicated. The major reservoirs operated by EPMI can to mitigate decline are discussed later.
be grouped into six types (see Fig. 2). Most 2. Aggressive pursuit of new field devel-
major reservoirs have large associated gas opment. The recent work completed to con-
caps where produced gas is reinjected for firm and implement development plans for
gas-cap expansion to displace oil downdip the North Seligi resource potential illustrates
to production wells, thereby avoiding oil the approach used.
losses to the gas cap. The major Groups E, 3. Effective exploration and exploitation
J, and K sandstones of the Bekok, Pulai, of new acreage. With the current explora-
Tiong, Kepong, Semangkok, and Seligi tion activities in the PM-5 and PM-8 PSC
fields have rim or pancake-type oil columns areas, new acreage is being exploited effec-
with large overlying gas caps and moderate tively, but these activities are not discussed
to strong aquifer support. The Palas Group in this paper.
I sandstone is similar except that the aqui-
fer support is weak because of poor rock Re.ervolr Management Process
quality and continuity in the surrounding
aquifer areas. At Irong Barat, gravity Reservoir management practices are initiat-
drainage with gas injection for pressure ed before development work begins and con-
maintenance is the predominant drive mech- tinue throughout the life of the reservoir
anism because of the high dip angle, low so- through the process shown schematically in
lution GOR, and high permeability. Full Fig. 3. Multidisciplinary data collection is
voidage replacement by crestaI gas injection initiated in the predevelopment and devel-
is required to avoid gas-cap shrinkage. The opment phases, beginning with seismic data
acquisition and evaluation, geologic map~
Copyright 1992 Offshore South East Asia Conference ping, and exploration and development well-

1296 December 1992 • JPT


GULF OF
THAILAND

r----'I
,I, ,
~~--f
.
DUlANG
,

,
:
/
I /
L~E~~ ---.,
\3I~~lPALASI ,......- ••
..,.....-'
, I ., ....

~':.o~~ ___ -,
,-' TlNGG' )
,\ .......~"'<"""-y-, EliGI "
I ....... ---

"
1976
. PUlAI,'
f /

'I'L____ / f

':[: :!:!:!: :! ! : :! : : :!:I[;~:~:~;~U T~~~ i


i
>::'f.:~~.~:~t.~lA.> Kerteh
.... ;.;.;.:.;.;.:«.;.;.;.:-:.:-:.;.;.;.:-: ..
\,, ,i
J
\,,
I
I
i

Fig. i-Location of EPMI's contract areas.

log and core-data acquisition. The database discipline and to interface and integrate the interpret such reservoir properties as thick-
is expanded continuously throughout the various technologies effectively. ness, fluid content, and continuity. Seismic-
field's life as fluid, pressure, production, impedance amplitude displays referenced to
and injection data are collected. These data Data Analysis. Data analysis depends heav- a given geologic horizon or datumed time
are analyzed, validated, and integrated to de- ily on the use of state-of-the-art hardware slices are extremely important tools for de-
velop a resource database, which supports and software. Seismic data are analyzed termining reservoir and fluid distribution.
both geologic and reservoir simulation using a workstation and commercially avail- Flattening a particular geologic horizon in
models. These models are used to evaluate able software. Geologic and reservoir mod- reference to a reflector surface allows strati-
alternative development and depletion plans. eling use a large mainframe computer. graphic features (e.g., facies patterns and
The development plan implemented is based Commercially available software and soft- channels) and fluid contacts or direct hydro-
on both technical and economic considera- ware developed by Exxon affiliate compa- carbon indicators (DHI's) to be seen clear-
tions. Reservoir operating guidelines are for- nies provide the tools for quickly analyzing ly by the contrast in either seismic amplitude
mulated with model results to ensure log, core, and seismic data; generating or acoustic impedance values. Detailed am-
maximum economical recovery. maps; and interfacing between geologic plitude or seismic-inversion cross sections
During the operations phase, the surveil- model data and reservoir simulators. Other are used to evaluate fluid content, sequence
lance program assumes the key role for software provides fluid-property- and well- stratigraphy, sand thickness, ;p1d continuity.
achieving maximum economical recovery. bore-hydraulics-simulation capabilities. These seismic evaluation tools have revolu-
Performance is monitored and reviewed as Commercially available database software tionized the way we plan and analyze field
part of the ongoing surveillance activities. is used for graphics and database processing. development. These tools help identify un-
Development plan revisions, changes in penetrated hydrocarbon reservoirs. They
operating guidelines, and required work- Seismic Data. EPMI has had considerable also are used to develop fields efficiently and
overs are implemented when necessary. success in acquiring high-quality seismic cost-effectively by aiding the selection of the
data in the Malay basin. Although the best drill well location targets.
Integrated Technology amount of detail that can be extracted from
Reservoir engineering, geologic, and geo- the seismic data depends on data quality, Formation Evaluation. The presence of
physical technologies are being integrated structural complexity and lithology interpret- low and variable formation water salinity
into all aspects of reservoir management ed from seismic data often can be used to and fine-grained silty, shaly, and sometimes
planning (Fig. 4). Considerable time and ef- delineate stratigraphic features and fluid laminated or bioturbated sandstones makes
fort have been invested to achieve efficient contacts and to generate structural maps. log interpretation particularly difficult in the
data management and processing within a Seismic-inversion modeling is being used to Malay basin. A formation evaluation pro-

JPT • December 1992 1297


BEKOK. PULA •• TIONG, KEPONG. TINGOI
SEMANGKOK. BELIGI

"The company's
reservoir management
program is an ongoing,
dynamic process of ..ALAS
TAPIS

collecting, analyzing,
validating, and
integrating reservoir
\ WIlK WD
description data and
performance data into "-
WIAM TO NO WD
IRONG BARAT GUNTONG/TABU
an optimal reservoir
development and
depletion plan."
___~~~WEAI WD

WUI WD

Fig. 2-EPMI major reservoir types.

gram developed specifically for local con- tional trends or other geologic knowledge First, clearly defined and endorsed reser-
ditions 2 uses a modified Waxman-Smits that affect the geologic model are included. voir management plans provide direction for
model to calculate water saturation. The pro- EPMI extensively uses a reservoir simu- and control of the reservoir management
gram has enhanced hydrocarbon assessment lator program developed by Exxon Produc- program for every reservoir. Specific deple-
and resource potential evaluation. tion Research Co. to evaluate field develop- tion objectives, operating strategies, and sur-
ment plans and to assess alternative devel- veillance activities are documented. The
Depositional Environment. Interpretation opment considerations like horizontal-well basic plan is designed to provide operational
of reservoir deposition and continuity has benefits, platform-timing impact, gas-return flexibility and to cater to changes in new
been improved greatly through sequence requirements, and completion strategies. In reservoir description and performance data.
stratigraphy concepts. Results ofthese anal- established fields, the model is used to ex- A detailed reservoir management report
yses are used in the development of the geo- plain past performance and to assess ways covering every developed reservoir is up-
logic models. Better representation of depo- dated and reviewed by section management
to improve future performance.
sitional environment enables adjustment of and PETRONAS semiannually. The report
waterflood patterns and development plans includes documentation on key management
Key Ingredients
to reflect the expected drainage patterns. control parameters and targets, updated per-
The five key ingredients of EPMI's reser- formance data and data graphs, latest test
Models. A 3D geologic model 3,4 is used to voir management practices ensure that the data and fluid-contact information, reservoir
assimilate well, log, and core data that de- reservoir process and the integrated technol- properties, reserves, well status changes,
scribe lithology, structure, and rock and ogies are workable and achieve their goals stick diagrams showing well completion in-
fluid variables. In addition, data on deposi- and objectives. tervals, and workover opportunities.
Second, a well-integrated, multidiscipli-
nary team approach is used. This team in-
SEISMIC I I cludes personnel from functional groups

---
EXPLORATION & DEVELOPMENT &
(operations, surveillance, facilities, reser-
PROGRAM
I I APPRAISAL WELLS I INFILL WELLS voir, geology, and geophysics) on an as-

---.
RESERVOIR
SURVEILLANCE
PROGRAM
-I •
DATABASE I I
I
WORKOVER
PROGRAM
I~
needed basis. Group members are given spe-
cific field and platform area assignments and
work together to ensure that proper reser-
voir description data are acquired. The
+
RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
multidisciplinary team approach allows real-
time synergism of needed technical exper-
tise, ensures that the various operating con-
GEOLOGIC I straints are considered in developing or
I -, RESERVOIR
I MAP8,lMODELS

, 1

RESERVOIR DEVELOPMENT & DEPLETION STRATEGY


MODELS revising management plans, and allows ef-
ficient use of human resources.
Third, once production operations begin,
reservoir surveillance assumes a key role.
- FIELD DEVELOPMENT PLAN Surveillance emphasizes timely identifica-
- MODELLING ( PROD FCST, RESERVE, COMPLETION STRATEGY) tion of problem areas and application of in-
'--- - ECONOMICS ANALYSIS t---- novative solutions to resolve problems. The
- OPERATING GUIDELINES surveillance program is structured to iden-
- PERFORMANCE REVIEWS tify short- and long-term problems and op-
- DEVELOPMENT PLAN REVISIONS portunities early so that timely corrective
actions can be taken. Short-term issues re-
quire that well and reservoir performances
Fig. 3-Reservoir management process. be monitored and analyzed continuously and

1298 December 1992 • JPT


• •
3-D SEISMIC

• •
) ~(
..
.RESERVOIR MAPPING

1-' 1\ RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT


FORMATION EVALUATION
"
:

SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY

Fig. 4-lntegrated technology for reservoir management.

that proper pressure, production, contact assignments with other affiliates. Expertise areas with active exploration and develop-
movement, and flood-front location data be in interpretation of seismic data with ment drilling programs.
collected. Oil rate and injection performance time/depth mapping, seismic inversion, syn- Last, communication of defined reservoir
are reviewed daily and stewarded quarter- thetic modeling, time-slice datuming, and management plans is facilitated by bimonth-
ly. Well performance is reviewed monthly, isochronal cross sections is gained through ly team meetings and platform reviews. In
and significant changes in performance daily evaluations of 3D seismic data for addition, technical advisers review produc-
(rate, GOR, or water cut) are flagged im-
mediately. Net reservoir voidage and gas-
injection status reports are updated and re- PROGRAM DESIGNED TO ASSESS ALL MAJOR PRODUCING
viewed monthly. Long-term issues require HORIZONS (I, J, K, L, E, H)
that reserves be defined properly and that PROGRAM SUMMARY
reservoir drive mechanisms based on per-
formance be consistent with the reservoir's
EVALUATION NUMBER NUMBER
FACTOR TOOL PLANNED COMPLETED
management plan.
Fourth, the national staff has developed Swi BOBMCORES 7 5
a high level of expertise, particularly in
reservoir modeling, 3D seismic interpreta-
Sorw BWBMCORES 5 4
SPONGE CORES 1 1
tion, sequence stratigraphy concepts, use of 1
BWBM r--- .... TRACER (SWTT) 1
geologic-data-based modeling, and forma-
tion evaluation. Technology is transferred
to staff through temporary training assign-
CORES~ l
~--l r----------,
ments with affiliate companies, specialized
DUur ~S"ANGKOK
I I
:
i : BOBM/BWMB

It..
formal training, and on-the-job application
of new technology under the guidance of IL ___ J I
r---J GU TONG I ___ .... CORES
technical advisers. For example, the two
senior members of the model studies group
: IRONG BARAT ~PALAS : SPONGE CORE

7
~ TIONG KEPO,G
~ li"nriGGI-l
were assigned to Exxon Production Re-
search Co. and worked with its simulation L__ hAPIS
experts on the large Bekok and Seligi full- BOBM
CORE
:
I
BEKOK~ ELIGI I
"
field model studies (26,000 and 52,400 grid- ---------, ~ I
blocks, respectively). They now conduct de~ : PULAI,'
SWTT I I
tailed studies in house and train other I I

employees in this group. EPMI also has an


&._----,
ongoing technology transfer program with
22 to 25 national employees in training Fig. 5-ROS assessment program-data acquisition.

JPT • December 1992 1299


uation criteria demonstrated significant
TABLE 1-RESULTS OF SATURATION ASSESSMENT EVALUATION
water-free production capacity. There were
concerns that the log interpretation program,
OOIP (MST8) although specifically designed for the Ma-
Increase Change lay basin, was not providing accurate satu-
Reservoir Initial
-- Due SWC Final ~ ration estimates in laminated intervals.
1 246.6 5.8 252.2 2.3 There also were concerns that estimates of
2 390.1 14.8 404.9 3.8 residual oil saturations (ROS's) were errone-
3 51.3 51.3 ous because previous coring procedures
4 83.3 7.8 91.1 9.4 were not designed to maintain wettability.
SA, 58, and 5C 51.7 9.2 60.9 17.8
Total Cored
- -
823.0 37.6 860.4 4.6
In response, a detailed program was im-
plemented (1) to establish more reliable
values for initial (connate) water saturation
6 12.8 0.7 13.5 5.4
7 24.5 1.3 25.8 5.4 and ROS, (2) to develop improved log/core
8 12.6 0.7 13.3 5.4 correlations for porosity and saturation de-
9 1.3 0.1 1.4 5.4 termination, and (3) to update reserve es-
10 6.2 0.3 6.5 5.4 timates.
11 0.3 0.3 5.4 A detailed data acquisition program de-
12 34.7 1.8 36.5 5.4 signed to refine connate-water and ROS es-
13 16.1 0.9 17.0 5.4
Total Noncored
- -
108.5 5.8 114.3 5.4
timates was implemented to assess all major
producing Groups E and H through L sand-
Total 931.5 43.4 974.7 4.7 stones. As Fig. 5 shows, most of the data
collection is finished. Bland oil-based mud
cores have been obtained at the Guntong,
tion targets monthly and PETRONAS and voir management objectives. Included are
Seligi, Irong Barat, and Tinggi fields to
Production Dept. managements review the programs to resolve problems identified by
evaluate initial water saturation. ROS is
performance of two or three fields quarter- surveillance, to imyrove resource estimates,
being evaluated with capillary-pressure and
ly. These reviews ensure that proper surveil- to optimize waterflood surveillance, to en-
oil/water relative-permeability data from
lance and reservoir management practices hance the capacity of existing fields, and to bland water-based mud cores obtained from
are being implemented. The reviews facili- identify and develop new reserves. The fol- the Guntong, Seligi, and Dulang fields and
tate the training of a relatively young staff lowing sections discuss examples of some from sponge cores obtained from the Ting-
and provide a focus for teamwork. To im- implemented programs. gi field. In addition, one single-well tracer
prove teamwork, several team-building ses- test was completed at the Tapis field.
sions have been held both in house and with Program A-Saturation Assessment Pro- Connate- Water Assessment. To obtain
PETRONAS. These efforts focus on stream- gram. Results from the specially designed accurate connate-water saturations, a pro-
lining procedures, communication, and the formation evaluation program usually show gram relying on oil-based mud core data was
approval process to increase overall effec- a very good match to core-porosity data and designed 5 to provide an accurate source of
tiveness. capillary-derived water-saturation data. But discrete porosity and unaltered water-satura-
production histories in the more mature tion data for comparison with log-calculated
Programs Implemented To reservoirs indicate more original oil in place values. A special bland oil-based mud sys-
Achieve Objectives (OOIP) than initially calculated. Also, some tem that would not alter wettability or water
Numerous innovative programs have been completions in zones considered nonproduc- saturation by filtrate flushing while provid-
implemented to achieve the various reser- tive on the basis of accepted formation eval- ing sufficient rheological properties was

CORE 3 CORE 4
.. ..
..
. . . . . L....~ .

• <=«:-'_.,- _;. _."


L...._
.... '. L...._

. .""'...... . ..
~u
,'" " '''-
L......
-'" ,

I... ~ .. L' • . Cf+-.O. • •... L, • • c.:--s: .'. 0


,~

L' • . ~LO. • ••.• L' I


I

t-! l..

II I


t-
I

F -

825

Il I
Fig. 6-Comparison of log and core saturation and porosity data.

1300 December 1992 • JPT


DGAS D WATER
1
~
2A' DOlL o POTENTIAL
'4>- _----- ....
'4>-4
5

Loe.MAP

WEST EAST
( PROJECTE 0 ) ( PROJECTEO I (PROJECTEO)
A
(PROJECTEO)
GUN. 6 GUN. 2
AI
GUN. 5 GUN. 1
K.B.-1l6m K.B,-lHm K.B.-l4-3m K.B.-ll-6m
~ ~ -t- ~
-1~6m EST.GOC
-13.fB.4m
EST.GOC

~! !l !iI!lI! I!i iji~1-lO!'~ 2m!lIiE~STj'GOCI!~ !i! I!~I ~ ~ I ~ ~ ~


-1456.3111
EST.owe
1808.3m EST.owe
-1560.Om
TOP OF
GROUP I
I-l0
I-25
I-3D
I-35

~~~~~~~~~:;~~l;;;;:::~=i~~~;r~~~~~~~I-45 ~1:~
I-6B
I-70
I-SO
I-1OO1102
I-r04
GR

TOP OF
EST.OM(: GROUPJ
-1801.5111

Fig. 7-Guntong field-structural cross section.

developed. To minimize filtrate flushing fur- compared statistically with log-calculated ROS Assessment. ROS is being reas-
ther, specific coring equipment was selected, values to evaluate the accuracy of log- sessed with cores cut with bland water-based
detailed operations guidelines were devel- calculated values. mud and SWTT's_ Cores cut at the Guntong,
oped, and mud-system property monitoring In one large field, the comparison indi- Seligi, and Dulang fields used bland water-
by on-site personnel was implemented. A cated that the overall HCPV calculated by based muds and special core preservation
detailed quality-control program used oil- log analysis was 4.7% less than that deter- techniques to avoid wettability changes.
and water-phase mud-system tracers for mined by core data. By reservoir, the differ- Comparisons of capillary-pressure data on
evaluation of the degree of filtrate invasion. ences varied from 2 % overstatement to 18 % fresh- and restored-state tests on the same
To minimize core alteration, the cores were
understatement (see Table 1).5 The log- Group I sandstone core plugs from the Gun-
preserved in mineral oil, and air exposure
calculated values are known to be less relia- tong field indicate that fresh-state cores have
time was minimized.
ble in the laminated sections than in a clean mixed wettability and restored-state cores
Transportation and laboratory analysis
logistics were prearranged to minimize de- sand. As Fig. 6 shows, the agreement be- have water-wet conditions. Modified AmottJ
lays. Special quality-control procedures tween core and log-calculated values in Core U.S. Bureau of Mines wettability studies 6
were used to ensure reliable saturation de- 3 was good. However, differences increased with formation crude and elevated temper-
termination. Based on tracer concentration in Core 4, where the amount of laminated ature verified mixed wettability conditions
profiles and comparison of radial saturation sandstone increased, particularly in the low- at the Guntong field. ROS's also are being
variations, the conclusion that water satura- er section. A similar relationship exists for assessed with both unsteady-state capillary-
tions were unaffected by filtrate invasion other intervals cored. As a result of this pressure data and steady-state corefloods. In
was reached. HCPV's from core data were work, the resource base has been revised . addition, a sponge core cut in a water-swept

._-
.--
"..-._-
l1li._ FIg. 10-Waterflood management process.

FIg. 8-Guntong 1-25 waterflood paltern. FIg. 9-Guntong field completion strategy.

JPT • December 1992 130l


lEGEND :
01. SA1URA11OII
c:==J ...0 TO 0.18
_ '.11 TO 8.28
~ U1TOU8
" . new technology ~ '.41 TO Ut
will continue to be _ U1TO ....

Integrated Into EPMI's lI!IIIlf!I!!Il! FAIA.T Pl.UE


_ WBlIllOClt
reservoir management
program to maximize
profitability and
economical recovery."

Fig. 11-Guntong 1-25 oil saturation distribution at June 1991.

section of the Tinggi J-18/20 reservoir in- arate Group I sandstones are under water- Program C-Capacity Enhancement.
dicated an ROS of 10%. flood and are commingled in two groups. Workovers, infill drilling, gas-lift optimi-
To assess ROS further in the Group J Fig. 8 shows the combination five-spot/per- zation, facility modifications and additions,
sandstones, an SWTT was conducted in the ipheral waterflood with crestal gas injection acid stimulation, and problem prevention are
watered-out Well Tapis A-15. Excellent re- in use. Three major reservoirs in both the being used to enhance productive capacity
sults were obtained in three tests that indi- Upper and Lower Group I sandstones are and to offset production declines in matur-
cated an ROS of 20% with 2 % to 3 % commingled as shown in Fig. 9. Other ing fields.
uncertainty. One result of this test was that minor zones from each group are also com- Workover campaigns were completed on
the maximum temperature at which these mingled when present. all but two platforms during 1987-90 to rec-
tracers can be used for extended, large- The Guntong model uses an eight-layer tify mechanical problems and to recomplete
volume tests was increased to above 121°C full-field reservoir simulator model with wells for improved recovery with a conven-
[250°F]. 32,000 gridblocks and a database allocation tional workover rig, coiled tubing, a wire-
program (Fig. 10). The reservoir model is line unit, a drilling rig, or a hydraulic
Program B-Computerized Waterflood updated semiannually with actual injection, workover rig. The most extensive program
Surveillance. As noted previously, three production, and pressure data, plus any re- was conducted during 1989 when some 63
EPMI-operated fields are using water injec- visions to split ratios or completion data. workovers on 7 platforms were completed.
tion to increase ultimate recovery. In all Current flood-front location, saturation pro- This work developed 9.5 x 10 6 std m 3 [60
cases, multiple sands are commingled for file maps, and remaining displaceable oil are MMSTB] of reserve, and the incremental
cost-effectiveness. Mobility ratios are very calculated for each injection pattern. Integral production increase from these wells aver-
favorable, and numerical simulator model to the program is a routine that calculates aged 4000 std m 3 /d [25,000 STBID]. The
studies show that the oil recovery differences optimal injection targets for each comple- total workover program cost only 33Clbbl
between commingled and noncommingled
tion as functions of targeted field oil pro- of reserve developed, and 90% of jobs com-
operations are minimal. Different pattern
duction. Target rates are updated monthly. pleted were successful. Efforts are directed
types have been selected at each field on the
For voidage control, total injection volume to program optimization to ensure that the
basis of structural, stratigraphic, and injec-
is scheduled to replace total reservoir void- most cost-effective methods and equipment
tivity considerations.
age. The injection volume then is allocated are used.
Effective monitoring and control of com-
to each injection well in proportion to the Infill drilling programs were conducted at
mingled zones under waterflood with irregu-
lar patterns is a significant challenge even remaining displaceable oil volume in the sur- the Irong Barat and Tinggi fields during
when sound, effective surveillance methods rounding pattern to establish injection and 1989-90 to capture additional r~serves and
are used. Before 1989, simple bubble maps production targets. These target rates are to enhance capacity. Gas-lift operations are
were used with tracer data to monitor flood- sent to operations for implementation. Fig. becoming more important because of in-
front movement. An innovative program re- 11 shows the model grid and the recently creasing levels of water production. Limit-
cently was developed to monitor and op- calculated ROS for the major 1-25 reservoir. ed compression capacity in some fields and
timize performance of major waterflood Both areal and cross-sectional views of the need to gas-lift dual wells with a com-
reservoirs with a multi sand reservoir simu- flood-front location are provided to aid early mon casing/tubing annulus pose significant
lator model and a data management pro- identification of displacement inefficiencies. challenges. A special group with gas-lift ex-
gram. The objectives of the program were This program provides accurate injection pertise has been established to ensure effec-
(1) to monitor fluid movement around each targets and improved frontal predictions to tive surveillance and to optimize gas-lift
injection completion, (2) to provide injec- ensure a more efficient displacement. It re- operations. Gas-lift optimization at the Be-
tion targets for balanced displacement within sults in a significant improvement in surveil- kok B platform recently added 1300 m 3 /d
each pattern area, and (3) to minimize man- lance by enabling very early identification [8,000 BID] to capacity.
power requirements. The program has been and correction of displacement problems. Production from several fields is con-
implemented at the Guntong, Tapis, and The reservoir model takes about 3 minutes strained by gas or water-injection capacity.
Tabu fields. of mainframe CPU time and 2 man-days per Well recompletions to reduce the GOR at
Guntong is the most complex field at update. The database/allocation program, Bekok A added 800 m 3 /d [5,000 BID] to
which the program is being used. 7 ,8 As which is run monthly, requires less than 10 capacity. Compressors have been upgrad-
shown on the east-west cross section in Fig. seconds of CPU time and '12 man-hour to ed at the Tiong and Pulai fields, additional
7, the field has multiple, stacked reservoirs generate targets for all injection and compressors have been installed at the Irong
with various contact locations. Twelve sep- producer completions. Barat and Semangkok fields, and compres-

1302 December 1992 • JPT


North
o 3 KM

Fig. 12-Seligi field-Datumed seismic response 8 msec above J-18/20 horizon.

sion will be added at the Guntong and Seli- duction increase of 950 std m 3 /d [6,000 Program D-New Field Development. The
gi fields. The Tapis water injection plant, BOPD) and added 370 x 10 3 std m 3 [2.3 North Seligi reserve was proven recently as
which supplies all injection water for the Ta- MMSTB] of reserves. a direct result of the application of integrat-
pis, Guntong, and Tabu fields, was upgrad- Problem prevention is also a key aspect ed mapping technology by geophysical and
ed to match water-injection needs. of capacity enhancement. At the Guntong geologic staff using 3D seismic technology ,
Production optimization is a key part of and Tabu fields, it was determined that pro- formation evaluation, and sequence stratig-
the surveillance program. For fields oper- duction from the waterflooded reservoirs raphy concepts. A seismic anomaly first was
ating under gas compressor constraints, would be constrained by water injectivity. noted on 2D seismic data in 1982 but was
wells are produced according to a GOR seri- A task force set up to review all aspects of not understood until 3D seismic data were
atim reflecting competing gas-lift and gas- the completion practices found that signifi- analyzed in 1989. Fig. 12 shows the da-
injection requirements. Frequent well tests cant skin damage was caused primarily by turned time slice of the J-15/16 sandstone
are obtained to measure changes in well per- solids in the completion fluids and inade- located 8 msec above the major J-18/20
formance. The GOR seriatim is prioritized quate tubular cleaning. Revised completion reflector. The outline of the hydrocarbon-
using these data to optimize compressor practices to remove solids from completion saturated section within seismic resolution
loading. An idle-well management program fluids, to improve tubular cleaning, and to is clearly seen. The accumulation lies be-
is in use to identify problems and to restore increase perforation density were imple- tween the previously proven Seligi and Ting-
lost capacity quickly when economically at- mented. Use of the improved practices at gi productive areas and is continuous
tractive. Tabu increased flow efficiency from 35 % between the two. The DHI at the north cor-
Acid stimulation work has been very suc- to 88 % for wells perforated in overbalanced responds to the proven oil/water contact at
cessful. At the Tabu field, injectivity of one condition. At Guntong, skin factors rang- Tinggi and follows the Tinggi productive
injector was increased from 0 to 480 m 3 /d ing from 6 to 46 (average of 15) were re- outline to the east. In the area to the south
water [0 to 3,000 BWPD]. A program on duced to below 3 by use of the revised
11 producing wells at Palas resulted in a pro- completion practices. (To Page 1349)

JPT • December 1992 1303


Reservoir Management ment program to maximize profitability and
Authors
economical recovery.
Practices
(From Page 1303) Acknowledgments
We express our appreciation to the manage-
and adjacent to Seligi, the J-15/16 thins to ments of PETRONAS and EPMI for permis-
below seismic resolution. However, explo- sion to publish this paper. We also thank the
ration and development drilling results prove EPMI staff who contributed to development
that the reservoir continues across Seligi. of this reservoir management program and
To test the DHI anomaly at North Seligi, who gave valuable input to this paper.
a confirmation well was drilled from the
Seligi A platform. Before drilling, it was es- References
timated that 19 m [63 ft] of oil-saturated Dawe
1. Ahmad, S.: "Overview of Exploration for Pe-
reservoir sand would be present. The well troleum in Malaysia Under the Production- Marvin L Trice .Jr. is a senior techni-
actually penetrated a gross interval of 17 m Sharing Contracts," paper SPE 10441 present-
cal adviser in the EPMI Reservoir Devel·
[56 ft] of oil sand. An additional 2 m [7 ft] , ed at the 1982 SPE Offshore South East Asia
Conference, Singapore, Feb. 9-12. opment Section at Kuala Lumpur, where
of non-net pay is present within the gross he provides technical guidance on field
2. Kutton, K. et at.: "Log Interpretation in the
interval as thin stringers. Malay Basin," Proc., SPWLA Twenty-first development planning, exploration drill·
Structural maps and cross sections were Annual Logging Symposium, Lafayette (1982). ing, coring and testing, and reservoir
updated with the geologic reservoir model 3. Jones. T.A.: "Modeling Geology in Three Di- development and management. He
programs within 3 days after the confirma- mension," Geobyte (Feb. 1988) 14-20. holds a BS degree in mechanical engi·
4. Johnson, C.R. and Jones, T.A.: "Putting Ge- neerlng from Texas A&M U. Barry A.
tion well reached total depth. A full-field Dawe currently is a technical adviser in
model to evaluate alternative development ology Into Reservoir Simulations: A Three-
Dimensional Modeling Approach," paper SPE the EPMI Offshore Div. at Kerteh, where
plans was set up with data from the geolog- he provides technical guidance and
18321 presented atthe 1988 SPE Annual Tech-
ic model. The study, completed within 3 nical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, training on reservoir management and
weeks, showed that water injection would Oct. 2-5. surveillance, workover evaluations, and
be required to maximize ultimate recovery. 5. Dawe, B.A. and Murdock, D.M.: "Laminat- reservoir production operations. He
A formal field development plan was sub- ed Sands: An Assessment of Log Interpreta- holds a BASe degree in metallurgical en-
mitted within 3 months after the confirma- tion Accuracy by an Oil Base Mud Coring gineering from the U. of British Columbia.
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1990 SPE Annual Technical Conference and
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Challenges of the 1990's 6. Sharma, N.N. and Wunderlich, R.W.: "The
During the next few years, reservoir man- Alteration of Rock Properties Due to Interac-
agement challenges are expected in four tions With Drilling Fluid Components," paper
areas. First, most of EPMI's fields are SPE 14302 presented at the 1985 SPE Annual
Technical Conference and Exhibition, Las Ve-
reaching a mature stage of depletion. Five gas, Sept. 22-25.
fields, including the large Tapis field water- 7. Hui, S.K. and Hareesh, P.: "Waterflood De-
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Management of these maturing fields will paper SPE 17690 presented at the 1988 SPE
present increasing management challenges. Offshore South East Asia Conference, Singa-
Second, development of the Dulang field pore, Feb. 2-5.
8. Mohd, S.O. and Khoo, C.T.: "Guntong Field:
will be very challenging because of its struc-
PETRONAS/EPMI Cooperation Toward Op-
tural and stratigraphic complexity. Most of timizing Field Development," paper A4.3
the Dulang field is unitized, and Carigali will presented at the 1989 ASCOPE Conference,
operate the unitized areas. An EPMI plat- Singapore, Nov. 14-16.
form is also planned for the nonunitized
area. Two platforms have been installed for 51 Metric Conversion Factors
unit operation, and development drilling be- bbl x 1.589 873 E-Ol = m'
gan in Nov. 1990. This is EPMI's first in- ft x 3.048* E-Ol = m
volvement in unit operations. A number of md x 9.869 344 E-Ol = I'm'
mile x 1.609 344* E+OO = kIn
EPMI employees have been seconded to
Carigali for joint implementation of this de- "Conversion factor is exact.
velopment.
Third, development and management of Provenance
large, nonassociated gas fields will be new Original SPE manuscript, Reservoir
for EPMI. The Jerneh field, currently un- Management Practices at EPMI, received
der development, became operational in for review Jan. 21, 1991. Revised manu-
April 1992. This is the first of severai large, script received March 26, 1992. Paper ac-
nonassociated gas fields to be developed by cepted for publication Sept. 30, 1992. Paper
EPMI for deliveries to the Peninsular (SPE 22236) first presented at the 1990 Off-
Malaysia gas utilization project. shore South East Asia Conference held in
Last, new technology will continue to be Singapore, Dec. 4-7.
integrated into EPMI's reservoir manage- JPT

JPT • December 1992 1349