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571-1 : 1997
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Non-destructive testing Ð |
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Penetrant testing |
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Part 1. General principles |
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The European Standard EN 571-1 : 1997 has the status of a |
British Standard |
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ICS 19.100 |
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NO COPYING WITHOUT BSI PERMISSION EXCEPT AS PERMITTED BY COPYRIGHT LAW
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BS EN 571-1 : 1997

Committees responsible for this


British Standard
The preparation of this British Standard was entrusted to Technical Committee
WEE/46, Non-destructive testing, upon which the following bodies were
represented:

Aluminium Federation
Associated Office Technical Committee
Association of Consulting Engineers
BNF (Fulmer Materials Centre)
British Airways
British Chemical Engineering Contractors' Association
British Coal Corporation
British Gas plc
British Institute of Non-destructive Testing
British Non-Ferrous Metals Association
British Nuclear Fuels plc
British Railways Board
British Steel Industry
Castings Technology International
Electricity Association
Engineering Equipment and Materials Users' Association
Health and Safety Executive
Institute of Physics
Institute of Quality Assurance
Light Metal Founders' Association
Lloyd's Register of Shipping
Ministry of Defence
National Radiological Protection Board
Power Generation Contractors' Association (PGCA) (BEAMA Ltd.)
Railway Industry Association of Great Britain
Royal Society of Chemistry
Society of British Aerospace Companies Limited
Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders Limited
Welding Institute
This British Standard, having
been prepared under the
direction of the Engineering
Sector Board, was published
under the authority of the
Standards Board and comes into
effect on
15 June 1997

 BSI 1997
Amendments issued since publication
Amd. No. Date Text affected

The following BSI references


relate to the work on this
standard:
Committee reference WEE/46
Draft for comment 91/82089 DC

ISBN 0 580 27603 1


BS EN 571-1 : 1997

Contents

Page
Committees responsible Inside front cover
National foreword ii
Foreword 2
Text of EN 571-1 3

 BSI 1997 i
BS EN 571-1 : 1997

National foreword

This Part of BS EN 571 has been prepared by Technical Committee WEE/46 and is the
English language version of EN 571-1 Non-destructive testing Ð Penetrant testing Ð
Part 1: General principles, published by the European Committee for Standardization
(CEN). EN 571-1 was produced as a result of international discussion in which the UK
took an active part.
BS EN 571-1 supersedes BS 6443 : 1984 which is withdrawn.

Cross-references
Publication referred to Corresponding British Standard
EN 473 : 1993 BS EN 473 : 1993 Qualification and certification of NDT
personnel Ð General principles

Compliance with a British Standard does not of itself confer immunity


from legal obligations.

Summary of pages
This document comprises a front cover, an inside front cover, pages i and ii, the
EN title page, pages 2 to 10, an inside back cover and a back cover.

ii  BSI 1997
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 571-1
NORME EUROPEÂENNE
EUROPAÈISCHE NORM January 1997

ICS 19.100

Descriptors: Non-destructive tests, liquid penetrant tests, inspection methods, safety measures, procedure, characteristics, classification s,
designation, macroscopic analysis

English version

Non-destructive testing Ð Penetrant testing Ð


Part 1: General principles

Essais non destructifs Ð Examen par ressuage Ð ZerstoÈrungsfreie PruÈfung Ð EindringpruÈfung Ð


Partie 1: Principes geÂneÂraux Teil 1: Allgemeine Grundlagen

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 1995-01-14. CEN members are
bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the
conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard
without any alteration.
Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards
may be obtained on application to the Central Secretariat or to any CEN member.
This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German).
A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a
CEN member into its own language and notified to the Central Secretariat has the
same status as the official versions.
CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Denmark,
Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy Luxembourg, Netherlands,
Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

CEN
European Committee for Standardization
Comite EuropeÂen de Normalisation
EuropaÈisches Komitee fuÈr Normung

Central Secretariat: rue de Stassart 36, B-1050 Brussels

 1997 Copyright reserved to CEN members


Ref. No. EN 571-1 : 1997 E
Page 2
EN 571-1 : 1997

Foreword Contents
This European Standard has been prepared by
Technical Committee CEN/TC 138, Non-destructive Page
testing, the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR. Foreword 2
This European Standard shall be given the status of a 1 Scope 3
national standard, either by publication of an identical
text or by endorsement, at the latest by July 1997, and 2 Normative references 3
conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at 3 Definitions 3
the latest by July 1997. 4 Safety precautions 3
In the framework of its scope, Technical Committee 5 General principles 3
CEN/TC 138 entrusted CEN/TC 138/WG 4, Liquid
penetrant testing, to prepare this European Standard. 6 Products, sensitivity and designation 4
EN 571 comprises a series of European Standards on 7 Compatibility of testing materials with
penetrant testing which is made of the following: the part(s) to be tested 5
8 Test procedure 5
EN 571-1 Non-destructive testing Ð Penetrant
9 Test report 8
testing Ð
Part 1: General principles Annexes
EN 571-2 Non-destructive testing Ð Penetrant A (normative) Main stages of the
testing Ð penetrant examination 9
Part 2: Testing of penetrant materials B (informative) Example of a test report 10
EN 571-3 Non-destructive testing Ð Penetrant
testing Ð
Part 3: Reference test blocks

This European Standard has been prepared under a


mandate given to CEN by the European Commission
and the European Free Trade Association, and
supports essential requirements of EU Directive(s).
According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations,
the national standards organizations of the following
countries are bound to implement this European
Standard: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France,
Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg,
Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden,
Switzerland and the United Kingdom.

 BSI 1997
Page 3
EN 571-1 : 1997

1 Scope 3 Definitions
This standard defines a method of penetrant testing For the purposes of this standard the definitions of
used to detect discontinuities, e.g. cracks, laps, folds, prEN 1330-6 apply.
porosity and lack of fusion, which are open to the
surface of the material to be tested. It is mainly applied
to metallic materials, but can also be performed on 4 Safety precautions
other materials, provided that they are inert to the test As penetrant inspection techniques often require the
media and they are not excessively porous, examples use of harmful, flammable and/or volatile materials,
of which are castings, forgings, welds, ceramics, etc. certain precautions shall be taken.
This standard is not intended to be used for Prolonged or repeated contact of these materials with
acceptance criteria and gives no information relating to the skin or any mucous membrane should be avoided.
the suitability of individual test systems for specific Working areas shall be adequately ventilated and sited
applications nor requirements for test equipment. away from sources of heat, sparks and naked flames in
The term `discontinuity' is used here in the sense that accordance with local regulations.
no evaluation concerning acceptability or The penetrant testing products and equipment shall be
non-acceptability is included. used with care and always in compliance with the
Methods for determining and monitoring the essential instructions supplied by the manufacturer.
properties of penetrant testing products to be used are When using UV-A sources, care shall be taken to
specified in EN 571-2 and EN 571-3. ensure that unfiltered radiation from the UV-A source
does not directly reach the eyes of the operators.
2 Normative references Whether it forms an integral part of the lamp or is a
separate component, the UV-A filter shall always be
This European Standard incorporates by dated or maintained in good condition.
undated reference, provisions from other publications.
These normative references are cited at the There is legislation and regulations regarding health,
appropriate places in the text and the publications are safety, pollution and storage, etc.
listed hereafter. For dated references, subsequent
amendments to or revisions of any of these 5 General principles
publications apply to this European Standard only
when incorporated in it by amendment or revision. For 5.1 Personnel
undated references the latest edition of the publication The examination shall be carried out or supervised by
referred to applies. competent personnel and, if required, qualified and
certified according to EN 473 or to a system agreed
EN 473 Qualification and certification of NDT upon by the contracting parties.
personnel Ð General principles
5.2 Description of the method
prEN 571-2 Non-destructive testing Ð Penetrant Prior to penetrant testing the surface to be inspected
testing Ð shall be cleaned and dried. Then suitable penetrants
Part 2: Testing of penetrant materials1) are applied to the test area and enter into
prEN 571-3 Non-destructive testing Ð Penetrant discontinuities open to the surface. After the
testing Ð appropriate penetration time has elapsed the excess
Part 3: Reference test blocks1) penetrant is removed from the surface and the
prEN 956 Non-destructive testing Ð Penetrant developer applied. This absorbs the penetrant that has
testing Ð Equipment entered and remains in the discontinuities and may
give a clearly visible enhanced indication of the
prEN 1330-6 Non-destructive testing Ð discontinuity.
Terminology Ð
Part 6: Terms used in penetrant Should complementary non-destructive testing be
systems 1) required, the penetrant inspection shall be performed
first unless agreed upon between the contracting
prEN1956 Non-destructive testing Ð Penetrant parties so as not to introduce contaminants into open
testing and magnetic particle testing Ð discontinuities. If penetrant inspection is used
Viewing conditions1) following another non-destructive testing technique, the
surface shall be cleaned carefully to remove
contaminants before application.

1) In preparation.

 BSI 1997
Page 4
EN 571-1 : 1997

Table 1. Testing products


Penetrant Excess penetrant remover Developer
Type Designation Method Designation Form Designation
A Water
I Fluorescent penetrant a Dry
B Lipophilic emulsifier
II Colour contrast penetrant 1 Oil-based emulsifier b Water soluble
2 Rinsing with running
III Dual purpose (fluorescent water c Water suspendable
colour contrast penetrant)
C Solvent (liquid) d Solvent-based (non-aqueous
wet)
D Hydrophilic emulsifier
1 Optional prerinse (water) e Water or solvent based for
2 Emulsifier (water-diluted) special application
3 Final rinse (water) (e.g. peelable developer)

E Water and solvent


NOTE. For specific cases, it is necessary to use penetrant testing products complying with particular requirements with regards to
flammability, sulfur, halogen and sodium content and other contaminants, see prEN 571-2.

5.3 Process sequence 6 Products, sensitivity and designation


The sequence of operations is illustrated for the
6.1 Product family
general case in annex A.
Various test systems exist in penetrant testing.
Testing generally proceeds through the following
stages: A product family is understood as a combination of the
following penetrant testing materials: penetrant, excess
a) preparation and precleaning (see 8.2);
penetrant remover and developer. When tested in
b) application of penetrant (see 8.3); accordance with prEN 571-2 the penetrant and excess
c) excess penetrant removal (see 8.4); penetrant remover shall be from one manufacturer.
d) application of developer (see 8.5); Only approved product families shall be used.
e) inspection (see 8.6); 6.2 Testing products
f) recording (see 8.7); The testing products are given in table 1.
g) postcleaning (see 8.8). 6.3 Sensitivity
5.4 Equipment The sensitivity level of a product family shall be
The equipment for carrying out penetrant testing determined using reference block 1 as described in
depends on the number, size and shape of the parts to prEN 5713. The assessed level always refers to the
be tested. For the requirements of equipment, method used for type testing of the approved product
see EN 956. family.
5.5 Effectiveness 6.4 Designation
The effectiveness of the penetrant testing depends The approved product family to be used for penetrant
upon many factors such as: testing is given a designation comprising the type, the
method and the form for the testing products, and a
a) types of penetrant materials and testing figure which indicates the sensitivity level achieved by
equipment; testing with the reference block 1 as described in
b) surface preparation and condition; prEN 571-3.
c) material under examination and expected Example
discontinuities; Designation of an approved product family comprising
d) temperature of the test surface; fluorescent penetrant (I), water as excess penetrant
e) penetration and development time; remover (A) and a dry powder developer (a), and a
f) viewing conditions, etc. system sensitivity of level 2 is the following penetrant
testing system when using prEN 571-1 and
prEN 572-2 giving the example: product family
EN 571-IAa-2.

 BSI 1997
Page 5
EN 571-1 : 1997

7 Compatibility of testing materials with 8.2.1 Mechanical precleaning


the part(s) to be tested Scale, slag, rust, etc., shall be removed using suitable
methods such as brushing, rubbing, abrasion, blasting,
7.1 General high pressure water blasting, etc. These methods
The penetrant testing products shall be compatible remove contaminants from the surface and generally
with the material to be tested and the use for which are incapable of removing contaminants from within
the part is designed. surface discontinuities. In all cases and in particular in
the case of shot blasting, care shall be taken to ensure
7.2 Compatibility of penetrant testing products that the discontinuities are not masked by plastic
The penetrant testing materials shall be compatible deformation or clogging from abrasive materials. If
with each other. necessary, to ensure that discontinuities are open to
Penetrant materials from different manufacturers shall the surface subsequent etching treatment shall be
not be mixed during the initial filling of the facility. carried out, followed by adequate rinsing and drying.
Dragout losses shall not be replaced using penetrant 8.2.2 Chemical precleaning
materials from different manufacturers.
Chemical precleaning shall be carried out using
7.3 Compatibility of penetrant testing materials suitable chemical cleaning agents, to remove residues
with parts under examination such as grease, oil, paint or etching materials.
7.3.1 In most cases the compatibility of products can Residues from chemical precleaning processes can
be assessed prior to use by means of the corrosion test react with penetrant and greatly reduce its sensitivity.
detailed in prEN 571-2. Acids and chromates in particular can greatly reduce
the fluorescence of fluorescent penetrants and the
7.3.2 The chemical or physical properties of some colour of the colour contrast penetrant. Therefore,
non-metallics can be adversely affected by penetrant chemical agents shall be removed from the surface
testing materials; their compatibility has to be under examination, after the cleaning process, using
established before inspecting parts manufactured from, suitable cleaning methods which may include water
and assemblies that include, such materials. rinsing.
7.3.3 In situations where contamination might occur, 8.2.3 Drying
it is essential to ensure that the penetrant testing
materials do not have a deleterious effect on fuels, As the final stage of precleaning, the parts to be tested
lubricants, hydraulic fluids, etc. shall be thoroughly dried, so that neither water nor
solvent remains in the discontinuities.
7.3.4 For parts associated with peroxide rocket fuel,
explosive stores (these include all items containing 8.3 Application of penetrant
explosive propellant, initiating or pyrotechnic 8.3.1 Methods of application
materials), oxygen equipment or nuclear applications The penetrant can be applied to the part to be tested
the compatibility of penetrant testing materials shall by spraying, brushing, flooding, dipping or immersion.
require special consideration.
Care shall be taken to ensure that the test surface
7.3.5 If, after postcleaning, penetrant testing materials remains completely wetted throughout the entire
remain on the parts there is a possibility of corrosion, penetration time.
e.g. of stress corrosion or of corrosion fatigue.
8.3.2 Temperature
In order to minimize moisture entering discontinuities,
8 Test procedure the temperature of the test surface shall generally be
8.1 Written test procedure within the range from 10 ÊC to 50 ÊC. In special cases
temperatures as low as 5 ÊC may be used.
When contractually required a written test procedure
shall be prepared and approved prior to the For temperatures below 10 ÊC or above 50 ÊC only
examination. penetrant product families and procedures approved in
accordance with prEN 571-2 for this purpose shall be
8.2 Preparation and precleaning used.
Contaminants, e.g. scale, rust, oil, grease or paint shall NOTE. Especially in the low temperature range there is a danger
be removed, if necessary using mechanical or chemical of water condensing in the discontinuities and on the surfaces,
methods or a combination of these methods. and this water will prevent the penetrant from entering the
discontinuities.
Precleaning shall ensure that the test surface is free
from residues and that it allows the penetrant to enter
any discontinuity. The cleaned area shall be large
enough to prevent interference from areas adjacent to
the actual test surface.

 BSI 1997
Page 6
EN 571-1 : 1997

8.3.3 Penetration time This time shall be sufficient to allow only the excess
The appropriate penetration time depends on the penetrant to be removed from the test surface during
properties of the penetrant, the application the subsequent water wash. The emulsifying time shall
temperature, the material of the part to be tested and not be exceeded. Immediately after emulsification, a
the discontinuities to be detected. water wash shall be carried out as described in 8.4.2.
The penetration time can vary from 5 min to 60 min. 8.4.5 Water and solvent
The penetration time should be at least as long as the First the excess water-washable penetrant shall be
time used for the determination of sensitivity (see 6.3). removed with water (see 8.4.2). Subsequent cleaning
If not, the actual penetration time shall be recorded in with a clean lint-free cloth, lightly moistened with
the written test procedure. In no case shall the solvent, shall be then carried out.
penetrant be allowed to dry during the penetration
time. 8.4.6 Excess penetrant removal check
8.4 Excess penetrant removal During excess penetrant removal the test surface shall
be visually checked for penetrant residues. For
8.4.1 General fluorescent penetrants, this shall be carried out under a
The application of the remover medium shall be such UV-A source. The minimum UV-A irradiance at the test
that no penetrant is removed from the discontinuities. surface shall not be less than 3 W/m2 (300 mW/cm2).
When faced with excessive background on parts after
8.4.2 Water excess penetrant removal has been carried out, the
The excess penetrant shall be removed using a suitable decision on future action shall be taken by a suitably
rinsing technique. Examples: spray rinsing or wiping qualified person.
with a damp cloth. Care shall be taken to minimize the
effect of mechanical action caused by the rinsing 8.4.7 Drying
method. The temperature of the water shall not In order to facilitate rapid drying of excess water, any
exceed 50 ÊC. droplets and puddles of water shall be removed from
the part.
8.4.3 Solvents
Except when using water-based developer the test
Generally, the excess penetrant shall be removed first surface shall be dried as quickly as possible after
by using a clean lint-free cloth. Subsequent cleaning excess penetrant removal, using one of the following
with a clean lint-free cloth lightly moistened with methods:
solvent shall then be carried out. Any other removal
technique shall be approved by the contracting parties, a) wiping with a clean, dry, lint-free cloth;
particularly when solvent remover is sprayed directly b) evaporation at ambient temperature after hot
on to the part to be tested. water dip;
8.4.4 Emulsifier c) evaporation at elevated temperature;
d) forced air circulation;
8.4.4.1 Hydrophilic (water-dilutable)
e) a combination of the methods listed under a)
To allow the post-emulsifiable penetrant to be removed to d).
from the test surface, it shall be rendered
water-rinsable by application of an emulsifier. Before If compressed air is used, particular care shall be taken
the application of the emulsifier, a water wash should to ensure that it is water- and oil-free and impinging
be performed in order to remove the bulk of the pressure on the surface of the part is kept as low as
excess penetrant from the test surface and to facilitate possible.
a uniform action of the hydrophilic emulsifier which The method of drying the part to be tested shall be
will be applied subsequently. carried out in a way ensuring that the penetrant
The emulsifier shall be applied by immersion or by entrapped in the discontinuities does not dry.
foam equipment. The concentration and the contact The surface temperature shall not exceed 50 ÊC during
time of the emulsifier shall be evaluated by the user drying unless otherwise approved.
through pre-tests according to the manufacturer's
8.5 Application of developer
instructions. The predetermined emulsifier contact time
shall not be exceeded. After emulsification, a final 8.5.1 General
wash shall be carried out as described in 8.4.2. The developer shall be maintained in a uniform
8.4.4.2 Lipophilic (oil-based) condition during use and shall be evenly applied to the
test surface.
To allow the post emulsifiable penetrant to be removed
from the test surface, it shall be rendered The application of the developer shall be carried out as
water-rinsable by application of an emulsifier. This can soon as possible after the removal of excess penetrant.
only be done by immersion. The emulsifier contact
time shall be evaluated by the user through pre-tests
according to the manufacturer's instructions.

 BSI 1997
Page 7
EN 571-1 : 1997

8.5.2 Dry powder 8.5.7 Development time


Dry powder may only be used with fluorescent The development time should be between 10 min
penetrants. The developer shall be uniformly applied to and 30 min; longer times may be agreed between the
the test surface by one of the following techniques: contracting parties.
dust storm, electrostatic spraying, flock gun, fluidized The development time begins
bed or storm cabinet. The test surface shall be thinly
covered; local agglomerations are not permitted. ± immediately after application when dry developer
is applied;
8.5.3 Water-suspendable developer ± immediately after drying when wet developer is
A thin uniform application of the developer shall be applied.
carried out by immersion in agitated suspension or by
spraying with suitable equipment in accordance with 8.6 Inspection
the approved procedure. Immersion time and 8.6.1 General
temperature of the developer shall be evaluated by the Generally, it is advisable to carry out the first
user through pre-tests according to the manufacturer's examination just after the application of the developer
instructions. The immersion time shall be as short as or as soon as the developer is dry. This facilitates a
possible to ensure optimum results. better interpretation of indications.
The part shall be dried by evaporation and/or by the The final inspection shall be carried out when the
use of a forced air circulation oven. development time has elapsed.
8.5.4 Solvent-based developer Aids for visual examination, such as magnification
The developer shall be applied by spraying uniformly. instruments or contrast spectacles, can be used.
The spray shall be such that the developer arrives NOTE. The diameter, width or intensity of the indication provide
slightly wet on the surface, giving a thin, uniform layer. limited information.

8.5.5 Water soluble developer 8.6.2 Viewing conditions


A thin uniform application of the developer shall be 8.6.2.1 Fluorescent penetrants
carried out by immersion or by spraying with suitable Photochromatic spectacles shall not be worn.
equipment in accordance with the approved procedure.
Sufficient time shall be allowed for the operator's eyes
Immersion time and temperature of the developer shall
to become dark-adapted in the inspection booth,
be evaluated by the user through pretests according to
usually at least 5 min.
the manufacturer's instruction. The immersion time
should be as short as possible to ensure an optimum UV radiation shall not be directed in the operator's
result. eyes. All surfaces which can be viewed by the
operators shall not fluoresce.
The part shall be dried by evaporation and/or by the
use of a forced air circulation oven. No paper or cloth which fluoresces under UV light
shall be in sight of the operator.
8.5.6 Water or solvent based for special
A UV-A background lighting may be provided, if
application (e.g. peelable developer)
necessary, to allow the operator to move freely inside
When an indication that needs to be recorded is shown the booth.
with the penetrant inspection process the following
The test surface shall be viewed under a UV-A
procedure should be used.
radiation source, in accordance with prEN 1956. The
± Wipe off developer with a clean, dry, lint-free cloth. UV-A irradiance at the surface inspected shall not be
± Apply the same penetrant by any convenient less than 10 W/m2 (1000 mW/cm2).
means, then follow exactly the same process as The statements above shall apply to inspections in
initially used, up to application of the developer. darkened rooms where the visible light is limited to a
± After excess penetrant removal and drying of the maximum of 20 lx.
part, apply the peelable developer as recommended
8.6.2.2 Colour contrast penetrants
by the manufacturer.
The test surface shall be inspected under daylight or
± When the recommended development time has
under artificial white light with an illuminance of not
elapsed, carefully peel off the developer coating.
less than 500 lx on the surface of the tested part. The
Indication(s) appear(s) on the face of the coating
viewing conditions shall be such that glare and
which was in direct contact with the part.
reflections are avoided.

 BSI 1997
Page 8
EN 571-1 : 1997

8.7 Recording 9 Test report


Recording may be done by any of the following The test report shall contain the following information
methods: with reference to this standard:
a) written description; a) information on the part tested
b) sketch; ± designation
c) adhesive tape; ± dimensions
d) peelable developer; ± material
e) photograph; ± surface condition
f) photocopy; ± production stage;
g) video. b) purpose of testing;
8.8 Postcleaning and protection c) designation of the penetrant system used, as
specified in 6.4, giving the manufacturer's name and
8.8.1 Postcleaning product designation as well as the batch number;
After final inspection, postcleaning of the part is d) test instructions;
necessary only in those cases where the penetrant
testing products could interfere with subsequent e) deviations from the test instructions;
processing or service requirements. f) test results (description of discontinuities
detected);
8.8.2 Protection
g) test location, date of testing, name of the
If required a suitable corrosion protection shall be operator;
applied.
h) name, certification and signature of the test
8.9 Retesting supervisor.
If retesting is necessary, e.g. because no unambiguous The layout of a form that can be used for the test
evaluation of indications is possible, the entire test report is given in annex B. It shall include all the
procedure, starting with the precleaning, shall be details relating to the method which are important for
repeated. the evaluation of the test results, and additional
If necessary, more favourable test conditions shall be information relating to the parts to be tested, although
chosen for this procedure. The use of a different type this data should be modified, as appropriate,
of penetrant or a penetrant of the same type from a depending on the type of part. If another form is used
different supplier is not allowed unless a thorough it shall contain all the information detailed in items a)
cleaning has been carried out to remove penetrant to h).
residues remaining in the discontinuities. The test report may be omitted if a test procedure
fulfilling the requirements of 8.1 is submitted,
containing the information mentioned in clause 9 from
a) to d) and if the information under e) to h) is
documented in an appropriate manner.

 BSI 1997
Page 9
EN 571-1 : 1997

Annex A (normative)
Main stages of the penetrant examination

Preparation and precleaning

Dry

Apply water- Apply post-emul- Apply solvent


washable pene- sifiable pene- removable pene-
trant and allow trant and allow trant and allow
contact time contact time contact time

Apply solvent
Water and solvent Water wash remover

Apply lipophilic
Water spray emulsifier and
rinse allow contact
time

Apply hyrophilic Wipe clean


emulsifier and
Allow to dry
allow contact
time

Water wash Water wash

Excess penetrant
remover check

Dry

Dry
Apply water Apply water
soluble suspendable
developer developer

Apply dry Dry Allow to dry


developer

Development time

Inspect

Clean

Protect if
required

 BSI 1997
Page 10
EN 571-1 : 1997

Annex B (informative)
Example of a test report

Test report
Company name: Reference no.:
Departments: Subreference no.:
Penetrant Testing
Test report no.: ±±±±±±±± Sheet ±±±±±±±± of ±±±±±±±± sheets
Project: Parts:
Commissioned by: Manufacturing no.:
Commission order no.: Drawing no.:
Part to be tested: further details, e.g.:
Weld plan no.: Test follow-up plan no.:
Dimensions: Weld no.: Sheet no.:
Unit no.: Part no.:
Material: Cast no.: Model no.:
Surface condition:
Heat treatment condition:
Pretreatment:
Test instruction: (e.g. specification, test direction, delivery condition)
Scope of testing:

Penetrant system
Designation: (further details, e.g. free from corrosive constituents, in accordance with
prEN 571-2)
Manufacturer:
Product designation
Penetrant: Batch no.:
Excess penetrant remover: Batch no.:
Developer: Batch no.:
Procedure
Test temperature: Excess penetrant removal (further details, e.g. anticorrosive agents):
Precleaning: Emulsifying time:
Drying: Drying:
Penetration time: Development time:
Postcleaning:
Deviations from the test instructions:
Deviations from EN 571-1:
Test results: (e.g. for discontinuities: details of location, types, distributions, sizes and
number; sketch)
Test location: Test date: Operator's name:
Evaluation acceptable: unacceptable:
(in accordance with test instructions):
Remarks:

Test supervisor: Certification: Date: Signature:


or
Commissioner/expert: Date: Signature:
or
Test house: Date: Signature:

 BSI 1997
BS EN 571-1 : 1997

List of references

See national foreword.

 BSI 1997
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