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JAYPEE BINA THERMAL POWER PLANT

2X250 MW
2X250 MW
JAYPEE BINA THERMAL POWER PLANT 2X250 MW Prepared By Rahul Chauhan Control & Instrumentation

Prepared By Rahul Chauhan Control & Instrumentation

OBJECTIVE OF CONTROL &

INSTRUMENTATION

SAFE OPERATION OF PLANT.

LONGEST EQUIPMENT LIFE.

MINIMUM ENVIROMENTAL EFFECT.

MAXIMUM EFFICIENCY

 SAFE OPERATION OF PLANT.  LONGEST EQUIPMENT LIFE.  MINIMUM ENVIROMENTAL EFFECT.  MAXIMUM EFFICIENCY
 SAFE OPERATION OF PLANT.  LONGEST EQUIPMENT LIFE.  MINIMUM ENVIROMENTAL EFFECT.  MAXIMUM EFFICIENCY

INTRODUCTION

FSSS means furnace safeguard & supervisory system ,

the system which is used in almost all types of boiler. The system has been designed to offer maximum protection and to ensure the execution of a safe, orderly operating sequence in the start up and shutdown of fuel firing equipment in a boiler and to prevent errors which may be committed by an operator due to ignorance.

FSSS is designed to perform the following functions:

Prevent any fuel firing unless a furnace purge sequence has been completed.

Monitor and control the proper component sequence (Manual or Automatic) during start-up and shut-down of fuel firing equipment.

Make continued operation of fuel firing equipment subject

to certain safety interlocks remaining satisfied.

Provide component status feedback to the operator and in some cases, to the unit control system.

Provide flame supervision when fuel firing equipment is in service and effect a fuel trip upon certain adverse operating conditions.

Initiate a fuel trip when certain abnormal operating

condition exists

FSSS provided for this project is designed for a natural circulation:

Light Oil (LO) as the start-up fuel.

Heavy Oil (HO) fired boiler with coal as the primary fuel / warm up and stabilisation.

Three elevations of high energy arc (HEA) igniters.

Previously Three elevations of oil guns with provision for firing

LDO oil in AB elevation only, HFO in elevation AB, CD & EF elevation.

Now modification has been done that provision of firing LDO oil

in all 3 elevation i.e. AB , CD , EF elevation. With these

modification desk engineer will able to minimize the Boiler light up to synchronization time.

DESCRIPTION OF BURNER BLOCK ASSEMBLY

Burner block assembly is divided into 14 elevation.

There are 6 elevations of coal nozzles for firing the main fuel. These are defined as A to F.

There are 3 elevations of oil burner assembly for firing start up/

stabilizing fuel (EL. AB , CD & EF ).

3 elevations acts as auxiliary air dampers ( BC, DE & FF ).

2 nos. of over fire air compartment at the top of the wind box.

They are designated as OFA-L (Over fire air - Lower) & OFA-U (

Over fire air - Upper) respectively.

Flame scanners are mounted at 5 different elevation i.e. AB,BC,CD,DE & EF.

If Secondary air is admitted to a fuel compartment in service, is

referred as Fuel air Damper.

Secondary air is admitted to the furnace through air compartments and fuel compartments not in service, is termed as Auxiliary air damper.

FURNACE PURGE

Furnace purging is done to remove all unburnt particles which may have been inside the furnace during earlier unit operation.

Before Boiler is lighted up Furnace purge is done for

which following interlocks should be satisfied:

Establish 110 V AC from UPS & 220 V DC from 4.5

mtr switchgear power to FSSS and the related equipment.

Establish normal drum level ( 0 mmwc NWL).

Run at least one ID and one FD fan in service.

Establish airflow between 30% and 40% MCR i.e. 300 to 400 TPH through the furnace.

Press the

ur e start

ush button HMI (

e time 5

ur

If the "Purge ready” light signal does not come on after the

above conditions have been completed, check other these

condition :

The light oil trip valve is fully closed.

All the light oil nozzle valves are proven closed.

The heavy oil trip valve is proven closed.

All the heavy oil nozzle valves are fully closed. All PA Fans are off.

All feeders are off.

All hot air gates are fully closed.

All the flame scanners sense "No Flame".

No boiler trip command is present.

All auxiliary dampers are modulating ( open condition ).

At the end of the five minutes, the boiler trip circuit is

PLACE OIL GUN IN SERVICE

Oil elevation AB is provided with Light Oil / Heavy Oil firing. Light oil or Heavy oil firing can be selected from the console insert by

pressing the appropriate push button provided in graphic.

LIGHT OIL TRIP VALVE ( LOTV ) CONTROL

Once the Boiler trip circuit is reset and all the light oil nozzle valves are proven closed, pressing the light oil trip valve "open" command , will open light oil trip valve provided the light oil

header pressure is adequate.

LIGHT OIL TRIP VALVE (LOTV)

Open permissive:

All LONVs are closed.

Furnace Purge Completed & MFT reset.

Light oil header pressure Adequate >15.6kg/cm2.

Unit 24 V DC power available from DCDB system

Protection close:

Light oil header press V. Low < 4.2kg/cm2.

Atomising air pressure V. Low < 3.5kg/cm2.

MFT acted

HIGH ENERGY ELECTRIC IGNITOR

The HEA igniter assembly is designed to ignite a variety of fuel ranging from high speed diesel to heavy fuel oil. The

equipment gives high intensity electrical spark which ignite

the oil particles surrounding the spark . The major component of BHELSPARK igniter are:

Spark generator Box.

Flexible cable assembly.

Spark rod assembly.

Spark tip.

Retractor assembly

SPARK GENERATOR BOX

The spark generator box contains the high voltage step up transformer , produce high energy electric discharge spark .

up transformer , produce high energy electric discharge spark . Input voltage = 110 VAC, 50

Input voltage = 110 VAC, 50 H Output voltage = 3000 V DC

FLEXIBLE CABLE ASSEMBLEY Flexible cable assembly is used to connect the spark tip and the spark rod assembly to the spark generator box. The flexibility of the cable is required for advancing and retracting the igniter tip using pneumatic actuator.

for advancing and retracting the igniter tip using pneumatic actuator. Length = 4000 mm Operating voltage

Length = 4000 mm

Operating voltage = 3000

V DC

for advancing and retracting the igniter tip using pneumatic actuator. Length = 4000 mm Operating voltage
for advancing and retracting the igniter tip using pneumatic actuator. Length = 4000 mm Operating voltage

SPARK ROD ASSEMBLY

The spark rod assembly used to connect the spark tip to the flexible cable so the electrical discharges are transmitted to the spark tip to generate the sparks for ignition.

to the spark tip to generate the sparks for ignition. Construction : SS Wire & SS

Construction : SS Wire & SS Tube Operating Voltage : 3000V

SPARK TIP

The spark-tip is a critical component in the igniters which converters the electrical discharge into high energy sparks.

Care should be taken to clean the tip periodically and before

any boiler light-up for reliable ignition. The tip life will reduce and some times the tip will get damaged if it is kept for longer duration at flame zone exposing to higher temperature.

duration at flame zone exposing to higher temperature. Length of the spark tip = 180 mm

Length of the spark tip = 180

mm

Diameter = 15.9 mm Spark rate = 5 Sparks/second

RETRACTOR ASSEMBLY

The retractor assembly is a pneumatically operated system to advance the spark tip into the burner zone and retract the

spark tip after successful ignition. The retract assembly is

equipped with solenoid valve for controlling the pneumatic cylinder and also end point limit switches to signal the advanced or retracted position of the spark-tip.

signal the advanced or retracted position of the spark-tip. Air cylinder stroke = 200 mm Air

Air cylinder stroke = 200

mm

Air pressure = 4 5

kg/cm2

Solenoid operating voltage = 110 V AC

Limit switches = 2 nos.

OIL ELEVATION START PERMIT

TO PLACE OIL GUN IN SERVICE “OIL ELEVATION START PERMIT” MUST SATISFIED

Select light oil or Heavy oil firing.

LOTV or HOTV valve proven fully open.

Purge Completed & MFT reset.

Burner Tilt Horizontal & Air flow < 40% MCR. ( cold condition ) OR.

Any oil elevation in service ( warm up condition ) OR

Any feeder on ( Running condition ).

Local maintenance switch in remote position.

Oil gun engaged.

Scavenge valve closed.

Manual isolation valve open.

LDO START SEQUENCE

To place the light oil guns in service following sequence is defined in four steps:

HEA Rod advance command.

Open air atom valve.

Open LONV valve and HEA Spark command.

Step complete.

There are two type of firing in oil elevation

(a) Pair mode (b) Elevation mode

A pair firing mode is selected when no feeder is in service .

Elevation firing mode is selected when at least one feeder is

selected.

TO TAKE LDO OIL GUN IN PAIR MODE

To place the light oil guns in service “Oil elevation start permit”

should be available.

LDO oil can be fired at EL. AB & in pair basis. Corners 1 and 3 make one pair, while corners 2 and 4 make the other pair.

The corners making up a pair are diagonally opposite.

By pressing the associated pair start command ( i.e. 1-3 or 2-

4), will initiate a 70 seconds start time to place the associated

pair of LDO oil guns in service.

When corner 1 & 3 is selected a start command is sent to oil corner 1 , fifteen seconds later a start command is sent to oil

3

When HEA rod is advanced and the atomising Air valve is proven open and LONV valve gets open command & HEA igniter gets command for sparking. 15 seconds later, HEA igniter advance and spark command is removed.

If the flame is established within the above 15 seconds then the oil gun is said to have been successfully placed in service and will continue to operate.

If the flame is not established by the end of 15 seconds, corner trip will be initiated which will close the oil nozzle valve & atomising valve of the particular corner.

FLAME ON CONDITION FOR OIL = INTENSITY > 30 % & FREQ > 20 HZ

FLAME ON CONDITION FOR COAL = INTENSITY > 30 % & FREQ > 4 HZ

ELEVATION MODE OPERATION

Elevation mode is automatically active when the following condition exits :

Either adjacent feeder associated with the oil elevation is proven on .

for example

Elevation AB is automatically active in

elevation mode when the adjacent feeder A OR B is proven. When the elevation mode is selected, the oil AB elevation is in service as follows (assuming the “OIL ELEVATION START PERMIT” remains established). An elevation start command is established for corners 1 and 3 on the associated elevation.

After the “elevation start” command is established, a forty second counting period is started to establish an “elevation start” command for corners 2 and 4.

Corners 1 and 3 are now placed in service in the same manner as described in the “PAIR MODE OPERATION section.

After the forty second counting period expires, corners 2 and 4 are placed in operation in the same manner as described in the “PAIR MODE OPERATION”section.

At the end of 70 secs. , a minimum of 3 LO Gun are in service at that elevation if not, an unsuccessful elevation start alarm is initiated. This will trip corners 1-3 and 40 seconds later corner 2-4 as described in shut down procedure.

Elevation mode is not in service at our station for reliable operation .

OIL SHUTDOWN SEQUENCE

Heavy oil shutdown sequence in pair mode is defined in five steps:

Close cmd to HONV valve.

Open atomizing steam valve.

Open Scavenge valve & HEA Rod advance & Spark Cmd

for 15 secs. A 5 min.Scavenge period is started.

Close Scavenge valve & atom. steam valve.

Step complete

BOILER PROTECTIONS

BOILER PROTECTIONS
BOILER PROTECTIONS

PROTECTION OF BOILER:

To detect the abnormal condition by constantly

measuring the various parameter under normal and

faulty condition . If any abnormality happened trip the boiler to prevent from major damage.

NEEDS OF PROTECTION

To avoid operational faults.

Equipment safety.

To avoid accidents .

To avoid systems disturbances

BOTH ID FAN TRIP

IDF A Off (Off Feedback)

BOTH ID FAN TRIP IDF – A Off (Off Feedback) IDF – B Off (Off Feedback)
BOTH ID FAN TRIP IDF – A Off (Off Feedback) IDF – B Off (Off Feedback)

IDF B Off (Off Feedback)

TRIP CAUSES:

AND Logic Gate
AND
Logic
Gate

MFT

IDF VFD CHANNEL FAULT.

IDF POST PURGE TRIP.

IDF BRG TEMP V.HI.

IDF WINDING TEMP V.HI.

IDF VIBRATION V.HI.

ELECTRICAL PROTECTION OPERATED.

EPB OPERATED.

PURPOSE : Protection to prevent furnace pressurization

BOTH FD FAN TRIP

FDF A Off (Off Feedback)

BOTH FD FAN TRIP FDF – A Off (Off Feedback) AND Logic Gate MFT FDF –
AND Logic Gate
AND
Logic
Gate

MFT

FAN TRIP FDF – A Off (Off Feedback) AND Logic Gate MFT FDF – B Off

FDF B Off (Off Feedback)

TRIP CAUSES:

FDF POST PURGE TRIP.

FDF BRG TEMP V.HI.

FDF WINDING TEMP V.HI.

FDF VIBERATION V.HI.

ELECTRICAL PROTECTION OPERATED.

EPB OPERATED.

PURPOSE : Protection to prevent reducing firing condition.

DRUM LEVEL VERY LOW

Transmitters Range = - 425 to 762 mmwc

Tripping value = < - 225 mmwc Alarm = < -125 mmwc Time delay = 5 sec.

PURPOSE : To prevent

water wall tubes starvation.

DRUM LEVEL VERY HIGH

Tripping value = > + 225 mmwc

Alarm = > + 125 mmwc Time delay = 10 sec. PURPOSE : To prevent

water carry over to super heater header and to

turbine.

= 10 sec . PURPOSE : To prevent water carry over to super heater header and

T1

T1 T2 T3

T2

T1 T2 T3

T3

2/3 Logic

= 10 sec . PURPOSE : To prevent water carry over to super heater header and
= 10 sec . PURPOSE : To prevent water carry over to super heater header and
= 10 sec . PURPOSE : To prevent water carry over to super heater header and
= 10 sec . PURPOSE : To prevent water carry over to super heater header and

MFT

FURNACE PRESSURE VERY HIGH

Tripping value = > + 150 mmwc Alarm 1 = > + 30 mmwc Alarm 2 = > + 75 mmwc

PURPOSE : To stop fuel firing

under explosive tendency of

furnace , prevent furnace structural distortion

FURNACE PRESSURE VERY LOW
FURNACE PRESSURE
VERY LOW

Tripping value = < - 175 mmwc

Alarm 1 = < - 30 mmwc Alarm 2 = < - 100 mmwc PURPOSE : To stop fuel firing under implosive tendency of

furnace , prevent furnace

Switches

V.High 1 V.High 1
V.High 1
V.High 1

2/3

2/3

Logic

Logic

V.High 2 V.High 2
V.High 2
V.High 2
1 V.High 1 2/3 2/3 Logic Logic V.High 2 V.High 2 V.High 3 V.High 3 Switches
V.High 3 V.High 3
V.High 3
V.High 3

Switches

V.Low 1 V.Low 1
V.Low 1
V.Low 1

2/3

2/3

Logic

Logic

V.Low 2 V.Low 2
V.Low 2
V.Low 2
V.Low 3 V.Low 3
V.Low 3
V.Low 3
2 V.High 3 V.High 3 Switches V.Low 1 V.Low 1 2/3 2/3 Logic Logic V.Low 2

MFT

MFT

MFT

MFT

LOSS OF FUEL TRIP

The loss of fuel trip circuit becomes armed when any one nozzle valves open from closed position in any elevation.

LOSS OF FULE TRIP ARMING ALL FEEDER TRIPPED HOTV TRIPPED AND OR LOGIC ALL HONV
LOSS OF FULE TRIP ARMING
ALL FEEDER TRIPPED
HOTV TRIPPED
AND
OR
LOGIC
ALL
HONV CLOSED
GATE
LOTV TRIPPED
OR
ALL
LONV
CLOSED

Once the trip circuit is armed, loss of fuel trip will occur if,

All feeders are off.

AND

HO trip valve tripped OR All HO nozzle valves closed.

AND

LO trip valve tripped OR Elev. AB All LO nozzle valves closed.

UNIT FLAME FAILURE TRIP

ANY FEEDER PROVEN

FLAME FAILURE TRIP ARMING

2 S
2 S
EL . F VOTED NO FLAME EL . E VOTED NO FLAME AND EL .
EL . F VOTED NO FLAME
EL . E VOTED NO FLAME
AND
EL . D VOTED NO FLAME
LOGIC
EL . C VOTED NO FLAME
GATE
EL . B VOTED NO FLAME
EL . A
VOTED NO FLAME

The Flame failure trip circuit is armed when any one feeder is proven .

once the trip circuit is armed, flame failure trip protection will occur if ,

Any feeder proven ( flame arming )

AND

All elevation shows voted no flame

EXAMPLE ELEVATION A VOTED NO FLAME

Elevation AB 2 / 4 nozzle valves not open AND Elev. AB scanner shows NO FLAME .

OR

Feeder A is not proven ( Off Feedback)

ELEVATION B VOTED NO FLAME

Elev. AB 2 / 4 nozzle valves not open AND Elev. AB & BC

scanner shows NO FLAME.

OR

Feeder B OFF

1

REHEATER PROTECTION

REHEATER PROTECTION ENABLE

(a) Boiler drum pressure > 8.2 kg/cm2

(b)

Any feeder on

(c)

Boiler firing

PROTECTION :

contact Contact Contact
contact
Contact
Contact

2/3

Logic

firing PROTECTION : contact Contact Contact 2/3 Logic WHEN BOILER IS 'WORKING / REHEATER PROTECTION ENABLE
firing PROTECTION : contact Contact Contact 2/3 Logic WHEN BOILER IS 'WORKING / REHEATER PROTECTION ENABLE

WHEN BOILER IS 'WORKING / REHEATER PROTECTION ENABLE

(a)

(b)

GENERATOR CIRCUIT BEAKERS OPEN &.

HPBP OR LPBP VALVES REMAIN CLOSED

BOTH SATISAFIED

2

WHEN BOILER IS 'WORKING / REHEATER PROTECTION ENABLE

MFT

(a) TURBINE TRIPPED &

(b) HPBP OR LPBP VALVES REMAIN CLOSED

BOILER SHALL BE TRIPPED AFTER 10 Sec.

LESS THAN FIRE BALL & 110V AC POWER FAIL

If all feeders are off AND

Elevation AB started and loss of 110v AC OR

Elevation CD started and loss of 110v AC

OR Elevation EF started and loss of 110v AC

110 V AC USED:

110v AC supply used in all OIL nozzles valve , HEA

Igniter , Feeder outlet gate , All hot air gates , mill

discharged valve.

LOSS OF 220 V DC

If 220v DC supply fails for 2 sec.

220v DC supply used main oil valve HOTV , HORV , LOTV &

scanner emergency damper.

LOSS OF 24V DC

24V DC is used for functioning of DCS cards , TG governing

and field

converter ).

instruments ( Transmitters , switches , I/P

PURPOSE : If 24V fails , the DCS system cannot execute any logic

TOTAL AIR FLOW < 30%

If (secondary air + primary air) flow < 300 TPH.

BOILER TRIP THROUGH EMERGENCY PUSH

BUTTON

UCP panel.

From boiler HMI push button

MFT NETWORK FAILURE

If any 2 DPU cards out of 3 of MFT panels go into failed status it will initiate MFT Protection.

(DPU = DIGITAL PROCESSING

UNIT)

DPU1

DPU1 DPU2 DPU3

DPU2

DPU1 DPU2 DPU3

DPU3

(DPU = DIGITAL PROCESSING UNIT) DPU1 DPU2 DPU3 2/3 Logic MFT PURPOSE : This ensure that

2/3

Logic

DIGITAL PROCESSING UNIT) DPU1 DPU2 DPU3 2/3 Logic MFT PURPOSE : This ensure that At least
DIGITAL PROCESSING UNIT) DPU1 DPU2 DPU3 2/3 Logic MFT PURPOSE : This ensure that At least

MFT

PROCESSING UNIT) DPU1 DPU2 DPU3 2/3 Logic MFT PURPOSE : This ensure that At least 2

PURPOSE : This ensure that

At least 2 DPU cards are in healthy condition at any point of time when boiler is in service.

Failure the DPU cards leads to

unsafe condition.

THANK YOU
THANK YOU

THANK YOU

THANK YOU
THANK YOU