A Modified K-means Clustering for Mining of Multimedia

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A Modified K-means Clustering for Mining of Multimedia

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DOI 10.1007/s10586-017-0949-6

databases based on dimensionality reduction and similarity

measures

Xiaoping Jiang1 · Chenghua Li1 · Jing Sun1

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

cloud computing off late, there has been a huge volume of

research in the area of web based storage, cloud manage- With widespread growth in digital data communication and

ment and mining of data from the cloud. Large volumes state of art data processing gadgets, the amount of data to be

of data sets are being stored, processed in either virtual or stored and processed for various applications in real time has

physical storage and processing equipments on a daily basis. grown in leaps and bounds [1]. Following this, there have

Hence, there is a continuous need for research in these areas been recent interests towards state of the art concepts like

to minimize the computational complexity and subsequently cloud computing [2], internet of things (IoT) [3], Content

reduce the time and cost factors. The proposed research paper based retrieval [4] etc., the above mentioned technique have

focuses towards handling and mining of multimedia data in drastically reduced the necessity of large physical memory

a data base which is a mixed composition of data in the form spaces whose cost increase with demand in an exponen-

of graphic arts and pictures, hyper text, text data, video or tial manner. Virtual storage and management systems have

audio. Since large amounts of storage are required for audio started to emerge as the new trends in virtual processing elim-

and video data in general, the management and mining of inating the need for physical space, memory and processors

such data from the multimedia data base needs special atten- for their computation. A drastic variation in computational

tion. Experimental observations using well known data sets time has also been found from research contributions in the

of varying features and dimensions indicate that the pro- past with the use of virtual processing. The proposed work

posed cluster based mining technique achieves promising addresses the issue of data mining from a data base which is

results in comparison with the other well-known methods. composite in nature which is a mixture of text, video, audio

Every attribute denoting the efficiency of the mining pro- and hypertext. A generalized concept of data mining for mul-

cess have been compared component wise with recent mining timedia applications is depicted in Fig. 1.

techniques in the past. The proposed system addresses effec- From Fig. 1, it could be seen that data mining is basically a

tiveness, robustness and efficiency for a high-dimensional conceptual overlap of multiple fields ranging from mathemat-

multimedia database. ical modelling, statistics, data base management, learning to

recognition applications [5]. Since, the proposed work in this

Keywords Multimedia data bases · Clustering · Mining · paper focuses on multimedia data, data mining of multimedia

K means clustering · Optimization databases could be defined as systematic extraction of knowl-

edge from data sets comprising of audio clippings, video

sequences, images and text. The process of extraction starts

with the mining tool operating on the above mentioned data

B Chenghua Li sets which have been previously converted from their varying

lichenghuachina@yahoo.com formats like JPEG, MPEG, BMP, WMV etc., to a common

1 digital format. The various types of data under multimedia

College of Electronics and Information Engineering, Hubei

Key Laboratory of Intelligent Wireless Communications, databases could be categorized as audio (speech clips, mp3

South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan, China songs etc.,), image (photographs from camera, artistic paint-

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Cluster Comput

Mining

Static Mining Dynamic

Mining cluster

Audio

Image Text Video

in time), text (short messaging services, multimedia services)

and electronic data in the form of signatures, ink from light

pens, sensors etc.,

Data mining is a subset of knowledge discovery process

[6,7] also known as KDP. As the name indicates, data mining

analyzes the current data at hand to obtain new informa-

tion or knowledge through analysis of relationship between

the classes in the data. Since the mining proposed in this

paper operates on composite multimedia data, the scheme of Fig. 4 Three dimensional scatter plot of feature set of multimedia

database

mining is illustrated in Fig. 2 which features two important

categories namely static and dynamic mining.

The entire concept of mining is achieved by an important points in the interval of [0, 1]. When this interval is partitioned

process known as Clustering which is a form of unsupervised say into 20 cells, then it is evident that all cells will contain

learning method. During the discovery of knowledge through some points out of the total 200. On the other hand, if the

clustering approaches, two major problems arise which is number of points say 200 is kept constant and the distribution

the dimension of data set at hand and similarity measure interval is discretized [8], then the condition that all cells may

between the components in the class which is addressed in contain some points may not be achieved. Further, in three

this research paper. dimensionality, most of the cells would be empty resulting

The first parameter addressed in this paper is the high in data loss. A three dimensional cluster model is depicted

dimensional data to be handled by the mining tool. Figure 3 in Fig. 4.

illustrates the scatter plot between a small dimensional and The second aspect is the similarity measure which is

high dimensional data model. High dimensional data results generic of the definition of clustering which involves group-

in data being lost in space. This could be understood with ing together meaningful data sets [9] with similar measure of

an example by considering the random distribution of 200 some kind of functionality. Similarity measure involves a set

123

Cluster Comput

of attributes namely distance and similarity between binary ables in the original data set with huge deviations in their

clusters. The data sets in the clusters may be binary clusters variances.

(take upon two values), continuous or discrete. Euclidean Variations of the original PCA technique have been

distance, Jaccard coefficients are some prominent similarity observed in the survey where Egien vectors are used to com-

measured indices during clustering. This research paper pro- pute the similarity measures [15,16] and reduction in dimen-

poses a modified K means clustering algorithm to handle high sions is achieved by eliminating the members with highest

dimensional data for a multimedia database as the input set coefficient values after iteration. This iterative process of

and at the same time obtain optimal similarity measures by repeated elimination produces the variables of subspaces

utilizing a Minkowski distance which is a generalized form of with reduced dimensions of k. Literature also suggests certain

the Euclidean distance to obtain the distance measure during other second order techniques like factor analysis [17–19]

clustering. which takes multimedia data as the input for mining. The

The rest of the paper is organized as literature survey in feature vectors are classified into two parts where the first

section II followed by the proposed algorithm in Sect. 3. part contains the variance of the elements in the feature vec-

Section 4 illustrates the experimental procedure carried out tor while the second part contains a unique variance which is

and inferences justified by experimental results. A conclusion obtained by the variability of actual information and not com-

with a future scope of research is briefed in Sect. 5. mon to all other variables. The relation between the variables

is identified by factor analysis and the dimension is reduced

for the data set. The factor model does not depend on the

2 Related work scale of the variables but holds the orthogonal rotations of

the factors. Another variation of factor analysis is the princi-

Numerous research contributions have been found in the lit- pal factor analysis [20] where the data is standardized which

erature in the field of data mining and clustering. A literature subsequently makes the elements in the correlation matrix

survey in one of the essential branches of mining namely equal. The elements in the correlation matrix are essentially

pattern or similarity recognition has been done in which tech- co-variances. It is observed that concepts based on entropy

niques employing dimensionality reduction techniques have are used to estimate the initial value and the objective func-

been investigated. Research papers have presented classifi- tion defined as the minimization of squared error resulting

cation problems based on clustering techniques with remote in correlation coefficients. The reduced correlation matrix is

sensing data taken as inputs to classify the patterns. The formed, where the diagonal elements are replaced by the ele-

unique feature of remote sensing or SAR images [1] is that ments. Eigen values have been used to disintegrate the matrix

these data have high dimensions due to their high degrees further and the dimensionality of the resulting matrix is cho-

of resolutions. Most of research papers have presented the sen as the point where the magnitude of the Eigen values

conventional principal component analysis (PCA) and vari- computed exhibit a sharp transition.

ations of the PCA algorithms for dimensionality reduction. Another prominent technique for dimensionality reduc-

PCA [5,10] is one of the statistical approaches and provides tion found in the literature is the MLF or the maximum

satisfactory reductions in the dimensions of the feature set. likelihood factor analysis [4,21,22] where multivariate vari-

PCA techniques come under second order statistical tech- ables are used unlike PCA which contains univariate indices.

niques and use variables and covariance convergence matrix This technique once again defines the objective function

(CCM) which is essentially a matrix containing informa- by minimizing the log likelihood ratio computed from the

tion regarding the data set. Experimental results show that geometric mean of Eigen values. A modification of this

conventional PCA techniques are quite simple in terms of technique is the linear projection pursuit (PP) [5], which

computational complexity and could be easily manipulated could be suitably applied to non Gaussian data sets but

[11] to suit the feature vector size. However, it could be it is computationally complex when compared to conven-

found from the literature that manipulation of the matrix tional PCA and factor analysis techniques. A reduction in

is nearly impossible when the data set follows a Gaussian time has been reported by a fast projection pursuit algo-

distribution [6,12]. This necessitates the need for a higher rithm (FPP) [23] but exhibits significant time consumption

order linear technique especially when the dimensions of when the dimensionality of data set increases of the order of

the data are very large. Independent component analysis K 2 .The projection pursuit directions for independent com-

[13] is one such high order linear technique found in the ponents are obtained by Fast ICA algorithm [5,6]. The ICA

literatre. Another reduction technique reported in the liter- is a higher-order method that explicit the linear projections,

ature includes the Karhunen Louve (K–L) transform [7,10] which is not necessarily to be orthogonal, but needed to be

which is an orthogonal transform. Application of the K-L independent as possible. Statistical independence is a much

algorithm to the feature data set reduces the dimensionality stronger condition in uncorrelated second-order statistics.

by computing the linear combinations [14] of the vari- With the above findings, the proposed research paper focuses

123

Cluster Comput

reduction.

There has been a transition from the above mentioned con- Data acquisition

Raw Data

ventional techniques towards machine learning techniques

with the advent of intelligent and adaptive algorithms as

observed from the survey. One such essential and widely

used technique is the cluster analysis [10,15] which have Data pre-processing

Training set

numerous variants like K-means [16], Fuzzy [24], Genetic

[7] etc., Time series clustering is yet another prominent

technique [18] used for prediction applications. Classical

features of time series clustering include high dimension- Machine Learning

Model

ality, very high feature correlation, and large amount of

noise. The literature present numerous techniques aimed at

increasing the efficiency and scalability in handling the high Fig. 5 A general scheme of data mining in multimedia database

dimensional time series data sets. Clustering approaches have

been found to be categorized into conventional approaches

and hybrid approaches. Conventional clustering techniques and Manhattan distance in the form of Minkowski distance.

involve partitioning and model based algorithms. Conven- The efficiency of the proposed technique is directly attributed

tional algorithms include the well known K means [9], K to choice of k value and suitable distance parameter. Noisy

Medoids algorithm [25]. On the other hand, hierarchical data samples are usually characterized by large k values to

algorithms use a pair wise distance methodology to obtain make a smooth transition between the boundaries separating

the hierarchical clusters. This technique is especially very the regions. k is merely the number of nearest neighboring

effective for time series clustering. Another added advan- pixels to be considered. The choice of variable kis depen-

tage of the hierarchical algorithm is that it does not require dent on the relation between the number of features and the

initial seed values. A notable disadvantage from the litera- number of cases. A small value of k may influence the result

ture is that it could not be applied for high dimensional data by individual cases, while a large value of k may produce

due to its quadratic computational complexity. The above smoother outcomes. The calculation of distances is executed

mentioned drawbacks are effectively addressed by the model between the query instance and 150 training samples. The

based methods or hybrid techniques where they are combined formula of Minkowski distance is used as the objective func-

with Fuzzy sets to obtain crisp outputs or in a “fuzzy” man- tion, which the equation is as follows:

ner (Fuzzy c-Means). Model-based clustering [16] assumes a

model for each cluster and determines the best data fit for that 1/r

model. The model obtained from the generated data defines g (x, y) = Di |xi − yi |r (1)

the clusters. Model based techniques [18] however suffer

from certain drawbacks such as setting of initial values and The Minkowski distance is a metric in a normed vec-

further these initial values are set by the user and cannot be tor space which can be considered as a generalization of

validated. both the Euclidean distance and the Manhattan distance.The

Minkowski metric is widely used for measuring similarity

between objects. An object located a smaller distance from

3 Proposed work a query object is deemed more similar to the query object.

Measuring similarity by the Minkowski metric is based on

A general scheme of data mining from a multimedia data one assumption: that similar objects should be similar to the

base is illustrated in Fig. 5 where the raw data obtained after query object in all dimensions. A variant of the Minkowski

the data acquisition process and pre-processing is given to function, the weighted Minkowski distance function, has also

the training or learning process to obtain the mathematical been applied to measure image similarity. The basic idea is to

learning model of the given dataset. introduce weighting to identify important features [26–28].

The proposed work involves a K-means clustering After determination of the distance, the squared distances are

approach utilizing a Minkowski distance parameter. The sorted out and the first k values are ranked on a most mini-

KNN cluster is able to obtain a query vector p0 from a set of X mum square distance criterion. These sorted query instances

instances { p0 q0} } X with the similarity measure within classes are categorized into the components of the brain to which

defined by many parameters like Euclidean distance, Man- they belong. The classified components are then segmented

hattan distance etc., as mentioned in the previous sections. and filtered to remove any noisy unwanted regions. The algo-

The proposed work utilizes generalized version of Euclidean rithm is summarized below.

123

Cluster Comput

is depicted in fiugre 6. Hypertext data is taken in the form

To test the efficiency of the proposed algorithm, a multimedia of 10000 emails categorized into three classes namely ham,

database consisting of composite elements in the form of text, spam andphishing taken from TEC corpus (Fig. 6).

hypertext from yahoo, video and audio clips and data in the Similarity measure has been used as the performance cri-

form of time series for yeast and serum have been considered terion for measurement of accuracy in the email dataset of

for experimentation. The scatter plot of yeast and serum data 10000. The other criteria used are defined below.

123

Cluster Comput

T r ue Positive (T P)

N o.emails having spam

= (2)

T otal number o f emails f r om dataset

T r ue N egative (T N )

N o.emails without spam

= (3)

T otal number o f emails f r om dataset

Fig. 7 Accuracy plot against cluster for given dataset

False Positive (F P)

N o.emails without spams but detected positive

=

T otal number o f emails f r om dataset

(4)

False N egative (F N )

N o.emails with spam but not detected

= (5)

T otal number o f emails f r om dataset

oped segmentation technique could be arrived as

TP +TN

Accuracy (6)

T P + T N + FP + FN

are depicted in Fig. 7 and it could be seen the acccuracy Fig. 8 Plot of similarity meassure against number of groups

converges to optimal values for a data vector size of around

1600 indicated by the blue line. The similarity measure is

Table 1 Analysis of proposed work (dataset of 250)

plotted against the total number of cluster groups which are

related functionally and depicted in Fig. 8. Parameters Wang’s Proposed

It could be seen from the above plot that the similarity Initial number of clusters 80 80

measure hovers around a saturation value of around 0.575 Error convergence value 0.264E−6 0.0029E−8

for increasing cluster number as the interval gets discretized Computation time (s) 0.815 0.295

and more number of elements is present inside each cell.

The proposed work has been experimented and tabulated for

a dataset of 250 and compared with Wangs method and tab-

ulated below (Table 1). The performance of the proposed technique has been com-

The measuredentropy for various data sets is tabulated in pared with the conventional k means clustering and that of

Table 2 as shown below. Wang’s method and the convergence plot shown in Fig. 9.

123

Cluster Comput

Table 2 Entropy similarity measure for the multimedia database sys- 5 Conclusion and future scope

tem

Dataset No. of classes Size Entropy The multimedia data mining, knowledge extraction plays a

vital role in multimedia knowledge discovery. This research

Iris 60 470 0.78

paper has investigated the major challenges and issues in min-

Leaf.jpg 11 210 0.35

ing of multi media data which is quite different from text or

Yahoo.http 64 941 0.88

image mining since multimedia database is a composite col-

Xylophone.mpg 47 884 0.81

lection of image, text, hypertext, audio and video sequences.

A cluster based approach is utilized in this paper by modiying

the existing K means clustering algorithm to suit the multi-

media data base inputs. A Minkowski distance measure has

been used in this paper to bring about the modification in

the proposed work and the experiments have been conducted

with inputs from TEC corpus data and Yahoo databases for

emails. An exhaustive analysis of the proposed work has been

carried out with varying feature vector sizes and it could be

seen that a hierachichal clustering as the one used in this

paper drastically brings down the data size as well as the

computational complexity which subsequently brings down

the computation time. The propposed work has beenc com-

pared with conventional K means and Wang et al’s method

for mining of multi media databases. A future scope of this

work is to increase the data set size especially in case of

audio and video sequences with high resolution as most of

Fig. 9 Error convergence performance for proposed work

the real time multimedia data in use today are of high reso-

lution. Since, the volume of data handled on a dialy basis is

enormous; research in this area continues to be an evergreen

avenue for future research. Fuzzy C means and Genetic based

optimization problem formulations could also be extended

to this proposed work which is being thought of as a future

work.

Natural Science Fund of Hubei Province (Grant No. 2014CFB916).

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