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Analysis of Switched Diversity Receivers

over κ-µ and η-µ Fading Channels

A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Master of Technology

for the award of the degree of Master of Technology Submitted by Kalpant Pathak Roll. No.

Submitted by

Kalpant Pathak Roll. No. 11410240

Supervisor

Dr. Pravas Ranjan Sahu

Depatrment of Electronics and Electrical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati Guwahati-781039, Assam, India

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the work contained in this thesis entitled “Analysis of Switched Diversity Receivers over κ-µ and η-µ Fading Channels” by Kalpant Pathak, Roll no: 11410240, has been carried out at Department of Electronics & Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati under my supervision and that it has not been submitted elsewhere for a degree.

August 13, 2014

(Pravas Ranjan Sahu) Associate Professor Department of EEE

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Acknowledgement

I feel it as a great privilege in expressing my deepest and most sincere gratitude to my supervisor, Dr. Pravas Ranjan Sahu for the valuable suggestions and guidance during the course of the thesis, without which this work would not have seen the light of the day. I would also like to thank the Head of the Department and the other faculty members for their kind help in carrying out this work. I am very grateful to the non-teaching staff of the department who has always been my side from the very beginning of my work. Thanks go out to all my friends at the Image Processing Lab. They have always been around to provide useful suggestions, companionship and created a peaceful research environment. My special Thanks to Pravin Kumar, Sushant Kumbhar, Pawan Kumar and Sandip Gupta for their timely help in all respects during my M.Tech course. Special Thanks to my parents for their tremendous support and love all through.

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Abstract

In wireless communication, multipath fading results in severe degradation in perfor- mance of the system. In fading, received signal level fluctuates rapidly degrading the bit error rate (BER) performance. Diversity combining is the key technology used in 3G/4G wireless communication systems to mitigate fading. In recent years, multiple diversity combining techniques have been developed and analyzed over different fading channels. These combining tech- niques have different implementation complexities and performances depending upon the channel conditions. Among all known diversity combining techniques, switched diversity receivers have least implementation complexity as they don’t require channel estimation at the receiver. The intent of this thesis is to analyze switch and stay combining (SSC), switch and examine combining (SEC) and switch and examine combining with post examining se- lection (SECps) over κ-µ and η-µ fading channels using moment generating function (MGF) approach. A novel mathematical expression for the MGF of the receiver output signal-to-noise ratio is derived and BER for binary phase shift keying (BPSK) and binary frequency shift keying (BFSK) modulation schemes are obtained using it. The evaluated results are plotted for channel parameters of interest and effect of fading on the combiner performance is studied.

iii

Contents

1 Introduction

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1.1 Wireless Communication System

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1.1.1 Fading

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1.1.2 Statistical Models for Fading Channels

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1.2 Effect of Fading on System Performance

 

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1.3 Diversity .

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1.3.1

Diversity Combining Techniques .

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2 Literature Review and Motivation

 

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2.1 Diversity Combining Schemes

 

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2.1.1 Selection Combining

 

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2.1.2 Switch and Stay Combining

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2.1.3 Switch and Examine Combining .

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2.2 κ-µ and η-µ Fading Channels

 

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2.3 Motivation

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3 BER Analysis

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3.1 The κ-µ Distribution

 

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3.2 The η-µ Distribution

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3.2.1 The η-µ Distribution: Format 1

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3.2.2 The η-µ Distribution: Format 2

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3.3 Probability of Error Analysis .

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3.3.1 Moment Generating Function of Output SNR

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3.3.2 Probability of Bit Error Analysis

 

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4 Numerical and Simulation Results

 

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5

Conclusion and Future Work

38

Appendices

39

A Solution of I(s) in Equations 3.6, 3.9 and 3.12

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B Solution of I 1 (s) in Equation 3.12

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v

List of Figures

1.1

A typical urban/suburban mobile radio environment

 

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1.2

Comparison between Rayleigh faded and AWGN Channel .

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1.3

Block diagram of Space diversity combiner

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1.4

Block diagram of Maximal Ratio Combiner .

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1.5

Block diagram of Equal Gain Combiner

 

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1.6

Block diagram of Selection Combiner

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1.7

Block diagram of Dual branch Switch and Stay Combiner .

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4.1

BER performance of SSC receiver over κ-µ fading channel for BPSK and

BFSK modulations

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4.2

BER performance of SSC receiver over η-µ fading channel for BPSK and

BFSK modulations

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4.3

BER performance of SEC receiver over κ-µ fading channel for L=3 for

BPSK and BFSK modulations .

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4.4

BER performance of SEC receiver over η-µ fading channel for L=3 for

BPSK and BFSK modulations .

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4.5

BER performance of SEC receiver over κ-µ fading channel for L=5 for

BPSK and BFSK modulations .

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4.6

BER performance of SEC receiver over η-µ fading channel for L=5 for

BPSK and BFSK modulations .

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4.7

Comparison of BER performance over Rayleigh fading by varying γ T

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4.8

BER performance of SECps receiver over κ-µ fading channel for L=2 for

BPSK and BFSK modulations .

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4.9

BER performance of SECps receiver over η-µ fading channel for L=2 for

BPSK and BFSK modulations .

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4.10 Comparison of BER performance of SC, SEC| L=2 /SSC and SECps com-

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bining schemes over Rayleigh fading .

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37

Chapter 1

Introduction

In past few years, wireless communication has played an important role in information technology as information can be transmitted without the need of dedicated link between transmitter and receiver unlike wired communication, where a dedicated link/channel exist between transmitter and receiver. Compared to wired communication systems, wireless systems introduce a very interesting feature ‘mobility’. In any kind of communication, wired or wireless, there are some parameters like bandwidth, transmitted power, data rate etc. which decide the reliability of a system. The one which optimizes all of them is said to be a perfect system. In recent years, lots of research has been done on both kinds of communication so that a reliable system can be designed with high bandwidth, low transmitted power, high data rates and low bit or symbol error probability.

1.1 Wireless Communication System

In a wireless communication system, data is transmitted in the form of electromagnetic waves using antennas. When signal propagates through the wireless media, phenomena such as reflection and scattering through buildings, trees etc. and refraction through the edges causes the signal to follow multiple paths having different path loss factors and different delays. Thus, at the receiver, the received signal consist of multiple copies of same information bearing signal having different amplitudes and different phases arising due to different path lengths. Figure 1.1 shows a typical urban/suburban mobile radio environment. In the figure,

1

NLOS LOS NLOS MS BS
NLOS
LOS
NLOS
MS
BS

Figure 1.1: A typical urban/suburban mobile radio environment

the direct path between the transmitter and the receiver is called line-of-sight (LOS) path, whereas, the path corresponding to reflected signal is called non line-of-sight (NLOS) path. These multipaths have different phases corresponding to different path-delays, so that they interfere at the receiver either constructively or destructively resulting in variation in signal-to-noise ratio. In addition, mobility introduces time variation in channel response, i.e. if a very short pulse is transmitted, the received signal appears as a train of pulses due to presence of multipaths. Secondly, as a result of time varying response, if same procedure is followed multiple times, a change is observed in the received pulse train over time, which will include changes in the sizes of individual pulses, changes in relative delays among the pulses and often, changes in the number of pulses observed. Hence, the equivalent low-pass time varying impulse response of the channel can be modeled as [1]:

c(τ; t) = α i (t)e j2πf c τ i (t) δ[t τ i (t)]

(1.1)

i

where, α i (t) and τ i (t) are time varying attenuation factor and path delay for i th path respectively. For a transmitted signal s l (t) = 1 the received signal for the case of discrete multipath is given by [1]:

r l (t) =

i

α i (t)e i (t)

where, θ i (t) = 2πf c τ i (t). The α i (t) and τ i (t) associated with different signals vary at different rates and in

2

random manner. So, received signal r l (t) can be modeled as a random process. For

large number of paths, central limit theorem can be applied and r l (t) can be modeled

as complex-valued Gaussian random process i.e. c(τ ; t) is also a complex-valued random

process in t variable [1].

1.1.1

Fading

Due to time varying nature of phases and amplitudes of the received signals, the

multipaths add constructively or destructively at the receiver resulting in fluctuation in

the received signal. This amplitude variations in the received signal is termed as fading.

There are some parameters which define the fading characteristics of the channel.

These parameters are:

Coherence Time

Coherence time, T c of the channel measures the period of time over which two samples

of channel response taken at same frequency but at different time instants are correlated.

The coherence time is also related to Doppler spread, f d by [1]:

Coherence Bandwidth

T c 1

f

d

Coherence bandwidth, f c of the channel measures the frequency range over which two

samples of channel response taken at same time instants but at different frequencies are

correlated. The coherence bandwidth is related to maximum delay spread, τ max by [1]:

f c

1

τ max

Depending upon the parameters described above, fading can be classified into four

groups:

1.1.1.1

Slow and Fast Fading

In slow fading, the symbol time duration T s is smaller than the channel’s coherence

time, so that multiple symbols undergo same fading. Whereas, in fast fading, the symbol

time duration T s is larger than the channel’s coherence time, hence, fading decorrelates

from symbol to symbol [2].

3

1.1.1.2

Frequency-Flat and Frequency-Selective Fading

Fading is said to be frequency-flat, if signal bandwidth is less than channel’s coher-

ence bandwidth f c , i.e. all spectral components of the signal undergo same fading. In

frequency-selective fading, signal bandwidth is greater than channel’s coherence band-

width, so different spectral components of the signal are affected by different fading [2].

Frequency selectivity results in inter-symbol interference (ISI).

1.1.2 Statistical Models for Fading Channels

As wireless channel impulse response is modeled as a random process, multiple dis-

tributions have been developed to model the fading channel.

For large number of scatterers, central limit theorem can be applied and channel re-

sponse c(τ ; t) can be modeled as a complex-valued Gaussian random process. When the

impulse response c(τ ; t) is modeled as zero-mean complex random process, the envelope

|c(τ ; t)| is Rayleigh distributed and phase c(τ ; t) is uniformly distributed. If there are

fixed scatterers in addition to randomly moving scatterers, c(τ ; t) can be modeled as

non-zero mean complex Gaussian process so that envelope |c(τ ; t)| is Rice distributed [1].

Different fading models are described below.

1.1.2.1 Rayleigh Model

Rayleigh model is used when there is no LOS component present in the received

signal. The probability density function (PDF) of the envelope α 0 of channel impulse

response is given as [2]:

− α 2 p α (α) = 2α Ω , Ω e
− α 2
p α (α) = 2α
Ω ,
Ω e

α 0

where, Ω = E[α 2 ] is the mean-square value of α.

1.1.2.2 Nakagami-n (Rice) Model

Nakagami-n distribution is also called Rice distribution. This is suitable for the

propagation paths having one strong LOS path and many weaker NLOS paths. The pdf

is given as [2]:

p α (α) = 2(1 + n 2 )e n 2 α

e

(1+n 2 )α 2

4

I 0 ( 21 + n 2 ) ,

α 0

where, 0 n ≤ ∞ is the Nakagami-n fading parameter and is related to Ricean factor

K’ by K=n 2 . I 0 (·) is bessel’s function of first kind and order zero [3].

Nakagami-n distribution includes the Rayleigh distribution as a special case (n=0)

and spans from Rayleigh fading (n=0) to no-fading (n=).

1.1.2.3 Nakagami-q Model

The PDF of Nakagami- q distributed RV is given as [2]:

p α (α) = (1 + q 2 )α q

e

(1+q 2 ) 2 α 2 4q 2

I 0 ( (1 q 4 )α 2 4q 2

) ,

α 0

where, 0 q 1 is Nakagami-q fading parameter. This fading distribution includes

one-sided Gaussian (q=0) and Rayleigh (q=1) as special cases.

1.1.2.4 Nakagami-m Model

The PDF of Nakagami-m distributed random variable (RV) is given as [2]:

p α (α) =

2m m α 2m1

m Γ(m) e

2

,

α 0

where, Γ(·) is gamma function [3] and 1/2 m ≤ ∞ is Nakagami-m fading parameter.

This fading model includes one-sided Gaussian (m=1/2), Rayleigh (m=1) fading and

no-fading (m=) as special cases. For m < 1, it closely approximates Hoyt distribution,

and this mapping is given by [2]:

m

=

(1 + q 2 )

2

2(1 + 2q 4 ) ,

m 1

Similarly, for m > 1, it closely approximates the Nakagami-n (Rice) distribution and this

mapping is one-to-one and given by [2]:

m

= (1 + n 2 )

2

1 + 2n

2

,

n 0

1.2 Effect of Fading on System Performance

Fading, in wireless communication systems, results in poor BER performance as com-

pared to non-fading environment in presence of additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN).

This performance degradation arises due to amplitude variation of the received signal

because of fading. Figure 1.2 shows the BER curves for Rayleigh faded wireless channel

5

Probability of error, P e

Performance of BPSK over fading and non−fading environments

10

10

10

10

1

2

3

4

Rayleigh Fading AWGN Channel
Rayleigh Fading AWGN Channel
Rayleigh Fading AWGN Channel
Rayleigh Fading AWGN Channel
Rayleigh Fading AWGN Channel
Rayleigh Fading AWGN Channel
Rayleigh Fading AWGN Channel
Rayleigh Fading AWGN Channel
Rayleigh Fading AWGN Channel
Rayleigh Fading AWGN Channel

Rayleigh Fading

AWGN Channel

Rayleigh Fading AWGN Channel
Rayleigh Fading AWGN Channel
Rayleigh Fading AWGN Channel
Rayleigh Fading AWGN Channel

0

5

10

15

20

25

Input average SNR (γ¯) in dB

Figure 1.2: Comparison between Rayleigh faded and AWGN Channel

and non-fading AWGN channel over BPSK modulation scheme. From the figure it can be observed that, to have an BER of 10 3 , SNR needed for non-fading channel is 7dB, where as for Rayleigh faded channel, it is 23dB. In such case, the transmitted power for Rayleigh faded channel will be 40 times that of AWGN channel. To mitigate the effects of fading on the system and to improve performance of the system, Diversity techniques are used at the receiver end.

1.3

Diversity

In a typical mobile radio environment, it is observed that if two or more radio channels are sufficiently separated in frequency, time or space, then the fading in various channels is more or less independent. Diversity, is the key technology that uses this independence of channels to mitigate the effect of fading [4]. The main object of diversity techniques is to use several replicas of transmitted signal to improve system performance. There are various ways to obtain independently faded channels:

6

Receiving Antenna

Combiner

(MRC/EGC

/SC/SSC)

1
1
2 N
2
N
Receiving Antenna Combiner (MRC/EGC /SC/SSC) 1 2 N Output Figure 1.3: Block diagram of Space diversity

Output

Figure 1.3: Block diagram of Space diversity combiner

Frequency Diversity: The message is simultaneously transmitted over different carrier frequencies such that the separation between frequencies should be larger than channel’s coherence bandwidth.

Time Diversity: Same message is transmitted over different time slots such that the time separation between adjacent transmissions should be greater than channel’s coherence time.

Space Diversity: Desired message is transmitted/received through multiple trans- mit/receive antennas separated by at least half of the carrier wavelength. In the case of shadowing, the separation should be at least 10 carrier wavelength.

Angle Diversity: The message is received simultaneously using multiple antennas pointing in different directions.

The multiple replicas of the transmitted signal obtained using any of the method mentioned above, is then combined efficiently to improve the SNR at the detector input. Figure 1.3 shows a space diversity technique with a combiner, which combines the multiple signals received on different antennas. There are different types of diversity combining techniques, which are discussed in next section:

7

1

2

N

G 1 g 1 G 2 Detector g 2 Sum g N G N
G
1
g
1
G
2
Detector
g
2
Sum
g
N
G
N

Adaptive Control

Figure 1.4: Block diagram of Maximal Ratio Combiner

1.3.1 Diversity Combining Techniques

There are different types of diversity combining techniques used in practice [2], which are as follows:

1.3.1.1 Maximal Ratio Combining

In maximal ratio combining technique, the received multiple faded copies of the trans- mitted signal are co-phased. The co-phased signal copies are weighted individually in proportion to their strength to maximize SNR at the output of the combiner. Assuming

the output SNR

the received signal SNR at the input of the combiner is γ i , i = 1, 2, can be shown to be [5]:

N,

γ MRC =

N

i=1

γ

i

The MRC operation requires estimation of phase and amplitude of each received input branch signal. Hence, the complexity of implementation is high.

1.3.1.2 Equal Gain Combining

Different weights for each branch may not be convenient as it may increase the com- plexity of the receiver as in the case of MRC. So it is convenient to set all the gains to unity, while cophasing all signals before combining [2]. This technique of combining is called Equal Gain Combining.

8

1

2

N

g

1

g

2

Co-Phased

And

Sum

g

N

g 1 g 2 Co-Phased And Sum g N
Detector
Detector
1 2 N g 1 g 2 Co-Phased And Sum g N Detector Adaptive Control Figure

Adaptive Control

Figure 1.5: Block diagram of Equal Gain Combiner

For EGC, the output SNR is given as [2]:

γ EGC = ( ∑ ∑

N

2

) E s

i=0 α i

N i=0 P N i

where, α i is the fading amplitude for i th copy of the transmitted signal.

1.3.1.3 Selection Combining

In selection combining (SC), the system chooses the received signal having maximum SNR out of all copies of signals received. In this scheme the output SNR can be given as

[2]:

 

γ SC = max{γ 1 , γ 2 ,

,

γ N }

1.3.1.4

Switch and Stay Combining

The switch and stay combining (SSC) technique discussed here is presented in [2] and also shown in Figure 1.7. In this system, there are only two copies of fading signals are used. The combiner has only two antennas to receive fading signals. The received signal is fed as shown in Figure 1.7. In this scheme the received SNR γ 1 at antenna L 1 is compared with a predefined threshold γ T . Switching occurs to the input branch L 2 if γ 1 < γ T . And it again switches to first branch if γ 1 > γ T . It may happen that after switching the input SNR γ 2 at L 2 is less than γ T or even less than γ 1 , in such case the switch will still be connected to L 2 until the SNR of first branch becomes greater than γ T . Switching from branch L 2 to branch L 1 is done in similar manner.

9

1

2

N

g 1 Select Detector g Maximum 2 of N branches g N
g
1
Select
Detector
g
Maximum
2
of N
branches
g
N

Figure 1.6: Block diagram of Selection Combiner

L g L g 1 1 2 2 Receiver
L
g
L
g
1
1
2
2
Receiver
Control Switch Logic Comparator Estimator
Control
Switch
Logic
Comparator
Estimator

Present

Threshold

Data

Figure 1.7: Block diagram of Dual branch Switch and Stay Combiner

The SSC output SNR, γ SSC can be given as:

γ SSC =

if γ 1

γ 1 ,

  otherwise

γ 2 ,

γ T

1.3.1.5 Switch and Examine Combining

Unlike SSC combining scheme, switch and examine combining (SEC) adds the ben-

efit of having multiple branches at the receiver, especially when they are independent

and identically distributed (i.i.d.) or equicorrelated and identically distributed. In SSC

scheme, receiver switches between the best two paths, adding a path does not improve

the performance unless the added path is better than at least one of the best two ones.

10

In SEC combining scheme, the receiver starts examining from the first path. If first path is acceptable, it continues to receiver from it, else, it switches and examines the next available path. This process continues until an acceptable path is found or all paths have been examined. In the latter case, the receiver stays on the last examined path [6] or selects the best path for reception [7].

11

Chapter 2

Literature Review and Motivation

A number of works have been reported on the analysis of switched diversity schemes over different fading channel models. Selection combining, switch-and-stay combining and multibranch switch-and-examine combining schemes have been extensively studied over different fading channels. Also, different switching algorithms have been suggested to improve the system performance. Different research works regarding various switched combining schemes are listed in following section:

2.1 Diversity Combining Schemes

2.1.1 Selection Combining

D. G. Brennan in [4] has analyzed the SC, MRC and EGC combining schemes. In this paper, some departures from ideal conditions, such as non-Rayleigh fading and partially coherent signals are also considered. Also, merits of predetection and postdetection combining is discussed. These schemes have been analyzed over Rayleigh fading channel and performance comparison has been presented.

M. A. Blanco in [8], has studied the performance of non coherent binary frequency shift keying (NC-BFSK) with dual selection combiner over independent and iden- tically distributed Nakagami-m fading channels.

T. Eng et. al. in [9], has compared different diversity combining techniques over Rayleigh fading channels. In this paper, for coherent reception, the authors have compared performance of MRC, SC and a generalization of SC, where two/three

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signals with largest amplitudes are coherently combined and these techniques are denoted by second/third order SC (SC2 and SC3). Also, same techniques are inves- tigated for non coherent reception, with EGC and non coherent SC2 and SC3. It has been shown that SC2 and SC3 techniques have better performance than conven- tional SC scheme and under certain conditions they may approach the performance of EGC or MRC. Also, for non coherent reception it is shown that SC2 and SC3 perform better than EGC for higher BER values.

In year 1997, O. C. Ugweje and V. A. Aalo in [10], have analyzed the selection com- bining scheme over correlated Nakagami fading channels and the effect of branch correlation and fading parameter on the performance of the system has been stud- ied. Also, the joint distribution of the combiner output is obtained and analysis has been done for both coherent and non coherent demodulation schemes. Differ- ent graphs have also been shown to understand the effect of fading parameter and branch correlation. In the paper, it has been concluded that for dual selection di- versity system, branch correlation does not influence the BER significantly whereas, as Nakagami fading parameter m is increased, the BER performance improves sig- nificantly at higher SNRs.

In [11], M. K. Simon and M. S. Alouini have analyzed dual selection combining over correlated Rayleigh and Nakagami-m fading channels. Also, they have presented the expressions for the outage probability and average error probability performance of dual SC receiver over correlated Rayleigh fading in closed form, in particular for binary differential phase shift keying (BDPSK) and the results are also extended for Nakagami-m fading.

2.1.2 Switch and Stay Combining

Switch and stay combining (SSC) has been a popular combining scheme as it is the least complex combining scheme among all combining schemes. A number of works have been reported on the analysis of SSC scheme. Some of them are listed below:

In [12], A. A. Abu-Dayya and N. C. Beaulieu have studied the SSC scheme over independent and correlated Ricean fading channels using a discrete time model. Also, in the paper, BER for non coherent binary frequency shift keying is derived.

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In addition, an optimum switching threshold, which gives minimum BER, has also been obtained for independent fading case. The obtained performance is then com- pared to conventional selection combining scheme and effect of fading severity on BER and optimum threshold is investigated. For independent channels, it has been shown that for given Rice parameter K, optimum threshold increases with the SNR and for fixed SNR, optimum threshold increases with K.

In [13], A. A. Abu-Dayya and N. C. Beaulieu have analyzed the performance of SSC scheme over slow and flat Nakagami-m fading channels. In addition, expression for optimum threshold, which gives minimum BER, is obtained. Also, the effect of fading parameter and branch correlation on BER performance have also been studied.

In [14], Y. C. Ko et. al. has analyzed dual SSC scheme over Rayleigh, Nakagami-m and Nakagami-n fading channels using moment generating function (MGF) ap- proach. In this paper, effect of unequal average SNR, branch correlation and im- perfect channel estimation has also been studied. Also, the authors have derived the closed form expression for MGF of SSC output SNR, γ SSC considering all three fading channels and using these MGF expressions, closed form expressions of prob- ability of error has been obtained.

2.1.3 Switch and Examine Combining

Unlike SSC, SEC adds the benefit of having multiple branches at the receiver and hence, performs better than SSC. Some important works reported on the performance analysis of conventional SEC, modified SEC and generalized SEC are listed below:

In [6], H. Yang and M. S. Alouini have analyzed both SSC and SEC diversity com- bining schemes over Rayleigh fading channels. This work presents generic formulas for cumulative distribution function (CDF), probability density function (PDF) and moment generating function (MGF) of combiner output. Using these formulas, closed-form expressions for outage probability and average bit error rate have been obtained and a comparison between the two schemes has been shown. It is observed that, for increasing number of branches, SSC does not improve the performance as

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long as the branches are identically distributed, whereas, SEC improves the BER with the increase in number of branches.

In [15], G. C. Alexandropoulos et. al. has studied the performance of SEC diver- sity scheme over arbitrarily correlated and not necessarily identically distributed Nakagami-m fading channels. The authors have obtained analytical expressions for distribution of SEC output SNR for constant correlation model. For integer and half integer values of m, under the assumption of most general case of cor- relation, analytical expressions for the distribution of output SNR is derived for L 3. Whereas, for L > 3 analytical approximations are presented. Also, with the help of graphs, it is shown that with increasing branch correlation, the performance degrades.

In [16], A. M. Magableh and M. M. Matalgah have analyzed the BER performance and ergodic capacity of multibranch SEC combining over Weibull fading channels. The authors used the expressions of the PDF of combiner output SNR to evaluate the BER performance and ergodic capacity. The Weibull distribution considered in this paper is a generalized fading distribution, which can be used to model mobile radio environment operating in 800/900 MHz frequency range [2]. This fading distribution includes Rayleigh and exponential distribution as special cases.

In 2006, in [7], H. C. Yang and M. S. Alouini has presented a new kind of switch- and-examine combining known as SEC with post examining selection (SECps) and analyzed its performance over i.i.d. Rayleigh fading channels. In this technique, when no diversity path is acceptable, the receiver selects the best diversity branch for reception instead of choosing it randomly as in the case of conventional SEC. Using such combining schemes, author have shown that the performance can be improved. Authors have also shown that, using appropriate switching threshold SECps can have same error performance as that of SC with much less path estima- tions on average.

In past few years, some more generalized fading distributions such as κ-µ and η-µ distri- butions have also been developed and performance of wireless communication systems is also analyzed over these channels. In the following section, some of the research works done on such fading channels are presented:

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2.2

κ-µ and η-µ Fading Channels

The diversity combining schemes have been extensively studied over some general fading distributions such as Rayleigh, Ricean, Nakagami-m, and Weibull etc. In 2007, in [17], M. D. Yacoub has suggested κ-µ and η-µ fading channels to model the mobile radio environment more accurately. These fading distributions are used to model nonhomoge- neous fading environment. The research works done on κ-µ and η-µ fading channels are listed below:

In [17], M. D. Yacoub has presented the κ-µ and η-µ fading channels. These fading models considers a signal composed of clusters of multipath waves. Within any one cluster, the phases of scattered waves are random and have similar delay times with delay-time spreads of different clusters being relatively large. In the case of κ-µ fading model, all scattered components within each cluster have identical powers but within each cluster, a dominant component is found. Whereas, the η-µ fading distribution has two formats. In format-1, it is assumed that, within each cluster the in-phase and quadrature components of scattered waves are inde- pendent and have different powers, while in format-2, the in-phase and quadrature components of scattered waves have identical powers but they are correlated with each other. In the paper, it is shown that these fading models also accommodate Hoyt, Nakagami-m, Rayleigh and Ricean distribution as their special cases. In the paper, the author has presented the derivations of PDF and CDF for both κ-µ and η-µ distributions. Also, author stated the usability of these fading mod- els. The κ-µ distribution is suited for line-of-sight propagation model and includes Rayleigh, Ricean and Nakagami-m as special cases, whereas the η-µ distribution is best suited for non line-of-sight propagation model and includes Rayleigh, Hoyt and Nakagami-q as special cases. Further, the author has also presented various estimators for fading parameter estimation. The results presented in the paper are also field verified and it is observed that in a wide sense, Nakagami-m can be thought of as a mean distribution of κ-µ and η-µ distributions.

In [18], N. Y. Ermolova has derived the closed form expressions for MGF of η-

Also, using these expressions, BER is evaluated

µ and κ-µ fading distributions.

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numerically for BPSK modulation scheme.

In [19], N. Y. Ermolova has used the derived MGF expressions in [18] to evaluate certain integrals useful in obtaining the BER expressions for BPSK and rectangular quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) signalling schemes. Also, the effect of fading parameters on the system is studied.

In [20], authors have analyzed the L-branch SC receiver over κ-µ and η-µ fading channels. Authors have analytically obtained the moments of SC receiver output SNR and bit error rate for binary, coherent and non-coherent modulation schemes. Also, the numerical results are verified by comparing them with simulation results.

In [21], authors have studied the performance of L-branch MRC receiver over κ-µ and η-µ fading channels. Authors have derived a highly accurate approximation to the average symbol error rate (ASER) expression for QAM modulation scheme. Also, the results are verified using computer simulations.

2.3

Motivation

Switched diversity combining schemes such as SSC, SEC and SECps are less complex diversity combining schemes as they don’t require channel estimation at the receiver and also, they reduce the switching rate required among the available diversity branches. Though these diversity combining schemes have already been examined over different fading channels including Rayleigh, Ricean, Nakagami [2], Weibull [16] etc., analysis over nonhomogeneous fading distributions such as κ-µ and η-µ is not available in literature. In this thesis work, we have analyzed SSC, SEC and SECps diversity combining schemes over κ-µ and η-µ fading channels for BPSK and coherent BFSK modulation schemes and studied the effect of channel parameters on bit error rate performance of the system.

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Chapter 3

BER Analysis

For bit error rate analysis of SSC, SEC and SECps combining schemes, the channel is

assumed to be slow and flat fading with κ-µ or η-µ distribution. For transmitted signal

s(t) with symbol energy E s , the complex low pass equivalent of the received signal at i th

path over the symbol duration T s second can be given as r i (t) = α i e jϕ i s(t) +

n i (t), where n i (t) is the complex additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) having two

sided power spectral density N 0 /2, random variable (RV) ϕ i is instantaneous phase and

RV α i is fading envelope which is either κ-µ or η-µ distributed. The PDFs of κ-µ and

η-µ distributed RVs are given in following sections.

(i=1,2

L)

3.1 The κ-µ Distribution

The probability density function (PDF) of κ - µ distributed RV is given as [17]

p α κµ (α i ) =

2µα

µκ ( 1 + κ

µ

i

i

κ

µ1

2

e

) µ+1

2

µ(1+κ)

e

i

α

2

i

I µ1

2µ κ(1 + κ)

i

α i   ,

(3.1)

i 2 ], E[·] is the expectation operator, κ > 0 and µ > 0 are the parameters

of the distribution and I v (·) is the modified Bessel function of the first kind and v th

order [3]. The parameter κ is the ratio of the power due to dominant components to the

total power due to scattered components and µ is the number of multipath clusters. This

distribution includes Rice (µ=1 and κ=K), Nakagami-m (κ0 and µ=m), Rayleigh (µ=1

and κ0) and one sided Gaussian distribution (µ=0.5 and κ0) fading distributions as

special cases. This distribution is better suited for line-of-sight propagation.

where Ω i = E[α

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3.2

The η-µ Distribution

The probability density function (PDF) of η - µ distributed RV is given as [17]

p α ηµ (α i ) = 4 πµ µ+

1

1

2

h µ α

2µ

i

( 2µH
1 2 2

1

2µh

e

i

α

2

i I µ

i

Γ(µ)H µ 2

µ+

i

α i 2 ) ,

(3.2)

where Γ(·) is the gamma function, and h and H are functions of the parameter η defined

for two formats in next subsections. µ denotes the number of multipath clusters. This

fading distribution includes Hoyt (η=q 2 ,µ=0.5), Nakagami-m (η=1,µ=m/2), Rayleigh

and one sided Gaussian distribution as special cases.

3.2.1 The η-µ Distribution: Format 1

In this format 0 < η < is the power ratio of the in-phase and quadrature compo-

and H = η 1 η .

nents of the scattered-waves of each multipath. In this case, h = 2+η 1 +η

4

4

Within 0 < η 1, we have H 0, on the other hand, within 0 < η 1 1, we have H 0.

Because I v (z) = (1) v I v (z), the distribution is symmetrical around η=1. Therefore, as

far as the envelope(or power) distribution is concerned, it is sufficient to consider η only

within one of these ranges. In Format 1, H/h = (1 η)/(1 + η) [17].

3.2.2 The η-µ Distribution: Format 2

In this format 1 < η < 1 is the correlation coefficient between the in-phase and

quadrature components of the scattered waves of each cluster. In this case, h =

1η 2 and

1η 2 . Within 0 η < 1, we have H 0, on the other hand, within 1 < η 0, we

have H 0. Because I v (z) = (1) v I v (z), the distribution is symmetrical around η=0.

H =

1

η

Therefore, as far as the envelope(or power) distribution is concerned, it is sufficient to

consider η only within one of these ranges. In Format 2, H/h = η [17].

3.3 Probability of Error Analysis

The probability of error for a digital communication system in a fading channel with

AWGN can be given as [2]

P e = 1

π

π/2

0

M γ (

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2 θ ) dθ,

ψ

sin

(3.3)

where M γ (·) is the MGF of the receiver output SNR, ψ is the modulation parameter i.e.,

ψ=1 for BPSK, ψ=0.5 for BFSK, and ψ=0.715 for BFSK with minimum correlation [22].

Thus, for the BER analysis of the SSC, SEC and SECps receivers under consideration in

κ-µ / η-µ fading channels applying Equation 3.3, we need to obtain the MGF of γ SSC ,

γ SEC and γ SECps i.e. M γ SSC (s), M γ SEC (s) and M γ SECps (s). Expressions for the MGFs are

derived in the following subsection.

3.3.1 Moment Generating Function of Output SNR

The MGF of an RV x is defined as

M(s) = E[e sx ] =

−∞

e sx p(x)dx

where, p ( x ) is the PDF of RV x . The MGF of the output SNR of SSC, SEC and SECps

combining schemes is derived in following subsections.

3.3.1.1 Switch and Stay Combining

If γ SSC denotes the SNR per symbol of the combiner output and γ T denotes the

predetermined switching threshold, to derive the MGF of SSC output SNR, we first

derive the CDF of the output SNR, P γ SSC (γ) in terms of CDF of individual branch SNR,

P γ (γ) as [2]

P γ SSC (γ) =

  P γ (γ T )P γ (γ),

P γ (γ) P γ (γ T ) + P γ (γ)P γ (γ T ),

γ < γ T

γ γ T

(3.4)

Differentiating P γ SSC (γ) with respect to γ, we get the PDF of SSC output SNR in terms

of CDF {P γ (γ)} and the PDF {p γ (γ)} of the individual branch SNR as [2]

p γ SSC (γ) =

  P γ (γ T )p γ (γ),

(1 + P γ (γ T ))p γ (γ),

γ

γ

< γ T γ T

(3.5)

Using the above PDF, an expression for the MGF of γ SSC in a fading channel can be

obtained from the formula [2]

M