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## –Model Model Model

Torque-Speed Curve Derivation
× 10 3 Stationary-dq Reference Frame
Torque slip equation 41 .37149

sh
ωrm
Tsh = = = 274 .349 N - m
: What happened to T/I Torque-Speed
ratio in the Curve
43 Derivation
n = (1 − 0.Shaft
04 )×Power
ω rm π ×=1440
2Power
1500 1440 and losses in an induction motor
rpm Torque-Speed Curve DerivationRelationship between rotor mechanical  1  electrical
1and speeds
60  a 
x
 xα  22πn 2
separately excited DC motor? 1 − −
ωs   xb 
Torque-Slip equation 2
Tm Trated
b) Rotor speed d) efficiencysh m
P = P − Fixed losses
For induction motor: Mechanical power derived fromStationary to αβ transformation
abccircuit:
steady-state ω rm ==   
− Pcu , s − PcuSteady-State Model
Maximum torque developed by ωrm 
 x β  3 60 3 3
c) Output torque or Shaft torque
  x c 
Psh = 41.771 − 0.4 = 41
Psh.371
= PskW , r − Prot
ω r = Pω rm 2
the machine is 3 P Rr Vs2
T-ω characteristics of (1 − s ) 0 − +

Tm = ⋅ ⋅ smax n −n P 41 .371 Voltage and Frequency Control (E/f)Pm = 3I r2 Rr 2 
Separately excited dc motor
s= s ⇒ nη= =(1 −shs )×n100 = = 90.36 %
2
ωs
  Rs + r  + ( X ls + X lr )2
s R Ir s s
 Power factorn s P 45 . 784 Transformation matrix
Relationship is 2x3
betweenand it is not
synchronous possible to calculate
mechanical its
and electrical speeds
3P  Vs2   s 
s
Stator
From electromechanical copper
conversion, 40 losses
Torque-Speed Characteristics
the output torque is Substituting P = T ω in the above equation leads to
Tm , max =
(Rs )2 + ( X ls +Steady-State Model s
m m rm
2ω s  R ± X lr )2  inverse Torque-Speed120 Curve
n = (1 − 0.04 )× 1500 =P144041rpm Derivation ωrm
1  2 1 − s  Torque-Speed Curve ns = Derivation
Tm,max .371 × 10 3
 s 1  2 1− s  cos ϕ = cos (∠V s T−sh∠= Iωssh) == cos
fs (P0cu+, s 21 2 .)349
= 0N.-93
= =3.274
I47 m lagging
ωrm Voltage and Frequency Control (V/f) rm
Neglect the stator impedance s=1 Ir,Tm • Maximum torque Tm =reduces 3as I ra Rr How
Q: = to find 3I rthe inverse
Rr  transformation? 2π × 1440 s Rs
Maximum torque developed p by the
rm  speed)  ωr / P  
60 50
ωbase
Torque-Speed 53
Curve Derivation T-ω characteristics
c)equivalent
Output
Shaft Power
torque or Shaft d)torque Pcu , s = 3 × (71.06 ) × 0.15 = 2.272 kW
2 function of k2 (above s
Torque-Slip
s
equation
machine is 2πcomponent
ns ωs
At Low value of slip Torque-Speed Characteristics
Approximate Stator input
circuit power efficiency • Introducing the equation of zero sequence
ωdT
sm =
xo Tm Trated
ωs • Torque-speed(1characteristics
Substituting - s) = ω /ω into
are the above equation, we have
Torque-Slip equation Rotor currentTm Trated P
with bysh
= Pm − Fixed losses Voltage
the Rs and Xls are η = Psh ×Airgap 41 .371 and Frequency Control (E/f)
20 r s m
= 060 ωrm
IEEE Recommended equivalent circuit ω Torque-speed characteristics
Power
considering
factor 100 = power = 90.36 % quite similar to the DC motor • In a three-phase balanced system, thedszero sequence component
rm
1  R  P 3 P R ω s 2= Pω sm = 2πf s
V

22 2 • Magnetizing inductance
V is referred
V ω toP =
stator 41 .
side771 − 0 . 4 = 41 . 371 kWP
3V s I s cos ϕ = 3 × 230 .94 ×Torque-Speed
45 . 784
.06 × 0.93Characteristics
characteristics
Vs 3P Vs
 3I r r isTzero
3 P Rr s s s 2 ag
3P R V Ir = ≅ ⋅ s rm sh P = +T P71 = 45 .784 kW Tm = = r s
s  mω= P ⋅ s motor ⋅ ωrms
Note: Tm = ⋅ Tmr ⋅= ω ⋅ s ⋅ 2 s 2 = ω ⋅ R ⋅ s smax s ag = Ps − Pcu , s
 R 
2 -T Rr
• Torque-speed lines areω P
s /in /ω max

## Voltage and Frequency Control (E/f)

m,max

R  Rrcan
 slipRr =2 ± (R )2 + ( X + X )2
m,max
sInduction
Variable
• The steady ω s equivalent
state s  s circuit
Voltage
 Rs + r  sControl
+ (X lsbe
s
derived
r
 Rs + Irr  + ( X ls + X lr )
from the dq-axis
2
cos ϕ = cos ∠V s − ∠I s = cos 0 + 21
k=1.0
Pag.47 =.784
0.93− lagging not
s Rx o = (xa + xb +R
1
xcr) =0
( ) ( ) I
lr ) Arbitrary
Pag = 3I r2 r Reference  +s =Frame
2 = 45 2.27 2 = 43.512 kW torque reduces ωs
s  
+X  s  • Maximum as a for above base speed
parallel
3 R + s max X
s ls
n s ls− n+ X
lr2
( ) Tm r Trated

IM model 
k=0.8 50
function of k2 (above where Pag is the airgap power,
base speed)
operation 25given by s ωlr
s − ωr ωrm

## Torque-Speed Characteristics s Voltage Tand FrequencyStator inputControl

39From
(V/f)
k=0.6 electromechanical conversion, the output torque is
power
s  s  ns
=
ωs smax
Torque and Power
quiteCapability
similar to the DC motor ( k < 1 )
48Mechanical output power • Torque-speed characteristics are
ωrm ωrm
m,max
44 k=0.4
11
Voltage and Frequency Control (E/f) Rotating-dq Reference Frame s Ir
Tm,max
Neglect the stator impedance s=1 Philosophy Ir,Tm 41
 
38
k=0.2
P 41 .371 × 10 3 characteristics
3P  Vs2 
m =N
P349 (1 − m
s )Q:
PagWhat about the T – ω characteristics in case V/f control drive ?
TL sh
V1 > V2 > V3 > V4 V1 > V2 > V3 > V4 Tm , max =
T-ω characteristics sh 3=
PsT= =ϕ = × 230 .94=× 274 .Torque
× 0.93- equation Neglect the stator impedance s Tm,max
ωs
At Low value of slip
ωs
• Earlier, we neglected the stator impedanceV (R cos
Iss and
sω 31440
).Tm×
lsπ
X2 71 .06 Torque-Speed
= 45 .784Characteristics
kW • Torque-speed lines are not in Ir= Ir,rated 2ω s  R ± (R )242
+ ( X ls + X lr )2  s=1 Ir,Tm
 s
TL
ωrm ωrm rm Pm = (1 − 0.04) × 43.512 = 41parallel
.771 kW for above base speed 25 s s=1 Ir,Tm
60 xb
V4 V3 V2 V1 V4 V3 V2 V1 Rotor current Vsin maximum
Q: Why, the difference Vrated E torque is larger between k=1 and
and = = Voltage and Frequency 2
operation
Control
81

2torque(E/f)
Stationary Reference Frame T-ω
T-ω characteristics
characteristics
Vs = E • Maximum reduces as a At Low value of slip
rated d)
f s efficiency 3 P Rr E rated 3P E rated Tm
Vs2 Vs2 Vk=0.2 compared to Vf sthe fmaximum torque without Rs and Xls?
Stationary-o dq Reference Frame
Stationary Reference Frame
3 P Rr 3P = ⋅and ⋅Power 2Capability function of k2 (above
. sk base speed) • abc to dq0 transformation
TmTorque (=k < 1⋅ )
s
Ir = ≅ s ⋅s 45

## Voltage and Frequency Control (E/f) Steady-State • Known as Model

Tm = ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅s 48
ω s theskT – ωcharacteristics ω s driveR?r θ Rotor current
s s  Rr  2 ωs s Rr
ωs 
2
 considering
R Note: In practical, we Rr always do v/f control only.
P 41 .371Q: What about R  in case 49
Torque equation  r  + ( X ) • Torque-speed
2 V/f control 24 a αβ-reference frame, which is a two-phase system
Tm   Rs + •r By
Power + ( X ls + X lr )2the Rs and Xls, then
 Flow 19 η = sh × 100
characteristics are
ωsl Stationary- xa x = x cos θ + x b cos(120 − θ ) + x c cos(θ + 120 )
o o
= = 90 .36 % ofdq
• Align the q-axis θ Reference Frame
Tm lr I= I
 s 
s=1 s=1
ofq the aabc-frame
 s   2sk  quite similar to the DC motor dq-frame with phase-a axis
r r,rated

System VEfficiency
Ps 45.784 Torque-Speed
T Control Curve Derivation Vins2space 3P= xa cos Vθs2+ xb cos(θ − 120o )+I xc cos=(θ + 120o ) Vs V
f s (η)
3 P oRnot
81

## 3P Rr Voltage and Frequency (E/f)

V E
Variable
Constant load torque Voltage Control Fan type of load s ≠ E and
s

fs
75 E rated 2
3P E rated
characteristics
m
Note: d
Stationaryand θ
q-axes does r rotate
Tm = abc to⋅ αβ0⋅transformation = ⋅ ⋅s r ≅ s ⋅s
Note:
Tm = For ⋅ rated
⋅ current, = the⋅ torque
. sk is constant 2 Rr
rotorVmechanical and ω 2 ω  
2
 
ω s sk  Rr  ω s Rr • Torque-speed Relationship
lines arebetween electricals speeds R R
SystemtheEfficiency and Torque and Power
of k Capability (k<1)
not in R  x d = x a sinSteady-State Model
44
( )   + ( X ls + X lr )
2 2
 
−θ + x b sin (θ − 120 ) + x c sin (θ + 120 R) s +
Note: V/f control inductionRmotor drive independent+ X ω s s r r
  
• Allows speed control below the base speed lr r 1 1 o o
Airgap power Pag = 3I r2 r  sk  parallel for above base speed sl
2πn 1 −   s 
Voltage andvalue
Frequency (E/f)Control24
(E/f)
ω rm =
  xs Example
 2 30 26.1 2 x 
Neglect stator and rotor copper losses • Neglect X in the analysis is operation 90o
Assume
50 Note: For rated •current, thethat the is
drive operating at rated current

sk Voltage and Frequency
torque constant P 60
ofControl
m
• Tm/Ir ratio falls as speed reduced, which is suitable for load whose Power equation V
3 x =3 1 ( x + x + x )
o a
= Pωx
2 α
with aof
small slip
x ] = [K ][x ] ⇒  x  = 60 0 −
[Stationary  xa b c
Reference 3  Frame
System requirement
efficiency is given by falls with speed 3 P Rr Vrated and independent k ω c o

## Voltage and Frequency Control (E/f)

torque also
Voltage and Frequency Control (E/f) Torque-Slip equation r rm +o
⋅ ⋅ Tm =
System Efficiency ((η)  Given: The parameters
2 of a three-phase induction motor are as follows:
αβ o 1 abc β
Rotor copper losses Torque and Power Capability k<1)
o b

## Voltage and Frequency Control  + ( X(E/f)

ω s sk  Rs Rr  2 Power equation P 2 360
Pag (1 − s )
P = kE I cos (θ )  x  speeds
Relationship between synchronous mechanical and electrical x  1
30o
 c 
ls + X lr )
P

2 Rotor current
+
η= m =
Torque-Speed = 1− s Speed (ωmr) rated
o 1 1
(rθTr )is– operating
r
54

## 120Stationary- dq Reference  2 AFrame

 k sk  44
Pag 2
P = 3I R • Assume
Q:
ShaftWhat that
P Power thethedrive
rated I r cos ω characteristics
at rated current
2 Rr
in case V/f control drive ? 
3-ϕ, star-connected, 400 V, 50 Hz, 4-pole induction motor has the
T_L=K(1-s)^2 System Efficiency
cu , r
(η)
r r Torque aand
withAirgap Power
power of slipP Capability (k < 1 )
kE= 3I−r1 skX= lrEratedVoltage
fs k = 1  following 2 
and Frequency ns = Control (E/f)
ω Increasing R small value k=1 2
Torque-Slip equation a
22 I r =tan −1 X lrrated
ag per phase constants in ohms referred to stator are Rs=0.15,
For rated current,
rm
ωmro TL Tmax
. sk p
 
Note: Poor efficiency 2 P===kE −
73
P
PRotor kE
Prated I Fixed
r cosI  cos
rated r  RrRr   2 
losses 2 sk  
tan Note: sk Note: the power
For rated current, the power αβ0
is directlyproportional toI k= I
sh current
m R Q: How to do the transformation from Stationary to Xabc ?
3P Rr E rated 1.0n k=1
Mechanical output
Power
• Approximate flow power
and losses
efficiency (η) by in an induction motor Torque equation
  + (kX lr ) R
81 r
2πnStationary αβ0 to abc transformationXls=0.45, Rr=0.12, Xlr=0.45, m=28.5. Fixed losses (core, friction, and
  and
Tm = ⋅ ⋅
Psh = 41.771 − 0.4 =s 41  .371 kW r Torque Power Capability (k= >to 1)
sk  Rr  2 and low
ω s Simplicity n
s
Rotor copper losses ω sm s 15
  + ( X lr )
2 cost
1

## neglecting stator impedance is directly

r r,rated
proportional 60 k windage losses) 400 W. The motor is operating at rated voltage and
Voltage and  sk  Frequency Control
0.5n k=0.5
Pm =Rotor
Pag −current
Pcu , r (E/f) Approximate efficiency (η)I r = rated
= rated . sk
2 RrPcu , r = 3I r 83
2
R 2 Rotor current
kE E 25 Multiply both sides by [K1]
9

-1
 of 4%.
n2
s

## 3P RrRr  2 + (kX E)2rated 3P rE rated Tm ω s = Pω sm = 2πf s frequency at a slip

Q : What is the equivalent DC motor control 27 induction motor:  1 1
Voltage and Psh == Frequency Control (E/f) From
Torque-Speed Characteristics For Tm = ⋅  s ⋅ = current, ⋅ the .slip sk speed −x1 a 
PsI −2Voltage and Frequency s Control
Note:
and(E/f)
• Torque is function
for the of sk, unlike s in control Torque (Te) lr For rated (ωsL) is constant 0
method Variable voltage P ( 1 − sk ) 83 E rated E rated
  xα  speed, c) Output torque, and d) efficiency.
K1 ] [K1 ]a)Stator
variable voltage control Armature resistance control of R E R P m ag ω sk  Rr  output
Mechanical 2
2power
ω
independent R I
ofr k r = Induction =motor slip . s [K 1 ] [xαβo ]−=1
− 1
[1 [ ]
Pm = 3I r2 I rr =− 3I r2 R2rated
Tm
of induction
current motor? 3 Pcur, s −
(1P− r − )Prot
cu ,sk η = = 
electromechanical  ( ) s
conversion, the output torque is Find: 1xabccurrent,
1  x β 
3 b) Rotor
efficiency (η) n s − n ω s − ω r [xabc ] = [K1 ] [xαβo ] ⇒  x b  =  −
Rotor
+ X 2
 Rr Approximate
R 4 2 4 3
kn − n kω s − ω rmand Frequency Control (E/f) Voltage sk  Rrand Frequency Control Pag (V/f) Pag 2 ω
Separately excited dc motor r

## Voltage ag − and Frequency Control

 + (kX lr ) sl(E/f)
r r lr −
=skPcurrent, slip speed (ωsL) is constant
s= s
kn − n kω s − ω rmkE rated
=I = sk = s Voltage =
System Efficiency

 + ( X lr(η))2 sk
Note: For P rated Pcuthe s  s= = [I ] ⇒ Identity Matrix  2 2  x 
andmindependent of, rk ω
Stationary Reference   Frame  o
Torque-Speed Characteristics
kns r kω s ns ωs 55 3 n
= Pag (1 − sk ) sk  Characteristics Psh 41 .371 the2 ×torque
10  x c  Per-phase 3  voltage
Arbitrary Reference +Frame
2 s s
 Rr  Speed Control (Increment) Pm Torque-Speed Note: For rated current, Pag (1 − sk )
η = 1 − sk Voltage = is R constant
= 3I r2 and I Frequency
  + (kX lr )
2
T
Torque
= and = RPower 274 .349Control
N - m ) η (E/f) P Solution: 1 stator
r RrCapability
= 3I r2 r (1 − (sk k) < 1E rated −
 s the value of sk is remains same ωirrespective of ωrm sh P r
2π−×31440 = − mωV = 1
mω kω
Stationary-dq Reference Frame 12  2
and independent
sk of k 60  400
• For a given torque, 40
rm
Rr rm sk I82r = . s Pagrm Pag 2
the value of k Airgap Torque-Slip
power torque equation
Pag =with 3I r2Rs and
+Tm,max
Slip
= 230 .94∠0 °
-Tm,max ωs
Rotor Xls current R k ω 42
dqcomponents
Maximum Tm Trated
=
Rotating- Reference Frame
V
of theTorque Pm =and (Power Capability ( kat<rated 1 ) current
TL
• Assume
Pagthat 1 −the sk )drive is operating
ωrm r s
• α and β-axis
k=1.0
are given by s
s= s
kn − n kω s − ω rm
= 67 Note: sk is constant,
k=0.8 Y

so the sk efficiency is 
constant irrespective Power
smax equation
k with
d) efficiency a small value of slip E ηω= 1 − skP 82 3
kns kω s 3P Rr 2
E rated E rated
Ir
I r = rated . sL Note:x [K ]-1 is a transpose of1 [K 1]
Variable Voltage Control  = x1 − x cos 60° − x cos 60° = x − x −1 x
k=0.5

## Voltage and Frequency Control (E/f)

Q: Why, the voltage (V) is not zero at k = 0 ?
Voltage and Frequency Control (E/f)
Tm = ⋅losses ⋅ Rr ω
I =s I k
Rotor copper I =
is(θconstant,
Pr )
X α a b c a b c

## ω s3Psk  Rr   P = kE rated r r,rated

Torque-Slip equation T
2 2
Vrated2 r s Tm,max
Note: cos
I r sk so41 the efficiency is constant irrespective of theTransformation k
2 2
matrix from abc to rotating dq0 transformation46
2 Rotor current .371
 Rr 
m

   +2( X lr )
s=1 Ir,Tm
Example 6.2 Tm , max = 77
η = sh × 100 =  =Note:
90.36 % constantT k=1 3 3
  + (kX lr )
2
Pand Power Capability
x = 0 − x cos 30° + x cos 30° = 0 − x +
R,srsk=3 IRrsRr Torque (Fork >a 1 )
x
2ω s Pcu 2 current, slip speed (ωsL) is proportional to k m β

 2 
b c b c
(kE rated )2 =• Increase the speed from 2 X to Y point
X 45 .784 Note:
kEcurrent
3 P Rr 3 P Rr E rated 2
= parameters
Tm The ⋅ ⋅ How⋅ to change
⋅  ±   + ( X ls + X lr )2  s  P = kE rated I r cos tans −1  lrEsk rated 
41
Rotorrated
77 For rated current, the power
Voltage kω s and s  RFrequency ω s Control (E/f) Torque and Power Capability ( k < 1 )  xq   cos(θ − 240)   x a 
Given: of 2a three-phase Q: squirrel-cage
sk  Rr IM are from
as follows:
the 2speed X to Y?
r      20 ∴ ω sL α k 41 to αβ
2 speed operation Rr  
k k I = R = . sk ω Stationary cos(abc ) transformation
  + (kX lr )kW, 400 V, 1370
2
 rpm,  +50+J (Hz, ) 2
  cos θ θ −120
2 
r
 
ω r
Voltage and  s Frequency
A 3-ϕ, delta-connected, 2.8
Control
T =T
d X lr 4-pole
(E/f)
IM has rm
Above base is directly proportional to k sl
21 6
  sk  Mechanical output power 
[ ] 1 θ −240)  x b 
e L

## Torque-Speed the following Characteristics

parameters in ohms referred to stator are R =2, R =5,
dt

## Maximum torque without Torque

76
Rs and Xlsequation
R
I r =  + (kXrated
r E
lr )
2 E
= rated . s [ xqdo ] = K [xabc ] ⇒  x d  =  sin θ sin(θ −120)1 sin(
 x  
 1  x  = K1 2 2 1  x    x c 
s r
  R 2
s V s 3 1 − − 
69
Approximate efficiency (η) voltage

Rr 85
 xo 
a

Speed
Torque-Speed Control =5, X (Decrement)
X =X characteristics
=80. Motor areis controlled by a stator voltage control. When Pm = Pag − Pcu , r Q:Maximum
Why, thetorque  r  + (kX lr ) (V) is 83
2 not 50 zero at k = 0 ?
Ir= Ir,rated 30 o
α

 
ls lr m
 
65
ωfan load it runs at rated speed atωrated voltage.  
o
 3
60 b
rm
3 P R  s  P  x  3
20 − 2 + 2 2  x  
driving a
 2
2 β
ω
I r2P r Pag (1 − sk )
rm
3P Vrated o 13

## Voltage and Frequency Control (E/f)

-T m,max
rm
+T
+T
• Decrease ω
m,max
the speed T from Y to TR =± . 2 Rr
Tm = A:Note:
In order Fortorated maintain current,constant the E/f slip(flux
speed is (ω ) is constant 60
30 o c

kωηs = ms =
Voltage and Frequency Control (E/f)
T
Pm = 3I r2 mr,max− 3I r2 R
-T m,max s sL
2ωr s= 3XI lrr (1 − sk )
Voltage Rand ±kω s rFrequency Control (E/f)(E/f)
m rated

## dTm constant), we will E apply kω a− ω minimum

m,max
k=1.0 T ω
I = rated . s ofRrm Tm
Voltage and Frequency Control
Find: a) Motork=1.0terminal voltage, current,
L

Voltage
X point s and Frequency Control (E/f)
and torque at 1200 rpm. rm
and independent k
k=0.8 sk sk Pag Pag =voltage
0 at k r=s0max r =
k=1 Where K isdq0 arbitrary constant of 2/3
b) Motork=0.8speed, Y
k=0.6 current, and torque Speed
for the terminal
Control
I voltage of 300 V
the k(Increment)
max
Transformation matrix from rotating to abc transformation
• Change from 0.8 to 0.5 r

## the Rs and XlsSystem η Efficiency ds kX

= Pag By(1 −considering 2− skdeveloped (η)
Z
Pm Note: sk ) • This is called 38 voltage
E ω
compensation or voltage boost
=torque
Voltage and Frequency ωsl Control (E/f)  x a  10 cos θ
lr
Voltage and Frequency s-T Control E1rated
k=0.4 ω , the maximum I r = rated . sL
Above Rated Frequency 3Operation (k>1) Above Rated Frequency Operation (k>1)
k=0.5 rm
P kRr
Torque and Power Capability ( k > 1 )
k=0.2 • Operating point moved T Z in the +T Rr ω s k
by the machine is varies with the 
X
 xq 
m,max

= ⋅ ⋅
m,max
Solution: Rated motor terminal voltage (Delta connection)
T
m,max
T L
sin θ 1
of theVoltage and E Frequency speed (ωControl and Power (E/f)
k=1.0I ,T
m
T Tsecond quadrant  x  =  cos(θ −120) sin(θ −120) 1  x 
s=1
2
Voltage Characteristics
Torque-Speed andVs Frequency Control
m
m
k=0.8
(E/f) Note: sk is constant, so the efficiency
r
Y
m
ω s isskconstant  Rr  irrespective k 3P 2
Torque Capability ( k > 1[x)abc ] = [K s ] [xqdo ] ⇒25
T

 + (P kX lr =)23I 2 Rr
82
= Vll = 400 ∠0 °
Airgap power
Q: How ± toFor
=Note: achieve
a constant thecurrent,
above base  b 
84 slip
sL) is proportional to k
⋅ 2rated  d 
Arbitrary Reference  Frame
• T –itωislines are parallel to each other Q: How to achieve the above base 74 TRotor
m , max speed current
Q1: Why,
Speed
Maximum
second
Control
Torque
torque (T(Increment)
k=0.5 2 X
 s
k=0.6
k=0.55
 ag r 2 operation?
ω s k X lr ∴ ω α k Torque equation V  
 xc    cos( θ − 240 ) sin( θ − 240 ) 1  xo 
• Maximum ) is independent of k
• Slip will be negative and torque will be negative
m,max
Tm ≅
3 P Vs
⋅ ⋅s speed operation? skTorque and Power Capability
sL
(k<1)
56
ω s Rr T 77 E rated E 2 2
. Rotating-dq Reference Frame
m
• Starting dTtorque is high ω
I r = • For below = rated . s 85 Tm = 3P ⋅ Rr ⋅ E rated 3P E rated s
m
= 0ω
rm
base speed operation = ⋅
rm • Increase k in small steps
Rotor copper losses 2 R ω sk  RrI = I
2
ω R P k 5
ds
(0voltage
≤ k ≤ 1) (V) is 2not zero

+T
ω T =T +J rm
79 Q: Why, the R r at k = 0 ? s s r
Q2: What-T happens, if we operate at point Z ? an intermediate
m,max
•dt For below base speed operation e L

## to(kX constant E/f (flux iss r  r,rated + (kX lr )2

lr )
value of kT T
 r +
m,max
T 68
• Choose
k=1.0
L
ω
s
m rated
A: In order maintain •42dq-axes are rotating at an arbitrary 16 speed ω
(0 ≤ k ≤ 1) Pcu ,r = 3I r2 Rr  s 
rm
R Q: What we are gaining by choosing an intermediate value of k ?
41
s max = ± rk=0.8 Y s constant), we will = kf rated a minimum
f s apply
kX lr max
V =
s 37 E and Below T
I 70
3Pbase m 2speed operation
voltage at k = 0 E = Vs = kVrated E sk
r
k=0.5 71
28 f s = kf rated Tm = ⋅ rated . From previous slide
k=1
Vs = E and ω s Rr k 2
=Voltage
2 X
E rated kω sand − ω rm Frequency Control (E/f)
E = Vs = kVratedMechanical output basepower
3P E rated s T Below speed operation
Tm , max = ± . m,max
. voltage ωω ω sL α k
• IFor
Voltage and Frequency Control (E/f)
T 34
2ω s X lr s=1 m
I ,T • This r is above
called
R
base
k
speed operation
ω compensation (k >1)
T
or
α
skvoltage
α
sl sL boost θ o
θ
Approximate efficiency ( k (η)
r m
r s
35
P = P − P Torque and Power Capability > 1 m) k 2 k 2
• Increase the speed from developed
X to Y point E rated
Voltage and Frequency Control (E/f)
cu , r ω sL f s = kf rated
Voltage . and Frequency Control 4.44k(E/f)
Note : The maximum torque by machine remains constant m ag E rated and φ p =V θ
• For above base speed operation (k >1) s = E equation
I r =VTorque 8
Voltage and the Frequency
speed from X to Y? Control (E/f) Above Rated Frequency Operation R(k>1) 2
irrespective of the operating frequency
P (1 −
Therefore,
sk ) sw N st f rated
Rr ω3s P Rk PmE 2 s ag E = V = V
Voltage and Frequency Control
Pm = 3I r2 r (E/f)
Q: How to change
R rated 2

Speed ControlT(Decrement)
dω rm
f = kf
− 3I r Rr =Erated3I r2 r (1 −Torque sk
Q: )WhatTmisand = the⋅η r =
Power
effect⋅ of
= = 3Pin⋅ Efrequency
rated
Capability
2 increment
rated s
( 84k. > 1 )
Tmonα the
k 1
2
Note: For a constant current, the
α Pflux ? torque is inversely proportional to k θ o
 RP Pag
66
e = TL + J
dt
ω Q: How Vs =toEachieveand the sabove Torque-Speed
rated
base sk φ p = 4.44k N f A:
Characteristics sk In order to maintain ω s sk
constant
 r ag  + (kX E/f)(flux
2
ω s is rR k k k
Torque-Speed Characteristics
rm lr
+T
speed operation? E = Vs = Vrated sw st ratedconstant), we will apply
Note: For a constant  sa minimum
current, slip speed (ωsL ) is proportional to k
-T m,max
T
69 L
m,max
P = P (1 − sk ) m ag η =Ir=1Ir,rated− sk Q1: How long the process will 86
k=1.0 voltage atIr=kIr,rated
=0 3P E rated 2
sk 78 continue ? k=1
k=0.75
k=0.7
k=0.8 Y Q: current
Rotor What is the effect of increment Maximumintorque
frequency
belowon the speed
base flux ? Tm = ⋅ ∴ ω . 2 α k From previous slide
• For below base speed operation • This is calledTm ω ω αRk
voltageTmcompensation ksL orA1:voltage boost will continue
The process
α 1/k s sL r ωksL α k
k=0.5
(0I r ≤=k ≤ 1)
33E rated Note: sk is constant, so the efficiency is constant skirrespective
ω sL
of
until ω the
sL is equal to ω sL,max
t
X
ωsL Tmα 2 α 2V θ = ∫ ω dt + θ o
2 2
R  3P E rated k k 85 0
Voltage and Frequency Control
Tm
(E/f)  r  + (kX lr ) f s = kf rated
2
Tm78, max = ± . P (constant) • For above base speed, the
ω = dθ / dt θo – Initial position
• Decrease the k intermediately V = sE  s and V
2ω s base
Below X lrspeed operation 77
Therefore, 84 machine needs to be derated 42
43
E = Vs = kVrated Tmα
k
α
1 Note: For a constant current, the
Above base speed operation
Speed
• Motor Control
operates (Increment)
on negative part of the torque characteristics Pα k k2 k torque is inversely proportional to k
• Constant torque region (0 ≤ k ≤ 1)
39
ωrmvalue
• Current will be with in the rated
Torque equation
• Constant power region (k > 1) 14
-Tm,max m,max
+T • For above3PbaseRspeed operation Maximum torquetorque
(k >1)
Maximum above base speed k=1 k=k 86
Note: The control philosophy of Induction motor is similar to
TL
I r2 r
e

k=1.0 Tm =
DC motor. Only the implementation is different. kω s s dTm 2r E rated
f s = kf rated 3Pφ=p ±=ERrated
Voltage and Frequency Control (E/f)
k=0.8 Y =0 s max
Vs = E and • The characteristics are similar to the DC motor
E = Vs = Vrated dsTm , max = ± ⋅ kX
4.44k sw N st f rated 39 42
2ω s k 2 Xlr lr
72
2
3 P Rr E rated Q2: How to generate the variable voltage and frequency ?
Voltage and Frequency Control (E/f)
k=0.6
k=0.5 X k=0.55 = What
TmQ: ⋅ is⋅ the effect
2 of increment in frequency on the flux ?
ω s sk  Rr 
Torque and Power Capability (k>1)
2
3P E rated 43
 + (kX lr )
2
Tm  m , max = ±
Note:TMaximum ⋅ 2 7
 s  2ωtorque is a function of k for above base speed 87
s k X lr
• Increase k in small steps
Te = TL + J
dω rm 36
operation
78 Above Rated Frequency Operation (k>1)
Torque equation
• Choose an intermediate value of k dt 79 2 2
3 P Rr 3P s E rated E rated
Q: What we are gaining by choosing an intermediate value of k ? Q: How to achieve the above baseTm = ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ . 2
ω s sk  Rr  ω s Rr k
speed operation? 80
 + (kX lr )
2
70
Voltage and
s  Frequency Control (E/f)
• For below base speed operationExample 6.3 2
Voltage and Frequency (0
Control
≤ k ≤ 1) (E/f)
3P 39E rated sk
Given: The Tm =
parameters ⋅ . 2 squirrel-cageFrom previous slide
ω s of aRthree-phase
r k
IM are as follows:
35 A 3-ϕ, star-connected, 60 Hz, 4-pole IM has the followingω sLparameters
α k in
Torque-Speed Characteristics Vs = E and
f s = kf rated sk ω sL
E = Vs = kVrated
ohms α 2 αto
Tmreferred
Below stator
base
2
are Rsoperation
speed =Rr=0.024, Xls=Xlr=0.12. The40
rated slip of
the motor kis 0.04. k
The IM is controlled by a variable frequency source
Maximum torque below base speed
with a constant v/f ratio.
2
Therefore,
• For above base speed operation (k >1)
3P E rated 1 Note: For a30constant current, the
Tm , max = ± . Find: a) Motor speedkat rated
2ω s X lr Tmα 2 α torque and frequency Hz.
torque is inversely proportional to
E rated k
Vs = E and
f s = kf rated φk p = k
E = Vs = Vrated Solution: At rated voltage and4.frequency,
44k sw N st fkrated
=1
Maximum torque above base speed
At 30 Hz operation, 86
2 Q: What is the effect of increment in frequency on the flux ?
3P E rated 30
Tm , max = ± ⋅ k= = 0 .5
2ω s k 2 X lr 60

78
Note: Maximum torque is a function of k for above base speed 88

operation
43
80

44
39

40
Stator Voltage Equations Torque equation

## Wound Rotor Synchronous Machine

Stator flux linkages Rotor flux and Self
Motion EquationTorque
i r ωλ L r ds
inductances
o dω rm equation
qs s ls

• 3P
J λqs = −( Lls + Lmq )iqs = − Lq iqs
= Te − TL ( ) λds iqs − λqs ids
Wound Rotor Synchronous Machine
Te =
dt

imq
λr = Lmd I f 2

λds = − Lls iin md (I f − ids ) Form
Matrix
vqs = − rs iqs + ω r λds + sλqs vqsdω rm = T − Ts λ L3P ds + L

Rotor Voltage Equations
J ( )
λds iqs − λqs ids
qs mq
 LTorque
d = Llsequation
+ Lmd requires only stator quantities
Torque equationi dt
e LT = i
e
Wound Rotor  Machine
Synchronous Final simplified synchronous machine model
Note:
L = L + L
Wound dsRotor Synchronous Machine  = −( Lls + Lmd )ids + Lmd I f = − Ld ids + λr
kq1 kd

v = − r i − ω λ + sλ 2
 q
r r
λqsof SM − Lls − Lmq  iqs 
kq1
ls mq
ds s ds r qs
o • Dynamic Model
kd
0 Lmq Lmq ω r = ω rm P 0 P – Pair of poles 0
3P
Torque equation
L Tev=kq 1 (λds iqs −Lλlkdqs ids ) v kd       29

## Simplified SM Model λds Model?

stator  0  ids  − Lls − Lmd 0 0 Lmd Lmd
lkq1
Note:2 Torque
ωλ
equation requiresQ: How to only
kq 1 = minus
vNote: + s λ→kqstator
rkq 1ikq 1sign i r L
    ikq1 
r qs
1 current sλ ds s ls
• L sλ o 3 P • L • A: Much simpler λ
than that for the − L
IM. Use the following 0 L + L L 0 0 kd

## vflows out of the statorNote: vi Torque

kq 2 = rkq 2 i kq 2 + s λ kq 2  qs
circuit.
qs −e ωωr L
= − rs iequation
T = requires (λ i i −only
d idsds+qsω r λqs
λ r i− L)i q siqsquantities   = 
stator
ds
equations to build kq 1
model for the SM. mq
lkq 2
lkq 1 mq kq1
mq
⋅  md
lfd
md
21

r2= ω rm P
L P – Pair of poles (from previous
sλ qskq 2  − L Llkq 2 + Lmq 0  ikq 2 

v = − r i − ω L i +
slide)ω λ − L pi 0 Lmq 0
Wound Rotor Synchronous Machine
qs r d ds r mqr q qs
ωvr ds= ω=rm−Prs ids P+dsr –ωPair
v sλ L

     
L
v kd = rkd ikd + s λ kd L
r q ofi − L
qs poles si
d ds r  v
 ds = − r i
s ds + ω L i
r q qs − L pi
d ds
mq
kq 2
md ds md
fd

i i
λkd   0 Simplified−SM LmdModel 0 0 Llkd + Lmd Lmd  ikd 
v fd = r fd i fd + s λ fdNote: Torque equation

requires only stator quantities
Wound Rotor Synchronous Machine
kq 2 fd

## Voltage Source Converter • s λ o

• sλ • T =
3P
(
2 λ fd
λ i − (L  0 Torque equation:
− L ) i i ) Wound
− LmdTe = Rotor
(λds iqs 0− λqsSynchronous 0 WoundL Machine
Rotor   
LSynchronous
lfd + Lmd  i fd  Machine
 Simplified
 
3P
ids )
kq 2 e r qs d q ds qs

## Voltage Source Converters

fd
md
Simplified SM model 21 SM Model 2
v Square Operation v dω P
ω r = ω rm P P –kq2Pair of poles
21
fd r
= (Te − Tin ) Simplified SM Model
Voltage Source Converter
Wound Rotor Synchronous Machine vqs = − rs iqs − ωr Ld ids + ωr λr − Lq siqs
dt J
nverter Topology 15 multiple lines

Separate λ =λ λtwo
v = −the
rTie =+above equation
3P −into
L i =+− equations
slide) v , v ,K 6
Sinusoidal ω (λLdsiiqs –−−Waveforms
PWM λL ds )
qs isi

(from previous
 and Harmonic
qs Lq iqs(from
Spectrum
previous slide)
ds d ds r qs ds
Flux Linkage λ Current-Flux i variables iqs , ids
λqs = − Lq iqs
ds s ds r q qs d ds 6 2
Dynamic Model of SM
vab λds = − Ld ids + λr ωr 6 Equations Equations

) i   λ 
i
i   ( λ ( 
Vdc 3P
 )
Q: How to build 21
16 Te = 2π λr iqs qs − L − Lq ids iqs
Permanent Magnet Synchronous
qs 3πd ds ds
   λ 
π
   λ 
2
1  λds and λqs into the following equations 1 
Wound
Wound Rotor Rotor Synchronous
Synchronous i  Machine
Machine
Substituting Te
= Wound Rotor kq ia Machine
Synchronous Machine = 0L.q8> Ld
  =
A: Much simpler than that for the IM. Use the following
L mSM: i L
Wound Rotor Synchronous Machine    D   
For non-salient pole SM: Lq = Ld For salient pole Te
1 1 kq1 fda Torque

Permanent
ωi λ λ Magnet Synchronous
equations to build your Simulink model for the SM. 2 fd Equation
Dynamic SM model   D PMSM Mathematical Model
q 
 v = − r i + + s d
Motion
ω rm   λ   
= −Voltage
rs iqs − ωr Ld ids + ωSource
Converter
State Model of SM qs s qs mr =
ds 15 qs
i
Equation

## Simulink Model 2 non-salient and salient    ω λ λ Machineλ 

π 2π 3π f
r λr − Lq piqs kd Voltage Source Converte
kq 2 The SM model can used for kqboth TL
kd SM.
Rotor Voltage Equations  6 Final simplified vds = −rs ids − f mr =qs60+Hsz ds
ikq1 ikd
Steady state model: L(di/dt) = 0
synchronous machine model
multiple lines ωr p
vqs , vds ,K vds = −rs ids +rPWM
Sinusoidal kqω
1 r Lq iqs − Ld pids
– Gate signal L(di/dt) = 0? i , i 8
rkd Q: generation Vabn /Vdclines
multiple PMSM: λr is produced Eqs. byCase
(5.5-49) study
to (5.5-53) 8.1 –
Textbook
of 2 Modeling
SM with RL Load Voltage Source Converter
Wound Rotor Synchronous Machine
Whyvariables permanent
• Inverter – DC to AC conversion stage v ,
Flux v ,K
Linkage λ6 Current-Flux i A:6 SM model2 in the synchronous
qs ds frame
variables V AB1 = 0.49Vd magnet2m f ± 1
30
# of poles
• Each device is ON for 180o duration.
qs ds
-Voltage i
λ v →vdcCurrent-Flux
variables in steady state Load phase voltages i ,i Voltage Source Converters
dλmachine 0 due to constant
= model If :Note:
vvmA qs± 2 ds
And assuming f sw = 900
• Active Rectifier – AC to DC conversion stage ω r v T =6 3LPlkq1λEquations
vcr Llkd
Equations
( ( 6vmC Final
2 simplified
) m
)
synchronous Hz Simulink model for synchronous machines in the rotor reference
Converter 20 Modeling frame
kq 1 mB kd Linkage f
λ f ±2 4m f ± 1
• Switching takes place every 60o period r iqs − Ld − Lq idsiqs -Voltage WRSM: r is produced by Given:
the rotor van = vaN − vnN
e
v =r i 2
+ sλ 6 VˆcrEquations ω
Equations field winding
Converter vTopology
qs = − rs iqs − ω r Ld ids + ω r λr − Lq siqs
29 Vˆiqs − ωr Ld ids + ωr λr − Lq piqs PMSG, standalone operation, vbn = vbN − vnN
kq 1 kq 1 kq 1 kq 1 r sλvkd
qs = −rsm
dωr • PLlkq 2 sλkq1 • L  ωt 29 
operating at rated rotor speed,
imq = (Te − Tin ) i 15 vcn = vcN − vnN
9 22
imd π lfd vds = −multiple
rs ids + ωr Lqlines Ld pids 2π
iqs − T
v =r i
vqs2 , vds,Kkq 2 6 dt J + sλ variables
e 
v ds =
RL − r i
s ds + ω r L q iqs − Ld si ds
7
kq 2 kq 2 kq
Torque i 6 T iqs , ids Note: The simplified SM model can
15
v
RL = 4.23Ω LL = 8.26mH Vdc Under balanced load conditions
2 e

## v kd = rkd ikd + s λωkd v g1 L Voltage Source Converter

an

-Voltage r L Equation
vrqsMotion
mq
= −rs iqs − ωr Ld idsω+ ωr λr
Tboth
used for e kq 2 Find:
PMSM and WRSM. md
g
v +v +v v =0
1
bn cn

6 Equations Equations ω g
fd an bn
r
vg 2 i T  Equation
i Torque T e
rm t Stator current,
31 stator
28 voltage, Voltage Source Converter
v
3

vds = −rsEquation
ids + ωr Lq iqs cn
kq 2
v fd = r fd i fd + s λ fd vSinusoidal
fd
Then,
PWM – Gate signal generation
L
i output power, output power factor g v +v +v Note: v is referr 5

## Voltage Source Converter

aN bN cN nN
v =
Wound ωRotor Synchronous Machine
Motion
g3 • sλ ω r • p sλ ω Simulink Implementation – Gating signal3 generation common-mode vo
nN

Wound Rotor
v Synchronous
v # of vpolesMachine
t
kq 2 fd
v Equation rm 32

## Voltage Source Converter

Solution:
g4
v 2 T
T
vSimplified
Voltage Source Converter Square Operation – Voltage waveformsv v SM Model mA L
v g5 cr
kq 2
mB
fd
mC e
vg 6 T ˆω vds + jvqs = (ids + jiqs )(RL + jωr LL ) 35 19

nverter Topology
Simplified
Wound model Model
Rotor
Vˆcr
Synchronous
for synchronous
Torque
machines
π
Equation m rthe rotor reference Sinusoidal PWM
Vin
Machine
p

ωt
Torque equation: 3P
(λds iqs −index
Te = • Inverter
• g1 ~ g6 (vg1 ~ vg6) are the gating signals of devices S1 ~ S6
λqs idsto) AC conversion − ωr LLiqs ) + j ( RLiqs + ωr LLids )
= ( R i stage
e

Motion ωt m – Amplitude
2#πofω
frame 2 – DC 1) 16S Lisds
π Equation poles
rm modulation
2 •(0gn≤ =m1 ≤then n turn-ON, and gn = Simulink
0 then block
Sn isdiagram
turn-OFF 14 a a

## Steady State Model of SM 3 P

Torque equation:
Field Oriented Control Scheme Note:TSimulink e = λmodel
L(di/dt) =20 ω r
22
ds
TL
iqs −forλqs ids
synchronous
Another torque expression:
Permanent
machines in the Magnet

m reference
rotor
Active
= Synchronous
V V
Rectifier
– Peak •value
λds =V − L–d iPeak
g
– AC
2, g

of
4,
to
g 6
=
(
DC conversion
modulation
are
ofdstriangular
v R i −
signal
complementary
ω L i
stage
= R Voltage
gating
i
signals

f
X i Source
of
13
,v )
Voltage Source Converte
g5, g1,vg3, v. Converter
a ∧

m

m
m ma mb mc

ds + λvalue

3P
ωt ds Machine
Field Orientation
16 p
v g1 frame
V r
L ds carrier
r signal
L qs L ds v L qs
Te = λ iqs − λqs ids cr  cr
 (
(from previous slide) Converter Modeling
) m
Converter Modeling
g1 , g3 , g5
Q: Why
Another L(di/dt)
vtorque = 0?
expression:
2
# of polesstudy 8.1 2– Steady-State
Case ∧ λofqs SM
= −with vqs = RLiqs + ωr LL ids = RLiqs + X L ids
17

r g2

## Voltage Source Converter

A: SM model in the synchronous frame V m = 0 . 5 × m a × V dc Load phase voltages
v = vλ v 3 variables in steady state
→gdc
s 22 - vbN
∧ v
λds = − Ldmachines ωt
Rated Shaft Input Power
ab aN 2.5 MW 7
ids + λr in the
r cr
V 3P= 0 . 5 × V dc v = v −v
–PvRotor angle
Te =θsl –vslip λdsangle
model for synchronous
iqs − Voltage
λqs ids Source Converter
rotor reference
Rated Line-to-line Voltage (λr iqs(rms)− (Ld − Lq ) idsiqs )
Te = cr 3950V
( )
37
v = (2v − v − v ) / 3
an aN nN

## Voltage Source Converter  Voltage Source Converter

g4
(from previous slide) 2 485A (rms) v = v −v an aN bN cN
frame
Square Operation
bn bN nN
Rated Stator Current 1.0 pu
θf –2Rotor λqspi= − Lqiqs mf – Frequency modulation 11 index v = ( −v + 2v − v ) / 3
+ ωr λr −
g5 flux angle v = v −v bn 21 aN bN cN

Voltage SourceSquare
Converter θv=qsSinusoidal
vθ=g 6−+rθs iqs − ωr Ld idsPWM –LqWaveforms Direct FOC
Rated Apparent Power 3.32MVA 1.0 pusalient pole SM: L > L cn cN nN
For non-salient pole SM: Lq = Ld
 For v = ( − v − v + 2v ) / 3
8
Voltage signalSource Converter
qs q d cn aN bN cN
Rated Rotor Speedωt
f r
−vrgs1ids + ωr Lq iqs − Ld pids Converter ModelingRated Torque 2πωt
sl 400 rpm fm1.0
– Frequency
pu of modulation
22 π f Under balanced load conditions
• Line-to-Line load voltage waveform has vds =levels cr

## Square Operation three f = kN.m

m59.66
RotorVoltage Source
Fluxf mCalculator fcr – Converter
1.0 pu
Frequency of triangular carrier signal • Load phase voltages interms of gating signals and V
3P Voltage Source Converter
( ( ) )
dc
v v +v +v = 0
The SM model
Converter Modeling
can used for both non-salient and salient SM.
Rated Stator Frequency fs 40Hz 1.0 pu

## Permanent Magnet Synchronous

What if both S1 and S4 are ON? g2
vg 3
e T = λr iqs − Ld − L13q ids iqs ωt P
Number of Pole pairs SCIM dynamic
Converter 6Modeling(space vector) model in the
an

r stationary frame
bn cn
v = V (2 g − g − g ) / 3
Voltage Source Converter an dc 1 3 5

What if both S1 and S4 are OFF? Align the rotor flux vector with the
vaN d-axis of 2 π 2π r r 11 R i
lWhy
Scheme
r 10 jω λ Then, v +v +v
Note: v is referred as a

Machine
Rated Rotor Flux Linkage λr 6.774Wb
Rs(peak) 0.528pu v = V (− g + 2 g − g ) / 3
Lls 16 Llr nN

v = −r i −
i r r
Converter Topology
aN bN cN
the rotating frame ωr Ld ids + ωr λr V Converter output voltages v = bn dc 1 3 5
is

r
v = –V (− g − g + 2 g ) / 3
s r
qs s qs Base Impedance
Vdc
4.70Ω
30
3
nN
Gating voltage.
common-mode signal generation
we refer two-level voltage source converter? r v1.0 pu
 dc an cn dc 1 3 5

λqr = 0 For non-salient pole SM: Lq = Ld For salient pole SM: Lq > Lωdt V
g1 i
Case study
v aNr = g1Vdc 8.1 –
dc
Stator Resistance r 0.035Ω 0.007pu van

## vds = −rs ids

m fm
8  + ωr Lq iqs d-axis Synchronous Inductance
s
r
v10.7mH
vrbn g1
vma , vmb , vmc

 g 3 Ld s pλ0.574pu L pλ g3
m
v
19 m

( )
vbN 11 vbN = g 3Vdc vcn
vcns r g1 , g 3 , g5
λdr = (λr ) − λqr = λr
2 2 g5
q-axis Synchronous Inductance
g Lq 23.9mH 1.276pu
5
32 Vdc From SG
λr v model
= g V in previous slide: From previous slide:
Q: Salient or non-salient

Direct FOC
5 pole SM?
Voltage Source Converter
ωt cN 5 dc
The SM model can used for both non-salient and salient SM. 15 
8 v cr

= RLids − X Liqs
vds
31
van = (2vab + vbc) / 3 v = −r i + ω L i
Q:•
v dsS1 ~ frame
S6 s ds
ofr gating
q qsthe IM model?

• g1 ~ g6 (v36g1 ~ vg6) are the gating signals of devices

## Can be directly measured

ab 1
vab The stator flux vector Which
Defined intermsis used for signals Sinusoidal signal generation: Use MATLAB function
Sinusoidal PWM – Waveforms 
• gn = 1 then Sn is turn-ON, and gn = 0 then Sn is turn-OFF
=(stationary)
−rs ivoltage L i ) + ωr λr Voltage Source vqs =Converter
RLiqs + X Lids
v ma = V m sin(2π f m t ) 
r r Stator

## λdr = L (λds − σ Lsids )

Vdc

)
∫( )
4 A:and (Vddcds ∧

s qs
• g2, gλ
Control Block Diagram • g130~ gπ6 (vg1 ~ vg6) are the gating signals
ωt of devices = S complementary
4, sg6 are
v~s −SRs is dt gating signals of g5, g1, g3.
r
Direct FOC r
Dynamic Model

λ = Lr λ − σ L i
1 6

r r r r Converter
r rModeling
• Each device is ON for 180o duration. v g1 vab = vaN − vbN λ − L i L ∧

## • Load phase voltage waveform has four levels

ωt
• gn = 1 then Sn is turn-ON, and gn = 0 then Sn is turn-OFF
The rotor
16
flux vector λ17
= L i + L i = L s s s
+ L i = r
λ − σ Lv mbi = V m sin(2π f m t − 2π )
idcm =s g1Lia + gs 3ib + sgs5ic∧
t – Use clock block in Simulink ( )
Field Oriented Control Scheme
vg 2 3
irgap • Switching
• Each takes place
device isevery 60o period
ON for 180o duration.
r lr r
Rotor Flux Calculator DC input current
m m r
Lm
L s ids + ω r L18
2m − rstationary q iqs =v R L ids − ωr LL4iπqs )
vg 3 mc = V m sin( 2π f m t −
(a)

qs
ωt
L
• g2,π g4, g6 14
are complementary2πgating of gSCIM
signalswhere dynamic (space vector) σ = 1−in the
factor model frame
5,σgis
1, the
g3. total leakage 3
Torque Equation
11 Lr
• Switching Field Orientation
takes place every period 60o vaN r r phasevvoltages?
S4 are ON?
= (2+v aN
ω−r λvbN −=vcNR) / 3i
− rRsriqsir − ωr Lvdanids + ωr LL ids (b)
L Q: How to get
j ωsr the
9

(
i Rs Llr
Vs Q1:s What if both lsS1 and r L qs

λr
θf
Simplified torque equation:
Voltage Source Converter

Lm
Lr
bn = ( −v aN + 2vbN − v cN ) / 3
r 22
3) Electromagnetic torque: Vdc im 35
λdr = L (λds − σ Ls ids )

r
λ = Lr (λ − σ L i )

17
r
λqr = 0
Dynamic Model
vs Q2: What if both
r S1 and S4 are rOFF?
s qs

## r vcn = (−18vaN − vbN + 2vcN ) / 3

x2 + y 2
220 9 λr  ωt Converter Modeling ωr ( LL + Lq )

y
x
vs pλs Lm pλr
ωλ ds • (ω − ω r )λ dr  ids =converter? Substituting to (b):

qr
iqs

tan −1
Lls Llr
iqs 3R s R i
λdr = (λr ) −vbNλqr
2
( )2 = λr From voltage
Q3: Why we refer two-level
15 (a): source
Dynamic Model
r qr
3P Converter output voltages λ + rsphase voltages interms of gating signals and V


r dc

Voltage
VoltageSource
and VoltageTof
Converter
Flux Linkages eSource λds − ids λqs )
=IM (iqsConverter

## Block diagram of Rotor Flux Calculator

i qm V Three feedback
v aN = g1Vdc
control
7 loops 8

Lr λdr

Lr λqr
dc
v = V (2 g − g − g ) / 3
2

## ∫ (vds − Rs ids )dt

Direct FOC

Direct FOC
vbN =stator Q: Which frame is used for the IM model?

− Rs iqs dt
ωt The g 3Vdc flux vector
ω λ ( R2 g+−rgs )) / 3
an dc 1 3 5

qs

•Speed Speed
v qs pλqs
pλqr v qr
λds = (vds − Rs ids ) dt

## Lm vbn = Vrdc (−rg1 + L

with three Direct FOC
3PLm vcN =rg 5Vdc r r iqs = = 141.85 A

)
VSquare Operation – Voltage waveforms

Lm
Lm
Voltage
Square Operation PI controllers:
Voltage Source Converter∫
comp
Voltage Te =
2 Lr
(iqs λdr − ids λqr )
vab
v ab 1 ( )
λs = vs − Rs is dt A: Stator (stationary) frame.
r r ( R + rsv)cnr2=+Vdcω(−r2g(1 L
3

− Lg 3 +
5

+ 2Lgd5 ))(
/ 3LL + Lq ) 9
• fs Q: r Lr Lr
m

Lm

torque for
Lr

## The electromagnetic canFrom the flux linkage equations: λs − Ls is

1. d-axis stator current control( )
ωλ ds
60 (ω − ω ) λ
Voltage Source Converter
iqs R s Lls Llr R r i qrther output voltage magnitude ?
Rotor Flux ) vector λr = Llr ir + Lm im = Lr
dcCalculator
+ Lm is = λs − σ Ls is
r dr
Q1: How to adjust Vdc and Thevoltage
(V
Q: How to find/measure λds and λqs ?

## be induction machine model

is calculated by different equations,
Lm Lm 20

Dynamic ω ) λHowRModel
(a) q-axis circuit r r L2m r
Converter
λqs = ( Lls + Lm )iqs + Lm iπqr = Ls iqs + LModeling
m iqr λ ωt
2π qs   Ls 0 0  σ
Lm where i 
qs is the total leakage factor Lr σ = 1−
( )
37

T =K i λ

qs
i qm
but thefrequency?
above one is extensively vabλ=dsv=aN( L−lsv+bNLm )ids + Lm idr = Ls ids + Lm idr DCThe   flux
inputrotor g1ia + g 3ib + g 5ic λr =
 idc =expression λs − σLs L
Lr i
s s (from the previous slide)
qr

##  2. q-axis stator current control 38

λds

λqs
ωλ qs (ω − Q2: to adjust the output e T qs r current

∫ (v
ids Rs i r qr λds  = 0 Ls 0 Lm  ids  Lm 4
Square Operation –L Voltage
pλ pλ L L
Speed ls Speed
waveforms
v v
of the used. Why?
r dr lr ⋅  load



## λ   L iqr  phase voltages?

σ Ls

σ Ls
qs qr
Voltage Note:Voltage
qs m qr
 the 35
2 PLm λqr = ( Llr + Lm )iqr +Converter
Lm iqs = Lr iqroutput
+ Lm iqsvoltages 0 Q: How
Lr to0 get

λ =

λqs =
Q3: Which configuration 1)the
Voltage
is suitable equations:
forflux
v/f square wave operation?  qr   m   
Decomposing 3. rotor flux control
the rotor flux into the d- and q-axis components

## Rotor Flux Calculator

FOC scheme is to identify rotor
The d- and q-axis rotor flux:
Rotor Flux Calculator

## where KT =  λdr  0 0 Lr  idr 

 ds
angle θf for field orientation. Lm
A: It involves only the stator- 3Lr λdr = ( Llr + Lm )idr + Lm ids =14L
vr idr =+ LgmV
ids 18

Motion Speed
equation:p λ ds p λdr circuit
Speed
 L
λdr = L (λds − σ Lsids )

3ø 3ø
vqs = R32s iqswhich
v ds Lm(a) q-axis v dr 3ø 3ø aN 1 dc r
Voltage M + pλqsare + ωλ M
(from the previous slide)

Voltage
ωλ qs vab = vaN - vbN (ω − ω r ) λ qr sideInduction
variables, allds Induction 
  vbN = g 3Vdc

m
Can be directly measured Direct FOC


## P ids Rs Lls Llr Grid Rectifier R r i dr

Inverter Inverter
measurable. Grid Rectifier

Rs

Rs
( )  = + λ − ωλ (λ − σ Lsiqs ) Direct FOC
Motor Motor
v R i p Lr
Dynamic Model
ω =
 r JS e T − T L (a) ds s ds ds qs Manipulation of flux linkage equations:
vcN = g 5Vdc  λ =
(a) Rotor Flux Calculator

(b)
 qr Lm qs 9

Dynamic Model
 (b) d-axis circuit Tei dm

ids

iqs
l Scheme
1 1
• v P = R i ω r + pλ ω − ω r )λdr
 1  qr voltage qr + (wave Rotor Flux Calculator 
Dynamic Model
Speed
r qrfrom square Lr
ω rm = v(Tdse − TLVoltage ) −1 −1
] → [i] = [ L]−1[λThe
Speed
λdr = L (λds − σ Ls ids )
p λ ds p λdr
(b) L
TL m Q4: How to S
obtain
Voltage v drJ sinusoidal
the voltage [λ ] = [ L][i ] • Defined
→ [ L]interms [λ ] = [of
L]gating
[ L][isignals ] magnitude and angle ofr theLrrotor r flux: r The d- and q-axis rotor flux:
vs − Rs is dt

##  7 λr = L (λs − σ Ls is ) (from the previous slide) 

• JS
dq-Reference
(from the previous slide)

 Arbitrary Frame
The rotor flux expression
ωrmvdr = Rr idr + pλdr − (ω − ω r )λqr
)

Note: λ = λ2 + λ2
Line-to-Line load voltage waveform has three levels m
Model
P is the number waveform? pairs
r

16 voltage (Vdc)  r
m
L
(
Te = 2 iqs λds − ids λqs (c)(b) d-axis circuit ) dr qr
λ = r (λ − σ L i )

ics
vcs

## Decomposing the rotor flux into the d- and q-axis components

  
qr qs s qs
−1 λqr
Torque and Speed WaveformsQ: How to find/measure λ
10 p = d/dt Lm
ωλ ds Llr v (ω = − ω r )λ dr Motion equation: θ f = tan Lr
v - Rvr i qr
vas

vbs

Lls
  dr Lmλdr ds
iqs R s ( )

ibs
DC input current idc = g1ia + g 3 ib + g 5 ic 33 ias
ab aN bN λ = λ − σ L i
Induction motor dq-axis model:
r

12 s ds
Ramp and λqs ?
ωrfunction
∫(

13 ds
– rotor electrical speed i qm ω  P  Can be directly measured 150
ωrm – rotor mechanical speed ω rm = r• Widely (Te − TL )
ω r = JSaccepted (a) λ = Lr (λ − σ L i )
λs =

## λds = (vds − Rs ids ) dt

Speed P
 T Q: How to get the load phase voltages?  qr Lm qs

s qs
36


v Speed pλqs pairs Lm pλqr v 15
• Extensively used e
r

f Pqs – Voltage
No. of pole Voltage qr 1 1
ω v r Te
Torque [Nm]

## 11  P The magnitude and angle of the rotor flux: 100r r

∫ (v

1 r as
) 
ω rm = (Te − TL ) (b)
5 TL
S J
 vbs
vqs iqs ias λs = s − Rs is dt

Can be directly m
λ = (v − Rs iqs )dt
 qs ∫ qs
18 2 2
JS ibs
Q: Can we use it for IG?
λr = λdr + λqr
Q1: What is order of* induction machine model? ω  v cs ids 50
s load voltage waveform has  3levels
P 6 rm  λqr vds θ ics
• Line-to-Line
f
ωλ qs
f(a)
s
q-axis circuit
A:three
TYes, (iqs λdsthe− idsconstruction
e = since λqs ) (c) for θ f = tan−1
 λdr
Q2: What ids Rs are the changes Lls
(ω − ω r ) λ
Llrrequired in Rthe qr
r i dr model

the for 2
squirrel
induction cage
generator is the same θ 18
Te
Dynamic Model
TL TL Te 0
Direct FOC
37
t
induction tmachine (for generator 10 operation)?
Dynamic Model
1
i dm
as that for the motor. 36
ωr – rotor electrical speed ω ω = ωs
ω ωrm
Dynamic Model ω rm = r
Speed
Speed p λ ds p λdr ωrm to -50
v ds Lm v
Q: How – rotor mechanical speed 9
Voltage
operate an induction 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
dr
Voltage 17 P
P –asNo. of pole pairs
Control Blockλ Diagram
vcom is around 5% of the rated machine a generator? 1 θ Time [s]
A: Will be discussed in ELE 806
λqs λds λqr λdr 2π f s
Direct FOC
Voltage and circuitFlux Linkages of IM
s
From the
voltage voltage
(b) d-axisequations: iqs   Lr 0 − Lm 0   qs  18
Q1:
course. What is order of induction 
machine model?
    Rotor Flux Calculator

kv is calculated
vqs = Ris iRqsat+ rated
• Speedqs voltages
pλds qs +
ωλ ωλds Llr (ω − ω r )λ dr R iλqs = vqs − Rs iqs − ωλds / S
frequency
Lls
  D −5L
(
ids  = 1 0 Lr 0 − Lm  λds 

0  λcage 
• ) Lr iqs
1800 Block diagram of Rotor Flux Calculator
are obtained by transforming  Q2: Flux the inductances from
s r qr 1
linkages are given by requirediqrin the 0 for Lsquirrel
Speed [rpm]

θf
What are the changes model vas

λds Lr λdr
  m s qr
   1400
D

## vds = Rs ids + pλds − ωλqsi 

y

ds − Rs i ds +machine
• Lm Lm tan −1
vcs
idr  operation)?
0 − Lm Ls  λdr 
qm x
induction 0 • Torqueframe
and speed waveforms
 stationary Speedframe
Dynamic
to the rotating
Model
reference
v λ = Li Reference transformation: vbs λqs n
Lr λqr λr

( )
Speed x2 + y 2
v pλ pλ
v
 qr = R i +
Voltage
r qr p λqs
qr + (ω − L
ω r ) λ dr
Voltage
λ
qs

 qr = v qr − R i m
r qr − (ω − ω )λqr
r dr / S qr • Lr ids
are
1
similar to the waveforms in
1000 Lm

## D = Ls Lr − L2m Use rotor flux angle θf for

v = R i Model
ids
λ = (v2) Flux where D ias

dr − Rr idr + (ω − ω r )λqr ) / S
9
17 • Lm 600 Rs
r dr + pλdr −(a)(ω − ω r )λqr stationary reference frame
 dr  dr
ics Lr
λdr = L (λds −
σ Ls
q-axis circuit 1
ids R s
ωλ qs (ω − ω r ) λ qr
R r i dr
iqs = [
Lr λqs − Lm λqr ] • Lm iqr
transformation
1 between the 200
ibs iqs
Rs 

m

λ = Lr λ −
Lls Llr
iqs , ids , iqr , idr iqs , idsλqs = ( Lls + Lm )iqs + Lm iqr = Ls iqs + Lm iqr D D
0 σ Ls
(
0.4
• Ls qr qs
 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 L0.5
m
λds = ( Lls + Lm )ids + Lmiqsidr, ids= Ls ids + Lm idr stationary and synchronous λTime

i dm = ( − )
[s]
v R i dt
vqs, vds
Voltage
v ds Speed p λ ds
Speed
Lm Flux
vqsv  • Lm idr
 ds

ds s ds

λTorque
qr = ( Llr + Lm )iqr + Lm iqs = Lr i qr + Lm iqs
∫( )
Voltage
vqr, vdr Voltage
• • • λqs Lr dr 1
λ = vqs − Rs iqs dt
equations λ Equations 13
Equation • Te 1 iqs Ls frames.
D  qs
ω iqs λRdr = ( Llr + Lm )idr + Lm ids 1= Lr idr + Lm ids

## ds Dynamic Model Dynamic λqrModel

qs 35
(b)λd-axis
λqs D
(
λqsω r= vqs − Rs iqs − ωλ circuit
λqrds / S λ , λ ) Lm s S
Q: Which synchronous frame?
38

qs ds ω
Ls = Lls + Lm λ- drStator self
Arbitrary dq-Reference Frame TLλds
Motion Model
ωrm 16
A: Rotor flux synchronous frame
Equation
Lr = Llr + Lm - Rotorself inductance ωr
iqs , ids , iqr , idr iqs , ids
Input variables: ios Rs Lls Llrvariables:
Output12 R i iqs , ids
14 v , v r or qs ds
Voltage
Dynamic Model
Stator voltages : vqs, vds vqr, vdr
Stator currents : iqs, ids
equations
• Equations
• • Torque
• Te
Rotor voltages : vqr, vdr ω torque : Te
Electromagnetic λqs Equation 8
Speed of referenceos
frame : ω
v vor λds
ω r speed : ωrm
Rotor mechanical
λqr 34