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Chemical Admixtures

Presentation by-
Ketan Sompura, Ph.D
Sika Corporation
Construction Admixtures
Admixtures are those ingredients in concrete other than
cement, water, and aggregates that are added to the
mixture immediately before or during mixing to give the
concrete special properties.

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Construction Reasons For Using Admixtures

S Increase Strength
S Improve Mix Workability
S Improve early strengths
S Control set time
S Reduce Permeability
S Control Efflorescence
S Improve Color Vibrancy
S Meet Durability Requirements
S Control Shrinkage
S Improve mix economics

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Construction Admixture Types
S Water-Reducers
S Accelerators
S Retarders
S Air Entrainment
S Specialty
SViscosity Modifiers

SCorrosion Inhibitors

SAnti Wash-out

SASR Controlling

SShrinkage Reducers

SWater-Repellent Admixtures...etc

S Manufactured concrete products (MCP) Admixtures

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Construction ASTM Classification of admixtures
S ASTM C 494
S Type A – Water reducer
S Type B – Retarding admixture
S Type C – Accelerating admixture
S Type D – Water reducing and retarding
S Type E – Water reducing and accelerating
S Type F – High range water reducer
S Type G – High range water reducing and
retarding admixture

S Air entraining admixtures (ASTM C 260)

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Construction Water Reducers

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Construction Water Reducers
S Definition as per ACI 116.R-2:
Admixtures that either increase slump of freshly-mixed
mortar or concrete without increasing water content OR
maintain slump with a reduced amount of water, the effect
being due to factors other than air entrainment.

S Benefits:
S Increase in strength
S Increase in workability
S Cement reduction

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Construction Water Reducer- Types
SNaphthalene based (SNF)
SMelamine based (SMF)
SVinyl Copolymers
SPolycarboxylate based

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Water/Cement System Without a Water
Construction Reducing Admixture
Further growth of hydration products
CEMENT GRAINS will cause stiffness and LOSS OF

Attractive forces between cement

grains will give flocculation with

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Construction Mechanism of Action for a Conventional
Water Reducing Admixture
molecules Dispersion
caused by electrostatic
decrease of the W/C ratio

Cement particles

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Construction Mechanism of Polycarboxylate-
Based Admixtures
S Dual mechanism of
S Electrostatic Repulsion
S Steric Hinderence

S This dual mechanism results in improved dispersion, mix

lubrication and performance

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Construction Mechanism of Action for a Polycarboxylate
based Water Reducing Admixture
Polycarboxylate dispersant molecules
caused by electrostatic repulsion
and steric hindrance
decrease of the W/C ratio

Cement particles

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Construction Conventional Water
Reducer Water Reducer

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Accelerators and Retarders

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Construction General Definition

▲ Increase the rate of hydration of the cement
▲ Reduce the set time of concrete
▲ Increase the early age strength of concrete

▲ Slows down the rate of hydration of cement
▲ Increases the time of set
▲ Slow down the rate of early age strength development

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Construction Accelerators
Accelerator Faster Set Time

Strength/Hardening Early strength

Early Strength

Set Acclr. Str. Acclr.


Set time
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Construction Accelerators
▲ In cold weather, to avoid concrete from freezing when it is
plastic or/and to maintain normal setting behavior and strength
▲ To increase productivity (faster stripping of formwork)
▲ Compensate for the delay in set or strength gain due to use
of SCMs such as Fly ash or Slag.
▲ Rapid repair of pavement sections

Accelerators need to confirm to ASTM C 494 as:

Type C – Accelerating admixtures and/or
Type E – Water reducing and accelerating admixtures

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Construction Accelerator - Types
▲ Soluble Inorganic salts Chlorides Triethalomine
▲Soluble Organic Compounds Bromides Calcium
▲Quick setting admixtures Fluorides
Urea, Oxalic
▲Miscellaneous solid admixtures. Carbonates
Lactic acid
Aluminates Silicates Nitrites, Nitrates
Carbonates Carbonates Thiosulfates, of amines
Silicates, and
Aluminates and formaldehyde
alkali hydroxides

Cement Compounds:
C3S, C2S, C3A, C4AF

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Construction Calcium Chloride
▲ One of the most effective accelerators known.

▲ Potential for corrosion
▲ Acceleration of Alkali Silica reaction
▲ Reduction in freeze thaw and sulfate resistance

Due to the above Non- Chloride Accelerators are used for


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Hardening Accelerator /
Construction Strength Accelerator
S Increases high early strength, but may not significantly
influence the time of set.
S Enables addition of accelerator at the plant rather than
addition at site

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Factors influencing accelerator
Construction performance
▲ Ambient temperature
▲ Concrete temperature
▲ Requirements of early set and strength
▲ Accelerator dosage
▲ Cement content, Cement Type, SCM
▲ W/Cm
▲Testing method

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Construction Retarders
▲ Slows down the rate of hydration of cement
▲ Increases the time of set

▲ Reduces faster slump loss during hot weather.
▲ Enables longer haul times
▲ Delays set time, allows time for finishing operations
▲ Reduces temperature of concrete at early stages

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Construction Retarders
Retardation Delayed Set Time

Slump Retention Longer slump life

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Construction Retarders - Types
▲Sugar derivatives
▲Hydroxycarboxylic acid
▲Tartaric acid and salts

Retarders need to confirm to ASTM C 494 as:

Type B – Retarding admixtures and/or
Type D – Water reducing and retarding admixtures

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Construction Hydration Control admixture

S Can completely stop the hydration process of cement up to

several hours or days
S Once set, strength development continues just as regular

S Applications:
S High retardation or long slump life
S Returned concrete

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Factors influencing performance of
Construction retarders
▲ Ambient temperature
▲ Concrete temperature
▲ Control concrete (slump)
▲ Cement content, Cement type, SCM
▲ W/Cm

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Air Entraining Admixtures

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Why do we use Air Entraining
Construction Admixtures (AEA’s) ?

S Freeze Thaw durability

S Resistance against deicer scaling
S Workability and placing

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Construction QUIZ QUESTION :

SWhat happens to water when freezes

and what is causing concrete damage
during freezing cycle?

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Construction ANSWER :
SDuring freezing process,
water increases its
volume up to 9%.

SPressure developed
during this volume
change reaches up to
200MPa (29 000psi)

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Construction Freeze thaw conditions
Freezing temperatures are not always detrimental for
concrete. To observe freeze thaw damage,
following two conditions must be fulfilled.

S Concrete pore saturation must be higher than


S Temperatures must be low enough to cause water

to freeze.

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Construction How do AEA’s work?
S When temperatures surrounding concrete decreases below
the freezing point of water, water present in pores and
capillaries of concrete starts to freeze and expand.

S AEA entrain minute size air bubbles uniformly throughout the


S Air entrained voids acts as small reservoirs for freezing

water, which can freely freeze and expand without building
up the pressure within the concrete.

S Properly air entrained concrete should provide enough voids

to accommodate all the water contained within the concrete.

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Construction What does entrained air voids do in
S If air content increases 1%, then compressive
strength decreases about 5%

S If air content decreases 1%, then yield will

decrease about 1/4 cubic foot per cubic yard

S If air content decreases 1%, then slump

decreases about 1/2 inch

S If air content decreases 1%, then durability

decreases about 10%

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Specialty Admixtures and

Specialty Concrete Products

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Construction Specialty products
SAnti-washout and viscosity modifying
SShrinkage Reducing admixture
SCorrosion inhibitors
SASR mitigation admixture
SAdmixture for Pervious Concrete
SFlowable Fill admixture (CLSM)
SSurface Retarder
SFinishing Aid

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Anti- Washout Admixtures &
Construction Viscosity Modifying Admixtures
How they work:
S Water soluble cellulose ether or acrylic type polymers
S They increase the viscosity of water in the mix.
S This results in increased thixotropy and improved resistance
to segregation

S Under water concreting
S Self Compacting concrete
S Increase cohesion in case of gap graded aggregate mixes.

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Anti- Washout Admixtures &
Construction Viscosity Modifying Admixtures

Under water concreting Self compacting concrete

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Shrinkage Reducing Admixtures (SRA)

What do SRA’s do:

SMinimizes volume changes due to
Drying Shrinkage cracking.

S Drying Shrinkage:
S Loss of moisture from
hardened concrete surface
S Volume of concrete reduces
and it shrinks
S Water in capillary exerts
forces on capillary wall
How Shrinkage reducing admixtures work:
S Reduces surface tension of the liquid
S Forces on the wall are reduced
S Less Shrinkage

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Construction Corrosion Inhibitors types
SCalcium Nitrite based

SMigration corrosion inhibitors ( based on a

combination of Amino alcohol and Organic
and inorganic inhibitors)

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Construction Calcium Nitrite based
S A layer of Ferric oxide protects the steel from corrosion in
S This layer can be damaged by carbonation or chloride
ingress, which can lead to corrosion.
S Calcium nitrite admixture fortifies the ferric oxide passivating
S Thereby protects steel from corroding

2 Fe ++ + 2 OH + 2 NO2 2 NO + Fe2O3 + H2O

S Dosages: 10 – 30 liters per m3.

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Construction Migratory corrosion inhibitors
S Dual mechanism
S Migrating inhibitor – Penetrates through the concrete to
the steel reinforcement and gets absorbed on the surface
S Displaces chloride ions from steel surface and forms a
continuous film

S Hence reduces overall corrosive activity

S Dosages : 10 – 15 liters per m3

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Alkali silica reaction mitigating
Construction admixture
Lithium Nitrate based admixture

z What is ASR?
Alkali’s + Reactive Silica ASR Gel
(Na, K from (Aggregates)

ASR Gel + Moisture Expansive ASR Gel

Cracks Concrete

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Construction ASR mitigating admixture

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Construction Pervious concrete
A concrete
- that contains little or no sand
- which forms a system of highly
permeable and interconnected voids
- allows 3-8 gallons of water per
minute to pass through 1 sq.ft
Typical Properties:
Compressive strength – 500 – 4000 psi
Voids – 15 to 25%
Unit weight – 100 to 125 pcf
Permeability – 3 to 8 gallons/ minute per

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Construction Pervious concrete admixture

S Polymer based liquid admixture

S Improves aggregate to cement paste bond
S Improves Strength and workability
S Aids discharge from truck, easy to place
S Reduces bleeding and improves cohesion

S Dosage : 10 – 25 liter / m3

Other admixtures for pervious concrete

S Water reducers
S Retarders
S Viscosity modifiers

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Construction Flowable fill admixture

S To produce controlled low strength materials (CLSM)
used as flow able fill

S Use 454 gram bag (1 lb) to produce 0.77 m3 (1 cyd)
S Add all mix ingredients and mix for 5-7 minutes.
S Material volume increases by 25 to 35%.

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Construction Surface Retarding admixture

S Retards the set of concrete surface

S Exposed aggregate surface for architectural purposes
S Used when concreting done in layers to improve mechanical

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Construction Finishing aid admixture

S Enhances finish on concrete flatwork
S Eliminates addition of water to aid finishing
S Prevents plastic shrinkage cracking

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Admixtures for Manufactured
concrete products

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S MCP Market Segment

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Construction MCP Applications

S Standard Gray Block

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Construction MCP Applications

S Architectural Split-Face Block

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Construction MCP Applications

SConcrete Pipe

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Construction MCP Applications

S Segmental Retaining Walls


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Construction MCP Applications

S Concrete Pavers

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Construction MCP Applications

S Concrete Roof Tile

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Construction MCP Applications

S Extruded Hollow-Core Plank

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Construction Why use admixtures for MCP products?

SProduce Desired Texture

SSpeed Production Rate
SImprove Edge Definition
SIncrease Strength
SReduce Absorption
SControl Efflorescence
SWater Repellency
SImprove Color Vibrancy
SMeet Durability Requirements
SIncrease Profitability

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MCP Admixtures
S Plasticizers
S Accelerating Plasticizers
S Accelerators
S Water-Repellent
S Efflorescence-Controlling

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Thank you...............

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