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solar observations

material is made possible by the University Libraries,

University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction

or presentation (such as public display or performance) of

protected items is prohibited except with permission of the

author.

A COMPARISON OF THE METHODS USED IN DETERMINING

by

. Gerald E. Murphy

For the Degree of

MASTER OF SCIENCE

1964

STATEMENT BY AUTHOR

quirements for an advanced degree at The University of Arizona and

is deposited in The University Library to be made available to bor

rowers under rules of the Library.

pe r mission, provided that accurate acknowledgment of source is m a d e .

Requests for permission for extended quotation from or reproduction

of this manuscript in whole or in part may be granted by the head of

the major department or the Dean of the Graduate College when in

their judgment the proposed use of the material is in the interests

of scholarship. In all other instances, h o w e v e r , permission must

be obtained from the author.

SIGNED: ^

^ P H l I l P B. NEWlAN Date

Associate Professor of Civil Engineering

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

LIST OF PLATES o e o e o o e e e e o o o e e a o o o e Q o o o o e e e o o o o e o e e e e t o o o o e e o e o e G I V

INTRODUCTION o©ee©e«e»»t»©©oo©e®<a©»eeoo©eeoo©eieo©ovo©<aoGUG©c<5o»<i» X

CHAPTER I

DISADVANTAGES OF SOLAR OBSERVATIONS

Advantages 00G0etieeo0ee®©6000e9000tf0»000»e000eGe000@e»oe0e-g©cc»0 V

Disadvantages e©o®epeoe6oc<8©e6ooeoso6oo6©9oee®e©eo©©»©<eo#ee©oet30 9

CHAPTER II

DETERMINATION OF AZIMUTH BY

SOLAR OBSERVATION

The AStrOnOIDlCal Triangle o 6 0 ©©oo©eGOOoeoooeaooo©o©eeeo«ee©oo©e© X^

B aS 1 0 Equati ons » e © e » e t » e e o t i o o e o o o c i o o e o o e e e © e » o e o o o o o o © » o © © » < i Q c o 13

CHAPTER III

Solar Screen o o c o © © e o c e D » o » © o o e o © o e © © 6 e s o o e o o © © e © o e o e e a e o o G o 6 o e e 17

Solar Filter e o e e e o © o o 6 o © © ® e e » o 6 o o e © o ® © o © © o © o o © & o o e © o © o o o © o © o e c e 24

S O la r Re tic le G ® © o © » e o o e o t > o © » o c o » © © e ® o » o o e o o o s © © © o © e e e o e o < » o o a o ® e 20

Simplex S d a r Shield © o © o e o e » e o o o o e © o o o e » © » e e e © e o o e e e © « c o 0 © c 6 o © o 27

RO0 IpfS S d a r Prism eeoeeooo©e©ee»oo6<>©©®oooeeeoocQ"eo»c©©©ci<?»D» 28

111

iv

CHAPTER IV

CURVATURE AND SEMIDIAMETER

■ Page

S e ITilc3.1ame *telP oeeeoQeooeoeeoeooeoesoooe. ee^tieoeoeoeoooeoeeeecoeeeo-- 31

Curvature Correction ©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©oo©©©©©©©©©©© 34

Semidiameter Correction ©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©o©©©©©©©*©©©©©©©©©©©©©©© 36

CHAPTER V

AND LONGITUDE

Declination ©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©o©©©©©*©©©©©©© 42

Latitude ©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©o©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©© 45

Longitude ©©o©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©© 46

CHAPTER VI

Introduction ©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©o©©©©©©©©©©©©©#©©©©©© 51

Trigonometric Formulas ©©«©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©© 51

Factors Affecting the Measuring of Altitude ©l o o t i o o e e e e e c e e o o o 54

Effect of Errors in Altitude on the Computed Azimuth © © 65

Effect of Errors in Declination on the Computed Azimuth 67

Effect of Errors in Latitude on the Computed Azimuth ©©©©.©©©© 71

Field Procedure for Observations 73

CHAPTER VII

OF THE SUN

Introduction ©©@©©©©©©©©©©©©*©©©©©©©©©©©**©©©©*©©©©©©©@©©©©@© 0 ©© 76

Determining the Hour Angle of the Sun .©...©.©©..«..© .©©»»©©.©. © 78

Factors Affecting the Measurement of the Sun's Hour Angle 81

Field Procedure for Observations 85

CHAPTER VIII

AZIMUTH BY THE SUN

Ec^ual Altitude Method e>©o©®®G©oooo©®9 oo©ooooo©ocfc

CHAPTER IX

COMPUTATIONS

Introduction o©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©®©©©©©©©©©©©

Slide Rule o©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©

Logarithms ©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©o©©©©©©©

Natural Functions ooeooo©©©©©©©®©©©©©©®©©©©©©©©©©

Electronic Digital Computer 0 0 6 6 0 6 0 0 6 6 9 0

CHAPTER X

CONCLUSION

C O n d U S l O n o o o o o o o o e e o e o e o o o o o o e o e e o o e o o e o e o o e o o

BIBLIOGRAPHY o e o O o o c e o o o o o o o o o o e o o o s a d o a o o o o e e o o o

LIST OF PLATES

Plate Page

1 Computation of S u n 9s Declination 44

Hearing efeoooo&oooooefcQCtoO’eefreoooooeoeeeeoooeoooooo 70

Superimposed ©©©eo©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©© 74

vi

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

Figure Page

1 Groma ......... r o o o e e o o o o e e o o o o o o o e o t i o t i e o o o e t e o o o o e o o o o e o o 4

5 Quadrant-Tangent Method e e e e e o o o o o o e o o o o o e o i y o o o o o e e 19

7 Bisect! On e e o o e e e e e o o e e o o e e e c o . e o o o o o c e e e o e e o e e o e e o e e c e e o e o 23

12 Semidiameter Correction A o o e o o o e e e o o e o B o e o o o o o i 31

Angular Semidiameter „*,* * *,„ o o o o o e o o o o a o 33

14 Effect of Curvature •• o e e e o o e o o o 35

16 Quadrant-Tangent © o e e e e o o e o e e f e a e c e o e e e o o e o o e o o o o o e o o e o o o o 39

20 Refraction Q © © © s © © o ©«© © © © o © o o o o o c o e e o o o e o o o e o o o o o o o o e 60

vii

viii

an (1 Local Hour Angle o c e o e e e e o o e o o o e e o e o t i e e o o e o e o o o o e 61

A COMPARISON OF THE METHODS USED IN DETERMINING

By

Gerald E. Murphy

Abstract

by the sun. The basic equations are derived and each method

with the measurement of each. The altitude and hour angle methods

.equation is presented.

ix

INTRODUCTION

The science of surveying had its birth at the time man first

land became more valuable the status of the land surveyor grew* In

honored with a most earnest attention than falls to the

lot of any other philosophers* Arithmetic 9 theoretical

g eometry 9 a s t ronomy 9 and music are discoursed upon to

listless a udiences 9 sometimes empty benc h e s 6 But the land

surveyor is like a judges the deserted fields become his

f o r u m 9 crowded with eager spectators* You would fancy

him a madman when you see him walking along the most

devious paths* But in truth he is seeking for the traces

of lost facts in rough woods and thickets* He walks not

as other men walk* His path is the book from which he

reads % he shows what he is saying; he proves what he hath

learned; by his steps he divides the rights of hostile

claimants; and like a mighty river he takes away the fields

of one side to deposit them on the other,^

possible that the lofty position held by the land surveyor in early

Classroom U s e g Bureau of Publications* Teachers College* Columbia

University$ New Y o r k , 1947, page 43*

1

Roman times was partly due to the skill he had developed in determin

ing direction. The use of the sun and stars to establish the meridian

the true bearing of boundary lines. Most of our state and county

CHAPTER I

people established the meridian by the rising and setting of the srnn

observing the sun at its first appearance in the morning and again as

Fig, 1,

anus, The Etruscans were aware of the fact that this method gave the

they recommend that the decimanus be established only from the shadow

j-Ibid., page 32 ■

3

4

^ I bid., page 61

center. When the extremity of the stick's shadow touched the circle both

in the morning and afternoon a point was marked. Fig. 2 shows the

Indian Circle with straight lines connecting the two points and the

The Romans adopted the Indian Circle method and it was used

of boundaries.

noon. Better accuracy was obtained and the meridian could still be

determined even if clouds obscured the sun for a portion of the day.

method he determined the meridian and then found the angle between the

The early property surveys in the New Wprld were made with

instruments and methods little better than those used in ancient times.

elongation,

LI b i d e * page 214,

The rectangular surveying system used in the United States

lines„ The early surveys of the public land were dependent on the

magnetic north and the magnetic declination was then turned off* As

the surveys progressed into the upper regions of the Great Lakes the

about 1836o*^ The solar unit, was later mounted on the telescope of a

Advantages

special trip to the field for the sole purpose of taking a star shot

Bulletin No. 112-T* W. 6 L* E. Gurley, Troy* New York* page 15*

could mean a substantial savings in the cost of a surveye

and time are fewer than when working in semi~or total darkness*

observation.

and P r a c t i c e * McGraw-Hill Book C ompany 9 I n c , s New Y o r k , fourth

e d i t i o n s 1 9 5 3 9 page 305.

Disadvantages

The size and brightness of the sun are probably the major

observer8s eye*

absurd answer*

strike one side of the instrument while the other side remains

Hydrology For E n g i n e e r s , McGraw-Hill Book Company* Inc,, New Y o r k ,

1958, page 2 1 /

10

CHAPTER II

DETERMINATION OF AZIMUTH BY

SOLAR OBSERVATIONS

Sun (S): The star nearest the earth about which the earth

r evolves«,

celestial sphere.

celestial sphere.

11

12

o"

and nadir.

celestial p o l e s .

Altitude (h): The s u n es angular distance above the h orizon,

It is measured upward on the vertical circle through the sun from the

Celestial Poles (P): The two points where the axis of ro

Hour Angle (t): The angle at the pole from the meridian

hour circle through the sun from the equator to the sun. It is

positive when measured northward from the equator and negative when

measured southward.

equator*

14

certain relationships between its sides and its angles. These laws

will not be repeated. Referring to Fig. 4.(a) the three most important

( a) (b)

sin a sin b sin c

15

Basic Equations

sin B _ sin t

sin (90°-Dec.!) sin (90o-h)

or

( 1,)

or

COS B - ■ ..... .. . Ko)

cos h x cos Phi.

16

sin h = sin Phi. x sin Dec. + cos Phi. x cos Dec. x cos t

or

COS

+L. _

w

sin h - sin Phi.

■ — 1*1 I w

x sin

n > T ■! n I I ■ 1 m

Dec.-

cos Phi. x cos Dec,

cos h x cos B _

cos h x sin B

cos Dec. x sin t

or

cot B --------------------JJ— -------------------

CHAPTER III

serious injury to the observer's eye. There are several safe ways

the most commonly used method of viewing the sun. The observation

can be made with any transit that contains a vertical limb. The

of the sun and observing the shadows cast by the telescope vial

until the image of the sun flashes across the screen® The vertical

and the eyepiece* the shadows of the cross wires are visible against

i.

18

Quadrant-Tangent Method

a n g l e f and horizontal angle are read and recorded* Knowing the semi

diameter of the sun the correct vertical and horizontal angle to the

opposed quadrant from the first* Assuming the path of the sun is a

the s u n 9s image is moving toward one cross hair and away from the

other. One wire is set to cut a segment of the sun*s image that is

moving away from the cross hair® This wire is then kept stationary

while the sun is tracked with the other wire* The instant the edge

19

Fig. 5 shows the image of the sun as it appears on a solar screen with

an erecting telescope.

A.M. P.M

P.

Stationary Stationary Stationary Stationary

upside down.

the sun's image in the same quadrant before the telescope is reversed.

20

are taken and the average value of the three computed azimuths used as

Five sightings are taken with the sun in the same quadrant* Upon

opposed quadrante The mean values of the ten pointings are used in

tal angles differs from most procedures. The A vernier is read for

all pointings with telescope direct and the B vernier for all

Center-Tangent Method

21

centered on the sun while the other wire remains stationary and allows

the sun's image to make its own point of tangency. The moving wire

A.M. P.M.

©® ©Bor, Wire

Stationary

Vert. Wire

Stationary

Hor. Wire

Stationary

Vert. Wire

Stationary

upside down.

Use of the center-tangent method requires that each obser

always added to the vertical angle for observations taken in the A.M.

inverted telescope 9 prismatic e y epiece 9 or image projected

on paper* the eastern limb is always observed when the

disk of the sun appears to leave the vertical wire* This

will cause the correction for semidiameter s , always to

be added to the horizontal angle reading on the sun k 9

provided the angles are measured in a clockwise direction *

readings should be taken with the vertical wire stationary and the

The above procedure of using the average readings taken over <

Hill Book Company* Inc* 9 I s W T ^ a g e ^ l 4 3 o

23

Bisection

these advantages:

should be placed.

The time required for pointing is less than when osing the

24

intersection of the cross h a i r s s as a point and placing

this point in the center of the sun*s image» The human

eye can place a point in the center of a circle with

considerable accuracy % as witness the principle of the

rifle peep s i g h t *1

Solar Filter

mits direct viewing of the sun without danger of injuring the eye.

the filter into position in front of the ey e p i e c e e and then sight the

are the same as when using a solar screen. Figs$ 8 and 9 show the

Transaction of ASCE, Vol. 102, 1937, page 970.

25

A.M. P.M.

Stationary Stationary Stationary Stationary

A.M. P.

Stationary Stationary Stationary Stationary

26

Solar Reticle!

reticle.

circle over the image of the sun. The Bureau of Land Management in

the Manual of Instructions For The Survey of The Public Lands of The

"The manipulation of the vertical and horizontal tangent-motions to

may be accomplished with utmost certainty that the values for the

Observations are faster and both horizontal and vertical angles -are

points are so arranged that when a selected pair of these points are

brought tangent to the sun's image, the center of the sun's image is

Survey of The Public Lands of The Unite'd States ,"page 1301

28

prisms that when pointed at the sun produces four images of the sun«

The overlapping images form a bright cross with a small dark square

29

eye and reduce the sunlight and heat which enter the telescope.

30

Astronomy

■-iitc-Tirt i:..rj sm m rwi&MJS

Applied to Land

n j=r.—iZaxriX zaJK1:.rT r r v - t^3gf?y,-tcu»«e;c«tt=»“»

WILD for fabrication * we found there is an easy way to

bypass, the eccentricity in pointing by inserting another

wedge over the whole objective, That third wedge is

tinted and serves as a sun filter at the same time. This

wedge reflects the centre point of the four sun images

back to the centre of the telescopec Actually in the

WILD solar prism the centering wedge consists of two

(one in front of the half wedges according to Roelofs

and another behind if) for easier adjustment in the

fabrication.

1

R. Roelofs s, Astronomy Applied to Land Surveyinga

N» V, Wed. J, Ahrend 6 Z o o n 9 Am sterdam 9 Holland, 1950, page 70.

CHAPTER IV

Semidiameter

at the earth's center by the sun's radius. Fig. 12 shows this rela

tionship.

Earth Sun

r

sin S = —

P

where

and

31

32

at Greenwich apparent noon for each day of

for every ten days to the hundredth minute. The maximum change in

second for the first day of each month. The maximum change in

polation will give a value sufficiently accurate for all but the most

33

A B

North South

Sun's Angular Semidiameter

center of the sun, the edge of the sun, and the zenith gives

sin S sin z

or

sin A B = s

J^Ll.............................................

sin z

(9)

small angle is equal to the angle expressed in radians. Since the con

34

B ~ t S x esc z

or

Curvature Correction

long a series of observations may extend when using the mean hori

ment as to the length of time the sun*s path may be assumed straight

Survey of The Public Lands of The United S t a t e s g 1 9 4 7 9 U, S 6

Government Printing Office $> page 528,

New York * 1 9 4 2 9 page 141*

for Transit T r a verse» Government Printing Office % 1953* page 9 &

3S

Horizon

Surveying and Mapping Division, ASCE, Vol. 89, No. SU1, Proc, Paper

3410, February, 1963.

This formidable appearing equation is solved by parts using

A - l a-n- P. H — x (1 ♦ COS2 B)

dh2 sin B

2 2 2

(tan Phi. + tan h) _ sec h (12)

tan B x sin B tan B

dt cos h

At (14)

i l

When (B) is the azimuth of the sun measured from the n o r t h , east

in the A.M. and west in the P.M. , the curvature correction (C) should

always be added tc the value of (B) computed from the mean altitude (h).

Semidiameter Correction

the s u n ’s limb.

37

(b) is the bisector of the sun's limbs. The two points do not coincide

diameter error.

•H

rV

Horizon

M

equation.

38

In this equation

S = s u n ’s semidiameter in seconds

h ~s u n ’s altitude in degrees

mean time*

rule® For values of (h) less than 30° only the first two terms inside

the brackets are used* When (h) is less than 40° the first three

Application

correct quadrants *

pair of pointings is that one which requires the sighting of the west

39

telescope. This results from the movement of the sun during the time

taken to plunge the telescope and make a second sighting. The semi

diameter error and curvature error are a minimum when the corresponding

angles in the direct and reversed positions of the telescope are about

the same.

A.M. P.M.

sun with both the horizontal and vertical motions of the transit.

the altitude method should not be used. When the altitude method is

used there are several ways to overcome the effect of both curvature

and semidiameter e r r o r 0

This not only eliminates semidiameter error, but also provides a means

short and the vertical angles so nearly equal that any correction

demands a low dB/dh value* The corrections for curvature and semi

less *

dependent on the mean altitude» Regardless of the number of

Proceedings of the Surveying and Mapping Division, No* 34 1 0 § A S C E §

Oct., 1963% ^

CHAPTER V

AND LONGITUDE

Declination

the world*

positions of P olaris, the sun s and a number of major stars for every

the most convenient form for the present day surveyor who determines

time by a radio time signal* Stations such as WWV give the civil

t i m e , and knowing the time zone, the Greenwich Civil Time can be

easily found.

* 42

43

attachment is used and the hour angle must be set off in local

Apparent Time, Since the Bureau of Land Management uses the telescopic

lination is listed for 0 hour Greenwich Civil Time and the rate of

change in declination per hour is given. The use of such a form saves

time and prevents errors for those surveyors who take solar shots

infrequently,

Management* Ephemeris of The Sun* Polaris* and Other Selected S t a r s *

United States Governme'nt Printing 0 ffice»

44

Plate 1

COMPUTATION OF S U N ’S DECLINATION

2

Longitude of central meridian o e f r o e y f f p o e e o e e o i _hr.

T f o t a X ho u r s ) (Change in Dec./HrT)^

S lin ^S DG C I m a t l on eeeeeeeoeoBeeoeeooeeo

difference if watch is slow and subtract difference if watch is fast<

Greenwichi

Central Standard Time « 0 ©*«>©© s 90 meridian Q Q»»© 6 hr e

Mountain Standard Time ....... 105 meridian ..... 7 hr.

Pacific Standard Time ........120 meridian ..... 8 hr0

When using a solar attachment * the s u n 9s declination corrected

curve to be used with the solar attachment* The straight line is the

function of the altitude of the sun* They can be taken directly from

Latitude

Management* Standard Field T a b l e s , U, S, Government Printing Office,

Washington 25 * D, C,

r T*

4 — j— —|

— I :

T —

i

4__ Te e s c o p i c . S o Idr becUnatlion ; S e t tin g 46

, S 6 ° ’5 0

US-7 iOO

M.SvT.

47

that the other 10% be within 1/20 of an inch of their true positions.

Pcle

Phi

Equator

3,959 mi

48

360 x 60 7.5'

would be:

24 ,000

This would mean that any position that can be located within 1/20 of

7.5 x 60 X

X = 0.99 seconds

Longitude

along the equator from a fixed meridian to the meridian of the obser

station. For a given scale map the closer the station is to the

49

Pole

Phi

Equator

equals

2 x 3.14 x r

Using the mean radius of the earth (R) as 3,959 miles and substituting

for r

50

X _ 16,312.3

7.5 360 x 60

X = 5.66 miles

= 14.9 inches

24,000

L _ 7.5 x 60

.05 “ 14.9

or

L = 1.51 seconds

need to measure longitude. On the other hand use of the hour angle

the observation together with the longitude of the station are used to

compute the local hour angle. The effect of an error in hour angle

CHAPTER VI

Introduction

most commonly used method in the United States. Unlike the hour angle

Trigonometric Formulas

angle when the altitude is known was derived in Chapter II. It will be

basically the same. All equations require knowing the latitude of the

52

cos h x cos Phi.

cos s x cos(s-p)

s ec 2 1/2 B = (19)

sec h x sec Phi.

Each term in Eq. (5) has already been defined. The value of

(h) used in this equation and all equations involving the s u n ’s alti

west of north. When a minus value results from the solution of Eq. (5)

P.M.

Eq. (16) is identical with Eq. (5) with the exception of the

from the s o u t h , and a negative sign means the azimuth is measured from

the north. Again it is measured east in the A.M. and west in the P.M.

I n c h .^ Starting with

cos h x cos Phi.

The resulting equation was

Values of (h) from 15° to 55° were plotted against values of (Phi.)

from 31° to 49°. Values of (A) and (B) could be taken directly from

parallax.

Eq. (19) is similar to Eq. (18) but involves only one trig

cos B/2. Eq. (19) has two advantages over any of the other altitude

Co m p a n y , Boston, Mass., 1951, page 193.

Simple and Accurate Meth o d s , Transactions of A&CE, Vol. 114, 1949,

page 143.

54

- infrequently the use of such a form, saves both time and costly errors,

Eq, (20) makes use of the versed sine (1 minus the cosine). By

exchanging the p o lar distance (p) for 90°- Dec, and use of the double

Instrument Error

vertical angles.

or Stars * published by the A u t h o r a Chapel Hill* N.C, 9 1947* page 40,

55

Plate 3

DETERMINATION OF AZIMUTH

By Use of Log Secants

Sec. 2 l/2 B =

west in P.M.

P = 90o-Dec.

S = 1/2(P + h + Phi.)

P =

1

Add

h = i

Phi. =

r-

28 =

q

S = T3

XI

<

'O S-P =

"O

<

S—h =

Subtract

1/2 Z =

Z =

South Dec. is - and is added.

56

position.

pair of leveling screws with the (A) vernier set to 0°, Center the

telescope bubble by using the vertical clamp and tangent screw. The

upper motion is released and the telescope rotated 180° as shown by the

and the remaining way by using the two leveling screws. The upper

screw and the remaining way by use of the two leveling screws. When

rotated until the (A) vernier reads 90° or 270°, This places the

57

This completes the operation and makes the vertical axis of the

The axis lies in a vertical plane that deviates from the vertical

plane containing the sun by the angle (Z). The error in the measured

vertical angle is equal to (H) when (Z) = 0 ° and 0° when (Z) = 90°.

Sun

58

tion in seconds of arc per division of bubble run« This means that

angle.

sight and the axis of the telescope level is known as the peg adjust

ment manual.

is not the vernier is loosened and moved until the correct reading is

obtained.

line of sight and the axis of the telescope level, or from displace

the transit has a full vertical circle. When the vertical axis of

the transit is truly vertical, the mean of two vertical angles, one

59

taken with the telescope direct and the other with the telescope

in good adjustment and can be ignored in all but the most precise work.

dependent on how carefully the transit has been leveled when using

Refraction

height above the earth's surface diminishes„ the density and tempera

ture of the air increases. This results in the ray of light being

been derived t o correct for this phenomenon. The basic equations are

index throughout.

written.

60

E ar t h ’s Surface

Fig. 2 0 ,— Refraction

sin Z,, U3

7 n r r 3 * un

equations can be w r i t t e n :

U3 x sin Z3 = U 2 x sin Zg

Cl

since

or

zn = z x + r

If refraction (r) is expressed in radians then for a small angle sin r

or

of refraction for the lowest layer appears. This equation gives good

results when the zenith distances are so small that the assumption of

a closer approximation.^

62

where

and give both temperature and pressure corrections. Two of the most

complete tables are found in U.S.C. & G.S. Special Publication No. 247

i o

and in Seven Place Logarithmic Tables by Von Vega. »

the surveyor should not be overly concerned with the temperature and

sea level and 2000 ft. and temperatures between 0 ° and 100° Fahren

Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C . , Tables 25, 26, and 27.

Company, Inc., Princeton, New Jersey.

tions were ignored for an altitude observation of 15°.

observed altitude.

buiIdings.

Parallax

parallax of the sun for any observed zenith distance can be obtained

Sun

Horizon

64

" R “•---------- d..... ................................... (27)

where

p = sun's parallax

d

d

or

R /

sin p = — x sin Z'

d

Ephemeris for each day of the year. It has a maximum value of 8.95

the average value of the sun's horizontal parallax and realizing that

65

the sun. If the upper limb of the sun is used, the semidiameter is

sun and the earth. This distance is constantly changing due to the

cos ti - .... — ■ ■ v” .............I,— lb;

cos h x cos Phi.

dFT ----------- sTiTB........... ............................. (31)

66

of (B) will approach 90° and an error in altitude will have the greatest

altitude method. Inspection of the dB/dh ratio will tell the surveyor

tell the surveyor at what time, on any given date, he must take an

can be solved for (B) by assuming different values of (h) for a given

tables that give the values of (B) for a given ( h ) , (Phi.), and

X

(Dec.). If tables are used the hour angle is also given and may be

plotted together with the altitude and azimuth. Eq. (31) is then

solved for different values of dB/dh and the results plotted on the

azimuth curves for T u c s o n , Arizona, with both hour angle and dB/dh

curves superimposed.

Computed Azimuth

<niri—B" m..., /T

the only reason for observing the time is in the computation of dec

sixty seconds. This means that for the most accurate work, a deter

larger than two seconds in declination. When taking a solar shot with

P u b l i c a t i ^ % o r ° ° ^ T ^ T ° W ^ T % a % y T ^ T ? T ° ^ ^ % S e n t Printing Office,

Washington, D. C. „

ak ljT U D E -A zlM U T h

Tucs o n, Arizona

I ; i : i.:

• •• • ; I • ' ' I t •. '! • .. • I ... •.

an engin e e r ’s transit, with horizontal and vertical verniers reading

Deferentiating the altitude Eq. (5) and holding (Phi.) and (h)

dDec sin B x cos k x cos Hii. .... .

56.93 seconds. The dB/dDec. ratio as taken from Plate 5 equals 1.5.

zmtt ot An: Er r

Th e S dBear in

a iTtrrff

±L:_

j.r

Sun s A 11 1 1 u d e

71

is k n o w n ,

Computed Azimuth

■■ ■

» - — •* '■ ■ *#*##**»**########## \ VU J

dPhi. sin B x cos^Phi. x cos h

dPhi.

and Eq. (G).

co ” sin t cos P'hi. x cos Tfi x sin B

By substitution

dPhi. cos Phi. tab t

dB/dPhi. ratio. It can be seen that at the sixth hour angle the dB/dPhi.

ratio is always zero. For any other hour ang l e , the higher the latitude,

Effect of I fftnde-'tnri

(IPhi.

4 9° -Ot

sec Phi

tan t

— f *"- 1.'— i t

% L U l JLU

•— l - M - L L I - 4

Angle

the greater the dB/dPhi« r a t i o e

possible.

lower motion is released and a sight is taken along the given line to

zontal and vertical angle and the time are read and recorded. The

■r '•

4 l i L t u d e :ii: A z i m j u t fi

4iPhk

Pilate

50

It should be pointed out that in actual practice a series of

CHAPTER VII

OF THE SUN

Introduction

method.

Trigonometric Formulas

To conform to north as zero azimuth Eq. ( 8 ) should be rewritten

C O t D — m m m mmmm ■ wi ■ ■■ i # # # # # # # # # # \ V U /

sin t

then the azimuth of the sun is reckoned clockwise from the north.

Since the cot function is positive from 0° to 90° and 180° to 270° the

sun will be in the first quadrant for A.M. observations and in the

reckoned counter clockwise from the north. This will place the sun in

the fourth quadrant for P.M. observations and in the second quadrant

.

The above equations will give the azimuth (Az.) of the line

78

(H) used in Eq. (36) to (39) must be the clockwise angle from the sun

to the target. In Eq. (38) and (39) the value of (B) will be negative.

If Eq. (35) is inverted and both the numerator and denominator are

tan Phi. x cos t x cot Dec. - 1

By letting

1 -a

The local hour angle of the sun is the angle at the pole from

the meridian westward to the hour circle through the body. Measurement

of the sun's hour angle requires the accurate knowledge of both time

Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C.

79

rotation the time is called solar time. Solar time is divided into

upper or lower 8 of the sun over the meridian of that place. Owing to

the obliquity of the ecliptic and the lack of uniformity of the motion

the mean sun. Civil time has the same-meaning as mean solar time.

the true sun and the mean sun. It is counted in the mean time rate.

The equation of time is changing constantly and its value for each

time.

standard time the following steps are necessary to determine the local

hour angle.

be expressed in time. Since the central meridians for the time zones

the ephemeris and corrected for the time of observation. In both the

midnight G.C.T, along with the correction per hour. The corrected

and

the local hour angle (t). The relationship between the two is shown

in Fig. 22.

81

Sun

Local

Meridian

Greenwich

Meridian

82

Time of Observation

causes an offset in the record which can be read to the nearest hund™

sistor radios with short wave bands offer another method of accurately,

determining time. "It has been found that when using a simple stop

watch and short wave receiver in the field, the time of sun pointings

a stop watch and an accurate time piece. In the past it was necessary

Determinations", Proceedings^ Illinois Land Surveyors C o n f . , RLSA,

Vol. Ill, Urbana,™rTTT%^T^D2%™page™l5Tr^^™^™^°™™^ ™™^^^*™^™'

83

rate was to some extent dependent on its position. The recent develop-

ment by the Bulova Watch Company of the Accutron wrist timepiece has

The least accurate method but the one most frequently used is

time by calling out. The observer calls "time" at the instant the

sighting is made and the recorder immediately reads the survey time

piece. Care must be taken to read the second h a n d 9 the minute hand*

and the hour hand in that order. The accuracy of this method depends

noon for each day of the year. The ephemerides published both by the

Gurley and the Keuffel 6 Esser Instrument Companies list the equation

of time for 0 hour Greenwich Civil time for each date. They also give

interpolation can be used to find the equation of time for the time of

84

The solution of Eq. (45) for the local hour angle involved

that this four seconds is in terms of arc and not time. The equiva

Probable Error

expected.

85

dt csc^ B

four the maximum error in azimuth due to a one second error in time

time signal.

Rate

zt m a t h

Seconc Err or r

'• * ‘ * + t ; * ; r'

! '* H i t T H

I: III L a 4ti

I — — L

111 jlB i 0 0

l T :n " r n . • ^ i i j r . i ±

J—h+- r-4-•- - r r i t n ; #

I1" ; .r i- r -- I - - t ]

; : m > 2 3 ’x +-<- 1 --j r

t . t l i : i . t ' |:r l l r l l l l

‘I! t— (--- I— t

I■1 1 1 4 - !0

V

, "I : iltil: I

♦- ♦ • 4- j 4 -+

i 4- i- --1 i- ♦ - i —j J i t ’’.' :1 -j

♦ -4- - I— |— +- *- —|— ♦- I - . | ~— t 1 -* ♦ —* j-

1t-'it-t-tt:;: T—[-)-*"h■* ♦- -|

•

I «■— 4M r-f-

1: :f

••♦ 4

n ■Lili h'-B

ti

- - 4 4-

87'

ometer used may run fast or slow without harm as long as the time

computing the hour angle of the sun, a station should be selected that

fixed reference point. The lower motion is locked and the upper

88

If the observation is made by using a solar s c reene without the aid

watch in hand and watches the sun approach the vertical wire. The

moment the s u n ’s limb touches the wire the stop watch is started.

The stop watch is then compared with the survey chronometer and

reading minus the stop watch reading is the time of observation. The

used for the semidiameter correction and can be computed from the

CHAPTER VIII

e

D „ COS Dec. x sin t fat

@ o e o e o e s o e e o e o o o e e e e o o e o e o o o e o o © \^ /

cos h

not required.

and not the latitude the one advantage of using Eq. (4) is lost.

curves in Plate 8 for a given hour angle and declination will give the

89

90

the use of Eq. (4) will give absurd results. Any equation involving

keep the resulting error in the computed azimuth under one minute.

results.

Both methods are based on the theory that the s u n ’s center at equal

any two positions of the sun which are at equal distance above the

P 0 M, observations.

91

horizontal and vertical angle and the time of observation are read and

observation.

the scope in the same position the largest vertical angle observed

in the morning is set off and the sun is tracked until this position

is reached by the center of the sun. The horizontal angle and the

time are then recorded and the next vertical angle is set off and the

procedure repeated.

If the transit has been carefully leveled then any other error

the vertical angles are identical in both the A.M. and P.M. obser

correction is necessary.

n -

V

1/2 A Dec,

6 0 0 6 0 6 0 0 9 0 6 0 0 O Q O O O e O O O O O O e e e O O O O O O O

tt,i\

cos Phi. x sin t

92

1 / 2 A Dec o

L " cos~ P h i <= x sin 1/2(T^ T2 ) •••••••••••••••••••••••■•

where (T jl + Tg) is the total watch time from the A.M. to the P.M.,

The most accurate results are obtained when the sun is moving

rapidly in altitude.

Management, Standard Field T a b les, 1956, page 210,

CHAPTER IX

COMPUTATIONS

Introduction^

give the desired accuracy with a minimum of time and effort* There

10- inch slide rule should not be used to compute the azimuth of a

fashiono The use of a standard fpnn adds to the efficiency and makes

Slide Rule

20-inch slide rule that was especially designed for the Bureau of

Land Management gives much better results* One side of the rule is

used for stadia reduction while the other side is laid out for

94

the location of the number being read on the sca l e « Most of the

functions can be read within two minutes of arc. This slide rule is

bearing of a line.

Logarithms

Since addition and subtraction are the only operations requ i r e d g the

the altitude method. When the value of the vertical angle is known only

five places. Seven place tables are readily available for more

seconds of arc.

•hfon V e g a „ op.cit.

Natural Functions

figures,.

Functions 9 Edward Brothers , Inc, 8 Ann Az^or% 'Michigan, 1943,

vat ions and the time required for the computations is -relatively

Field work in our northern states and much of the mountainous area

and the high cost of machine rental time. There are several advantages

that may well offset the disadvantages. Once the. program has been

tions. The required data can be entered directly from the field book

by anyone trained to punch I.B.M, cards. Once the correct data has

" been punched on the cards the possibility of error is very slight.

Hour Angle Program

mining azimuth by the sun. The program was written using the Fortran

for entering the required data and reading the print out sheet. No

John Wiley and Sons 8 Inc, 9 New York e N.Y, g 1 9 6 2 7 " ~ ='“’="=’

***. MURPHY

* COMPILE FORTRAN 9 EXECUTE FORTRAN

C JERRY MURHPY

DIMENSION D(4 ) ,DM(4) ,DS(4),H(3 ) ,HM(3 ) SRAD(4 ) ,RADT(3 ) ,HS(3)

PI = 3.1415926

1 READ 31, MON, ID,IYR

31 FORMAT (312)

GO TO (50,51,52,53,54,55,56,57,58,59,60,61),MON

50 PRINT 6 2 9ID,IYR

GO TO 2 0 0

51 PRINT 63, ID, IYR

GO TO 2 0 0

52 PRINT 64, ID, IYR

GO TO 2 0 0

53 PRINT 65, ID, IYR

GO TO 2 0 0

54 PRINT 6 6 , ID, IYR

GO TO 2 0 0

55 PRINT 67, ID, IYR

GO TO 2 0 0

56 PRINT 6 8 , ID, IYR

GO TO 2 0 0

57 PRINT 69, ID, IYR

GO TO 2 0 0

58 PRINT 70, ID, IYR

GO TO 2 0 0

59 PRINT 71, ID, IYR

GO TO 2 0 0

60 PRINT 72, ID, IYR

GO TO 2 0 0

61 PRINT 73, ID, IYR

62 FORMAT (///9H JANUARY , 12, 4H, 19,12)

63 FORMAT (/// 10H FEBRUARY , 12, 4H, 19,12)

64 FORMAT (///7H MARCH , 12, 4 H S 19, 12)

65 FORMAT (///7H APRIL , 12, 4H, 19, 12)

6 6 FORMAT (///5H MAY , 12, 4 H $ 19, 12)

67 FORMAT (/// 6 H JUNE , 12, 4H, 19, 12)

6 8 FORMAT (/// 6 H JULY , 12, 4H, 19, 12)

69 FORMAT (/// 8 H AUGUST , 12* 4H s 19., 12)

70 FORMAT (///11H SEPTEMBER , 12, 4 H , 19, 12)

71 FORMAT (///9H OCTOBER , 12, 4H, 19, 12)

72 FORMAT (///10H NOVEMBER , 12, 4H, 19, 12)

73 FORMAT (///10H DECEMBER , 12, 4H, 19, 12)

200 READ 2 0 5 ,D(1 ) ,DM(1 ) ,DS(1 ) ,D(2),DM(2 ) ,DS(2),D(3 ) ,DM(3),DS(3),D(4)

205 FORMAT (10F8.0)

300 READ 2 0 6 ,DM(4 ) ,DS(4 ) ,H(1 ) ,HM(1 ) ,HS(1),H(2 ) ,HM(2 ) ,HS(2),H(3 ) ,HM(3)

206 FORMAT (10F8.0)

400 READ 207, HS(3)

207 FORMAT (F8.0)

DOS 1=1,4

3 RAD(I) = 0.01745329*(D(I)+DM(I)/60.+DS(l‘)/3600.)

DO 4 1=1,3

4 RADT(I )=0,26179939*( H(I)+HM(I)/60.+HS(I)/3600.)

RAD(l) = LATITUDE IN RADIANS

o o o o o o o

RAD(3) = DECLINATION IN RADIANS

RAD(4) = CHANGE IN DECL, IN RADIANS

RADT(l) = EQU OF TIME IN RADIANS

RADT(2) = CHANGE IN EQU OF TIME IN RADIANS

RADT(3) = TIME ZONE IN RADIANS

5 READ 6 , DEG, PMIN, SEC, THR, THIN, TSEC, INV, NEXT

6 FORMAT (6F8.0, 211)

IF INSTR IS INVERTED PLACE 1 IN COL 49

non

IF NEXT CARD DOES NOT CONTAIN EPHEMERIS INFO PLACE 1 IN COL 50

RADI = 0.01745329*(DEG+PMIN/60.+SEC/3600.)

RADIT = 0.26179939*(THR+TMIN/60.+TSEC/3600,)

CD

CD

GMT = RADII + R A DIO)'

I = GMT~RAD(2) + RADT(1)+RADT(2)*GMT*3.8197186-PI

DEC = RAD(3)+ RAD(A)*GMT*3,8197186

COTZ = (SINF(RAD( 1 ))*COSF(T)-COSF(RAD(1)* SINF(DEC)/COSF(DEC))

1/SINF(T)

IF(ABSF(C0TZ)-1 o E- 7 ) 7 $7 98

8 TA - 1./C0TZ

Z = ATAMF(TA)

IF(RADIT-PI)9$1 0 S10

9 IF(Z)11,12,12

11 B = Z+RADI+PI

GO TO 13

12 B = Z+RADI

GO TO 13

10 IF(Z)1U,11,11

14 B = 2.*PI+Z+RADI

13 BDEG = 6*57,295779

IF (BDEG-360,) 301,301,302

302 BDEG = BDEG - 360,

301 IDEG = BDEG

A = IDEG

C = (BDEG-A)*60,

IMIN = C

A = IMIN

SEC = (C-A)*60,

IF(INV)15,16,15

16 PRINT 17, IDEG, IMIN, SEC

17 FORMAT (14,2H -,13,2H -,F5,1)

GO TO (5,1),NEXT

15 PRINT 18, IDEG, IMIN, SEC

18 FORMAT (14,2H -,13,2H -,F5.1, 9H INVERTED)

GO TO (5,1), NEXT

7 Z = PI/2,

IF(RADIT-PI) 19,20 ,20

19 IF(Z)21,22,22

100

21 B = Z+RADH-P1

GO TO 23

22 B = Z+RADI

GO TO 23

2 0 IF(Z)24$2 1 s21

24 B = 2.*PJ+Z+RADI

23 BDEG = B*57.295779

IF (BDEG-360») 201,201*202

202 BDEG = BDEG-360«

201 IDEG = BDEG

IDEG = BDEG

A = IDEG

C = (BDEG-A)*60.

IMIN - C

A = IMIN

SEC = (C-A)*60.

IF(INV)25,26,25

26 PRINT 27, IDEG, IMIN, SEC

27 FORMAT( 1 4 ,2H -,13,2H -,F5.1, 19H Z ASSUMED = 90 DEG )

GO TO (5,1), NEXT

25 PRINT 28, IDEG, IMIN, SEC

28 FORMAT(14,2H -,13,2H - , F5«1S 9H INVERTED, 19H Z ASSUMED = 90 DEG)

GO TO (5,1).NEXT

END

1 0 1

102 -

entered in the first six columns of the statement card without the use

of decimal points. Two columns for the m o n t h 9 two for the day, and

control card that greatly aids the key punch operator. The infor

9 - 16 Latitude of st a t i o n e minutes

17 - 24 ,Latitude.of st a t i o n , seconds

.

49 - 56 ,S u n 8s Declination, degrees

57 - 64 e S m V s Declination, minutes

65 - 72 S u n 8s Declination, seconds

The third data card refers to statement number (300)„

decimal p o i n t c

25 - 32 o b ««e•«e a« • . • • eEquation of T i m e 9minutes

57 « 64 o o o « 0 e«o 6 »e 6€ 6 eChange in E q & of Time per h r 0 9seconds

65 - 72 * * e *«„,@ cTime Z o n e 9hours

73 - 80 *e*Time Z o n e 9 minutes

The fourth data card contains only the time zone in seconds

for all observations taken on the same day and at the same station«

The date and time zone will be k n o w n 0 The latitude and longitude

information on the first four cards is taken from the ephemeris for

104

measured in the standard time for the time belt of the observing

station, -

17 - 24 .Horizontal A n g l e e seconds

(49) or (50),

105

The total number of data cards is four plus the number of observations.

If four observations were made at the same station then data cards

The print out sheet will contain the date of the observation.

Following the date will be the computed azimuth for each observation.

The computed azimuth will be the clockwise angle reckoned from the

CHAPTER X

CONCLUSION

thing of the past. The rapid growth of our country and increased

Management.

the country. Ground controls for both mapping and aerial photo

reliable meridians".^

106

107

direction control*

can be made in the daytime and usually during regular working hours*

The size and brightness of the sun make pointing difficult and are

The least accurate methods employ a screen and sightings are made

pointing directly on the sun* The most recent and;.re fined method of

10 8

Only two of these* the altitude and hour angle methods* are of

the local hour angle of the sun* Three factors affect the hour

and the equation of time* In well mapped areas it is only the time

between the altitude and hour angle method is the precision of the

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Books

New York 9 1942.

Practice of Surveying* Volume I - Elementary Surveying

for Boundary Location 9 John Wiley and S o n s , I n c . a New,York 9

. :1962.

y Practice 9 McGraw-Hill Book Company* I n c . „ New York * 4th e d 0*

: 1953.

, .

and Adjuatment"*'¥ uiiWtln ^o'r, ii^»T*' Troy a New York * 195^.

Boston* 1951.

. Stars * published by the Author * Chapel Hill *' N .dV * 19477

■- Classroom Use * Bureau ofL Piibiications * Teachers College *

ColuSbia tiniversity» New York* 1947.

■ Hydrology For Engineers * McGraw-Hill Book Company * I n c . *

Ngw York*' '1'96 '8 .""" ' ' .

Book Company * New York * 1932.

B r o t h e r s % I n c % * Ann Arbor* Michigan* 1943.

109

110

and Zoc^t A w t e M a A M o l l a h d ' , ' ' "&50."

Dora E., Fortran Autotester6 John Wiley

and S o n s , Inc.@ Hew York $ 1962. ~.... .

Survey of The Public Lands of The United States 1 9 4 7 „

G o W r a m ^ T ^ i ^ t i n g O ^ i c e j, Washington 25 9 D. C.

Printing Office „ W a s h i n g t w ™ 2 E T ^ ° 7 r T "

Other Selected Stars a Government Printing Office 9

Washihgt'on^l^r^^ C.

Government Printing OfficeV Washihgton 25, B. C. .

Government Printing O f f i c e ^ ^ a s H T n g t m ^ T ^ B T ’^ c T ^ -” "

.por Transit T r a v e r s ^ Government Printing' Off^ice,

Washington 1953. •

Office Publication N o . 2'l4'^ ^overn'm%t'' Printing Office „

Washington 25, D, C.

Company, I n c . , P r i ncetons Hew Jersey.

Good Is I t ? " , Surveying And M apping, Volume X V I I I s No. 3 S

July-Sept«~ 1 9 5 8 s American Congress On Surveying And

Mapping, W a shington6 D. C.

' Determinations"s Proceedings, Illinois Land Surveyors

Oonf. * RLSA* V o l . T i l , 'Urban, 111. 9 1962.

E l d r i d g e s Winfield Ho a "Discussion of Solar-Altitude Azimuth"e

Proceedings of Surveying and Mapping Division, No. 3410,

and Mapping Division, No. SU1, AScis, Feb. , 1963.

and Accurate Methods", Transactions of ASCE, Vol. 114, 1949,

Transaction of A S C E , Vol. 102, 1937.

of A Line, How Good Are T h e y ? " , Proceedings of The Sixth

Arizona Land Surveyors* Converence, Ehglheerlng Experiment

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