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1- The core is laminated to reduce these to a minimum as they interfere with the efficient transfer

of energy from the primary coil to the secondary one. The eddy currents cause energy to be lost
from the transformer as they heat up the core - meaning that electrical energy is being wasted as
unwanted heat energy.
Eddy current is a localized electric current induced in a conductor by a varying magnetic field.
2- Most of the power generation companies use silica gel breathers fitted to the conservator of oil
filled transformers. The purpose of these silica gel breathers is to absorb the moisture in the air
sucked in by the transformer during the breathing process.
3- 7 >> Sumpner's test or back to back test on transformer is another method for
determining transformer efficiency, voltage regulation and heating under loaded conditions. Short
circuit and open circuit tests on transformer can give us parameters of equivalent circuit of
transformer, but they cannot help us in finding the heating information. Unlike O.C. and S.C.
tests, actual loading is simulated in Sumpner's test. Thus the Sumpner's test gives more accurate
results of regulation and efficiency than O.C. and S.C. tests.

4- 8 >> Condition For Maximum Efficiency

Copper loss = I12R1
Iron loss = Wi
Hence, efficiency of a transformer will be maximum when copper loss and iron losses are equal.
That is Copper loss = Iron loss
5- 11 >> Two conductors are referred to as inductively coupled or magnetically coupled [1]when
they are configured such that a change in current through one wire induces a voltage across the
ends of the other wire through electromagnetic induction. The coupling between two wires can be
increased by winding them into coils and placing them close together on a common axis, so the
magnetic field of one coil passes through the other coil. Coupling can also be increased by
a magnetic core of a ferromagnetic material like iron or ferrite in the coils, which increases the
magnetic flux. The two coils may be physically contained in a single unit, as in the primary and
secondary windings of a transformer, or may be separated.
6- 12 >> From EMF equation of transformer:
E=4.44fNAB where E=voltage, f=frequency, A=Area, N=number of turns, B=magnetic flux density in
general we can say: A=E/(4.44fNB) for constant value of E,N,B if we increase F, then Area of core will
decreases means size of transformer will reduce.
7- 14>> To reduce the eddy current loss mainly there are two methods. By reducing the magnitude of
the eddy current. The eddy current loss is also reduced by using a magnetic material having the
higher value of resistivity like silicon steel.
8- 20 >> If frequency of transformer is decreased (assuming its applied voltage is same),
magnetizing current in the primary of transformer increases as it is inversely proportional to
frequency and directly proportional to the applied voltage. Magnetizing current is used to set up
flux in core of the transformer. If magnetizing current goes beyond certain limit, transformer core
may saturate. Hence it is required to reduce applied voltage along with frequency in same
proportion to keep magnetizing current same. This will reduce applied voltage (400/50=8) by 8
times and thus its KVA rating too will reduce 8 times.
If applied voltage is not reduced then the saturation of the core can result into large current into
primary which may overheat transformer. Also if applied voltage is reduced and KVA rating is
kept same, larger currents may result into higher copper loss which may cause transformer to
exceed its safe temperature limits.

9- 29>> Let us consider full load current in the transformer is I then full load copper loss is A = I R watts. Let us again

consider I is the load current at which the copper loss and core loss are equal, hence I R = B, where B is the iron loss or

core loss.
⇒ I = √( B / R).
⇒ I = IL × √( B / IL2R).
⇒ I = IL × √( B / A).
Hence, the answer will be √( 900 / 1600 ) = 0.75 or 75 %

10- 30>> The power transformers are manipulated to operate almost always at or near their rated capacity. Power
transformers are disconnected from system during light periods. Therefore power transformers are designed to have
maximum efficiency at its full load condition.

11- The load on a distribution transformer varies over a wide range during a 24 hours day. The primary of distribution
transformer is always energized and therefore core losses take place continuously. Keeping this in mind, distribution
transformers are designed to have very low value of core losses. Again at maximum efficiency core losses = copper
losses. At full load of transformer copper loss is maximum. Again at maximum efficiency at full load, core losses will be
same as maximum copper losses thus core loss at this condition would be high. Hence for minimizing core losses the
distribution transformers are designed to have maximum efficiency at half of the full load.