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Here is the definition of the molar heat of wall—they are all identical and repeating.

vaporization: the amount of heat necessary to other main type of solids are called the
boil (or condense) 1.00 mole of a substance at its amorphous solids. Amorphous solids do
boiling point The molar heat of vaporization is an not have much order in their structures. Though
important part of energy calculations since it tells their molecules are close together and have little
you how much energy is needed to boil each mole of freedom to move, they are not arranged in a regular
substance on hand. order as are those in crystalline solids. Common
examples of this type of solid are glass and plastics.
Note the two important factors:
1) Its 1.00 mole of a substance There are four types of crystalline solids:
2) there is no temperature change
Example #1 49.5 g of H2O is being boiled at its Ionic solids—Made up of positive and negative
boiling point of 100 °C. How many kJ is required? ions and held together by electrostatic attractions.
They’re characterized by very high melting points
Solution: and brittleness and are poor conductors in the solid
state. An example of an ionic solid is table salt,
plug the appropriate values into the molar heat NaCl.
equation shown above
q = (40.7 kJ / mol) (49.5 g / 18.0 g/mol Molecular solids—Made up of atoms or molecules
held together by London dispersion forces, dipole-
dipole forces, or hydrogen bonds. Characterized by
low melting points and flexibility and are poor
Water conductors. An example of a molecular solid is
 Water is a universal solvent, dissolving
many substances found in nature. Covalent-network (also called atomic) solids—
 Water is the most abundant compound on Earth’s Made up of atoms connected by covalent bonds;
surface. In nature, water exists in the liquid, the intermolecular forces are covalent bonds as
solid, and gaseous states. well. Characterized as being very hard with very
high melting points and being poor conductors.
Examples of this type of solid are diamond and
graphite, and the fullerenes. As you can see below,
graphite has only 2-D hexagonal structure and
therefore is not hard like diamond. The sheets of
graphite are held together by only weak London

Metallic solids—made up of metal atoms that are

held together by metallic bonds. Characterized by
high melting points, can range from soft and
malleable to very hard, and are good conductors
of electricity.

Phase changes

Crystalline solids are those in which the atoms, Phase Transition: Liquid to Gas
ions, or molecules that make up the solid exist in a
regular, well-defined arrangement. The smallest Vaporization of a sample of liquid is a phase
repeating pattern of crystalline solids is known as transition from the liquid phase to the gas phase.
the unit cell, and unit cells are like bricks in a
There are two types of vaporization: evaporation
and boiling.

 Evaporation occurs at temperatures below the

boiling point, and occurs on the liquid’s surface.
For molecules of a liquid to evaporate, they must
be located near the surface, be moving in the
proper direction, and have sufficient kinetic energy
to overcome intermolecular forces present in the
liquid phase.
 Boiling, by contrast, is a rapid vaporization that
occurs at or above the boiling temperature and at or
below the liquid’s surface.
 Phase Change: Evaporation, Condensation,
Freezing, Melting, Sublimation & Deposition.
 Freezing: the substance changes from a
liquid to a solid.
 Melting: the substance changes back from
the solid to the liquid.
 Condensation: the substance changes from
a gas to a liquid.
 Vaporization: the substance changes from a
liquid to a gas.
 Sublimation: the substance changes directly
from a solid to a gas without going through
the liquid phase.
 Deposition: the substance changes directly
from a gas to a solid without going through
the liquid phase.