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coil.

TRANSFORMER ACTION

is the action that creates the emf.

PRIMARY COIL

is the coil that’s connected to the primary source of supply or

takes electrical energy from AC source of supply.

SECONDARY COIL

is the coil which the voltage of mutual induction is induced and

which “feeds” energy to the load. It received energy by

electromagnetic induction and deliver to loads.

created an induced emf in secondary winding “Es” and induced

emf in primary winding “Ep”.

Note:

• both induced emf’s are created by the same mutual flux.

• coils are form wound and are of the cylindrical type. The

general form of this coils maybe circular or oval. In small type

size core type transformer, “a simple rectangular core is used

with cylindrical coils which are either circular or rectangular in

form. “but for large size core type transformer” round or

circular cylindrical coils are used.

Where:

Eav – average induced emf in coil.

ŋ– number of turns in coils.

Ф – maximum flux

t – time for flux to change by Ф m (mxwell)

Note:

electrical energy can be transformed by:

load (Ex. transformer).

between source and load. (Ex. transmission and

distribution).

transformer.

b. Voltage Rating

c. KVA / MVA Rating

d. Percent Impedance Rating (%z) – To be able to calculate the

amount of fault current that due to transformer can withstand.

- KVA rating of insulating oil

Simplified Circuit Diagram

Ip = primary current (amps)

Rp = primary resistance (ohms)

Xp = reactance of primary winding (ohms)

Rc = resistance representing of iron losses (ohms)

Ic = current flowing (amperes)

Xm = magnitizing reactance of primary winding (ohms)

Im = current flowing in the magnetizing reactance (current)

Rs = resistance in the secondary winding (ohms)

Xs = reactance in the secondary winding (ohms)

Np = primary turns

Ns = secondary turns

Ep = primary voltage

Es = secondary voltage

Is = secondary current

Divide:

primary and secondary voltages

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF AN IDEAL TRANSFORMER:

I₁ I₂

Vg Ep Es VL

E = 4.44 NpФm x 10-8 (primary)

Es = 4.44 NsФm x 10-8 (secondary)

Note:

ideal transformer if its core loss is less and has no leakage flux

and has no cupper loss. (Ф m = ϐmA)

Where:

• Ep = primary winding induced voltage.

• Es = secondary winding induced voltage

• = frequency (Hz)

• N = number of turns in coil

• Np = No. of turns in primary coil

• Ns = No. of turns in secondary

• Фm = mutual flux (maxwell)

• A = area in core (cm²)

• Βm = flux density

VOLTAGE, CURRENT AND TURNS RATIO OF TRANSFORMER

equal to secondary ampere turn

Where:

Np / Ns = turns ratio

Ip / Is = current ratio

a = transformer ratio

KVAp = KVAs

Where:

Zp / Zs = impedence ratio

Ep = voltage induced in primary winding

Es = voltage induced in secondary winding

of transformer.

• Additive Polarity

• Subtractive Polarity

Example:

The 2,300 volt primary winding of a 60-cycle transformer has

4,800 turns. Calculate: (a) the mutual flux; (b) the number of

turns in the 230-volt secondary winding.

Given:

Ep = 2,300v F = 60 hz

Np = 4,800

Solution:

a.)

b.)

Example:

the maximum flux in the core of a 60-cycle transformer that

has 1,320 primary turns and 46 secondary turns is 3.76 x

maxwells. Calculate the primary and secondary induced

voltages.

Calculate Ep and Es

Solution:

Example:

the secondary winding of a 4,600/230-volt transformer has 36

turns. How many turns are there in the primary winding?

Given:

Vp = 4,600 v Vs = 230 v Ns = 36 turn

Solution:

Example:

The volts per turn in a 25-cycle 2,400/230-volts transformer is

8. calculate: (a) the primary and secondary turns; (b) the

maximum flux in the core.

Given:

Vp = 2,400 v Vs = 230 v

Solution:

a.)

b.)

VOLTAGE AND CURRENT RATIO:

Secondary Voltage(Es)

Primary current (Ip)

Secondary Current (Is)

Ep x Ip = Es x Is

Example:

The secondary load current of a 2,300/115-volts/transformer is

46 amp. Calculate the primary current.

Solution:

Example:

The primary and secondary currents of a transformer were

measured and found to be 3.8 and 152 amp, respectively. If

the secondary load voltage is 116 volts, what is the primary

emf?

Solution:

Transformation Ratio:

The ratio of primary to secondary turns Np:Ns, which equals

the ratio of primary to secondary induced voltages Ep:Es,

indicates how much the primary voltage is lowered or raised.

The turn ratio, or the induced-voltage ratio, is called the ratio

of transformation, and is represented by the symbol a. thus

Where the no-load and full load voltages and are those

measured at the secondary terminals.

Equivalent Resistance, Reactance and Impedance.

} in secondary terms

} in primary terms

SEATWORK

Example 1

A 25-kva 2,300/230-volt distribution transformer has the following

resistance and leakage-reactance values: Rp = 0.8; Xp = 3.2; Rs =

0.009; Xs = 0.03. calculate the equivalent values of resistance,

reactance and impedance; (a) in secondary terms; (b) in primary

terms.

Example 2

A 25-kva 2,300/230-volt distribution transformer has the following

resistance and leakage-reactance values: Rp = 0.8; Xp = 3.2; Rs =

0.009; Xs = 0.03. calculate the equivalent values of resistance,

reactance voltage drops for a secondary load current of 109 amp: (a)

in secondary terms: (b) in primary terms.

OIL – is primarily used for insulation and cooling of windings.

ASKAREL OIL – is non-flammable insulating liquid w/c when

decomposed by an electric are evolves non-explosive gases.

OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS

1. The transformer is usually used to change the values of

voltage.

2. Transformer operates at a power factor depending on the

power factor of the load.

3. A good transformer oil should absolutely free from sulfur,

alkalies & moisture.

4. The working principle of transformer is mutual induction.

5. The lamination of a core on a transformer are made of silicon

steel sheet.

6. The purpose of laminating the core of a transformer is to

reduce eddy current losses.

Defined parameters

Note:

No load voltage – means the input voltage to the

transformer when it is in operation or load

PRIMARY SIDE

Vp = rated primary voltage (output) voltage

Rp = resistance of the primary winding

Xp = reactance of the primary winding (because of the leakage

flux in the primary).

Ep = induced voltage in the primary winding (because of the

mutual flux).

Zp = impedance of the primary winding.

Zp = Rp + j Xp

Np = number of turns in the primary winding

Vpnl = input voltage to the primary (real input voltage)

SECONDARY SIDE

Is = rated secondary current

Vs = rated secondary voltage (output voltage) (real output)

Rs = resistance of the secondary winding

Xs = reactance of the secondary winding

Es = induced voltage in the secondary (because of mutual flux)

Zs = impedance of the secondary winding

Zs = Rs + j X s

Ns = number of turns in the secondary winding

Vsnl = input voltage to the secondary side. (no load secondary

voltage) – fictious.

GENERALLY

Ф m = maximum mutual flux (common to primary and

secondary). This flux travels around the core.

= this is a useful flux

= this is a working flux

a = transformation ratio

= turns ratio

= induced voltage ratio

= rated voltage ratio

= no load voltage ratio

= inverse current ratio

from secondary to primary).

Approximate:

In = too small; temporary neglected

L

VPNL Vp = aVs O

A

D

ELECTRICAL LOSSES: (cupper losses) ; Is = aIp

EL = ELP + ELS

= Ip2Rp + Is2Rs

= Ip2Rp + a2Ip2Rs

= Ip2 (Rp + a2Rs)

side.

Rep = Rp + a²Rs

ELP = Ip2Rep

Xep – equivalent reactance of the transformer only referred to the

primary side.

Zep = Rep + j Xep

SIMPLIFIED DIAGRAM:

Ip Rep Xep

VPNL O

A Vp

D

VPNL = Vp + IpZep

REFER THE CIRCUIT TO THE SECONDARY SIDE (transfer all

data from primary to secondary)

Rp/a² Xp/a² Rs Xs Is

aIp

= VSNL LO

A

D

KVA LOAD =

= KVAsec

ELECTRICAL LOSSES;

EL = ELP + ELS

= Ip2Rp + Is2Rs

secondary side.

EL =

Is2Res

Xes – equivalent reactance of transformer referred to secondary

side.

secondary side.

Zes2 = R2es +

X2es

SIMPLIFIED DIAGRAM:

Is Res Xes

L

VSNL VS O

A

D

VSNL = Vs + Is

Zes

PERCENT VOLTAGE REGULATION

Additional Formulas:

%R = percent resistance rating

%X = percent reactance rating

GENERALLY

%Z = %R + j%X

(%Z)2 = (%R)2 + (%X)2

(Zpu)2 = (Rpu)2 + (Xpu)2

EQUIVALENT FORMULAS

STANDARD DESIGNATION WHEN TRANSFORMER KVA LOAD

OR OUTPUT IS VARIED. (Transformer is operating at different

loads).

RULES:

• Use subscript “(1)” to designate transformer operating at full

load or rated load.

KVA output (below rated or above rated).

maximum efficiency condition.

NOTE:

when computing for efficiency and voltage regulation of a

transformer regulation, the following should be clearly specified:

2. KVA output of the load

TRANSFORMER LOSSES

a) Electrical losses – is also called resistance or cupper

losses. These losses are primarily due to the

resistance of primary (Rp) and secondary (Rs)

windings. These losses vary with the “Square of

the KVA load”.

• 1st condition; (@ full load or rated load)

EL1 =

Ip12Rep

• 2nd condition; (below rated or above rated)

EL2 =

Ip22Rep

• Divide ②/①

irregardless of any change in KVA. output or load power factor.

NOTE:

this is loss will only change or vary if there is change in the

primary voltage (Vp) or supply frequency.

TYPES OF CORE LOSSES

1. HYSTERESIS LOSS (Ph) - This loss can be minimized only

by using high quality of material to construct the core

(such as high grade silicon steel) because it has high value of

permeability and low hysteresis.

reduced only by laminating the core.

Coreloss = PH +

Pe

TYPES OF TRANSFORMER EFFICIENCY

over all efficiency or conventional efficiency.

General Formulas:

TL = EL +

COL

Where:

Po = KVAOUTPUT x

P.F.

PIN = Po + TLOSSES

@ FULL LOAD:

PIN = Po1 + TL1

TL1 = EL1 + CLOSS

@ ANY KVA LOAD OUTPUT (below rated or above rated)

PIN = Po2 + TL2

TL2 = EL2 + COLOSS

but

Po’ = KVA’ x P.F.

EL’ = CL (max.)

PIN’ = Po’ + TL’

TL’ = EL’ + COLOSS

TL’ = 2EL’ = 2CL

EQUIVALENT FORMULAS:

Note:

KVA’ KVAoutp at maximum efficiency condition.

ut

Where:

KVA1 = Ip1 Vp / EL1 = Ip12 Rep

1000 EL2 = Ip22 Rep

KVA2 = Ip2 Vp /

EL’ = (Ip’)2 Rep = CL

1000

OBJECTIVE QUESTION:

when will maximum efficiency occur and at what KVA load?

1. It could happen at “full load”

KVA1 = KVA’

ŋ1 = ŋ’max

EL1 = EL’ = CL

2. It could happen at either “overload or below rated load”

400 watts. At half load, the cupper loss will be…

Given:

@full load: KVA1 = ? EL1 = 400w

@full load: KVA2 = ½ KVA1

Req’d:

EL2 = ?

Solution:

transformer has a primary resistance of 1.2 ohms and a

secondary resistance of 0.058 ohm. Determine the full load

cupper loss.

Note: if there's only one condition in the problem that is a full

load, you may not use anymore the subscript.

Rp = 1.2 ohm

Rs = 0.058 ohm

Vp = 2400 v

Vs = 240 v

Solution:

EL1 (using primary value)

=?

Rep = Rp1 + a2Rs

= (1.2) + (10)2

(0.058)

= 7 ohms

EL = Ip2Rep

= 4.17 Amp. = (4.17)2 (7)

EL = 121.7 watts

Example problem:

the full load cupper loss and core loss of a 20 KVA, 2500/250v

transformer are 300 watts and 320 watts respectively. What is

the efficiency at half load and unity power factor.

Given:

@ 1st condition: (full load) @ 2nd Condition: (half load)

CL = 320 w CL = 320 w (constant)

KVA1 = 20 KVA KVA2 = 20 KVA

Vp = 2500 v PF = unity = 1

Vs = 250 v = cos-1 (1)

= 0

Req’d:

ŋ2 = ? (half load)

Solution:

But

KVA2 = ½ KVA₁

= 75 Watts

TL2 = EL2 + CL

= 75 + 320

= 395 watts

Subs. Values:

= 98.06%

REGULATION CALCULATIONS USING VOLTAGES VALUES:

Transformer percent regulation (%Reg)

at secondary terms.

THREE FLUXES

1. Mutual flux (φ m) = links both the primary and secondary

windings.

2. Primary leakage flux (φ₁) = links with primary winding only

and is varrying I₁

3. Secondary leakage flux (φ₂) = links with secondary winding

only and is varrying I₂.

VOLTAGE DROPS IN TRANSFORMER (INTERNAL)

a) Voltage drop due to leakage reactance = IsRs

b) Voltage drop due to leakage reactance = IsXs

Below are the phasor. Diagram showing how the resistance and

leakage-reactance drop are subtracted from the induced

secondary voltage to yield the secondary terminal voltage.

Es

a) @ unity power factor

IsXs

Vs

Is

IsRs

b.) @ lagging power factor

Es

IsXs

Is

Rs

V

PF

s

co

s Vs

Is sin

Rs

Is

c.) @ leading power factor Is

s IsXs

R

Is

s Es

c o

s Vs

V

si

n

PF

Vs

Below are phasor diagrams showing how the resistance and

leakage – reactance drops are subtracted from the impressed

primary voltage to yield primary induced voltage.

Vp

a. @ unity power

factor

IpXp

Vp

Ep

Ip

IpRp

IpXp

Ep

Ip

Rp

PF

Ep

b. @ lagging power factor Ep

si

co

n

s

Ip

Rp

Ip

I

c. @ leading power factor

p IpXp

R

Ip

Vp

c os

Ep Ep

si

n

PF IpRp

Ep

Rp Xp Ip

Iφ

Ig

Rm Xm Ep Es V₂

Eg

Where:

Rp = Resistance of primary winding

Xp = Reactance of primary winding

Rs = Resistance of secondary

Xs = Reactance of secondary winding

Eg = Supply voltage or primary voltage

Ep = Induced emf of the primary winding

Es = Induced emf of the secondary winding

Ig = Supply current

If = Primary current

Is = Secondary current

Rm = Resistance representing iron losses

Pm = Iron losses

Xm = Magnetizing reactance of primary winding

Io = Exciting current

Qm = Reactive power needed to set-up the mutual flux (VAR)

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF A PRACTICAL

TRANSFORMER AT “NO LOAD”

Rp Xp Ip = 0

Rs Xs

Ig = Io Io Is = o

Rm Xm Ep Es

Eg Vs = Es

flows in Rp and Xp and these impedance are so small

that the voltage drop across them are “negligible”

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF A PRACTICAL TRANSFORMER AT

“FULL LOAD”

Rp Xp Rs Xs

Eg Ep Es Vs

NOTE:

@ full load, “Ig” is at least 20 times bigger than “Io”

EQUIVALENT RESISTANCE REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE

Rep = a²Rs + Rp

Xep = a²Xs + Xp

Zes = Res + jXes

Where:

Res = equivalent resistance referred to the secondary.

Rep = equivalent resistance referred to the primary.

Xes = equivalent reactance referred to the secondary.

Xep = equivalent reactance referred to the primary.

Zes = equivalent impedance referred to the secondary.

Zep = equivalent impedance referred to the primary.

TO PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SIDE

side.

• XepIp = equivalent reactance voltage drop in the primary

side.

But:

side.

XesIs = equivalent drop in the secondary side.

Notation:

Rep = equivalent resistance in primary side.

Xep = equivalent reactance in primary side.

Ip = primary current.

Res = equivalent resistance in secondary side.

Xes = equivalent reactance in secondary side.

Is = secondary load current.

PERCENT REGULATION OF TRANSFORMER AT DIFFERENT

LOADING.

Note:

if the given data of the transformer is in terms of Rep, Xep,

and Zep. Use this formula:

values like %Z, %R and %X. use the corresponding formulas:

c.) For leading power factor

Thus:

Example problem:

4800 turns. Calculate:

a) Mutual flux, Фm

b) No. of turns in the 230V, sec.

c) Transformation ratio of voltage and winding

Given: Req’d:

Ep = 2300 v Фm, Ns, a

Es = 230 v

f = 60 cps

Np = 4800 turns

Solution:

b.)

NS = 480 turns

c.) or

Example Problem:

a 25 KVA, 2300/230 volts distribution transformer has the

following resistance and leakage reactance value of 0.8 and 3.2

respectively. For primary and 0.009Ω and 0.03Ω for secondary

respectively. Calculate the equivalent values of resistance,

reactance and impedance in secondary terms:

a) Secondary terms

b) Primary terms

load current of 109 amps in secondary and primary terms.

d.) calculate the present voltage regulation for a unity power

factor.

Given:

Pa = 25 KVA

KVAoutput = KVApri = KVAsec

V = 2300/230v

Rp = 0.8Ω

Xp = 3.2Ω

Rs = 0.009Ω

Xs = 0.03Ω

Solution:

a) In secondary terms

Xes = Xs + Xp/a²

= 0.03 + 3.2/102

= 0.062 Ω

= 0.017 + j 0.062

= 0.642 < 74.67 Ω

b.) In primary side.

Rep = Rp + a2Rs

= 0.8 + (10)2 (0.009)

= 1.7 Ω

Xep = Xp + a2Xs

= 3.2 + (10)2 (0.03)

= 6.2 Ω

= 1.7 + j 6.2

= 6.43 < 74.67 Ω

c.) VDPR, VDPX, and VOSR, VDSX (Ip = Is/a)

PRIMARY SECONDARY

= (109)(0.017)

= 1.853 volts

VDSX = IsXes

= (109)(0.062)

= 18.53 volts = 6.75 volts

VDPX = IpXep

= 67.5 volts

d.) Percent Regulation @ unity

P.F. = 1

= cos-1 (1)

= 00

= 10.87 amps

For unity

VPNL = VP + IpZep

For 0.8 lagging ( = -36.87)

VPNL = Vp + IpZep

= 2300 00 + (10.87 -36.87) x

(6.43 74.67)

= 2355.6 1.04 volts

For 0.866 leading (0)

= cos-1 (0.866)

= 300

VPNL = Vp + IpZep

Another solution:

For Unity: = 00

Cos = 1

Sin = 0

For 0.8 lagging: = 36.870

cos = 0.8

sin = 0.6

For 0.866 leading: = 300

cos = 0.866

sin = 0.5

EXAMPLE PROBLEM:

a 10 KVA, 2400/240 volt distribution. Transformer has a

primary resistance of 1.2 ohm and a secondary resistance of

0.058 ohm. What is the full load cupper loss (Electrical loss).

Given: Req’d:

Pa = 10 KVA

E = 2400/240 V

Rp = 1.2 ohm

Xp = 0.058 ohm ( NOTE: STOP HERE)

Solution:

Using primary values:

Rep = Rp + a2Rs

= 1.2 + (10)2 (0.058)

=7

ELOSS = Ip2Rep

= (4.17)2 (7)

ELOSS = 121.7223 watts

EXAMPLE PROBLEM:

The full load cupper loss and core loss of 20 KVA, 2500/250

volt transformer are 300 and 320 w respectively. What is the

efficiency at haf-load and unity P.F.

Given:

@ condition 1: (full load)

COL = 320 w

PO2 = KVA2 x P.F.

= 10 x 1

= 10 KW

Req’d:

ŋ₂ = ?

Solution:

Sample Problem:

In a 50 kva transformer, the full load cupper loss are exactly

twice the iron losses, and that quarter load, the efficiency is

95%. Calculate the full load efficiency at unity P.F.

@ condition 1: (full load)

KVA1 = 50 kva

KVA2 = ¼ kva1

= ¼(50) = 12.5 kva

ŋ₂ = 95%

Req’d:

ŋ₁ = ?

Solution:

= 13,157.89 – 12500

= 657.89 watts

But:

TL2 = EL2 + CL ------------ ②

Substitute ① to ②

TL2 = EL2 + CL

Subst. ④ in ③

= 0.5625 EL1

From eqn.①

CL = 0.5 EL1

= 0.5 (1,169.6)

= 584.79 watts

Example Problem

The core loss of a 50 KVA single phase transformer with normal

voltage applied to the primary is 75 watts. The max efficiency

at 60% load of full load. What is the full load efficiency of the

transformer at 0.8 P.F.

Given:

@ condition 1 : (full load)

KVA₁ = 50 KVA

CL = 75 watts (constant)

Note:

Core loss (CL) don’t vary at any time of change except when

the applied voltage and frequency is change.

EL1 = ?

= 4000 watts

KVA’ = 60% KVA₁

= 0.6 (50)

= 30 KVA

Po’ = 30 (0.8)

= 24,000 watts

Req’d: ŋ₁ = ?

Solution

@ max eff. (E ’ = C )

L L

but

TL1 = EL1 + CL

subs.values:

Pin1 = PO1 + EL1 + CL

= 4000 + 208.3 + 75

= 4283.3 watts

Example Problem:

A 100 KVA transformer has a maximum efficiency of 98% at

10% underload at unity power factor. Evaluate the efficiency at

quarter-load at 0.8 power factor.

Given:

@ max.load: @ full load condition:

PF = 1

KVA2 = ¼ KVA1 = 20,000 watts

= ¼ (100) = 25 PF = 0.8

KVA

Req’d: ŋ₂ = ?

Solution:

KVA’ = 0.1 KVA1 PO’ = 10 KVA (1)

= 0.1 (100) = 10,000 watts

= 10 KVA

T L’ = E L’ + C L

But for maximum efficiency: (E ’ = C )

L L

TL’ = 2 CL -------------- ①

Subs. ① in ①

@ quarter load:

TL2 = EL2 + CL

= 637.75 + 102.04

= 739.79 watts

All day efficiency – also known as commercial efficiency. The all

day efficiency of the transformer. The ration of electrical energy

(kilowatt-hours) output delivered by the transformer in a 24-

hour period to the energy input in the same period of time (or

a day operation.)

Where:

Wo – Electrical energy output Win - Electrical input

- ЄP x time (kw-hr) - ЄP x time (kw-hr)

- Wo + WL

WL – Electrical Energy Losses

= WCORELOSS + WCOPPERLOSS

= WCL + WEL

When transformer is loaded:

- energy copper loss is present (but not constant)

- energy coreloss is present (it is constant)

- energy output is present.

Note:

1. Full load values/rated values must always be given

(reference data).

2. Solutions maybe in a tabulated form.

3. When transformer is loaded 24 hrs a day operation, energy

coreloss is always constant to be multiplied by 24 hrs .

a) No load condition (transformer is unloaded) – energy copper

loss is zero. Energy coreloss is constant. Energy output is zero.

b.) when primary is connected from the source – energy

copper loss is zero. Energy coreloss is zero. Energy output is

zero.

Example problem:

calculate the all day efficiency of 100 kva transformer

operating under the following conditions;

– 3 hrs on load of 30 kw at 0.82 P.F.

– 15 hrs with no load on secondary, the iron losses is 1000

watts and the full load copper loss is 1060 watts.

Req’d:

Solution:

TABULATION FORM

KW LOAD P.F. # OF KVA LOAD ENERGY ENERGY ENERGY

Kw HRS (Kw/P.F.) OUTPUT COL CUL

Hr. KVA Kw-Hr (CL - t) (EL - t)

= 68.5 = 300 =6

= 2.98

= 36.59 = 90 =3

N

O

0 15 - - 1 (15) 0

L

= 15

O

A

D

390 24 3.41

TOTAL: Wo WCL WCUL

WO = 300 + 90

= 390 Kw-Hr

WCL = 6 + 3 + 15

= 24 Kw-Hr

WCU = 2.98 + 0.43

= 3.41 Kw-Hr

Win = WO + WLOSSES

= 390 + (24 + 3.41)

= 417.41 Kw-Hr

Example problem:

a 30 kva, 2400/240 volts, 60 hz distribution transformer has a

full load P.F. of unity over a period of 24 hrs. the maximum

efficiency is 95% and it occurs at full load. Calculate the all day

efficiency if it is loaded as follows:

6 hrs at quarter load

12 hrs at no-load

Req’d:

For energy copper loss

TABULATION FORM

Load Hours (kw/PF) Output CL CUL

Kva Kw-hr Kw-hr Kw-hr

Load = 180 = 4.737

load = 4.737

= 9.474

WO = 180 + 45 Win = WO + WLOSSES

= 5.033 kw-hr

Example problem:

a 100 kva, 6600/400 volts 60 hz, single phase, core type

transformer has the following average daily load:

full load at 0.8 PF for 8 hrs

half-load at 0.7 PF for 10 hrs

no load for 6 hrs

Calculate the ratio of the full load cupper loss to the iron loss for

the transformer to be “most economical” for the above loading.

Req’d:

Solution:

@ full load condition:

ЄL1 = ?

Note:

most economical at maximum eff.

TABULATED FORM

Load Kw Hr Kw-hr Kw-hr kw-hr

(100) = 80 = 640 = 8 CL = 8 EL1

(50) = 70/2 = 700/2 = 10 CL

= 35 =350

= 2.5 EL1

No load - 0 6 - CL (6) 0

= 6 CL

24 CL 10.5 EL1

WCL = 8CL + 10 CL + 6 CL

= 24 CL

= 10.5 EL1

24 CL = 10.5 EL1

Example Problem:

a 25 kva, single phase transformer operates for one hr @ 20%

overload @ 0.8 PF lagging; three hrs @ full load @ 0.9 PF

leading; 6 hrs @ half-load @ a unity power factor and 10%

loaded @ unity power factor for the rest of the day, the cipper

loss and core loss @ full load are 500 watts and 150 watts

respectively. Find the all-day efficiency.

KVA₁ = 25 KVA

• @ condition 2: (overload) t₂ = 1 hr

= 1.2 (25) = 24 kw

= 30 KVA

@ condition 3: (half-load) t₃ = 6 hrs.

= 0.5 (25)

= 12.5 kva

= 0.1 (25)

= 2.5 KVA

EL1 = 500 watts (0.5 kw) CL1 = 150 watts (0.15 kw)

Req’d: ŋd = ?

Solution: Wo = ЄPo x time

= W1 + W2 + W3 + W4

+ (2.5)(1)(14)

Wo = 67.5 + 24 + 75 + 35

= 201.5 kw-hr

WCL = ЄCL x time

= (0.15)(3) + (0.15)(1) + (0.15)(6) + (0.15)(14)

WCL = 3.6 kw-hr

Example problem:

the all day efficiency of a 10 kva single phase transformer is

94.7%, when loading as follows:

• No-load for the rest of the day

If the full load cupper loss and @ unity PF is 140 watts. Calculate

the value of core loss.

PF1 = 1 PF2 = 1

t1 = 4 hrs. T2 = 20 hrs

Req’d:

CL1 = ?

Solution:

WO = ЄP x time

= (10)(1)(4) + (0)(1)(20)

= 40 kw-hr

Problems on percent voltage regulation (%VR)

Case I:

if given data are in terms on Zep, Rep and Xep.

Example Problem:

A 10 kva, 2400/240 volt single phase transformer has the

following resistances and leakage reactances.

b) What is %VR if the transformer is operating @ 25% overload

and 0.8 PF leading

c) What is %VR of the transformer when it is operating @

maximum efficiency @ unity power factor. Assume coreloss of

60 watts.

Given: rp = 3 ohms

rs = 0.03 ohms

Xp = 15 ohms

Xs = 0.15 ohm

Solution:

KVAP = KVAS = KVAoutput

(full or rated load)

= 3 + (10)2 (0.03) = 15 + (10)2 (0.15)

= 6 ohms = 30 ohms

Zep = Rep + jXep

= 6 + j30

= 30.59 ∠ 78.7

ohms

VPNL = Vp + IpZep

= 2400 ∠ 0o + (4.17 ∠ -36.87) (30.6 ∠

78.7)

= 2496 ∠ 1.9500 volts

a) %VR @ 0.8 lagging ( = -36.87)

b.) %VR @ 25% overload and 0.8 leading ( = 36.87)

c.) %VR @ maximum efficiency @ unity power factor

KVA’ = ?

EL1 = IP2Rep

= (4.17)2 (6)

= 104.33 watts

VPNL = VP + IP’Zep

Example Problem:

a 200 kva transformer with impedance of 15% and the PF of

85% lagging. The primary voltage is 6000 volts while the full

load cupper loss is 15 kw. Find the percentage regulation at full

load.

%Z = 15%

PF = 0.85 lag

cos = 0.85

= 31.788

sin = 0.5268

VP = 6000 volts

Req’d: %VR

Solution:

By applying formula

Case II

id the given data of transformer are in terms of %Z, %R & %X.

DERIVATION OF FORMULAS:

Where

It follows:

Voltage equation:

Transformer Testing Assumed: (step-down transformer) Vp Vs

Where:

Vp = high voltage windage

Vs = low voltage windage

Purpose: To determine the rated full load cupper loss

Procedure:

a) The low voltage side is short circuited.

b) All measuring AC instrument such as ammeter, voltmeter,

wattmeter are placed on the high voltage side.

c) Energize the high side by a small input voltage.

d) Then solve for; Zep, Rep, Xep.

Figure:

ammeter

Isc

variable

A

resistor

wattmeter

V shorted

+

Vin

HVW LVW

(primary) (secondary)

Where:

Ise = short circuit current on the low voltage side must be

equal to rated secondary current Is.

- Ip₁ - rated primary current

V – voltmeter reading (VMR)

- Vin – (2 5%) Vp

W – wattmeter reading (WMR)

- EL₁ - rated cupper loss.

Where:

Where:

@ full load:

b.) OPEN CIRCUIT TEST (OCT)

Purpose: To determine the total rated iron loss

(CORE LOSS).

Procedure:

Voltage.”

b) all AC measuring instruments are placed on low voltage side.

c) energized the low voltage side w/ only very small amount of

current.

FIGURE:

W V

Vin

autotransformer

(separation of iron losses)

Note: All fomulas are derived by “Steinsmitz law” thru theory and

experiments.

VARIATION OF CORE LOSS (separation of iron losses)

d experiments.

a) Voltage Regulation

b) All Day efficiency

c) Maximum and ordinary efficiency

a)Steinsmitz Law

b)KVA sizing

EFFECTS WHEN CORELOSS ARE VARIED

• Efficiency will change

• %VR will change

• Copper loss will change (very much affected)

• Core loss is constant

• Efficiency will change

• %VR will change (very much affected)

• Copper loss is affected slightly

• Core loss is constant

c.) If there is c change in supply primary voltage

• Slightly change in efficiency

• %VR will change

• Copper loss is slightly

• Core loss will change (very much affected)

d.)

• Slight change in efficiency

• No change of %VR

• Copper loss is slightly affected

• Core loss will change (very much affected)

Formulas

Pe = Kefβm2

Where:

f = frequency of the AC source

Ke = Eddy current constant of proportional (depends on the

quality and material of the core.)

lamination of core)

Where:

B = maximum flux density (not constant)

m

фm = maximum mutual flux

A = net cross-sectional area of the core

Ph = hysteresis loss; watts

Pe = eddy current loss; watts CLOSS = Ph + Pe

From Ep:

Ep = 4.44NpfФm x 10-8

Therefore:

Let K1 = design constant

Note: in most cases approximate formula used:

DIVIDE ②/①

CASE 1: flux density (βm) is not assumed to be constant.

STEINMITZ LAW:

Ration:

Therefore:

Example Problem:

which one-third is eddy current loss when the transformer is

connected to a 4600v, 50 hz source. Determine the value of

iron loss.

Note:

if the problem does not mentioned coreloss is constant

therefore, do not assume constant.

Given:

Vp₁ = 4400 v Vp₂ = 4600 v

f₁ = 60 hz f₂ = 50 hz

CL₁ = 840 w

Pe₁ = ⅓ (CL₁)

= ⅓ (840)

= 280 w

Req’d:

CL₂ = ?

Solution: (Case 1)

CL₂ = Ph₂ + Pe₂ ---------- working formula.

Example Problem:

a 25 cycles, 1000 kva transformer is applied to a 60 cps

system. The full load efficiency of the transformer at 25 cps is

98%. Half of the core, the hysteresis and eddy current loss are

equal at 25 cps. What would be the rating of this transformer

at 60 cps if the transformer was operated at rated voltage.

ŋ₁ = 98% KVA2 = ?

EL1 = ½ TL1 Vp2 = ?

CL = ½ TL1

Req’d:

(EL = CL)

KVA2 = ?

Ph1 = Pe1 = ½ CL1

Solution: (Assume PF = 1) not mentioned.

= 0.5 (10,205)

= 5,102.5 watts

@ 2nd condition: (assume Vp₁ = Vp₂)

= 3017.56 + 5102.5

= 8116.08 watts

TL2 = CL2 + EL2

= 20410 – 8116.08

EL2 = 12,289.94 watts

Example Problem:

In a 400 v, 50 cps transformer the total iron loss is 2500 watts.

When the supplied potential voltage is 220 v at 25 cps, the

corresponding loss is 850 watts. Calculate the eddy current loss

at normal frequency and potential diff.

Given:

@ 1st month condition: @ 2nd condition:

f1 = 50 cps f2 = 25 cps

Req’d:

Pe₁ = ?

Solution:

@ condition 1:

= Ke Vp12 + Kh

2500 = Ke (400)2 + Kh

@ condition 2:

850 = Ke (220)2 + Kh

Substitute eq ① in ②

850 = 48400 Ke + 811.17 [ 1.795 – 114.87 Ke ]

850 = 48400 Ke + 1456 – 93,179.1 Ke

Example Problem:

volts primary and their two secondary windings, one rated 600

V and the other at 240 volts. There are 200 primary turns and

the rating of each secondary winding is 100 KVA. Calculate the

current in primary when rated current flows @ PF = 1. In the

240 V winding and also rated current flows @ 0.707 lagging in

the 600 volt windings.

Given: f = 60 Hz

KVA2 = 100 KVA VS1 = 600 V

PF2 = 1

PF1 = 0.707 lag

KVA1 = 100 KVA 1 = 00

1 = -450

Req’d: Ip = ?

Solution:

load load

1 2

Example Problem:

two secondary windings of 125 turns and 36 turns. The 125-

turn secondary windings has 60 ohms. Connected to its

terminals and the 36-turn secondary winding has 3 ohms

connected to its terminal. If the primary is connected to a 120-

v, 60 hz source, determine the current in primary windings.

Given:

Np = 500 turns Z₁ = 60 ohms

N₁ = 125 turns Z₂ = 3 ohms

N₂ = 36 turns Vp = 120 v

f = 60 hz

FIGURE:

load load

1 2

For currents:

Three-Phase Transformer Connections:

balancing problems.

and secondary windings. Each set wound around one leg of an

iron core assembly. Essentially it looks like three single –phase

transformer sharing a joined core as in fig. below.

Three phase transformer core has three sets of windings.

Those sets of primary and secondary windings will be connected

in either Δ or Y configurations to form a complete unit.

Whether the winding sets share a common core assembly or

each winding pair is a separate transformer, the winding

connection options are the same:

• Primary - Secondary

• Y - Y

• Y - Δ

• Δ - Y

• Δ - Δ

• The reasons for choosing a Y or Δ configuration for transformer

winding connections are the same as for any other three-phase

application: Y connections provide the opportunity for multiple

voltages, while Δ connections enjoy a higher level of reliability

(if one winding fails open, the other two can still maintain full

line voltages to the load).

primary and secondary windings together to form a three-

phase transformer bank is paying attention to proper winding

phasing (the dots used to denote “polarity” of windings).

Remember the proper phase relationships between the phase

windings of Δ and Y: (Figure below)

• (Y) The center point of the “Y” must tie either all the “-” or all

the “+” winding points together. (Δ) The winding polarities

must stack together in a complementary manner ( + to -).

regular Y or Δ configuration can be tricky. Let me illustrate,

starting with Figure below.

Three individual transformers are to be connected together to

transform power from one three-phase system to another. First,

I'll show the wiring connections for a Y-Y configuration: Figure

below.

ADVANTAGE OF (3ф) THREE PHASE TRANSFORMER vs.

THREE OF SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER.

b) It requires lesser space to mount the transformer.

SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER.

affected, thereby power is interrupted.

b) In 3 of 1ф, when one transformer becames disabled, the

remaining two transformer can be re-bank in open-delta (V) so

that service can be continued although at reduce capacity

(57.7%) while the damage transformer is being repaired.

Phase wiring for “Y-Δ” transformer.

Equivalent Circuit Diagram:

X Ip = Iф Is 1

Ap As

Bp Bs

Y Cp Cs 2

Z 3

transformer because the number of turns per phase and the

amount of insulation is minimum. The transformer works

satisfactorily only if the load is BALANCE.

Phase wiring for “Δ-Y” transformer.

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Ip = Iф

X

Y

Bp Ap 2

Cs As

Cp Bs

2

Z 3

where the voltage is to be stepped down. The primary is

always Y-connected with grounded neutral to allow the flow of

zero sequence current in the even of SLGF, source line to

ground fault and DLGF, double line to ground fault

Phase wiring for “Δ-Δ” transformer.

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

Iф = Is

1

2

X

As

Bs

Ap Cp

Bp

Y Cs

Z 3

up the voltage at the beginning at high transmission

lines.

“V” or “open-Δ” provides 2-φ power with only two transformers.

This configuration is called “V” or “Open-Δ.” Of course, each of

the two transformers have to be oversized to handle the same

amount of power as three in a standard Δ configuration, but

the overall size, weight, and cost advantages are often worth

it. Bear in mind, however, that with one winding set missing

from the Δ shape, this system no longer provides the fault

tolerance of a normal Δ-Δ system. If one of the two

transformers were to fail, the load voltage and current would

definitely be affected.

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

2

X

Cs As

Ap Cp

Bs

Bp

Y 2

Z 3

which insulation problem is not so urgent because it increases

the number of turns per phase. No difficulty is experienced

from unbalanced load.

Figure 1-1: Wye-Delta connection

Figure 1-2: Delta-Wye connection

Delta Connections:

is used for neighborhood and small commercial loads close to

the supplying substation. Only one voltage is available between

any two wires in a delta system. The delta system can be

illustrated by a simple triangle. A wire from each point of the

triangle would represent a three-phase, three-wire delta

system. The voltage would be the same between any two wires

(see figure 1-3).

Figure 1-3:

Wye Connections:

Figure 1-4:

Connecting Single-Phase Transformers into a Three-Phase

Bank:

transformer of the proper size and turns ratio is not available,

three single phase transformers can be connected to form a

three phase bank. When three single phase transformers are

used to make a three phase transformer bank, their primary

and secondary windings are connected in a wye or delta

connection. The three transformer windings in figure 1-5 are

labeled H1 and the other end is labeled H2. One end of each

secondary lead is labeled X1 and the other end is labeled X2.

Figure 1-5:

Figure 1-6 shows three single phase transformers labeled A, B,

and C. The primary leads of each transformer are labeled H1

and H2 and the secondary leads are labeled X1 and X2. The

schematic diagram of figure 1-5 will be used to connect the

three single phase transformers into a three phase wye-delta

connection as shown in figure 1-7.

Figure 1-6:

Figure 1-7:

Open Delta Connection:

two transformers instead of three (figure 1-8). This connection

is often used when the amount of three phase power needed is

not excessive, such as a small business. It should be noted

that the output power of an open delta connection is only 57%

of the rated power of the two transformers. For example,

assume two transformers, each having a capacity of 25 kVA,

are connected in an open delta connection. The total output

power of this connection is 43.5 kVA (50 kVA x 0.87 = 43.5

kVA).

Figure 1-8: Open Delta Connection

• Another figure given for this calculation is 87%. This

percentage assumes a closed delta bank containing 3

transformers. If three 25 kVA transformers were connected to

form a closed delta connection, the total output would be 75

kVA (3 x 25 = 75 kVA). If one of these transformers were

removed and the transformer bank operated as an open delta

connection, the output power would be reduced to 58% of its

original capacity of 75 kVA. The output capacity of the open

delta bank is 43.5 kVA (75 kVA x .58% = 43.5 kVA).

The voltage and current values of an open delta connection are

computed in the same manner as a standard delta-delta

connection when three transformers are employed. The voltage

and current rules for a delta connection must be used when

determining line and phase values of voltage current.

Closing a Delta:

• When closing a delta system, connections should be checked

for proper polarity before making the final connection and

applying power. If the phase winding of one transformer is

reversed, an extremely high current will flow when power is

applied. Proper phasing can be checked with a voltmeter at

delta opening.

If power is applied to the transformer bank before the delta

connection is closed, the voltmeter should indicate 0 volts. If

one phase winding has been reversed, however, the voltmeter

will indicate double the amount of voltage.

is not unusual for a voltmeter to indicate some amount of

voltage before the delta is closed, especially if the primary has

been connected as a wye and the secondary as a delta. When

this is the case, the voltmeter will generally indicate close to

the normal output voltage if the connection is correct and

double the output voltage if the connection is incorrect.

Over current Protection for the Primary:

• Electrical Code Article 450-3(b) states that each transformer

600 volts, nominal or less, shall be protected by an individual

over current device on the primary side, rated or set at not

more than 125% of the rated primary current of the

transformer. Where the primary current of a transformer is 9

amps or more and 125% of this current does not correspond

to a standard rating of a fuse or nonadjustable circuit breaker,

the next higher standard rating shall be permitted. Where the

primary current is less than 9 amps, an over current device

rated or set at not more than 167% of the primary current shall

be permitted. Where the primary current is less than 2 amps,

an overcurrent device rated or set at not more than 300% shall

be permitted.

Example #1:

What size fuses is needed on the primary side to protect a 3

phase 480v to 208v 112.5 kVA transformer?

• Important when dealing with 3 phase applications always use

1.732 (square root of 3).

To solve: P / I x E

• 112.5 kVA X 1000 = 112500 VA

• 112500 VA divided by 831 (480 x 1.732) = 135.4 amps

• Since the transformer is more than 9 amps you have to use

125 %.

• 135.4 X 1.25 = 169 amps.

Answer: 175 amp fuses (the next higher standard, Electrical

Code 240-6).

Example #2:

phase 208v to 480v 3kVA transformer?

To solve: P / I x E

• 3kVA X 1000 = 3000 VA

• 3000 VA divided by 360 (208 x 1.732) = 8.3 amps

• Since the transformer is 9 amps or less you have to use 167%.

• 8.3 X 1.67 = 13.8 amps

• Electrical Code Article 450-3(b)(2) states if a transformer 600

v, nominal, or less, having a an overcurrent device on the

secondary side rated or set at not more than 125% of the

rated secondary current of the transformer shall not be

required to have an individual overcurrent device on the

primary side if the primary feeder overcurrent device is rated

or set at a current value not more than 250% of the rated

primary current of the transformer.

Over current Protection for the Secondary:

600 v, nominal, or less, shall be protected by an individual over

current device on the secondary side, rated or set at not more

than 125% of the rated secondary current of the transformer.

Where the secondary current of a transformer is 9 amps or

more and 125% of this current does not correspond to a

standard rating of a fuse or nonadjustable circuit breaker, the

next higher standard rating shall be permitted. Where the

secondary current is less than 9 amps, an overcurrent device

rated or set at not more than 167% of the secondary current

shall be permitted.

Example:

3 phase 480v/208v 112.5 kVA transformer?

To solve : P / I x E

• 112.5 kVA x 1000 = 112500 VA

• 112500 divided by 360 (208 x 1.732) = 312.5 amps

• 312.5 X 1.25 = 390.6 amps

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

X 1

Ap As

Cp

Cs

Y 2

Z 3

Note:

Transformer.

It is employed when:

phase transformer.

disabled, so that us continued at reduced capacity until the

faulty transformer is repaired or a new one is substituted.

necessitating the closing of open delta.

F.) SCOTT or T-CONNECTION:

86.6%

C 4

3

50%

A B

1 2

vice versa. It consist of 2 identical 1ф x 4mer one having a

50% tap & the other an 86.6% tap on their primary windings.

CLOSED DELTA BANK

3ф

L

O

A

D

Let:

Note:

OPEN-DELTA BANK

3

ф

L

O

A

D

Example Problem:

two transformer are connected open delta delivering a load of

100 KVA at a power factor of 0.8 lagging. Calculate the power

delivered by each x’4mer?

Given:

SL = 100 KVA

L = 0.8 lagging

= -36.870 3ф

O

KVA

A

D

Example Problem:

two single phase distribution transformer connected in open

delta will supply power to a 200 Hp, 3ф induction motor

operating at 0.707 OF and 90% efficiency. Solve the minimum

size in KVA of each transformer needed to supply the power

without being over loaded.

Given:

Example Problem:

An electrical utility company is supplied by two single phase

x’4mers bank in rated 75 KVA capacity. What is the maximum

3ф load in kw that the bank can carry without overloading

considering that the load has a lagging PF of 0.8.

Given:

Example Problem:

Three single phase (3ф) transformer each rated 75 KVA are

bank in delta supplying a 3ф load drawing 160 KVA at 0.8

lagging PF. If one x’4mer has burned out and is removed for

repair, solve for the amount of overloading of the remaining

units.

Given:

Example Problem:

An open-delta bank, consisting of two single phase x’4mers is

operating with a balance 3ф load of 50 KVA, 440 V at 0.8 PF

lag and a single phase load of 10 kw resistive connected across

AC leg. Determine minimum ratings of the two x’4mers.

Assume a phase sequence a-b-c.

Given:

50

a 10 kw kva

0.8

lag

C Icc L

T-1 T-2 O

440 V A

N D

b Ibb

a Ia

C L 10kw 440 v

PF = 1

Ic

N

Example Problem:

a 3ф transformer connected on delta on the primary side step

down. The voltage from 13200 v – 460 v and delivers 750 kva, 0.8

PF lagging to the load. Calculate:

a) Transformation ratio

b) The current delivered to the load

c) The current in primary line wires

d) The current that flows in the transformer winding

Given:

∆ Connected SL = 750 kva

Vp = 13200 V PFL = 0.8 lag

Vs = 460 V

Req’d: a, ISL, IPL and IpФ = ?

Example Problem:

A power transformer rated 50,000 KVA, 34.5/13.8 kvolts is

connected Y-Y. what are the line currents at full load.

Given:

Example Problem:

A power transformer is rated 50,000 KVA 34.5/13.8 kvolts is

connected Y-Grounded on the primary and delta on the

secondary. Determine the full load phase currents on the

secondary side.

Given:

Y (grounde) = ∆ connection

IpL

Ipф

N

Example Problem:

What should be the turns ratio of the 3ф transformers that

transform from 230 kvolts to 4160 volts if the transformer is to

be connected Y-∆ & ∆-Y

Given:

PARALLEL OPERATION OF TRANSFORMER

requirements to be met for ideal operation of two or more

transformers in parallel.

be identical.

that will circulate through the transformer secondaries which

contribute to the transformer loss.

to their polarity.

Note: if this condition is not met, there will be a large current that

will circulate in the transformer secondaries and will

damage the windings.

their respective KVA rating.

Note:

if this condition is not met, the transformer will not share

the load in proportion to their respective KVA ratings. A possibility

that the large transformer operates at a underload condition while

smaller transformer operates at overload conditions.

d.) The ratio of the equivalent resistances (Res) and reactances

(Xes) referred to the secondary side must be the same.

Note:

if this condition is not met each transformer will operate at

different power factor with that of the connected load.

should be of the same winding connections:

or

∆-Y to be connected to ∆-Y

Note: if this condition is not met there will be a current that will

circulate will be a current that will circulate through the

secondary windings and will contribute to the transformer

losses.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

to the secondary winding.

OR

2.) Always perform vector addition for apparent power and

current.

When connected in parallel:

CASE 1: (Equal turn Ration)

5. KVA rating of each transformer is not necessary.

Example Problem:

two transformer are connected in parallel supplying a common

load of 175 KVA @ 0.8 PF lag. Both transformer has a voltage

rating of 2300/230 V single phase and each rated 100 KVA.

Transformer 1 has equivalent impedance of 16 ohms and that

of transformer 2 is 13 ohms. Referred both to the primary. Find

KVA load in each transformer.

Given:

CASE2: (equal turn ratio)

Example Problem:

Determine the KW ratio of the KW output of transformer T-1 to

that transformer T-2 when they are connected in parallel

supplying a load of 150 KW @ 0.8 PF lagging.

Given:

CASE 3: (Equal Turn Ratio)

absolute or with equal angle.

Example Problem:

A 125 KVA distribution transformer w/ 4% impedance is

connected in parallel w/ another transformer rated 75 KVA and

3%, both have the same voltage ratio. Neglect the resistance

of each transformer, the total load is 140 KVA at 80% PF

lagging, how much load does it carry?

CASE IV: (Equal turn ration)

1. If given is percent (%) or per unit impedance but of different

angle

MODIFIED FORMULAS:

Sample Problem:

A 500 KVA single phase transformer “A” w/ percentage

impedance of 0.01 + j 0.05 is to be connected in parallel w/ a

250 KVA transformer “B” w/ percentage impedance of 0.015 +

j 0.04. if they are serving single phase load rated 800 KVA @

0.8 PF lagging, determine the power factor of each

transformer. Assuming the transformer have the same turn

ration.

For both case 3 and 4:

given used this formula. With percent (%) or per

unit impedance given,

Example Problem:

Meralco has two single phase transformer w/equal turns ratio

and ratings are operating at in parallel to supply a load of 280

kw @ 0.8 PF lagging. Transformer “A” has resistance of 2% and

a reactance 8% while transformer “B: has a resistance of 1%

and reactance of 6%. Determine the power delivered by

transformer A and B to the load.

LOAD OPERATIONS FOR TRANSFORMER’S W/ UNEQUAL

TURN’S RATIO:

Where:

AUTO-TRANSFORMER

common to both primary and secondary.

magnetic core. One circuit is connected to the end of terminals

while the other is connected to one end terminal and to a part

way along the winding.

electrically linked.

Notes:

a) Always assumed auto-transformer efficiency of 100% if not

specified.

b) If efficiency is equal to 100%

Example Problem:

operation supplies a load of 32 kw at a power factor of 0.8

Calculate:

b) The power conducted

Example Problem:

A 5KVA, 2300/460 V distribution transformer is to be

connected as an auto transformer to step-up. The voltage from

2300V to 2760V. When used to transform 5KVA. Calculate the

kilovolt-ampere load output.

Example Problem:

A 20 kva, 500 V load is to be supplied by an ideal step-up

auto-transformer from 400v source. Find the current in the

common winding.

l

o

a

d

AC MOTORS

machines which convert electrical power (energy output).

rotating flux rotates. It is the speed of synchronous

generator (as generator or alternator) that supplies all the

load connected to it or it is called the speed of incoming

source.

WHERE:

Ns = synchronous speed in RPM

f = frequency of the incoming source supplying the

induction motor. Stator frequency.

P = number of poles of the machine.

speed written on its nameplate in RPM. It is measured by

means of instrument “Tachometer”

than the synchronous speed of the rotating magnetic

flux. The difference of the synchronous speed and the actual

speed is known as SLIP.

2 MAIN PARTS OF INDUCTION MOTOR

electrical power from the AC SOURCE by means of

conduction. When compared to a transformer, it is

considered as the primary winding.

mechanical power output to the load and takes power from

the stator via the airgap by means of a electromagnetic

induction.

secondary winding.

TYPES OF INDUCTION MOTOR

b) Wound rotor type

air gap

STATOR ROTOR

air gap

SPI RPD

STATOR ROTOR

RPO

RPI

Example Problem

A 6 pole, 50 hz, 3ф induction motor runs at 960 RPM while

delivering a shaft torque of 120 n-m. if friction and windage

loss amount to 180 watts, determine the rotor copper loss.

STATOR ROTOR

RPO

Example Problem:

A 3ф, 220 v, 60 Hz, 4 pole induction motor drives a “Fan”

which provides 40 m³/sec of air requirement to furnace.

Assume an efficiency of 60% and 150mm of H ₂0 gage

pressure. Determine the current drawn by the induction motor

if eff. and power factor is 80% and 70% respectively.

FPO

ŋ-80% ŋ-60%

air

SPI RPI

STATOR ROTOR

RPO

(RPO=FPI)

TEST PERFORMED IN AN INDUCTION MOTOR

in a transformer.

power loss (SPL)”

@ No load condition:

b.) Blocked Rotor Test

this test is similar to short circuit test performed in a

transformer. During this test the rotor is blocked and the rotor

windings are short circuited, cut slip rings if the motor has a

wound rotor. A reduced voltage is applied to the stator

terminals and is so adjusted that full load current flows in the

stator. The values of the current voltage and power input are

measured.

Purpose:

To determine the equivalent resistance per phase referred on

the stator side

c.) Load Test

- Motor is loaded with its normal load or visual load.

- During this test, the motor is loaded. The problem should

clearly specified what is the specified load on the motor.

- This is not an assurance that the motor is tested at full

load.

Example Problem:

A 5 hp, 6 pole, 3ф, 60 Hz induction motor operates with a slip

of 2% and requires 11 amp and 3500 watts, when during its

visual load. When the rotor is blocked, 440 watts at 52 volts

are required to circulate a current of 14 amp. Calculate the

following when motor is driving its visual load.

a) Horsepower output

b) Torque Excerted

c) Efficiency (Assume Y-connected stator)

Given:

SPI RPI RPD

STATOR ROTOR

RPO

Example Problem:

A 440 v, 60 Hz, 4 pole, 3ф wound rotor induction motor is

directly connected to a pump which delivers 1000 cfm of water

against an effective head of 8.7 ft. under this load, the motor

drains 15.62 kw at a power factor of 0.92 when rated at no

load. When the motor drains 803 watts, the rotor resistance

per phase is 0.022 ohm while stator resistance per phase is

0.202 ohm. The effective turn ration between stator and rotor

is 4:1. calculate the pump efficiency?

Given:

H20

8.7 ft

Pop

M P

Example Problem:

A 4 pole, 60 Hz, 3ф induction motor draws 8200 watts from

the line. The losses in the machines are:

RCL = 160 watts

CoL = 400 watts

F & W = 130 watts

STATOR ROTOR

RPO

CASE 2:

Note: When the given data regarding core loss and friction

and windage (F & W) are incorporated as one in the stray

power loss (SPL).

air gap

SPI RPD

STATOR ROTOR

SCL

RCL

SPL=(F&W)+CL

Example Problem:

A 6 pole, 3ф, 60 Hz induction motor takes 48 kw in power at

1140 RPM. The stator copper loss is 1.6 kw and stray power

losses are 1 kw. Find the eff.

STATOR ROTOR

Example Problem:

A 230 v, 8ф, 4 pole, 60 Hz squirrel cage induction motor

operating at 90% efficiency & 85% PF and 2.5% slips drives a

pump for reservoir. Determine the current taken from the line

if the discharge rate is 475 GPM and the total head of which

the pump is working 200 ft. Assume pump efficiency of 80%.

water

reservior

Pom Pip

Pop

200 ft

SPI

M P

DC RESISTANCE TEST OR OHMIC TEST.

solve for value of ohmic resistance of the stator per phase.

necessary.

referred to the stator. (Rotor is included)

Resф – effective or AC resistance per phase of the stator

alone. (Rotor is not included)

Open

Terminal

Stator

Winding

Stator

Winding

Example Problem:

A 400 V, 60 Hz, 6 Pole, Y connected 3ф induction motor draws

75 kw with a line current of 100 amp, the core loss is 2 kw,

friction and windage loss is 1.2 kw, the stator resistance

between two terminals is 0.35 ohm. What is the efficiency if

the motor runs at a slip of 2.5%

Solution:

STATOR ROTOR

RPO

RPD (electro mechanical)

RPI

ROTOR

(electrical) RPO

RCL

(electrical) F&W

(mechanical)

Example Problem:

A 40 Hp, 230 v, 8 pole, 25 Hz 3ф induction motor is running at

355 RPM @ rated load. The torque lost by friction is 24 n-m. if

the total stator loss is 1000 watts. Calculate the eff.of the

motor at this load.

Solution:

RPI RPO

ROTOR

RCL

STARTING AN INDUCTION MOTOR

DC motors.

7times its full load value) simply because at the instant of

starting, the motor is not rotating and the slip is 1.0 and the

counter emf or back emf is zero.

damage on the windings and to lessen the effect on the other

equipment connected on the same line wires.

Note: for small motors (usually 10 hp below) use across the line,

magnetic starter (full voltage starting method)

The starting line current is always proportional to the starting line

voltage:

the starting line voltage:

1st condition: use subscript “1”

Ratio

Where:

Vs – starting line voltage

Ts – starting torque

Is - starting current

Td – rated or full load torque developed

IL – rated or full load current

Example Problem:

A 25 hp, 230 volt, 3ф induction motor with 85% PF has a

starting current of 5.5 times its rated current. To reduced the

starting current, at “Y-∆” starter is installed. What will be the

new starting current?

Given:

Example Problem:

A 10 hp, 550v, 3ф induction motor has a starting torque of

160% of full load torque and a starting current of 425% of full

load current. If the motor is used on 440v, 60hz system. What

will be the starting torque express in percent of full load value?

Example Problem

An induction motor of 30 hp, 220v, 3ф, draws 450% of rated

current with rated voltage and delivers during the starting

period of 130% of the normal torque. The full load efficiency of

the motor and full load PF is 80% and 70% respectively. If the

auto-transformer unit is used as a starting unit and the

starting torque of the loads is only 50% of the rated torque of

the motor. Find the starting current of the line.

REDUCED VOLTAGE METHOD FOR LARGE 3ф MOTORS

3. Auto-transformer method

FULL VOLTAGE STARTING METHOD

Line 1

Line 2

Line 3 Start

Stop

OLR Coil

Circuit

Breaker

Normally

Open

Overload

Relay

Motor

SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR

TYPES OF S.M.

lagging power factor.

power factor.

factor.

CHARACTERISTICS OF SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR

can be used for power factor correction.

embedded in the rotor pole faces of a synchronous and shorted

at each end rings to make the rotor self starting in dumping

out hunting.

Field

Rheostat

ίƒ

field circuit

separately

Vf excited by Vф

DC source

Supply

Voltage

armature

circuit

Notations:

If – DC shield current taken from the exciter

winding.

Zsф – synchronous impedance per phase of the armature

winding.

Vф – supply AC voltage per phase (rated or nameplate

voltage)

Iф – supply armature phase current

Ecф – back or counter emf developed in the armature per

phase.

Where:

- deflection angle

- torque angle

Electrical Mechanical

Pin Pd Pd Po

ARMATURE

SPL

Notes:

consider the motor as 1ф”.

purposes. It is understood and considered to operate always at

leading power factor (over excited sm)

ZERO.

Example Problem:

The output of a 200 v synchronous motor taking a current of

20 amp is 4 hp. Effective armature armature resistance is 0.5

ohms. The iron and friction losses amount to 400 watts. What

is the power factor of the machine.

Pin Pd Pd

ARMATURE

Example Problem:

A 20hp, 440v, 3ф, star connected sm has an armature

effective resistance per phase of 0.4 ohm at full load output,

the power factor is 0.9 leading, the iron and friction losses

amount to 500w. What is the value of armature line current?

Pin Pd Pd

ARMATURE

Example Problem:

A 500v, 1ф sm gives a net mechanical power of 7.46 kw and

operates at 0.9 lagging PF, its effective resistance is 0.8 ohm.

If the iron and friction losses are 500 w and excitation losses

are 800 w. estimate the armature current. Calculate the

commercial efficiency.

Pin Pd

ARMATURE

Example Problem:

A 2300-v, 3ф star connected synchronous motor has a

resistance of 0.2 ohm per phase and a sm reactance of 2.2

ohm per phase. The motor is operating at 0.5 PF leading with a

line current of 200 amp. Determine the value of the generated

emf per phase.

Another Solution:

Example Problem:

A 100 v, synchronous motor having 40% reactance and a

negligible resistance is to be operated at rated load

a) Unity

b) 0.8 lag

c) 0.8 leading

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