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TRANSFORMER VOLTAGE

is the induced voltage of mutual induction in the secondary


coil.

TRANSFORMER ACTION
is the action that creates the emf.

PRIMARY COIL
is the coil that’s connected to the primary source of supply or
takes electrical energy from AC source of supply.

SECONDARY COIL
is the coil which the voltage of mutual induction is induced and
which “feeds” energy to the load. It received energy by
electromagnetic induction and deliver to loads.

Mutual flux changes in magnitude and direction. There still be


created an induced emf in secondary winding “Es” and induced
emf in primary winding “Ep”.

Note:
• both induced emf’s are created by the same mutual flux.

• coils are form wound and are of the cylindrical type. The
general form of this coils maybe circular or oval. In small type
size core type transformer, “a simple rectangular core is used
with cylindrical coils which are either circular or rectangular in
form. “but for large size core type transformer” round or
circular cylindrical coils are used.

Where:
Eav – average induced emf in coil.
ŋ– number of turns in coils.
Ф – maximum flux
t – time for flux to change by Ф m (mxwell)

Note:
electrical energy can be transformed by:

a. INDUCTION – no electrical connection between source and


load (Ex. transformer).

b. CONDUCTION – when there is c conductor that links


between source and load. (Ex. transmission and
distribution).

Basic information that is placed on the nameplate of large power


transformer.

a. Maker’s Name (Brand)


b. Voltage Rating
c. KVA / MVA Rating
d. Percent Impedance Rating (%z) – To be able to calculate the
amount of fault current that due to transformer can withstand.

e. B.I.L. Rating – (Basic Insulation Level)


- KVA rating of insulating oil
Simplified Circuit Diagram
Ip = primary current (amps)
Rp = primary resistance (ohms)
Xp = reactance of primary winding (ohms)
Rc = resistance representing of iron losses (ohms)
Ic = current flowing (amperes)
Xm = magnitizing reactance of primary winding (ohms)
Im = current flowing in the magnetizing reactance (current)
Rs = resistance in the secondary winding (ohms)
Xs = reactance in the secondary winding (ohms)
Np = primary turns
Ns = secondary turns
Ep = primary voltage
Es = secondary voltage
Is = secondary current
Divide:

Induced emf equation of a transformer applied equally to the


primary and secondary voltages
EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF AN IDEAL TRANSFORMER:

I₁ I₂

Vg Ep Es VL

E = 4.44 NФm x 10-8 (effective)


E = 4.44 NpФm x 10-8 (primary)
Es = 4.44 NsФm x 10-8 (secondary)
Note:
ideal transformer if its core loss is less and has no leakage flux
and has no cupper loss. (Ф m = ϐmA)

Where:

• E = RMS voltage induced or effective voltage induced.


• Ep = primary winding induced voltage.
• Es = secondary winding induced voltage
•  = frequency (Hz)
• N = number of turns in coil
• Np = No. of turns in primary coil
• Ns = No. of turns in secondary
• Фm = mutual flux (maxwell)
• A = area in core (cm²)
• Βm = flux density
VOLTAGE, CURRENT AND TURNS RATIO OF TRANSFORMER

that if the primary ampere turn is


equal to secondary ampere turn

Where:

Np / Ns = turns ratio
Ip / Is = current ratio
a = transformer ratio

KVA rating of transformer refers to its KVA output.


KVAp = KVAs

Where:

Zp / Zs = impedence ratio
Ep = voltage induced in primary winding
Es = voltage induced in secondary winding

Polarity Marking – to avoid mistakes in banking and paralleling


of transformer.

• Additive Polarity
• Subtractive Polarity
Example:
The 2,300 volt primary winding of a 60-cycle transformer has
4,800 turns. Calculate: (a) the mutual flux; (b) the number of
turns in the 230-volt secondary winding.

Given:
Ep = 2,300v F = 60 hz
Np = 4,800

Solution:

a.)

b.)
Example:
the maximum flux in the core of a 60-cycle transformer that
has 1,320 primary turns and 46 secondary turns is 3.76 x
maxwells. Calculate the primary and secondary induced
voltages.

Given: F = 60 Hz Np = 1,320turns Ns = 46 turns

Calculate Ep and Es

Solution:
Example:
the secondary winding of a 4,600/230-volt transformer has 36
turns. How many turns are there in the primary winding?

Given:
Vp = 4,600 v Vs = 230 v Ns = 36 turn

Solution:
Example:
The volts per turn in a 25-cycle 2,400/230-volts transformer is
8. calculate: (a) the primary and secondary turns; (b) the
maximum flux in the core.

Given:
Vp = 2,400 v Vs = 230 v

Solution:

a.)

b.)
VOLTAGE AND CURRENT RATIO:

Primary Voltage (Vp)


Secondary Voltage(Es)
Primary current (Ip)
Secondary Current (Is)
Ep x Ip = Es x Is
Example:
The secondary load current of a 2,300/115-volts/transformer is
46 amp. Calculate the primary current.

Solution:

Example:
The primary and secondary currents of a transformer were
measured and found to be 3.8 and 152 amp, respectively. If
the secondary load voltage is 116 volts, what is the primary
emf?

Solution:
Transformation Ratio:
The ratio of primary to secondary turns Np:Ns, which equals
the ratio of primary to secondary induced voltages Ep:Es,
indicates how much the primary voltage is lowered or raised.
The turn ratio, or the induced-voltage ratio, is called the ratio
of transformation, and is represented by the symbol a. thus

Where the no-load and full load voltages and are those
measured at the secondary terminals.
Equivalent Resistance, Reactance and Impedance.

} in secondary terms

} in primary terms
SEATWORK

Example 1
A 25-kva 2,300/230-volt distribution transformer has the following
resistance and leakage-reactance values: Rp = 0.8; Xp = 3.2; Rs =
0.009; Xs = 0.03. calculate the equivalent values of resistance,
reactance and impedance; (a) in secondary terms; (b) in primary
terms.

Example 2
A 25-kva 2,300/230-volt distribution transformer has the following
resistance and leakage-reactance values: Rp = 0.8; Xp = 3.2; Rs =
0.009; Xs = 0.03. calculate the equivalent values of resistance,
reactance voltage drops for a secondary load current of 109 amp: (a)
in secondary terms: (b) in primary terms.
OIL – is primarily used for insulation and cooling of windings.
ASKAREL OIL – is non-flammable insulating liquid w/c when
decomposed by an electric are evolves non-explosive gases.

OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
1. The transformer is usually used to change the values of
voltage.
2. Transformer operates at a power factor depending on the
power factor of the load.
3. A good transformer oil should absolutely free from sulfur,
alkalies & moisture.
4. The working principle of transformer is mutual induction.
5. The lamination of a core on a transformer are made of silicon
steel sheet.
6. The purpose of laminating the core of a transformer is to
reduce eddy current losses.

TRANSFORMER CIRCUIT AND THEORY.

Defined parameters

Note:
No load voltage – means the input voltage to the
transformer when it is in operation or load

PRIMARY SIDE

Ip = rated primary current


Vp = rated primary voltage (output) voltage
Rp = resistance of the primary winding
Xp = reactance of the primary winding (because of the leakage
flux in the primary).
Ep = induced voltage in the primary winding (because of the
mutual flux).
Zp = impedance of the primary winding.
Zp = Rp + j Xp
Np = number of turns in the primary winding
Vpnl = input voltage to the primary (real input voltage)

SECONDARY SIDE
Is = rated secondary current
Vs = rated secondary voltage (output voltage) (real output)
Rs = resistance of the secondary winding
Xs = reactance of the secondary winding
Es = induced voltage in the secondary (because of mutual flux)
Zs = impedance of the secondary winding
Zs = Rs + j X s
Ns = number of turns in the secondary winding
Vsnl = input voltage to the secondary side. (no load secondary
voltage) – fictious.
GENERALLY
Ф m = maximum mutual flux (common to primary and
secondary). This flux travels around the core.
= this is a useful flux
= this is a working flux
a = transformation ratio
= turns ratio
= induced voltage ratio
= rated voltage ratio
= no load voltage ratio
= inverse current ratio

REFER THE CIRCUIT TO THE PRIMARY SIDE (transfer all data


from secondary to primary).

Approximate:
In = too small; temporary neglected

Ip Rp Xp a²Rs a²Xs Is/a

L
VPNL Vp = aVs O
A
D
ELECTRICAL LOSSES: (cupper losses) ; Is = aIp

EL = ELP + ELS
= Ip2Rp + Is2Rs
= Ip2Rp + a2Ip2Rs
= Ip2 (Rp + a2Rs)

Rep – equivalent resistance of the transformer only referred to primary


side.
Rep = Rp + a²Rs
ELP = Ip2Rep
Xep – equivalent reactance of the transformer only referred to the
primary side.
Zep = Rep + j Xep
SIMPLIFIED DIAGRAM:

Ip Rep Xep

VPNL O
A Vp
D

VPNL = Vp + IpZep

PERCENT VOLTAGE REGULATION


REFER THE CIRCUIT TO THE SECONDARY SIDE (transfer all
data from primary to secondary)

Rp/a² Xp/a² Rs Xs Is
aIp

= VSNL LO
A
D

KVA LOAD =
= KVAsec
ELECTRICAL LOSSES;

EL = ELP + ELS
= Ip2Rp + Is2Rs

Res - equivalent resistance of the transformer referred to


secondary side.

EL =
Is2Res
Xes – equivalent reactance of transformer referred to secondary
side.

Zes – equivalent impedance of the transformer referred to the


secondary side.

Zes = Res + j Xes


Zes2 = R2es +
X2es
SIMPLIFIED DIAGRAM:
Is Res Xes

L
VSNL VS O
A
D

VSNL = Vs + Is
Zes
PERCENT VOLTAGE REGULATION
Additional Formulas:

%Z = percent impedance rating


%R = percent resistance rating
%X = percent reactance rating

GENERALLY

%Z = %R + j%X
(%Z)2 = (%R)2 + (%X)2

Zpu = Rpu + jXpu


(Zpu)2 = (Rpu)2 + (Xpu)2
EQUIVALENT FORMULAS

USING PRIMARY VALVES USING SECONDARY VALVES

PRIMARY SIDE SECONDARY SIDE


STANDARD DESIGNATION WHEN TRANSFORMER KVA LOAD
OR OUTPUT IS VARIED. (Transformer is operating at different
loads).

RULES:
• Use subscript “(1)” to designate transformer operating at full
load or rated load.

• Use subscript “(2)” to designate transformer operating at any


KVA output (below rated or above rated).

• Use subscript prime “(‘)” to designate transformer operating at


maximum efficiency condition.
NOTE:
when computing for efficiency and voltage regulation of a
transformer regulation, the following should be clearly specified:

1. Power factor of the load


2. KVA output of the load

TRANSFORMER LOSSES
a) Electrical losses – is also called resistance or cupper
losses. These losses are primarily due to the
resistance of primary (Rp) and secondary (Rs)
windings. These losses vary with the “Square of
the KVA load”.
• 1st condition; (@ full load or rated load)

EL1 =
Ip12Rep
• 2nd condition; (below rated or above rated)

EL2 =
Ip22Rep
• Divide ②/①
 

b. CORE LOSS (iron losses) – this loss is a constant loss


irregardless of any change in KVA. output or load power factor.

NOTE:
this is loss will only change or vary if there is change in the
primary voltage (Vp) or supply frequency.
TYPES OF CORE LOSSES
1. HYSTERESIS LOSS (Ph) - This loss can be minimized only
by using high quality of material to construct the core
(such as high grade silicon steel) because it has high value of
permeability and low hysteresis.

1. EDDY CURRENT LOSS (Pe) – this loss can be minimized or


reduced only by laminating the core.

Coreloss = PH +
Pe
TYPES OF TRANSFORMER EFFICIENCY

a) ORDIARY EFFICIENCY (ŋ)


over all efficiency or conventional efficiency.
General Formulas:

TL = EL +
COL
Where:
Po = KVAOUTPUT x
P.F.
PIN = Po + TLOSSES
@ FULL LOAD:

Po1 = KVA1 x P.F.


PIN = Po1 + TL1
TL1 = EL1 + CLOSS
@ ANY KVA LOAD OUTPUT (below rated or above rated)

Po2 = KVA2 x P.F.


PIN = Po2 + TL2
TL2 = EL2 + COLOSS

B. MAXIMUM EFFICIENCY ŋ'mx =

but
Po’ = KVA’ x P.F.
EL’ = CL (max.)
PIN’ = Po’ + TL’

TL’ = EL’ + COLOSS
TL’ = 2EL’ = 2CL
EQUIVALENT FORMULAS:

Note:
KVA’ KVAoutp at maximum efficiency condition.

ut
Where:
KVA1 = Ip1 Vp / EL1 = Ip12 Rep
1000 EL2 = Ip22 Rep
KVA2 = Ip2 Vp /
EL’ = (Ip’)2 Rep = CL
1000
OBJECTIVE QUESTION:
when will maximum efficiency occur and at what KVA load?
1. It could happen at “full load”

KVA1 = KVA’

ŋ1 = ŋ’max

EL1 = EL’ = CL
2. It could happen at either “overload or below rated load”

Example problem: the full load cupper loss in a transformer is


400 watts. At half load, the cupper loss will be…

Given:
@full load: KVA1 = ? EL1 = 400w
@full load: KVA2 = ½ KVA1
Req’d:
EL2 = ?
Solution:

EL2 = 100 watts

Example problem: a 10 KVA, 2400/240 volts distribution


transformer has a primary resistance of 1.2 ohms and a
secondary resistance of 0.058 ohm. Determine the full load
cupper loss.
Note: if there's only one condition in the problem that is a full
load, you may not use anymore the subscript.

Given: (nameplate data)

KVAoutput = KVAprimary = KVAsec = 10 KVA

Rp = 1.2 ohm
Rs = 0.058 ohm

Vp = 2400 v
Vs = 240 v
Solution:
EL1 (using primary value)
=?
Rep = Rp1 + a2Rs
= (1.2) + (10)2
(0.058)
= 7 ohms

EL = Ip2Rep
= 4.17 Amp. = (4.17)2 (7)
EL = 121.7 watts
Example problem:
the full load cupper loss and core loss of a 20 KVA, 2500/250v
transformer are 300 watts and 320 watts respectively. What is
the efficiency at half load and unity power factor.

Given:
@ 1st condition: (full load) @ 2nd Condition: (half load)

EL1 = 300 w EL2 =?


CL = 320 w CL = 320 w (constant)
KVA1 = 20 KVA KVA2 = 20 KVA
Vp = 2500 v PF = unity = 1
Vs = 250 v  = cos-1 (1)
= 0
Req’d:
ŋ2 = ? (half load)

Solution:

But
KVA2 = ½ KVA₁

= 75 Watts
TL2 = EL2 + CL

= 75 + 320

= 395 watts

Subs. Values:

= 98.06%
REGULATION CALCULATIONS USING VOLTAGES VALUES:
Transformer percent regulation (%Reg)

the no load and full load voltage are those measure


at secondary terms.

THREE FLUXES
1. Mutual flux (φ m) = links both the primary and secondary
windings.
2. Primary leakage flux (φ₁) = links with primary winding only
and is varrying I₁
3. Secondary leakage flux (φ₂) = links with secondary winding
only and is varrying I₂.
VOLTAGE DROPS IN TRANSFORMER (INTERNAL)
a) Voltage drop due to leakage reactance = IsRs
b) Voltage drop due to leakage reactance = IsXs

Below are the phasor. Diagram showing how the resistance and
leakage-reactance drop are subtracted from the induced
secondary voltage to yield the secondary terminal voltage.

Es
a) @ unity power factor

IsXs

 Vs
Is

IsRs
b.) @ lagging power factor
Es

IsXs

 Is
Rs
V
 PF
s
co
s Vs
Is sin
Rs 

Is
c.) @ leading power factor Is
s IsXs
R
Is

s Es
c o
s Vs
V
si
n
 PF
Vs
Below are phasor diagrams showing how the resistance and
leakage – reactance drops are subtracted from the impressed
primary voltage to yield primary induced voltage.

Vp
a. @ unity power
factor
IpXp

Vp
Ep
Ip

IpRp
IpXp

Ep
Ip
Rp
 PF

Ep
b. @ lagging power factor Ep

si
co

n
s


Ip
Rp
Ip
I
c. @ leading power factor
p IpXp
R
Ip

 Vp
c os
Ep Ep
si
n
 PF IpRp
Ep

Equivalent circuit of a practical transformer

Rp Xp Ip


Ig
Rm Xm Ep Es V₂
Eg
Where:
Rp = Resistance of primary winding
Xp = Reactance of primary winding
Rs = Resistance of secondary
Xs = Reactance of secondary winding
Eg = Supply voltage or primary voltage
Ep = Induced emf of the primary winding
Es = Induced emf of the secondary winding
Ig = Supply current
If = Primary current
Is = Secondary current
Rm = Resistance representing iron losses
Pm = Iron losses
Xm = Magnetizing reactance of primary winding
Io = Exciting current
Qm = Reactive power needed to set-up the mutual flux (VAR)
EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF A PRACTICAL
TRANSFORMER AT “NO LOAD”

Rp Xp Ip = 0
Rs Xs

Ig = Io Io Is = o
Rm Xm Ep Es
Eg Vs = Es

@ no load, Is = 0 and so if, thus only the exciting current Io


flows in Rp and Xp and these impedance are so small
that the voltage drop across them are “negligible”
EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF A PRACTICAL TRANSFORMER AT
“FULL LOAD”

Rp Xp Rs Xs
Eg Ep Es Vs

NOTE:
@ full load, “Ig” is at least 20 times bigger than “Io”
EQUIVALENT RESISTANCE REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE

IN PRIMARY TERMS IN SECONDARY TERMS


Rep = a²Rs + Rp

Xep = a²Xs + Xp

Zep = Rep + jXep


Zes = Res + jXes

IN TERMS OF TURNS RATIO


Where:
Res = equivalent resistance referred to the secondary.
Rep = equivalent resistance referred to the primary.
Xes = equivalent reactance referred to the secondary.
Xep = equivalent reactance referred to the primary.
Zes = equivalent impedance referred to the secondary.
Zep = equivalent impedance referred to the primary.

EQUIVALENT VOLTAGE DROP IN TRANSFORMER REFERRED


TO PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SIDE

• RepIp = equivalent resistance voltage drop in the primary


side.
• XepIp = equivalent reactance voltage drop in the primary
side.
But:

ResIs = equivalent resistance voltage drop in the secondary


side.
XesIs = equivalent drop in the secondary side.

Notation:
Rep = equivalent resistance in primary side.
Xep = equivalent reactance in primary side.
Ip = primary current.
Res = equivalent resistance in secondary side.
Xes = equivalent reactance in secondary side.
Is = secondary load current.
PERCENT REGULATION OF TRANSFORMER AT DIFFERENT
LOADING.

1) @ unity power factor load

2.) @ lagging power factor load.

3.) @ leading power factor load.


Note:
if the given data of the transformer is in terms of Rep, Xep,
and Zep. Use this formula:

If the given data of the transformer are in terms of percentage


values like %Z, %R and %X. use the corresponding formulas:

a) For unity power factor

b) For lagging power factor


c.) For leading power factor

Thus:

Example problem:

The 2300 volts primary winding of 60 cps transformer has


4800 turns. Calculate:

a) Mutual flux, Фm
b) No. of turns in the 230V, sec.
c) Transformation ratio of voltage and winding
Given: Req’d:
Ep = 2300 v Фm, Ns, a
Es = 230 v
f = 60 cps
Np = 4800 turns

Solution:

a.) Ep = 4.44 fNpФm x 10-8

Фm = 1.8 x 105 maxwells


b.)

NS = 480 turns

c.) or

Example Problem:
a 25 KVA, 2300/230 volts distribution transformer has the
following resistance and leakage reactance value of 0.8 and 3.2
respectively. For primary and 0.009Ω and 0.03Ω for secondary
respectively. Calculate the equivalent values of resistance,
reactance and impedance in secondary terms:
a) Secondary terms
b) Primary terms

c.) Equivalent resistance and reactance voltage drop for a


load current of 109 amps in secondary and primary terms.
d.) calculate the present voltage regulation for a unity power
factor.
Given:
Pa = 25 KVA
KVAoutput = KVApri = KVAsec
V = 2300/230v
Rp = 0.8Ω
Xp = 3.2Ω
Rs = 0.009Ω
Xs = 0.03Ω
Solution:
a) In secondary terms

Xes = Xs + Xp/a²

= 0.03 + 3.2/102

= 0.062 Ω

Zes = Res + j Xes


= 0.017 + j 0.062
= 0.642 < 74.67 Ω
b.) In primary side.

Rep = Rp + a2Rs
= 0.8 + (10)2 (0.009)
= 1.7 Ω

Xep = Xp + a2Xs
= 3.2 + (10)2 (0.03)
= 6.2 Ω

Zep = Rep + j Xep


= 1.7 + j 6.2
= 6.43 < 74.67 Ω
c.) VDPR, VDPX, and VOSR, VDSX (Ip = Is/a)

PRIMARY SECONDARY

VDPR = IpRep VDSR = IsRes


= (109)(0.017)
= 1.853 volts

VDSX = IsXes
= (109)(0.062)
= 18.53 volts = 6.75 volts

VDPX = IpXep

= 67.5 volts
d.) Percent Regulation @ unity
P.F. = 1
 = cos-1 (1)
= 00

= 10.87 amps

For unity
VPNL = VP + IpZep

= 2300  00 + (10.87  00)(6.43  74.67)

= 2319.46  1.660 volts


For 0.8 lagging ( = -36.87)
VPNL = Vp + IpZep
= 2300 00 + (10.87  -36.87) x
(6.43 74.67)
= 2355.6  1.04 volts
For 0.866 leading (0)

 = cos-1 (0.866)

= 300

VPNL = Vp + IpZep

= 2300 00 + (10.87 300 + (6.43 74.67)

= 2283.3 1.7 volts


Another solution:
For Unity:  = 00

Cos  = 1

Sin  = 0
For 0.8 lagging:  = 36.870
cos  = 0.8
sin  = 0.6
For 0.866 leading:  = 300

cos  = 0.866

sin  = 0.5
EXAMPLE PROBLEM:
a 10 KVA, 2400/240 volt distribution. Transformer has a
primary resistance of 1.2 ohm and a secondary resistance of
0.058 ohm. What is the full load cupper loss (Electrical loss).

Given: Req’d:
Pa = 10 KVA
E = 2400/240 V
Rp = 1.2 ohm
Xp = 0.058 ohm ( NOTE: STOP HERE)

Solution:
Using primary values:

Rep = Rp + a2Rs
= 1.2 + (10)2 (0.058)
=7

ELOSS = Ip2Rep
= (4.17)2 (7)
ELOSS = 121.7223 watts

EXAMPLE PROBLEM:
The full load cupper loss and core loss of 20 KVA, 2500/250
volt transformer are 300 and 320 w respectively. What is the
efficiency at haf-load and unity P.F.
Given:
@ condition 1: (full load)

KVA1 = 20 KVA Ep = 2500 v

EL1 = 300 w Es = 250 v

COL = 320 w

@ condition 2: (half load)

KVA2 = ½ KVA1 = 10 KVA


PO2 = KVA2 x P.F.
= 10 x 1
= 10 KW
Req’d:
ŋ₂ = ?

Solution:

Sample Problem:
In a 50 kva transformer, the full load cupper loss are exactly
twice the iron losses, and that quarter load, the efficiency is
95%. Calculate the full load efficiency at unity P.F.
@ condition 1: (full load)

KVA1 = 50 kva

EL1 = 2 COL ---------------- ①

PO1 = KVA1 x P.F. = 50(1) = 50 KW

@ condition 1: (quarter load)

KVA2 = ¼ kva1
= ¼(50) = 12.5 kva
ŋ₂ = 95%

Req’d:
ŋ₁ = ?
Solution:

PIN2 = TL2 + P02

TL2 = PIN2 – P02

= 13,157.89 – 12500

= 657.89 watts
But:
TL2 = EL2 + CL ------------ ②
Substitute ① to ②

TL2 = EL2 + CL

657.89 = EL2 + 0.5 EL1 --------- ③


Subst. ④ in ③

657.89 = EL2 + 0.5 EL1

= 0.0625 EL1 + 0.5 EL1

= (0.0625 + 0.5) EL1

= 0.5625 EL1
From eqn.①
CL = 0.5 EL1

= 0.5 (1,169.6)

= 584.79 watts


Example Problem
The core loss of a 50 KVA single phase transformer with normal
voltage applied to the primary is 75 watts. The max efficiency
at 60% load of full load. What is the full load efficiency of the
transformer at 0.8 P.F.

Given:
@ condition 1 : (full load)
KVA₁ = 50 KVA

CL = 75 watts (constant)

Note:
Core loss (CL) don’t vary at any time of change except when
the applied voltage and frequency is change.
EL1 = ?

PO1 = 50 KVA (0.8)

= 4000 watts

@ condition 2 : (maximum load efficiency)


KVA’ = 60% KVA₁
= 0.6 (50)
= 30 KVA
Po’ = 30 (0.8)
= 24,000 watts

Req’d: ŋ₁ = ?

Solution
@ max eff. (E ’ = C )
L L

Pin1 = PO1 + TL1

but
TL1 = EL1 + CL

 subs.values:
Pin1 = PO1 + EL1 + CL

= 4000 + 208.3 + 75

= 4283.3 watts
Example Problem:
A 100 KVA transformer has a maximum efficiency of 98% at
10% underload at unity power factor. Evaluate the efficiency at
quarter-load at 0.8 power factor.

Given:
@ max.load: @ full load condition:

KVA’ = 0.1 KVA1 KVA1 = 100 KVA

ŋ'mx = 98% EL1 = ?


PF = 1

@ quarter load: PO2 = 25 KVA (0.8)


KVA2 = ¼ KVA1 = 20,000 watts
= ¼ (100) = 25 PF = 0.8
KVA
Req’d: ŋ₂ = ?

Solution:
KVA’ = 0.1 KVA1 PO’ = 10 KVA (1)
= 0.1 (100) = 10,000 watts
= 10 KVA

T L’ = E L’ + C L
But for maximum efficiency: (E ’ = C )
L L

TL’ = 2 CL -------------- ①

TL’ = Pin’ – Po’ --------- ②


Subs. ① in ①

TL’ = Pin’ – Po’

2CL = 10,204.08 – 10,000

2CL = 204.08 watts

@ quarter load:
TL2 = EL2 + CL

= 637.75 + 102.04

= 739.79 watts


All day efficiency – also known as commercial efficiency. The all
day efficiency of the transformer. The ration of electrical energy
(kilowatt-hours) output delivered by the transformer in a 24-
hour period to the energy input in the same period of time (or
a day operation.)

Where:
Wo – Electrical energy output Win - Electrical input
- ЄP x time (kw-hr) - ЄP x time (kw-hr)
- Wo + WL
WL – Electrical Energy Losses
= WCORELOSS + WCOPPERLOSS

= WCL + WEL

= (CL x Time) + (ЄEL x Time)


When transformer is loaded:
- energy copper loss is present (but not constant)
- energy coreloss is present (it is constant)
- energy output is present.

Note:
1. Full load values/rated values must always be given
(reference data).
2. Solutions maybe in a tabulated form.
3. When transformer is loaded 24 hrs a day operation, energy
coreloss is always constant to be multiplied by 24 hrs .

Condition that may arise later in problem;


a) No load condition (transformer is unloaded) – energy copper
loss is zero. Energy coreloss is constant. Energy output is zero.
b.) when primary is connected from the source – energy
copper loss is zero. Energy coreloss is zero. Energy output is
zero.

Example problem:
calculate the all day efficiency of 100 kva transformer
operating under the following conditions;

– 6 hrs on load of 50 kw at 0.73 P.F.


– 3 hrs on load of 30 kw at 0.82 P.F.
– 15 hrs with no load on secondary, the iron losses is 1000
watts and the full load copper loss is 1060 watts.
Req’d:

Note: for energy

Solution:
TABULATION FORM
KW LOAD P.F. # OF KVA LOAD ENERGY ENERGY ENERGY
Kw HRS (Kw/P.F.) OUTPUT COL CUL
Hr. KVA Kw-Hr (CL - t) (EL - t)

50 .73 6 50/0.73 50 (6) 1 (6)


= 68.5 = 300 =6

= 2.98

30 .82 3 30/0.82 30 (3) 1 (3) 0.43


= 36.59 = 90 =3

N
O
0 15 - - 1 (15) 0
L
= 15
O
A
D

390 24 3.41
TOTAL: Wo WCL WCUL

WO = 300 + 90
= 390 Kw-Hr
WCL = 6 + 3 + 15
= 24 Kw-Hr
WCU = 2.98 + 0.43
= 3.41 Kw-Hr

Win = WO + WLOSSES
= 390 + (24 + 3.41)
= 417.41 Kw-Hr
Example problem:
a 30 kva, 2400/240 volts, 60 hz distribution transformer has a
full load P.F. of unity over a period of 24 hrs. the maximum
efficiency is 95% and it occurs at full load. Calculate the all day
efficiency if it is loaded as follows:

 6 hrs at full load


 6 hrs at quarter load
 12 hrs at no-load

Req’d:

Solution: for maximum efficiency (EL = CL)


For energy copper loss
TABULATION FORM

Kw P.F. # of Kva load Energy Energy Energy


Load Hours (kw/PF) Output CL CUL
Kva Kw-hr Kw-hr Kw-hr

Full 1 6 30 30 (6) 0.789 (6) 0.296


Load = 180 = 4.737

¼ full 1 6 7.5 7.5 (6) 0.789 (6) 0.296


load = 4.737

No load 1 12 - 0 0.789 (12) 0


= 9.474
WO = 180 + 45 Win = WO + WLOSSES

= 225 kw-hr = 225 + 5.033 + 18.948

WCL = 4.737 + 4.737 + 9.474 = 230.033 kw-hr + 18.948

= 18.948 kw-hr Win = 248.948 kw-hr

WEL = 4.737 + 0.296

= 5.033 kw-hr
Example problem:
a 100 kva, 6600/400 volts 60 hz, single phase, core type
transformer has the following average daily load:
 full load at 0.8 PF for 8 hrs
 half-load at 0.7 PF for 10 hrs
 no load for 6 hrs

Calculate the ratio of the full load cupper loss to the iron loss for
the transformer to be “most economical” for the above loading.

Req’d:
Solution:
@ full load condition:

KVA1 = 100 KVA

CL1 = ? (CL = EL1)

ЄL1 = ?

Note:
most economical at maximum eff.
TABULATED FORM

Kva P.F. Kw load # of hrs Wo WCL WEL


Load Kw Hr Kw-hr Kw-hr kw-hr

Full load 0.8 100 (0.8) 8 80 (8) CL (8) EL1 (8)


(100) = 80 = 640 = 8 CL = 8 EL1

Half load 0.7 100 (0.7) 10 70 (10) CL (10) EL1 (10)


(50) = 70/2 = 700/2 = 10 CL
= 35 =350
= 2.5 EL1

No load - 0 6 - CL (6) 0
= 6 CL

24 CL 10.5 EL1
WCL = 8CL + 10 CL + 6 CL

= 24 CL

WEL = 8 EL1 + 2.5 EL1

= 10.5 EL1


24 CL = 10.5 EL1
Example Problem:
a 25 kva, single phase transformer operates for one hr @ 20%
overload @ 0.8 PF lagging; three hrs @ full load @ 0.9 PF
leading; 6 hrs @ half-load @ a unity power factor and 10%
loaded @ unity power factor for the rest of the day, the cipper
loss and core loss @ full load are 500 watts and 150 watts
respectively. Find the all-day efficiency.

Given: condition 1: (full load) t₁ = 3 hrs


KVA₁ = 25 KVA

• @ condition 2: (overload) t₂ = 1 hr

KVA2 = 1.2 (KVA1) PO2 = 30 (0.8)

= 1.2 (25) = 24 kw
= 30 KVA
@ condition 3: (half-load) t₃ = 6 hrs.

KVA₂ = 0.5 (KVA₁)


= 0.5 (25)
= 12.5 kva

@ condition 4: (underload) t₄ = 14 hrs

KVA₂ = 0.1 (KVA₁)


= 0.1 (25)
= 2.5 KVA

EL1 = 500 watts (0.5 kw) CL1 = 150 watts (0.15 kw)

Req’d: ŋd = ?
Solution: Wo = ЄPo x time

= W1 + W2 + W3 + W4

= (25)(0.9)(3) + (30)(0.8)(1) + (12.5)(1)(6)


+ (2.5)(1)(14)

Wo = 67.5 + 24 + 75 + 35

= 201.5 kw-hr

WEL = ЄEL x time

= EL1 + EL2 + EL3 + EL4

WEL = 3.04 kw-hr


WCL = ЄCL x time

= CL1 + CL2 + CL3 + CL4


= (0.15)(3) + (0.15)(1) + (0.15)(6) + (0.15)(14)
WCL = 3.6 kw-hr
Example problem:
the all day efficiency of a 10 kva single phase transformer is
94.7%, when loading as follows:

• Full load @ unity P.F. for 4 hrs


• No-load for the rest of the day

If the full load cupper loss and @ unity PF is 140 watts. Calculate
the value of core loss.

Given: ŋd = 94.7% CL1 = ?

KVA1 = 10 KVA KVA2 = 0

PF1 = 1 PF2 = 1

t1 = 4 hrs. T2 = 20 hrs

EL1 = 140 watts (0.14kw)


Req’d:
CL1 = ?

Solution:
WO = ЄP x time
= (10)(1)(4) + (0)(1)(20)
= 40 kw-hr
Problems on percent voltage regulation (%VR)

Case I:
if given data are in terms on Zep, Rep and Xep.
Example Problem:
A 10 kva, 2400/240 volt single phase transformer has the
following resistances and leakage reactances.

a) Find the voltage regulation @ full load and 0.8 lagging


b) What is %VR if the transformer is operating @ 25% overload
and 0.8 PF leading
c) What is %VR of the transformer when it is operating @
maximum efficiency @ unity power factor. Assume coreloss of
60 watts.

Given: rp = 3 ohms

rs = 0.03 ohms

Xp = 15 ohms

Xs = 0.15 ohm
Solution:
KVAP = KVAS = KVAoutput
(full or rated load)

Refer to primary side:

Rep = Rp + a2Rs Xep = Xp + a2Xs


= 3 + (10)2 (0.03) = 15 + (10)2 (0.15)
= 6 ohms = 30 ohms
Zep = Rep + jXep
= 6 + j30
= 30.59 ∠ 78.7
ohms
VPNL = Vp + IpZep
= 2400 ∠ 0o + (4.17 ∠ -36.87) (30.6 ∠
78.7)
= 2496 ∠ 1.9500 volts
a) %VR @ 0.8 lagging ( = -36.87)
b.) %VR @ 25% overload and 0.8 leading ( = 36.87)
c.) %VR @ maximum efficiency @ unity power factor

KVA’ = ?
EL1 = IP2Rep
= (4.17)2 (6)
= 104.33 watts
VPNL = VP + IP’Zep

= 2400 ∠ 00 + (3.16 ∠ 00)(30.6 ∠ 78.7)

= 2420.79 ∠ 2.240 volts


Example Problem:
a 200 kva transformer with impedance of 15% and the PF of
85% lagging. The primary voltage is 6000 volts while the full
load cupper loss is 15 kw. Find the percentage regulation at full
load.

Given: KVAP = KVAS = KVAout = 200 KVA


%Z = 15%
PF = 0.85 lag
cos = 0.85
 = 31.788
sin = 0.5268
VP = 6000 volts

EL1 = 15,000 watts


Req’d: %VR

Solution:
By applying formula

Case II
id the given data of transformer are in terms of %Z, %R & %X.
DERIVATION OF FORMULAS:

@ full load @ any kva load

Where

Divide %R₂ / %R₁


It follows:

@ full load @ any kva load

Divide %X₂ / %X₁

Voltage equation:
Transformer Testing Assumed: (step-down transformer) Vp  Vs

Where:
Vp = high voltage windage
Vs = low voltage windage

a) Short circuit test (sct)


Purpose: To determine the rated full load cupper loss

Procedure:
a) The low voltage side is short circuited.
b) All measuring AC instrument such as ammeter, voltmeter,
wattmeter are placed on the high voltage side.
c) Energize the high side by a small input voltage.
d) Then solve for; Zep, Rep, Xep.
Figure:
ammeter
Isc
variable
A
resistor
wattmeter

V shorted

+
Vin
HVW LVW
(primary) (secondary)
Where:
Ise = short circuit current on the low voltage side must be
equal to rated secondary current Is.

Observed readings in all instruments:

A – ammeter reading (AMR)


- Ip₁ - rated primary current
V – voltmeter reading (VMR)
- Vin – (2 5%) Vp
W – wattmeter reading (WMR)
- EL₁ - rated cupper loss.

Where:
Where:

@ full load:
b.) OPEN CIRCUIT TEST (OCT)
Purpose: To determine the total rated iron loss
(CORE LOSS).

Procedure:

a) the high winding (HVW) is open circuited “Danger High


Voltage.”
b) all AC measuring instruments are placed on low voltage side.
c) energized the low voltage side w/ only very small amount of
current.
FIGURE:

W V

Vin

autotransformer

VARIATION OF CORE LOSS


(separation of iron losses)
Note: All fomulas are derived by “Steinsmitz law” thru theory and
experiments.
VARIATION OF CORE LOSS (separation of iron losses)

Note: All formulas are derived by “Steinsmitz Law” thru theory an


d experiments.

1st topic: Variation of Copper Loss


a) Voltage Regulation
b) All Day efficiency
c) Maximum and ordinary efficiency

2nd topic: Variation of Core Loss


a)Steinsmitz Law
b)KVA sizing
EFFECTS WHEN CORELOSS ARE VARIED

a) If there is a change in the KVA load output


• Efficiency will change
• %VR will change
• Copper loss will change (very much affected)
• Core loss is constant

b.) If there is change in load power factor


• Efficiency will change
• %VR will change (very much affected)
• Copper loss is affected slightly
• Core loss is constant
c.) If there is c change in supply primary voltage
• Slightly change in efficiency
• %VR will change
• Copper loss is slightly
• Core loss will change (very much affected)

d.)
• Slight change in efficiency
• No change of %VR
• Copper loss is slightly affected
• Core loss will change (very much affected)
Formulas

Case 1: flux density is not constant Ph = Khfβm1.6

Pe = Kefβm2
Where:
f = frequency of the AC source

Kh = hysteresis constant of proportionality (depends on the


Ke = Eddy current constant of proportional (depends on the
quality and material of the core.)
lamination of core)

Where:
B = maximum flux density (not constant)
m
фm = maximum mutual flux
A = net cross-sectional area of the core
Ph = hysteresis loss; watts
Pe = eddy current loss; watts CLOSS = Ph + Pe

From Ep:
Ep = 4.44NpfФm x 10-8

Therefore:
Let K1 = design constant

Let K₂ = design constant


Note: in most cases approximate formula used:

Applying it to coreloss equivalent formula

1st Condition: (V₁ , f₁) 2nd Condition: (V₂ , f₂)


DIVIDE ②/①
CASE 1: flux density (βm) is not assumed to be constant.

CASE 2: flux density (βm) is assumed to be constant.

STEINMITZ LAW:

Ration:
Therefore:

Example Problem:

a 4400v, 60 hz transformer has a core loss of 840 watts of


which one-third is eddy current loss when the transformer is
connected to a 4600v, 50 hz source. Determine the value of
iron loss.

Note:
if the problem does not mentioned coreloss is constant
therefore, do not assume constant.
Given:
Vp₁ = 4400 v Vp₂ = 4600 v
f₁ = 60 hz f₂ = 50 hz
CL₁ = 840 w
Pe₁ = ⅓ (CL₁)
= ⅓ (840)
= 280 w

Req’d:
CL₂ = ?

Solution: (Case 1)
CL₂ = Ph₂ + Pe₂ ---------- working formula.
Example Problem:
a 25 cycles, 1000 kva transformer is applied to a 60 cps
system. The full load efficiency of the transformer at 25 cps is
98%. Half of the core, the hysteresis and eddy current loss are
equal at 25 cps. What would be the rating of this transformer
at 60 cps if the transformer was operated at rated voltage.

Given: f1 = 25 hz 2nd Condition:

KVA1 = 1000 kva f2 = 60 hz


ŋ₁ = 98% KVA2 = ?
EL1 = ½ TL1 Vp2 = ?
CL = ½ TL1
Req’d:
(EL = CL)
KVA2 = ?
Ph1 = Pe1 = ½ CL1
Solution: (Assume PF = 1) not mentioned.

Pe1 = Ph1 = 0.5 CL1

= 0.5 (10,205)

= 5,102.5 watts
@ 2nd condition: (assume Vp₁ = Vp₂)

(assume TL1 = TL2)

CL2 = Ph2 + Pe2

= 3017.56 + 5102.5

= 8116.08 watts
TL2 = CL2 + EL2

EL2 = TL2 – CL2


= 20410 – 8116.08
EL2 = 12,289.94 watts
Example Problem:
In a 400 v, 50 cps transformer the total iron loss is 2500 watts.
When the supplied potential voltage is 220 v at 25 cps, the
corresponding loss is 850 watts. Calculate the eddy current loss
at normal frequency and potential diff.

Given:
@ 1st month condition: @ 2nd condition:

VP1 = 400 v VP2 = 220 v

f1 = 50 cps f2 = 25 cps

CL1 = 2500 w CL2 = 850 w


Req’d:

Pe₁ = ?
Solution:

@ condition 1:

CL1 = Pe1 + Ph1

= Ke Vp12 + Kh

2500 = Ke (400)2 + Kh

2500 = 160000 Ke + 1392.88 Kh

Kh = 1.795 – 114.87 Ke ----- ①


@ condition 2:

CL2 = Pe2 + Ph2

850 = Ke (220)2 + Kh

850 = 48400 Ke + 811.17 Kh ------- ②

Substitute eq ① in ②

850 = 48400 Ke + 811.17 Kh


850 = 48400 Ke + 811.17 [ 1.795 – 114.87 Ke ]
850 = 48400 Ke + 1456 – 93,179.1 Ke
Example Problem:

A 60 hz, 200 KVA, three winding transformer is rated 2400


volts primary and their two secondary windings, one rated 600
V and the other at 240 volts. There are 200 primary turns and
the rating of each secondary winding is 100 KVA. Calculate the
current in primary when rated current flows @ PF = 1. In the
240 V winding and also rated current flows @ 0.707 lagging in
the 600 volt windings.

Given: f = 60 Hz
KVA2 = 100 KVA VS1 = 600 V

KVA = 200 KVA VS2 = 240 V


PF2 = 1
PF1 = 0.707 lag
KVA1 = 100 KVA 1 = 00
1 = -450
Req’d: Ip = ?

Solution:
load load
1 2

From the diagram:


Example Problem:

A transformer consist of a primary winding with 500 turns and


two secondary windings of 125 turns and 36 turns. The 125-
turn secondary windings has 60 ohms. Connected to its
terminals and the 36-turn secondary winding has 3 ohms
connected to its terminal. If the primary is connected to a 120-
v, 60 hz source, determine the current in primary windings.

Given:
Np = 500 turns Z₁ = 60 ohms
N₁ = 125 turns Z₂ = 3 ohms
N₂ = 36 turns Vp = 120 v
f = 60 hz
FIGURE:

load load
1 2

For currents:

From the figure:


Three-Phase Transformer Connections:

There are only 4 possible transformer combinations:

1. Delta to Delta - use: industrial applications

2. Delta to Wye - use : most common; commercial and industrial

3. Wye to Delta - use : high voltage transmissions

4. Wye to Wye - use : rare, don't use causes harmonics and


balancing problems.

A three- phase transformer is made of three of sets of primary


and secondary windings. Each set wound around one leg of an
iron core assembly. Essentially it looks like three single –phase
transformer sharing a joined core as in fig. below.
Three phase transformer core has three sets of windings.
Those sets of primary and secondary windings will be connected
in either Δ or Y configurations to form a complete unit.
Whether the winding sets share a common core assembly or
each winding pair is a separate transformer, the winding
connection options are the same:

• Primary - Secondary
• Y - Y
• Y - Δ
• Δ - Y
• Δ - Δ
• The reasons for choosing a Y or Δ configuration for transformer
winding connections are the same as for any other three-phase
application: Y connections provide the opportunity for multiple
voltages, while Δ connections enjoy a higher level of reliability
(if one winding fails open, the other two can still maintain full
line voltages to the load).

• Probably the most important aspect of connecting three sets of


primary and secondary windings together to form a three-
phase transformer bank is paying attention to proper winding
phasing (the dots used to denote “polarity” of windings).
Remember the proper phase relationships between the phase
windings of Δ and Y: (Figure below)
• (Y) The center point of the “Y” must tie either all the “-” or all
the “+” winding points together. (Δ) The winding polarities
must stack together in a complementary manner ( + to -).

• Getting this phasing correct when the windings aren't shown in


regular Y or Δ configuration can be tricky. Let me illustrate,
starting with Figure below.
Three individual transformers are to be connected together to
transform power from one three-phase system to another. First,
I'll show the wiring connections for a Y-Y configuration: Figure
below.

Phase wiring for “Y-Y” transformer.


ADVANTAGE OF (3ф) THREE PHASE TRANSFORMER vs.
THREE OF SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER.

a) It is cheaper and economical to operate.


b) It requires lesser space to mount the transformer.

DISADVANTAGE OF THREE PHASE (3ф) TRANSFORMER vs.


SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER.

a) If one winding becomes disabled the entire operation is


affected, thereby power is interrupted.
b) In 3 of 1ф, when one transformer becames disabled, the
remaining two transformer can be re-bank in open-delta (V) so
that service can be continued although at reduce capacity
(57.7%) while the damage transformer is being repaired.
Phase wiring for “Y-Δ” transformer.
Equivalent Circuit Diagram:

X Ip = Iф Is 1

Ap As

Bp Bs
Y Cp Cs 2

Z 3

This connection is most economical for small high voltage


transformer because the number of turns per phase and the
amount of insulation is minimum. The transformer works
satisfactorily only if the load is BALANCE.
Phase wiring for “Δ-Y” transformer.
EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Ip = Iф
X

Y
Bp Ap 2

Cs As

Cp Bs
2
Z 3

The main used of this is at substation and of the transmission


where the voltage is to be stepped down. The primary is
always Y-connected with grounded neutral to allow the flow of
zero sequence current in the even of SLGF, source line to
ground fault and DLGF, double line to ground fault
Phase wiring for “Δ-Δ” transformer.
EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

Iф = Is
1

2
X
As
Bs
Ap Cp
Bp
Y Cs

Z 3

This transformer is generally where it is necessary to step-


up the voltage at the beginning at high transmission
lines.
“V” or “open-Δ” provides 2-φ power with only two transformers.
This configuration is called “V” or “Open-Δ.” Of course, each of
the two transformers have to be oversized to handle the same
amount of power as three in a standard Δ configuration, but
the overall size, weight, and cost advantages are often worth
it. Bear in mind, however, that with one winding set missing
from the Δ shape, this system no longer provides the fault
tolerance of a normal Δ-Δ system. If one of the two
transformers were to fail, the load voltage and current would
definitely be affected.
EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

2
X

Cs As
Ap Cp
Bs
Bp
Y 2

Z 3

This connection is economical for large low voltage transformer


which insulation problem is not so urgent because it increases
the number of turns per phase. No difficulty is experienced
from unbalanced load.
Figure 1-1: Wye-Delta connection
Figure 1-2: Delta-Wye connection
Delta Connections:

• A delta system is a good short-distance distribution system. It


is used for neighborhood and small commercial loads close to
the supplying substation. Only one voltage is available between
any two wires in a delta system. The delta system can be
illustrated by a simple triangle. A wire from each point of the
triangle would represent a three-phase, three-wire delta
system. The voltage would be the same between any two wires
(see figure 1-3).
Figure 1-3:
Wye Connections:
Figure 1-4:
Connecting Single-Phase Transformers into a Three-Phase
Bank:

• If three phase transformation is need and a three phase


transformer of the proper size and turns ratio is not available,
three single phase transformers can be connected to form a
three phase bank. When three single phase transformers are
used to make a three phase transformer bank, their primary
and secondary windings are connected in a wye or delta
connection. The three transformer windings in figure 1-5 are
labeled H1 and the other end is labeled H2. One end of each
secondary lead is labeled X1 and the other end is labeled X2.
Figure 1-5:
Figure 1-6 shows three single phase transformers labeled A, B,
and C. The primary leads of each transformer are labeled H1
and H2 and the secondary leads are labeled X1 and X2. The
schematic diagram of figure 1-5 will be used to connect the
three single phase transformers into a three phase wye-delta
connection as shown in figure 1-7.
Figure 1-6:
Figure 1-7:
Open Delta Connection:

The open delta transformer connection can be made with only


two transformers instead of three (figure 1-8). This connection
is often used when the amount of three phase power needed is
not excessive, such as a small business. It should be noted
that the output power of an open delta connection is only 57%
of the rated power of the two transformers. For example,
assume two transformers, each having a capacity of 25 kVA,
are connected in an open delta connection. The total output
power of this connection is 43.5 kVA (50 kVA x 0.87 = 43.5
kVA).
Figure 1-8: Open Delta Connection
• Another figure given for this calculation is 87%. This
percentage assumes a closed delta bank containing 3
transformers. If three 25 kVA transformers were connected to
form a closed delta connection, the total output would be 75
kVA (3 x 25 = 75 kVA). If one of these transformers were
removed and the transformer bank operated as an open delta
connection, the output power would be reduced to 58% of its
original capacity of 75 kVA. The output capacity of the open
delta bank is 43.5 kVA (75 kVA x .58% = 43.5 kVA).
The voltage and current values of an open delta connection are
computed in the same manner as a standard delta-delta
connection when three transformers are employed. The voltage
and current rules for a delta connection must be used when
determining line and phase values of voltage current.

Closing a Delta:
• When closing a delta system, connections should be checked
for proper polarity before making the final connection and
applying power. If the phase winding of one transformer is
reversed, an extremely high current will flow when power is
applied. Proper phasing can be checked with a voltmeter at
delta opening.
If power is applied to the transformer bank before the delta
connection is closed, the voltmeter should indicate 0 volts. If
one phase winding has been reversed, however, the voltmeter
will indicate double the amount of voltage.

It should be noted that a voltmeter is a high impedance device. It


is not unusual for a voltmeter to indicate some amount of
voltage before the delta is closed, especially if the primary has
been connected as a wye and the secondary as a delta. When
this is the case, the voltmeter will generally indicate close to
the normal output voltage if the connection is correct and
double the output voltage if the connection is incorrect.
Over current Protection for the Primary:
• Electrical Code Article 450-3(b) states that each transformer
600 volts, nominal or less, shall be protected by an individual
over current device on the primary side, rated or set at not
more than 125% of the rated primary current of the
transformer. Where the primary current of a transformer is 9
amps or more and 125% of this current does not correspond
to a standard rating of a fuse or nonadjustable circuit breaker,
the next higher standard rating shall be permitted. Where the
primary current is less than 9 amps, an over current device
rated or set at not more than 167% of the primary current shall
be permitted. Where the primary current is less than 2 amps,
an overcurrent device rated or set at not more than 300% shall
be permitted.
Example #1:
What size fuses is needed on the primary side to protect a 3
phase 480v to 208v 112.5 kVA transformer?
• Important when dealing with 3 phase applications always use
1.732 (square root of 3).

To solve: P / I x E
• 112.5 kVA X 1000 = 112500 VA
• 112500 VA divided by 831 (480 x 1.732) = 135.4 amps
• Since the transformer is more than 9 amps you have to use
125 %.
• 135.4 X 1.25 = 169 amps.
Answer: 175 amp fuses (the next higher standard, Electrical
Code 240-6).
Example #2:

• What size breaker is needed on the primary side to protect a 3


phase 208v to 480v 3kVA transformer?

To solve: P / I x E
• 3kVA X 1000 = 3000 VA
• 3000 VA divided by 360 (208 x 1.732) = 8.3 amps
• Since the transformer is 9 amps or less you have to use 167%.
• 8.3 X 1.67 = 13.8 amps

Answer: 15 amp breaker (preferably a 20 amp breaker)


• Electrical Code Article 450-3(b)(2) states if a transformer 600
v, nominal, or less, having a an overcurrent device on the
secondary side rated or set at not more than 125% of the
rated secondary current of the transformer shall not be
required to have an individual overcurrent device on the
primary side if the primary feeder overcurrent device is rated
or set at a current value not more than 250% of the rated
primary current of the transformer.
Over current Protection for the Secondary:

• Electrical Code Article 450-3(b)(2) states that a transformer


600 v, nominal, or less, shall be protected by an individual over
current device on the secondary side, rated or set at not more
than 125% of the rated secondary current of the transformer.
Where the secondary current of a transformer is 9 amps or
more and 125% of this current does not correspond to a
standard rating of a fuse or nonadjustable circuit breaker, the
next higher standard rating shall be permitted. Where the
secondary current is less than 9 amps, an overcurrent device
rated or set at not more than 167% of the secondary current
shall be permitted.
Example:

• What size breaker is needed on the secondary side to protect a


3 phase 480v/208v 112.5 kVA transformer?

To solve : P / I x E
• 112.5 kVA x 1000 = 112500 VA
• 112500 divided by 360 (208 x 1.732) = 312.5 amps
• 312.5 X 1.25 = 390.6 amps
EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

X 1

Ap As

Cp
Cs
Y 2
Z 3

Note:

This is a method of transformer 3ф power by means only “Two


Transformer.
It is employed when:

a) Three phase load is too small to warrant to installation of full


phase transformer.

b) When one of the transformer in a delta-delta bank (∆∆) is


disabled, so that us continued at reduced capacity until the
faulty transformer is repaired or a new one is substituted.

c) When it is anticipated that in the future, the load will increase


necessitating the closing of open delta.
F.) SCOTT or T-CONNECTION:

Equivalent Circuit Diagram

86.6%
C 4

3
50%
A B

1 2

This connection is used to transform 3ф system to 2ф system or


vice versa. It consist of 2 identical 1ф x 4mer one having a
50% tap & the other an 86.6% tap on their primary windings.
CLOSED DELTA BANK

L
O
A
D

Let:
Note:

OPEN-DELTA BANK

3
ф

L
O
A
D
Example Problem:
two transformer are connected open delta delivering a load of
100 KVA at a power factor of 0.8 lagging. Calculate the power
delivered by each x’4mer?

Given:
SL = 100 KVA

L = 0.8 lagging
= -36.870 3ф

Req’d: T-1 T-2 L 100


O
KVA
A
D
Example Problem:
two single phase distribution transformer connected in open
delta will supply power to a 200 Hp, 3ф induction motor
operating at 0.707 OF and 90% efficiency. Solve the minimum
size in KVA of each transformer needed to supply the power
without being over loaded.

Given:
Example Problem:
An electrical utility company is supplied by two single phase
x’4mers bank in rated 75 KVA capacity. What is the maximum
3ф load in kw that the bank can carry without overloading
considering that the load has a lagging PF of 0.8.

Given:
Example Problem:
Three single phase (3ф) transformer each rated 75 KVA are
bank in delta supplying a 3ф load drawing 160 KVA at 0.8
lagging PF. If one x’4mer has burned out and is removed for
repair, solve for the amount of overloading of the remaining
units.
Given:
Example Problem:
An open-delta bank, consisting of two single phase x’4mers is
operating with a balance 3ф load of 50 KVA, 440 V at 0.8 PF
lag and a single phase load of 10 kw resistive connected across
AC leg. Determine minimum ratings of the two x’4mers.
Assume a phase sequence a-b-c.

Given:

50
a 10 kw kva
0.8
lag
C Icc L
T-1 T-2 O
440 V A
N D

b Ibb
a Ia
C L 10kw 440 v
PF = 1

Ic
N
Example Problem:
a 3ф transformer connected on delta on the primary side step
down. The voltage from 13200 v – 460 v and delivers 750 kva, 0.8
PF lagging to the load. Calculate:

a) Transformation ratio
b) The current delivered to the load
c) The current in primary line wires
d) The current that flows in the transformer winding

Given:
∆ Connected SL = 750 kva
Vp = 13200 V PFL = 0.8 lag
Vs = 460 V
Req’d: a, ISL, IPL and IpФ = ?
Example Problem:
A power transformer rated 50,000 KVA, 34.5/13.8 kvolts is
connected Y-Y. what are the line currents at full load.

Given:
Example Problem:
A power transformer is rated 50,000 KVA 34.5/13.8 kvolts is
connected Y-Grounded on the primary and delta on the
secondary. Determine the full load phase currents on the
secondary side.

Given:
Y (grounde) = ∆ connection
IpL

Ipф

N
Example Problem:
What should be the turns ratio of the 3ф transformers that
transform from 230 kvolts to 4160 volts if the transformer is to
be connected Y-∆ & ∆-Y

Given:
PARALLEL OPERATION OF TRANSFORMER
requirements to be met for ideal operation of two or more
transformers in parallel.

a)The voltage rating of both primary and secondary windings must


be identical.

Note: if this condition is not fulfilled or met, there will be a current


that will circulate through the transformer secondaries which
contribute to the transformer loss.

b.) The transformer must be properly connected with regards


to their polarity.
Note: if this condition is not met, there will be a large current that
will circulate in the transformer secondaries and will
damage the windings.

c.) the equivalent impedance must be inversely proportional to


their respective KVA rating.

Note:
if this condition is not met, the transformer will not share
the load in proportion to their respective KVA ratings. A possibility
that the large transformer operates at a underload condition while
smaller transformer operates at overload conditions.
d.) The ratio of the equivalent resistances (Res) and reactances
(Xes) referred to the secondary side must be the same.

Note:
if this condition is not met each transformer will operate at
different power factor with that of the connected load.

e.) in the case of 3ф transformer to be connected in parallel, it


should be of the same winding connections:

∆-∆ to be connected to ∆-∆


or
∆-Y to be connected to ∆-Y
Note: if this condition is not met there will be a current that will
circulate will be a current that will circulate through the
secondary windings and will contribute to the transformer
losses.
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

1. All circuit diagrams for convenient purposes must be referred


to the secondary winding.

OR
2.) Always perform vector addition for apparent power and
current.
When connected in parallel:
CASE 1: (Equal turn Ration)
5. KVA rating of each transformer is not necessary.
Example Problem:
two transformer are connected in parallel supplying a common
load of 175 KVA @ 0.8 PF lag. Both transformer has a voltage
rating of 2300/230 V single phase and each rated 100 KVA.
Transformer 1 has equivalent impedance of 16 ohms and that
of transformer 2 is 13 ohms. Referred both to the primary. Find
KVA load in each transformer.

Given:
CASE2: (equal turn ratio)
Example Problem:
Determine the KW ratio of the KW output of transformer T-1 to
that transformer T-2 when they are connected in parallel
supplying a load of 150 KW @ 0.8 PF lagging.

Given:
CASE 3: (Equal Turn Ratio)

1. If given is percent (%) or per unit impedance, either in


absolute or with equal angle.

2. Use algebraic addition


Example Problem:
A 125 KVA distribution transformer w/ 4% impedance is
connected in parallel w/ another transformer rated 75 KVA and
3%, both have the same voltage ratio. Neglect the resistance
of each transformer, the total load is 140 KVA at 80% PF
lagging, how much load does it carry?
CASE IV: (Equal turn ration)
1. If given is percent (%) or per unit impedance but of different
angle

2. Use vector addition.

4. KVA rating of each transformer is necessary.


MODIFIED FORMULAS:
Sample Problem:
A 500 KVA single phase transformer “A” w/ percentage
impedance of 0.01 + j 0.05 is to be connected in parallel w/ a
250 KVA transformer “B” w/ percentage impedance of 0.015 +
j 0.04. if they are serving single phase load rated 800 KVA @
0.8 PF lagging, determine the power factor of each
transformer. Assuming the transformer have the same turn
ration.
For both case 3 and 4:

Note: if the individual rated KVA rating of each transformer is not


given used this formula. With percent (%) or per
unit impedance given,
Example Problem:
Meralco has two single phase transformer w/equal turns ratio
and ratings are operating at in parallel to supply a load of 280
kw @ 0.8 PF lagging. Transformer “A” has resistance of 2% and
a reactance 8% while transformer “B: has a resistance of 1%
and reactance of 6%. Determine the power delivered by
transformer A and B to the load.
LOAD OPERATIONS FOR TRANSFORMER’S W/ UNEQUAL
TURN’S RATIO:

Where:
AUTO-TRANSFORMER

defined as a transformer in which part of the winding is


common to both primary and secondary.

its and electrically continuous winding w/one or more taps on a


magnetic core. One circuit is connected to the end of terminals
while the other is connected to one end terminal and to a part
way along the winding.

in general, an autotransformer is both magnetically and


electrically linked.
Notes:
a) Always assumed auto-transformer efficiency of 100% if not
specified.
b) If efficiency is equal to 100%
Example Problem:

An auto-transformer designed for 4,000 to 2300 volts


operation supplies a load of 32 kw at a power factor of 0.8

Calculate:

a) The transform power


b) The power conducted
Example Problem:
A 5KVA, 2300/460 V distribution transformer is to be
connected as an auto transformer to step-up. The voltage from
2300V to 2760V. When used to transform 5KVA. Calculate the
kilovolt-ampere load output.
Example Problem:
A 20 kva, 500 V load is to be supplied by an ideal step-up
auto-transformer from 400v source. Find the current in the
common winding.
l
o
a
d
AC MOTORS

1. Induction Motor (3ф) – is simply a rotating electrical


machines which convert electrical power (energy output).

a) Synchronous Speed (Ns) – is defined at which the


rotating flux rotates. It is the speed of synchronous
generator (as generator or alternator) that supplies all the
load connected to it or it is called the speed of incoming
source.

WHERE:
Ns = synchronous speed in RPM
f = frequency of the incoming source supplying the
induction motor. Stator frequency.
P = number of poles of the machine.

Is known as the actual speed of induction motor. It is the


speed written on its nameplate in RPM. It is measured by
means of instrument “Tachometer”

c. Slip (S) – rotor of an induction motor rotates somewhat less


than the synchronous speed of the rotating magnetic
flux. The difference of the synchronous speed and the actual
speed is known as SLIP.
2 MAIN PARTS OF INDUCTION MOTOR

1. STATOR – stationary part; It is the one that receives


electrical power from the AC SOURCE by means of
conduction. When compared to a transformer, it is
considered as the primary winding.

2. ROTOR – rotating part; it is the one that delivers the


mechanical power output to the load and takes power from
the stator via the airgap by means of a electromagnetic
induction.

When compared to a transformer it is considered to be the


secondary winding.
TYPES OF INDUCTION MOTOR

a) Squirrel cage type


b) Wound rotor type

air gap

STATOR ROTOR

air gap

SPI RPD
STATOR ROTOR
RPO
RPI

SCL COL RCL F&W


Example Problem
A 6 pole, 50 hz, 3ф induction motor runs at 960 RPM while
delivering a shaft torque of 120 n-m. if friction and windage
loss amount to 180 watts, determine the rotor copper loss.

SPI RPI RPD


STATOR ROTOR
RPO

SCL CL RCL F&W


Example Problem:
A 3ф, 220 v, 60 Hz, 4 pole induction motor drives a “Fan”
which provides 40 m³/sec of air requirement to furnace.
Assume an efficiency of 60% and 150mm of H ₂0 gage
pressure. Determine the current drawn by the induction motor
if eff. and power factor is 80% and 70% respectively.
FPO
ŋ-80% ŋ-60%
air
SPI RPI
STATOR ROTOR
RPO

(RPO=FPI)
TEST PERFORMED IN AN INDUCTION MOTOR

a) No Load Test – this test is similar to open ckt test performed


in a transformer.

Purpose: To be able to determine the value of constant “stry


power loss (SPL)”

@ No load condition:
b.) Blocked Rotor Test
this test is similar to short circuit test performed in a
transformer. During this test the rotor is blocked and the rotor
windings are short circuited, cut slip rings if the motor has a
wound rotor. A reduced voltage is applied to the stator
terminals and is so adjusted that full load current flows in the
stator. The values of the current voltage and power input are
measured.

Purpose:
To determine the equivalent resistance per phase referred on
the stator side
c.) Load Test
- Motor is loaded with its normal load or visual load.
- During this test, the motor is loaded. The problem should
clearly specified what is the specified load on the motor.
- This is not an assurance that the motor is tested at full
load.
Example Problem:
A 5 hp, 6 pole, 3ф, 60 Hz induction motor operates with a slip
of 2% and requires 11 amp and 3500 watts, when during its
visual load. When the rotor is blocked, 440 watts at 52 volts
are required to circulate a current of 14 amp. Calculate the
following when motor is driving its visual load.

a) Horsepower output
b) Torque Excerted
c) Efficiency (Assume Y-connected stator)

Given:
SPI RPI RPD
STATOR ROTOR
RPO

SCL CL RCL F&W


Example Problem:
A 440 v, 60 Hz, 4 pole, 3ф wound rotor induction motor is
directly connected to a pump which delivers 1000 cfm of water
against an effective head of 8.7 ft. under this load, the motor
drains 15.62 kw at a power factor of 0.92 when rated at no
load. When the motor drains 803 watts, the rotor resistance
per phase is 0.022 ohm while stator resistance per phase is
0.202 ohm. The effective turn ration between stator and rotor
is 4:1. calculate the pump efficiency?

Given:
H20

8.7 ft

Pop
M P
Example Problem:
A 4 pole, 60 Hz, 3ф induction motor draws 8200 watts from
the line. The losses in the machines are:

SCL = 300 watts


RCL = 160 watts
CoL = 400 watts
F & W = 130 watts

Calculate the torque output:

SPI RPI RPD


STATOR ROTOR
RPO

SCL CL RCL F&W


CASE 2:

Note: When the given data regarding core loss and friction
and windage (F & W) are incorporated as one in the stray
power loss (SPL).

air gap

SPI RPD
STATOR ROTOR

SCL
RCL

SPL=(F&W)+CL
Example Problem:
A 6 pole, 3ф, 60 Hz induction motor takes 48 kw in power at
1140 RPM. The stator copper loss is 1.6 kw and stray power
losses are 1 kw. Find the eff.

SPI RPI RPD = RPO


STATOR ROTOR

SCL SPL RCL


Example Problem:
A 230 v, 8ф, 4 pole, 60 Hz squirrel cage induction motor
operating at 90% efficiency & 85% PF and 2.5% slips drives a
pump for reservoir. Determine the current taken from the line
if the discharge rate is 475 GPM and the total head of which
the pump is working 200 ft. Assume pump efficiency of 80%.
water
reservior

Pom Pip
Pop
200 ft
SPI
M P
DC RESISTANCE TEST OR OHMIC TEST.

– This is exactly the same test applied on the alternator to


solve for value of ohmic resistance of the stator per phase.

– When this test is applied blocked rotor test is no longer


necessary.

Blocked Rotor Test

Resф – effective or AC equivalent resistance per phase


referred to the stator. (Rotor is included)

During DC Resistance Test


Resф – effective or AC resistance per phase of the stator
alone. (Rotor is not included)
Open
Terminal
Stator
Winding
Stator
Winding
Example Problem:
A 400 V, 60 Hz, 6 Pole, Y connected 3ф induction motor draws
75 kw with a line current of 100 amp, the core loss is 2 kw,
friction and windage loss is 1.2 kw, the stator resistance
between two terminals is 0.35 ohm. What is the efficiency if
the motor runs at a slip of 2.5%
Solution:

SPI RPI RPD


STATOR ROTOR
RPO

SCL +CL RCL F&W


RPD (electro mechanical)
RPI
ROTOR
(electrical) RPO

RCL
(electrical) F&W
(mechanical)
Example Problem:
A 40 Hp, 230 v, 8 pole, 25 Hz 3ф induction motor is running at
355 RPM @ rated load. The torque lost by friction is 24 n-m. if
the total stator loss is 1000 watts. Calculate the eff.of the
motor at this load.
Solution:

RPI RPO
ROTOR

RCL
STARTING AN INDUCTION MOTOR

1. All formulas derived are applicable to all type of AC motors and


DC motors.

2. During staring, the current by the motor is too high about (5 to


7times its full load value) simply because at the instant of
starting, the motor is not rotating and the slip is 1.0 and the
counter emf or back emf is zero.

3. Motors should be protected at the instant of starting to prevent


damage on the windings and to lessen the effect on the other
equipment connected on the same line wires.

Note: for small motors (usually 10 hp below) use across the line,
magnetic starter (full voltage starting method)
The starting line current is always proportional to the starting line
voltage:

The starting torque (Ts) is always proportional to the square of


the starting line voltage:

For two condition problem:


1st condition: use subscript “1”

2nd condition: use subscript “2”

Ratio
Where:
Vs – starting line voltage
Ts – starting torque
Is - starting current
Td – rated or full load torque developed
IL – rated or full load current
Example Problem:
A 25 hp, 230 volt, 3ф induction motor with 85% PF has a
starting current of 5.5 times its rated current. To reduced the
starting current, at “Y-∆” starter is installed. What will be the
new starting current?

Given:
Example Problem:
A 10 hp, 550v, 3ф induction motor has a starting torque of
160% of full load torque and a starting current of 425% of full
load current. If the motor is used on 440v, 60hz system. What
will be the starting torque express in percent of full load value?
Example Problem
An induction motor of 30 hp, 220v, 3ф, draws 450% of rated
current with rated voltage and delivers during the starting
period of 130% of the normal torque. The full load efficiency of
the motor and full load PF is 80% and 70% respectively. If the
auto-transformer unit is used as a starting unit and the
starting torque of the loads is only 50% of the rated torque of
the motor. Find the starting current of the line.
REDUCED VOLTAGE METHOD FOR LARGE 3ф MOTORS

1. Y-∆ starter (Y-start ; ∆-run)

2. Part winding method

3. Auto-transformer method

4. Line resistance method

5. Line reactance method

6. Wound rotor starting


FULL VOLTAGE STARTING METHOD

Line 1

Line 2

Line 3 Start
Stop
OLR Coil
Circuit
Breaker

Normally
Open

Overload
Relay

Motor
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR

TYPES OF S.M.

1. Under-Excited Synchronous M. – normally operates at a


lagging power factor.

2. Normally-Excited Synchronous M. – operates at unity


power factor.

3. Over-Excited Synchronous M. – operates at leading power


factor.
CHARACTERISTICS OF SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR

1. It runs a definite constant speed called synchronous speed.

2. It is not self-starting, it needs amortisseur winding.

3. It can be operated over a wide range of power factors hence it


can be used for power factor correction.

AMORTISSEUR WINDING – it is case winding with bars


embedded in the rotor pole faces of a synchronous and shorted
at each end rings to make the rotor self starting in dumping
out hunting.
Field
Rheostat

ίƒ
field circuit

separately

Vf excited by Vф

DC source
Supply
Voltage
armature
circuit
Notations:
If – DC shield current taken from the exciter

Vf – DC field exciter voltage

Reф – effective or AC resistance per phase of the armature

Xsф – synchronous reactance per phase of the armature


winding.
Zsф – synchronous impedance per phase of the armature
winding.
Vф – supply AC voltage per phase (rated or nameplate
voltage)
Iф – supply armature phase current
Ecф – back or counter emf developed in the armature per
phase.

VOLTAGE EQUATION (in general):

Where:
 - deflection angle
- torque angle
Electrical Mechanical

Pin Pd Pd Po
ARMATURE

SPL
Notes:

1. If the types of motor is not specified to be 3ф or 1ф, “always


consider the motor as 1ф”.

2. If the synchronous motor is used for power factor correction


purposes. It is understood and considered to operate always at
leading power factor (over excited sm)

3. If the field winding is not mentioned, then it is considered as


ZERO.
Example Problem:
The output of a 200 v synchronous motor taking a current of
20 amp is 4 hp. Effective armature armature resistance is 0.5
ohms. The iron and friction losses amount to 400 watts. What
is the power factor of the machine.
Pin Pd Pd
ARMATURE
Example Problem:
A 20hp, 440v, 3ф, star connected sm has an armature
effective resistance per phase of 0.4 ohm at full load output,
the power factor is 0.9 leading, the iron and friction losses
amount to 500w. What is the value of armature line current?
Pin Pd Pd
ARMATURE
Example Problem:
A 500v, 1ф sm gives a net mechanical power of 7.46 kw and
operates at 0.9 lagging PF, its effective resistance is 0.8 ohm.
If the iron and friction losses are 500 w and excitation losses
are 800 w. estimate the armature current. Calculate the
commercial efficiency.
Pin Pd
ARMATURE
Example Problem:
A 2300-v, 3ф star connected synchronous motor has a
resistance of 0.2 ohm per phase and a sm reactance of 2.2
ohm per phase. The motor is operating at 0.5 PF leading with a
line current of 200 amp. Determine the value of the generated
emf per phase.
Another Solution:
Example Problem:
A 100 v, synchronous motor having 40% reactance and a
negligible resistance is to be operated at rated load

a) Unity
b) 0.8 lag
c) 0.8 leading

What are the values of induced emf is?