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The Vitamins are necessary auxiliaries in metabolism. They combine with specific proteins, as parts
of various oxidative enzyme systems which are concerned with the breakdown of carbohydrates,
proteins, and fat in the body. Thus, they are intimately involved in the mechanism which releases
energy, carbon dioxide and water as the end products of metabolism.

Vitamins can be broadly divided into Fat Soluble and Water Soluble Vitamins. Vitamins A D
E and K are fat-soluble vitamins. Vitamins B ( B1 B2 B6 B12 ) and C are water-soluble.

Vitamin - A
Year 1913
Essential for normal growth and development.
Main Metabolic For normal function of epithelical cells and normal development of teeth and
Function bones.
Prevents Night blindness.
Retarded growth.
Reduced resistance to infection.
Deficiency - Effects Abnormal function of gastrointestinal, and respiratory tracts due to altered
epithelial membranes.
Interferes with production of "night purple".
Milk, Egg yolk, Ghee, Butter, Carrots, Tomatoes, Leafy and Yellow
vegetables, Cod liver oil and Fresh fruits.
Nature Fat-Soluble
Year 1936
An important aid in carbohydrate metabolism.
Main Metabolic Needed for Proper functioning of the digestive tract and nervous system.
Function Beriberi.
Loss of muscle.
Loss of appetite.
Deficiency - Effects Impaired digestion of starches and sugars.
Various nervous disorder coordination.
Available Peas, Beans and Cereals.
Nature Water-Soluble
Vitamin - B2
Year 1935
Main Metabolic Needed in formation of certain enzymes and in cellular oxidation.
Function Prevents inflammation of oral mucous membranes and the tongue.
Impaired growth, lassitude and weakness.
Deficiency - Effects Causes cheillosis or glossittis.
May result in Photophobia and cataracts.
Available Peas, Beans and Cereals.
Nature Water-Soluble

Vitamin - B6
Year 1934
Acts as do other B vitamins.
Main Metabolic
To break down protein, carbohydrate and fat.
Acts as a catalyst in the formation of niacin from tryptophan.
Increased irritability, convulsions and peripheral neuritis.
Deficiency - Effects
Anorexia, nausea and vomiting.
Available Peas, Beans and Cereals.
Nature Water-Soluble

Vitamin - B12
Year 1948
Main Metabolic Essential for development of red blood cells.
Function Required for maintenance of skin, nerve tissues, bone and muscles.
Results in pernicious anaemia.
Deficiency - Effects
Weakness, fatigue, sore and cracked lips.
Available Peas, Beans and Cereals.
Nature Water-Soluble

Vitamin - C
Year 1919
Ascorbic Acid
Needed for form the cementing substance, collagen, in various tissues (skin,
Main Metabolic
dentine, cartilage and bone matrix).
Assists in woundhealing and bone fractures.
Lowered resistance to infections.
Susceptibility to dental cavities, pyotthea and bleeding gums.
Deficiency - Effects
Delayed wound healing.
Specific treatment for Scurvy.
Fresh vegetables, Lemon, Orange, Tomatoes, Cabbage , Turnip and Lettuce
Nature Water-Soluble
Year 1925
Main Metabolic Requlates absorption of calcium and phosphorus from the intestinal tract.
Function Affords antiachitic activity.
Interferes with utilisation of calcium and phosphorus in bone and teeth
Deficiency - Effects formation.
Development of bone disease, rickets and caries.
Available Butter, Milk, Ghee, Cod liver oil, Yolk of Eggs and also in Sunrays.
Nature Fat-Soluble

Vitamin - E
Year 1936
Main Metabolic Protects tissues, cell membranes and Vitamin A against peroxidation.
Function Helps strengthen red blood cells.
Deficiency - Effects Decreased red blood cell resistance to rupture.
Available Germinating Wheat.
Nature Fat-Soluble

Vitamin - K
Year 1935
Main Metabolic Essential for formation of normal amounts of prothrombin and blood
Function coagulation.
diminished blood clotting time.
Deficiency - Effects
Increased incidence of hemorrhages.
Available Fish, Wheat and Oats.
Nature Fat-Soluble