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A Proposed Design of a Three-Storey Library Integrated Building

Located in Ibabang Dupay Lucena City

A Project Study

Presented to the Faculty of the

College of Engineering

Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation

University Site, Lucena City

In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements

For the Degree

Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering

By

Bryan G. Canada

Reynald Vincent P. Co

Irene R. Pastrana

Matthew Simon D. San Miguel

March, 2016
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APPROVAL SHEET

This project study here to entitled:

“A PROPOSED DESIGN OF A THREE-STOREY LIBRARY INTEGRATED

BUILDING LOCATED IN IBABANG DUPAY LUCENA CITY”

prepared and submitted by BRYAN G. CANADA, REYNALD VINCENT P. CO, IRENE R.

PASTRANA and MATTHEW SIMON D. SAN MIGUEL in partial fulfilment of the

requirements for the Degree Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering has been examined

and is hereby recommended for acceptance and approval for Final Examination

ENGR. RAMELA BARLIZO – RAMIREZ


Adviser

Approved by the Committee on Oral Examination with a grade of _____________%.

DR. GUILLERMO M. RAGO JR.


Chairman

ENGR. CIELITO V. MALIGALIG ENGR. MA. LUISA B. CANELA


Member Member

Accepted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of

Science in Civil Engineering.

DR. GUILLERMO M. RAGO JR.


Dean, College of Engineering
Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation

March, 2016
Date
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ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Foremost, the researchers would like to express their sincere gratitude to their adviser

Engr. Ramela B. Ramirez for the continuous support of their study and research, for her

patience, motivation, enthusiasm, and immense knowledge. Her guidance helped them in all

the time of research and writing of this thesis. They could not have imagined having a better

adviser and mentor for this study.

Besides their adviser, they would like to thank the rest of their thesis committee:

Engr. Cielito V. Maligalig, Engr. Ma. Luisa B. Canela and Dr. Guillermo M. Rago Jr., for

their encouragement, insightful comments, and hard questions.

To Arch. Rommel Co and future architect Aljon Pastrana, for sharing their knowledge

in modern architecture design.

To their PICE family and the mischievous bunch of future civil engineers BSCE

2016, there shall never be a batch more diverse yet more solid as them.

Finally, to the ever embodiment of lenience which is the Almighty, We thank thee.

THE RESEARCHERS
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DEDICATIONS

I am dedicating this project study to:

Our Almighty God, who give us strength to go on;

To my parents, RAFAEL and REMEDIOS, who are now in the hands of the Lord.

To my Grand Father, JAIME CANADA

To my supportive sisters, KRISTINE and GRACE.

To Mr. and Mrs. Rodelo B. Gabriel and relatives.

Friends, classmates and especially to my groupmates – Reynald Vincent, Reinhodge and


Matthew Simon.

GOD BLESS YOU ALL !

- BRYAN G. CANADA
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DEDICATIONS

First of all I would like to thank my parents for being there for me always and for

supporting my studies and who never get tired of guiding to my everyday life. To my professors

giving us advises through the path of success. My friends and classmates thank you for the years

passed by were together especially to my best friend ecar, cath, iazelle, myke, jerone, daen,

yancy, and ace.. To my group mates Matt, Irene, Bryan who stayed strong together to build this

thesis. To my especial someone Azi a lovable and a cheerful and always there for me thank

you! I’am so grateful of having her in my life. :-*

THANK TO GOD ALMIGHTY! 

I LOVE YOU ALL!!

MAY FOREVER!!

ALWAYS BE HAPPY FOR OUR LIFE GOD GAVE THIS TO US!!

GOOD LUCK TO THE NEW CHALLENGES TO OUR LIFE COMES…….

-ADMIN CO 
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DEDICATIONS

I would never have been able to finish my dissertation without the guidance of my

committee members, help from friends, and support from my family. This thesis is

dedicated to:

My FAMILY, for their endless love, support and encouragement.

To my FATHER, who taught me the best kind of knowledge to have is that which is

learned for its own sake.

To my MOTHER, who taught me that even the largest task can be accomplished if it is

done one step at a time.

To GERALDINE(babe), who always there cheering me up and stood by me through

the good times and bad.

To all my FRIENDS, Wyrenah, Darwinah, Larae and Limbo, thank you for understanding

and encouragement in my many moments. Your friendship makes my life a wonderful

experience.

And most especially to our Almighty God.

- REINHODGE
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DEDICATIONS

This is humbly dedicated to:

my loving parents – Rodelio A. San Miguel and Sarah D. San


Miguel
my brothers – Mark Lester and Christian

my sisters – Charmaine

my grandparents – Juan and Nieves, Efren and Teresita

to the graduating Civil Engineering Students batch 2016

who have been instrumental in completing this work

And most especially to our Almighty God.

- M. S. San Miguel
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Table of Contents

Page No.

Title Page 1

Approval Sheet 2

Acknowledgement 3

Dedication 4

Table of Contents 8

List of Figures 12

List of Tables 12

Abstract 13

UNIT I – INTRODUCTION 14

Background of the Study 14

Objectives of the Study 15

Significance of the Study 16

Scope and Delimitation 17

Conceptual Framework 18

Definition of Terms 21

Acronyms 21

UNIT II – REVIEW OF RELATED STUDIES AND LITERATURE 22

UNIT III – METHODS AND PROCEDURES 46


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Research Design 46

Research Environment 47

Design Procedures 48

Data Gathering 48

Site Investigations 50

Soil Analysis 50

Structural Design Analysis Computations 55

Working Plans and Drawings 75

Preparation of Technical Specification 76

Program of Works Method 76

Cost estimates of the Project 76

Design Concept 77

UNIT IV – RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 78

Social Acceptability of the Project 78

Soil Analysis 81

Design of Lateral Loads 83

Seismic Analysis 83

Earthquake Load 86
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Wind Load 89

Design of Structural Members 98

Design of Reinforced Concrete Slab 98

Design of Reinforced Concrete Beam 115

Design of Reinforced Concrete Column 133

Design of Footing 139

Design of Reinforced Concrete Stairs 147

Design of L-Shaped Retaining Wall 152

Technical Specifications 159

Cost Estimates 168

Program of Works 175

Results of the LEED-NC 2014 177

Summary of Findings 180

UNIT V – CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 185

Conclusions 186

Recommendations 187

References 188
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Appendices 189

A. Letter of Transmittal

B. Soil Geology and Soil Characteristics

C. Occupancy Requirements

D. Near Source Factor

E. Lateral Factor k for Building

F. Seismic Coefficient

G. Uniform Live Load and Concentrated Load

H. Coefficients for Moments in Slabs

I. Wall Pressure Coefficient

J. Minimum Concrete Cover for Concrete

K. Philippine Standard Reinforcing Steel Bar

Curriculum Vitae 202


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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure No. Title Page No.

1 Conceptual Framework Paradigm 20

2 Frame A – Traverse Section 96

3 Frame B – Longitudinal Section 97

4 PERT – CPM Diagram 176

LIST OF TABLES

Table No. Title Page No.

4.0 Distribution of Responses According to Gender 78

4.1 Distribution of Responses According to Age 79

4.2 Distribution of Responses According to Socio-Economic 79

4.3 Results of the Questionnaire-Opinionnaire 80

4.4 Liquid Limit Determination 81

4.5 Plastic Limit Determination 81

4.6 Water Content Determination 82

4.7 Sieve Analysis and Grain Shape 82

4.8 Cost Estimates and Bill of Materials 168

4.9 Program of Works 175


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ABSTRACT

Bryan G. Canada, Reynald Vincent P. Co, Irene R. Pastrana, Matthew Simon D. San Miguel.
“A Proposed Design of a Three-Storey Library Integrated Building located in Ibabang Dupay
Lucena City”. Unpublished Project Study for the Degree of Bachelor of Science in Civil
Engineering, Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation, March 2016.
Studies have shown that the presence of libraries is good for towns and cities; people

find more value in areas that have libraries higher than other public services in professionally

conducted polls. Libraries offer services that level the intellectual playing field. That means

that they allow people of any income level or background to access high-quality information,

to use computers, or to borrow books that they want. The existence of libraries ensures that

knowledge and technology are available to everyone, not just to those who can afford their

own. The City of Lucena supports government programs with construction works such as

vertical and horizontal structures that is why the researchers focused their studies by applying

their technical and theoretical knowledge on this research.

This study was guided by the objectives as follows: to design a three-storey library

integrated building located at Ibabang Dupay, Lucena City; to develop the technical plans

and drawing of the designed three-storey library integrated building; to prepare the technical

specification, bill of material, cost estimate, program works of the designed three-storey

library integrated building; and to evaluate the designed three-storey library integrated

building in terms of LEED Rating System.

With this, the researchers highly recommend the construction of a three-storey library

integrated building for future use of the community and future development of studies related

to sustainable and self-sufficient building.

Keywords: library; integrated


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UNIT I

Introduction

Background of the study

Studies have shown that the presence of libraries is good for towns and cities; people

find more value in areas that have libraries higher than other public services in professionally

conducted polls. Libraries offer services that level the intellectual playing field. That means

that they allow people of any income level or background to access high-quality information,

to use computers, or to borrow books that they want. The existence of libraries ensures that

knowledge and technology are available to everyone, not just to those who can afford their

own. The City of Lucena supports government programs with construction works such as

vertical and horizontal structures that is why the researchers focused their studies by applying

their technical and theoretical knowledge on this research.

The primary problem of every school is the library. Libraries are economically

efficient. Their model of sharing allows them to serve many people with few resources. It

serves a vital social service by helping bridge gap between the haves and have not’s,

especially when it comes to literacy and computer skills training. There are some libraries in

the City of Lucena that is not efficient for the needs for the next generation because of

insufficient and not updated collection of books. As time passes by, the population grows as

well as the number of students who will use books for their studies. Libraries are also spaces

where people of all ages can practice lifelong learning. To meet the informational needs of all

by providing materials or referral, to facilitate informal self-education of all people in the

community, and to enrich and further develop the subject areas in which individuals are

undertaking formal education, there is a need for the place wherein the books are to be
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stored. To support the information needs of the students and the community, the researcher

proposed a design of a three-storey library integrated building to be constructed at the heart

of Ibabang Dupay Lucena City with a lot area of 28,985 sq. m.

The environment is changing for the worse due to excessive use of energy

consumption but people need more buildings for business and homes because of expanding

population, that’s why the need to be eco-friendly is becoming more and more important.

This means the researcher starts proposing a solar-eco-friendly three-storey library integrated

building that are powered, or at least partially powered by renewable energy, in order to

reduce carbon footprint and this building even has a rooftop garden. The building makes use

of rainwater recycling that is use for watering plant, water for flush tank, and other use. It

also feature integrated system which let individual users control their light and temperature in

their space. An integrated building allows systems like heating, ventilation and air

conditioning (HVAC), access control, life safety and lighting to share information and

strategies with an eye on reducing energy consumption, improving security, providing value-

added functionality and making the building easier to operate. Integrated building design

concerns the whole building systems approach. This approach is based on a design support

for the building life cycle, in which multiple disciplines and apparently unrelated aspects of

design are integrated in a way to allow synergistic benefits to be realized successfully.

Objectives of the study

This research aimed to design a library integrated building which can be used as basis

for the design of an alternative library design for a populace.

Specifically, the study aims to:


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1. To design a three-storey library integrated building located at Ibabang Dupay, Lucena

City;

2. To develop the technical plans and drawing of the designed three-storey library

integrated building.

3. To prepare the technical specification, bill of material, cost estimate, program works

of the designed three-storey library integrated building;

4. To evaluate the designed three-storey library integrated building in terms of LEED

Rating System.

Significance of the study

In this research study offers a lot of significance to share ideas and concept for the

functionality to the community, the growth of science and technology, and the future

researchers in attention.

The residents and the community in the area of Ibabang Dupay Lucena City that this

study was conducted will benefit, too. Through the features design of the proposed structure,

the rainwater harvesting that can supply water regarding water interruption, the solar panel

that can provide renewable energy, and the green roof that can serve to lessen pollution

particularly in air will provide positive outcome in terms of their way of living. The propose

project structure that function as library will provide a space for the student in their study and

help them to research using modern technology.

In developing this study through method that in a long time where been used to make

advancement for the designing a structure so that it can deal with the environment. The

outcomes of this study will take a place in the Philippines it is simply to contribute in
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reducing pollution. The civil engineering program will enhance in what more proper design

that can be applicable and determine safety, economical, and environment facet.

The researchers that was a civil engineering student who will practice this kind of

structure, this will be a great help to extent for their knowledge in designing library

integrated building, estimating and computation, reading of plans and writing specification in

the near future.

For this study the students who will undertake the similar feasibility study is a great

help for them to give idea and vision that it will profitable and advantageous for them to

develop. They can focus on the different aspect of the study where improvements could be

made specifically in construction of a structure.

Scope and Delimitation of the Study

This study shall be limited to the design of a three-storey library integrated building

which will be within the entire populace of Lucena City and which will be able to function as

library for the students who need a place for their study.

The study concentrates on the design of the construction of a three-storey library

integrated building based on design codes, technical specification requirements in the

structures components through all possible combination of loads, structural design

computations of the proposed structure using Ultimate Strength Design (USD) Method,

National building code of the Philippines, National Structural Code of the Philippines (Vol.

1, 6th edition 2010), American Concrete Institute (ACI), ASCE 7-05 ( Minimum Design

Loads for Buildings and other Structure) and the existing laws and regulations of the

Engineering Office at Lucena City.


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The study is limited on plans and drawings of the proposed design of three-storey

integrated building. The researchers conduct soil analysis in determining liquid limit, plastic

limit, and shrinkage limit of the soil sample where the proposed project will be designated.

The present cost of material as indicated in price quotations from City Engineering Office

and various construction supplies are considered for the determining of cost estimate. For the

program of works, the researcher used Program Evaluation and Review Technique/ Critical

Path Method (PERT/CPM) in graphical illustration of the time table showing the sequence of

activities and the progress of work for the proposed project.

Conceptual Framework

The aim of this study are to design, develop and evaluate a three-storey library

integrated building located in Ibabang Dupay, Lucena City that can give a place where the

student start thinking for their future. It is justifiably on this study be made up of concepts

that are place within a coherent and consecutive design. Accomplishing the construction of

library integrated building that must be safe, economical, environmental friendly and must be

functional library for the populace student in Lucena City. Determining and outlining the

inputs should be considered in the first place. Primarily, the existing site condition in the area

was able to determine accurately for lay out plans and design the library integrated building

concerning the economical, social and environmental aspect to know if the structure must be

right for the populace and free from unnecessary external forces. The population of the

Lucena City was considered as well.

Technical specification requirement are needed for the design of proposed library.

National Structural Code of the Philippines (Vol. 1, 6th edition 2010) was covered the design

for different loadings considered in reinforce concrete design of slab, beam, column, and
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footing. The researcher also considered the strength, minimum load and the specification for

concrete through Ultimate Strength design (USD) method that can help to make the structure

safe, ASCE 7-05 (Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and other Structure) for the

economical purposed, and American Concrete Institute (ACI) so that the possibilities to

assure if the structure will be able to withstand for any external forces and even the internal

forces must be consider.

Eventually, with the help of using computer-aided drafting software the design was

drawn that can support three dimensional representation of the structure.

On the data that was gathered, the researcher begins to process in designing and

constructing the proposed project structure that must be specified. Structural, electrical,

plumbing, and mechanical details were covered in order to highlight every part of the

proposal such as the loads that it can bear the pumping station for the distribution of rainfall

water as one of the feature of the proposed structure. This was aid through structural

computation which the theoretical basis and other factor of this study that is applied in the

design are all proven by the authorized technical men, with nationally and internationally

accepted structural specification. At last, the designed three-storey library integrated building

was assessed in terms of safety, economical and environmental.

The library integrated building must assume that the objectives and goals of the study

had been met after having all the process.


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INPUTS

Existing Site Situation


PROCESS
- Social, Economical
and Environmental
aspect

Technical Specifications
- Analysis of soil

- Structural design of
project, Structural Data Gathering and Analysis
analysis of reinforced
concrete slab, beam, Design of Building
column and footing
- Design of Concrete Slab
- Cost of Material - Design of Concrete Beam
- Design of Concrete Column
Plans and Drawing - Design of Concrete Footing
- PERT/CPM - Design of Concrete Stair
- Comp. Assisted - Design of Concrete
Drafting Retaining Wall

Development of Plans
- Architectural
- Structural
OUTPUT - Plumbing
- Electrical

Preparation of Technical
Specification, Cost Estimates and
Program of Works

“A DESIGN OF A THREE-STOREY
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING “

Figure 1. Research Paradigm


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Definition of Terms

Green Roof is a roof of a building that is partially or completely covered with vegetation and

a growing medium, planted over a waterproofing membrane.

Integrated Building is based on a design support for the building life cycle, in which multiple

disciplines and apparently unrelated aspects of design are consider without clashing of

solution in a way to allow synergistic benefits to be realized successfully.

Library is a place where books, magazines and other materials are available for people to use

or borrow.

Rainwater Harvesting is a process or technique of collecting, filtering, storing and using

rainwater for irrigation and for various other purposes.

Renewable Energy is energy from a source that is not depleted when used, such as wind or

solar power.

Solar Panel is a panel designed to absorb the sun's rays as a source of energy for generating

electricity or heating.

Acronyms

ACI American Concrete Institute

ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers

NSCP National Structural Code of the Philippines

USD Ultimate Strength Design


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UNIT II

Review of Related Studies and Literature

The review of related studies and literature is presented in this chapter. It is important

to the researcher for having preliminary reading of some research work, journals, and

magazines to the proposed project study that will be investigate. It is provided the necessary

information about the design of structure and type of work to be done.

Integrated Design. Integrated design is distinguished from conventional design by its use

of a highly collaborative, multidisciplinary project team. It is not the sequential, relay-race

model by which most buildings are designed today. All designers understand their work, at

least to some extent, as an iterative process—an idea emerges, it is developed and tested, and

then refined or discarded in favor of another idea. This sort of iteration, however, is most

often done separately within each area of expertise: the architect works out the massing,

layout, and facades of the building, then a structural engineer figures out how to keep it

standing, a mechanical engineer develops strategies for making it comfortable, and so on.

The various designers on a project meet occasionally to ensure that their solutions don’t

clash, but for the most part their aim is to stay out of each other’s way. In an integrated

process, on the other hand, the team works as a collective to understand and develop all

aspects of the design. The design can then emerge organically, with the full benefit of each

expert’s input—a structural engineer can contribute to the elegance and efficiency of the

structure, a mechanical engineer can inform choices that enhance energy efficiency and

comfort, a landscape architect and civil engineer can optimize the siting and orientation, an

interior designer can improve the indoor spaces, a contractor can enhance the constructability

of the resulting design, and a cost estimator can manage the budget. Depending on the size
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and complexity of the project, the owner, prospective occupants, facility managers, and a

wide range of specialty consultants may be involved as well. While each expert plays an

essential role, in effective integrated design exercises the best ideas often emerge when

participants cross the usual boundaries, because their views are not as limited by familiarity

with the way things are usually done. Architect and consultant Bill Reed lectures and

consults extensively on integrated design (although he prefers the term “integrative design”

as more evocative of an evolving process and less of a fixed practice). Reed describes an

integrated design team as the modern equivalent of the master builder in pre-industrial

societies—a designer-builder who embodied the knowledge of place, of indigenous

construction practices, and of the available resources for building construction and operation.

With the complexity of modern buildings and the tremendous breadth of knowledge needed

to design and build them, Reed argues that today we need a “composite master builder” in

the form of a highly collaborative and multidisciplinary team.

Origins of Modern-Day Integrated Design. Integrated design has become a

buzzword in the green building world. Everyone claims to do it, although not everyone

understands it in the same way, and not everyone is successful at it. Unlike their American

counterparts, European architects have a long tradition of designing in close collaboration

with engineers and openly sharing credit for the design with them. Yale University Professor

Don Watson, FAIA, traces his first encounters with integrated design to the 1960s. “Louis

Kahn would often refer to his ‘colleague commandant,’ the engineer, as an equal partner,” he

notes. Others point out that integrated design didn’t begin with sustainable design. Vivian

Manasc of Manasc Isaac Architects in Edmonton, Alberta notes that her firm was leading

design workshops with client groups to address social and cultural issues before they focused
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on green building. “Our original approach was always workshop based. It was a natural fit

for us to move from that into a fully integrated design process,” she says. Manasc credits Nils

Larsson and the C-2000 program from Natural Resources Canada with turning her firm onto

integrated design as the way to create green buildings without adding cost. But for the origins

of their workshop based design approach, she (and many others) points to Caudill, Rowlett,

and Scott (CRS). CRS was a Texas architecture firm that revolutionized the work of many

architects in the 1950s and 1960s by promoting participatory design workshops with client

groups. CRS famously used “squatters’ sessions,” in which the architects camped out at their

clients’ facilities or at project sites for intensive charrettes that lasted as long as a week.

These workshops resulted in design solutions with implicit client approval, thereby avoiding

the need to spend time creating multiple design options and revisions in response to client

objections. That same efficiency explains how some leading green designers today are able to

invest in extensive charrettes without adding to their overall design budgets.

Design Features that Benefit from Integration. Whole-building design demands an

integrated approach if it is to be done well, as every aspect of a building affects—and is

affected by—other aspects. Certain features common to green buildings are especially strong

candidates for integrated design because of their inherently interdisciplinary nature. In

addition to the areas of expertise specific to each feature, nonstandard elements in any of

them benefit from suggestions on constructability from a building contractor, and input from

a cost estimator early in the process can help keep the systems affordable.

Daylighting. Effective day lighting depends on basic decisions, such as siting and

orientation, and architectural elements, including the size, location, spacing of

apertures, and, potentially, exterior shading systems. It also requires attention to


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interior design characteristics, such as interior shading systems, the layout of indoor

spaces, the height of partitions, and the geometry, color, and texture of interior

surfaces. If day lighting is to reduce energy loads rather than increase them, it must be

accounted for in the zoning of the electric lights (so that areas with more daylight can

be controlled separately from those with less) and with light-sensitive controls on the

electric lighting, which are typically the domain of an electrical engineer and lighting

designer. Finally, the mechanical system will be sized properly only if the mechanical

engineer understands and accounts for the lighting controls.

Exposed thermal mass. Exposed concrete or other massive, conductive

materials in ceilings and walls can reduce peak cooling loads, especially if they are

coupled with night-flushing of the building to cool the mass. Implementing such a

strategy effectively requires collaboration among the architect, structural engineer,

mechanical engineer, and interior designer. In addition, an acoustic engineer may help

analyze acoustic issues caused by hard surfaces, and a lighting designer is likely to

help with unique lighting considerations.

Greenhouse Structure. A greenhouse is a structure with different types of covering

materials, like glass or plastic roof and frequently glass or plastic walls; it heats up because

incoming visible solar radiation from the sin is absorbed by plants, soil and other things

inside the building. Glass is transparent to this radiation the warmed structures and plants

inside the greenhouse re-radiate this energy in the infrared to which glass is partly opaque,

and that energy is trapped inside the glass house. Although there is some heat loss die to

conduction, there Is a net in energy (and therefore temperature) inside the greenhouse. Air
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warmed by the heat from hot interior surfaces is retained in the building by the roof and wall.

These structures range in size from small sheds to very large buildings.

Greenhouse can be divided into glass greenhouse and plastic greenhouse. Plastics

mostly used arc PE film and multiwall sheet in PC or PMMA. Commercial glass greenhouses

are filled with equipment like screening installations, heating, cooling, and lighting and may

be automatically controlled by a computer. The glass used for a greenhouses works as barrier

to air flow, and its effect is to trap energy within the greenhouse which this air is prevented

from rising and flowing away. Those can be demonstrated by opening a small window near

the roof of a greenhouse: the temperature drops considerably. This principle is the basis of

autovert automatic cooling system. A miniature greenhouse is known as a cold flow.

Greenhouse protect crops from too much heat or cold, shield plants from dust, storms

and blizzards and help to keep out pests. Light and temperature control allows greenhouse to

turn in arable land into arable, hereby improving food production in marginal environment.

Because greenhouse allow curtain crops to be grown throughout the year,

greenhouses are increasingly important in the food supply of high latitude countries. Orc of

the largest greenhouse complexes in the world is in Almeria. Spain, where greenhouses cover

almost 50,000 arcs (200 square meters). Sometimes called the sea of plastics. Greenhouses

are often used for growing flowers, vegetables, fruits, and tobacco plants. Bumblebees are

the pollinators of choice for rust greenhouse pollination, although other types of bees have

been used, as well as artificial pollination. Hydroponics can be used in greenhouses as well

as to make the most use of the interior space. Besides tobacco, many vegetables and flowers

are grown in greenhouses in late winter and early spring, then transplanted outside as the

weather warms, started plants are usually available for gardeners in farmers markets at
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transplanting time. Special greenhouse varieties of certain crops such as tomatoes are

generally used for commercial production.

The closed environment of a greenhouse has its own unique requirements, compared

unit outdoor production. Pests and diseases and extremes of heat and humidity have to be

controlled, and irrigation is necessary to provide water. Significant inputs of heat and light

may be required, particularly unit winter production of warm-water vegetables.

Because the temperature and humidity of greenhouses must be constantly monitored

to ensure optimal conditions, a wireless sensor network can be used to gather data rainfly.

The data is transmitted to a control location and used to control heating, cooling and

irrigation systems.

Greenhouse structure adopted in the 1960’s when unclear sheets of polyethylene film

became widely available. Hoop horses were made by several companies and were also

frequently made by the ground themselves. Constructed of aluminum extrusions special

galvanized steel tubing. This heat many more greenhouses on smaller firm and garden

cutters. Polyethylene film durability increased greatly when more effective inhibitors were

developed and added in the 1970’s. These UY inhibitors extended the usable life of the film

from one or two years up to 3 and eventually 4 or more years. Gutter connected greenhouses

became more prevalent in the 1900’s and 1990’s; these greenhouses have two or more bays

connected by common wall, or row of support posts. Heating impost was reduced as the ratio

of floor area to roof area was increased substantially. Gutter connected greenhouses are now

commonly used both in production in situations where covered with a duple layer

polyethylene film with air blown between to provide increased heating efficiencies, or

structured polycarbonate materials.


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Since 200, technical innovations included the “closed greenhouse”. A comparability

closed system allowing the goner complete control over the growing process while using less

energy floating greenhouses are used in watery areas of the country.

The closed environment of a greenhouse has its own unique requirements, compared

with outdoors production. Pests and diseases, and extremes of heat and humidity, have to be

controlled, and irrigation is necessary to provide water. Significant inputs of heat and light

may be required, particularly with winter production of warm-water vegetables. Because the

temperature and humidity of greenhouses must be constantly monitored to ensure optimal

conditions, a wireless sensor network can be used to gather data remotely. The data is

transmitted to a control location and used to control heating, cooling and irrigation systems.

Greenhouse structures adopted in the 1960’s when wide sheets of polyethylene film

became widely available. Hoop houses were made by several companies and were also

frequently made by several companies and were also frequently made by the growers

themselves. Constructed of aluminum extrusions, special galvanized steel tubing, or even just

length of steel or PVC water pipe, construction costs were greatly reduced.

Rainwater Harvesting. Although close to three fourths of our planet is made of water,

not all of it is suitable for use. The water in the oceans and seas cannot be used as drinking

water and little of it can be utilized for other purposes. As a result, there is a constant

shortage of water that is either good for drinking or home and industrial use. Areas on the

planet that have long faced water shortage were able to combat this problem by harvesting

what little rain water they received. This slowly started spreading to areas where there was

plenty of rainfall. As a result, the modern day rainwater harvesting system was bought into

place.
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The idea behind the process is simple. Rainwater is collected when it falls on the

earth, stored and utilized at a later point. It can be purified to make it into drinking water,

used for daily applications and even utilized in large scale industries. In short, Rainwater

harvesting is a process or technique of collecting, filtering, storing and using rainwater for

irrigation and for various other purposes.

To reduce the consumption of groundwater, many people around the world are using

rainwater harvesting systems. This practice has been around for thousands of years and has

been growing at a rapid pace. Till today, rainwater is used as a primarily source of drinking

water in several rural areas. The best thing about rainwater is that it is free from pollutants as

well as salts, minerals, and other natural and man-made contaminants. In areas where there is

excess rainfall, the surplus rainwater can be used recharge ground water through artificial

recharge techniques.

In an urban setting, harvesting is usually done with the help of some infrastructure or

the simplest method for a rainwater harvesting system is storage tanks. In this, a catchment

area for the water is directly linked to cisterns, tanks and reservoirs. Water can be stored here

until needed or used on a daily basis. The roofs our homes are the best catchment areas,

provided they are large enough to harvest daily water needs. Other than that, large bowls and

tarps can also fulfill the function.

Advantages of Rainwater Harvesting

Easy to Maintain. Utilizing the rainwater harvesting system provides certain

advantages to the community. First of all, harvesting rainwater allows us to

better utilize an energy resource. It is important to do so since drinking water


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is not easily renewable and it helps in reducing wastage. Systems for the

collection of rainwater are based on simple technology.

The overall cost of their installation and operation is much lesser than

that of water purifying or pumping systems. Maintenance requires little time

and energy. The result is the collection of water that can be used in substantial

ways even without purification.

Reducing Water Bills. Water collected in the rainwater harvesting system can

be put to use for several non-drinking functions as well. For many families

and small businesses, this leads to a large reduction in their utilities bill. On an

industrial scale, harvesting rainwater can provide the needed amounts of water

for many operations to take place smoothly without having to deplete the

nearby water sources.

It also lessens the burden of soil erosion in a number of areas, allowing

the land to thrive once again. In fact, it can also be stored in cisterns for use

during times when water supplies are at an all-time low.

Suitable for Irrigation. As such, there is little requirement for building new

infrastructure for the rainwater harvesting system. Most rooftops act as a

workable catchment area, which can be linked to the harvesting system. This

also lessens the impact on the environment by reducing use of fuel based

machines.

Rainwater is free from many chemicals found in ground water, making

it suitable for irrigation and watering gardens. In fact, storing large reservoirs
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of harvested water is a great idea for areas where forest fires and bush fires are

common during summer months.

Reduces Demand on Ground Water. With increase in population, the demand

for water is also continuously increasing. The end result is that many

residential colonies and industries are extracting ground water to fulfill their

daily demands. This has led to depletion of ground water which has gone to

significant low level in some areas where there is huge water scarcity.

Reduces Floods and Soil Erosion. During rainy season, rainwater is

collected in large storage tanks which also help in reducing floods in some

low lying areas. Apart from this, it also helps in reducing soil erosion and

contamination of surface water with pesticides and fertilizers from rainwater

run-off which results in cleaner lakes and ponds.

Can be used for Several Non-drinking Purposes. Rainwater when collected

can be used for several non-drinking functions including flushing toilets,

washing clothes, watering the garden, washing cars etc. It is unnecessary to

use pure drinking water if all we need to use it for some other purpose rather

than drinking.

Disadvantages of Rainwater Harvesting

Unpredictable Rainfall. Rainfall is hard to predict and sometimes little or no

rainfall can limit the supply of rainwater. It is not advisable to depend on

rainwater alone for all your water needs in areas where there is limited

rainfall. Rainwater harvesting is suitable in those areas that receive plenty of

rainfall.
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Initial High Cost. Depending on the system’s size and technology level, a

rainwater harvesting system may cost anywhere between $200 to $2000 and

benefit from it cannot be derived until it is ready for use. Like solar panels, the

cost can be recovered in 10-15 years which again depends on the amount of

rainfall and sophistication of the system.

Regular Maintenance. Rainwater harvesting systems require regular

maintenance as they may get prone to rodents, mosquitoes, algae growth,

insects and lizards. They can become as breeding grounds for many animals if

they are not properly maintained.

Certain Roof Types may Seep Chemicals or Animal Droppings. Certain types

of roofs may seep chemicals, insects, dirt or animals droppings that can harm

plants if it is used for watering the plants.

Storage Limits. The collection and storage facilities may also impose some

kind of restrictions as to how much rainwater you can use. During the heavy

downpour, the collection systems may not be able to hold all rainwater which

ends in going to drains and rivers.

Rainwater harvesting is a system that is gaining speed over time. Areas

that experience high amounts of rainfall will benefit the most from the system

and will be able to distribute water to dry lands with ease. However, the

beneficial environmental impact of the system is what drives it further as of

now.
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Waste and Toxic Reduction. To reduce the impact on wells or water treatment

plants. Several options exist. “Greywater”, wastewater from sources such as dishwashing or

washing machines, can be used for subsurface irrigation, or if treated, for non-portable

purposes, e.g to flush toilets and wash cars. Rainwater collectors are used for similar

purposes.

Centralized wastewater treatment systems can be costly and use a lot of energy. An

alternative to this process is converting waste and wastewater into fertilizer, which avoids

these costs and shows other benefits. By collecting human waste at the source and running it

to a semi-centralized biogas plant with other biological waste, liquid fertilizer can be

produced. This concept was demonstrated by a settlement in Lubeck, Germany in the 2000s.

Practices like these provide soil with organic nutrients and create carbon sinks that remove

carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, offsetting greenhouse gas emission. Producing artificial

fertilizer is also more costly in energy than this process.

The most criticized issue about constructing environmental friendly buildings is the

price. Photo-voltaic, new appliances and modern technologies tend to cost more money.

Most green buildings cost premium of less than 2%, but yield 10 times as much over the

entire life of the building. The stigma is between the knowledge of up-front cost vs. life cycle

cost. The savings in money come from more efficient use of utilities which result in decrease

energy bills. Also, higher worker or student productivity can be factored into savings and

cost deductions. Studies have shown over a 20 year life period, some green buildings have

yielded $53 to $71 per square foot back on investment. It is projected that different sectors

could save $130 billion on every energy bill.


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Solar Integrated Energy System for Green Building. Green building is a kind of

sustainable development and energy-saving building, has a very important significance for

alleviating strained resources, protecting the environment to reduce pollution. And the solar

energy is not only an energy, and a renewable energy, but which rich in resources. It not only

frees use of, but also not to be transported, and it produces no pollution to environment and

more widely using in the green building. Early, solar building just passed the light and heat

of the Sun in order to light up and heat the building. But now, the green building obtains

solar energy by adopting ‘active’. This ‘active’ green building is a kind of heating system

consists of solar energy collector, radiator, pump and fan, or air conditioning-building

combined with absorption chiller. One of the green building which is Shanghai Research

Institute of Building Science contain multiple green energy technologies, such as solar

thermal technology, solar photovoltaic, natural ventilation, natural lighting, and indoor

virescence. Here, there an example of solar integrated energy system including heating, air

conditioning, natural ventilation and hot water supplied which applied in the green building.

Green Roof. An aerial view of most urban areas shows swathes of asphalt, black tar and

gravel-ballasted rooftops. Heat radiates off of the dark roofs, and water rushes over the hard,

hopefully impermeable surfaces. Yet, there is a new trend that breaks up the monotony of

common roofs: green rooftops. Long popular in Europe, green rooftops have begun to appeal

to homeowners, businesses and even cities as an attractive way to promote environmentalism

while solving the problems of conventional roofs. Green roofs supplement traditional

vegetation without disrupting urban infrastructure -- they take a neglected space and make it

useful.
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Green roofs last longer than conventional roofs, reduce energy costs with natural

insulation, create peaceful retreats for people and animals, and absorb storm water,

potentially lessening the need for complex and expensive drainage systems. On a wider scale,

green roofs improve air quality and help reduce the Urban Heat Island Effect, a condition in

which city and suburban developments absorb and trap heat. Anyone who has walked across

a scalding parking lot on a hot, summer day has felt one effect of an Urban Heat Island.

The layers of a green roof must, like any roof, accommodate drainage and protect the

building from the elements with a waterproof membrane. But they also must create a

growing area and potentially provide support, irrigation and root protection barriers while

staying as light as possible.

Two types of green roof exist:

Intensive green roofs are essentially elevated parks. They can sustain shrubs,

trees, walkways and benches with their complex structural support, irrigation,

drainage and root protection layers. The foot or more of growing medium

needed for an intensive green roof creates a load of 80-150 pounds (36-68

kilograms) per square foot.

Extensive green roofs are relatively light at 15-50 pounds (7-23 kilograms)

per square foot. They support hearty native ground cover that requires little

maintenance. Extensive green roofs usually exist solely for their

environmental benefits and don't function as accessible rooftop gardens.


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USGBC and LEED system.

The U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) is an industry organization whose

membership consists of all parts of the construction industry, including owners, designers

and contractors (Montoya, 2011). The USGBC has played a leading role in developing and

promoting green building principles in the US broad coalition including representation from

the construction industry, the financial sector, government, and public interest organizations.

Developed by the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), LEED is intended to help building

owners and operators be environmentally responsible and use resources efficiently. Proposals

to modify the LEED standards are offered and publicly reviewed by USGBC's member

organizations, which number almost 20,000. Leadership in Energy and Environmental

Design or LEED is a set of rating systems for the design, construction, operation, and

maintenance of green buildings, homes and neighborhoods. It is a nationally accepted

organization for design, operation and construction of high performance green buildings.

This ensures the buildings are environmentally compatible, provide a healthy work

environment and are profitable. The purpose of these rating systems is to provide objective

standards for certifying that a building is environmentally friendly or green. Although the

foundation for LEED certification is laid during the design process, the design intent must be

implemented through the construction process.

Once a category’s prerequisites are met, points toward LEED-NC certification can be

achieved by meeting the requirements of the various credits that are included as part of the

category. As can be seen from *appendix*, many credits are broken down so that additional

points can be awarded based on the level of achievement. Buildings should meet each

criteria, otherwise no points toward LEED_NC certification will be awarded for that certain
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Credit. Each criterion has its own designation point-system which corresponds to percentage

rated by USBGC.

Throughout the design and construction, the project team documents how they are

meeting both category prerequisites and credits for points toward certification. Beyond

fulfilling category prerequisites, the owner is free to determine what categories and credits

within those categories that will be sought to obtain certification. Not every credit within the

LEED rating system needs to be addressed in the building design and construction. The

number of credits earned by the project will however determine the level of LEED

certification. Credits to earn the various levels of the LEED certification are as follows;

There are multiple submittals during the LEED application process, including some

preliminary design submittals. Whoever submitted the registration form (owner, contractor,

or architect) would also be responsible for submitting the application to the USGBC for

LEED certification. This would consist of the required program documentation including a

project narrative that includes at least three project highlights, and application fee. Following

receipt and review of the application, the USGBC issues its preliminary findings, along with

a request for any for any additional information that it need to perform its final review.

Within 30 days, the project team makes its final submittal to the USGBC, which is followed

by USGBC’s final submittal and award of LEED certification to the project.

As part of the registration process, the designer establishes goals for the projects in

the following:

Sustainable Site (SS)


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 Water Efficiency (WE)

 Energy and Atmosphere (EA)

 Materials and Resources (MR)

 Indoor Environment Quality (IEQ)

 Innovation and Design Process (IDP)

LEED 2009 encompasses nine rating systems for the design, construction and operation

of buildings, homes and neighborhoods. One of the suites included in LEED 2009 is LEED

for Health Care.

According to Joe Howard, Facilities Director of Boulder Community Foothills Hospital

(2011), in practice, a LEED hospital doesn't function or appear different than other

construction in any remarkable way, nor should it. If it were a big maintenance headache few

would choose to get involved with the program. Boulder Community Foothills Hospital has

received 8design awards since its completion and has become noted as an international

model for healthcare facilities that seek to incorporate sustainability into their design.

Eligibility.

LEED-NC and LEED-CS may be earned by commercial, institutional or high-rise

residential building types.

LEED for Schools must be used for any academic building on K-12 school grounds.

Pre-K and postsecondary school buildings may qualify for LEED for Schools or LEED-NC.

For LEED-NC, LEED-CS and LEED for School, the project must be including new design

and construction on the major renovation of a building in its entirety. All prerequisites must
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be met and at least 40 optional credits must be earned. The process or the certification,

including registration, documentation of credits and third-party verification, must be

followed.

For LEED_NC, LEED-CS, LEED for Schools, LEED-CI and LEED_EB, the

minimum program requirements for certification include the following.

 Comply with the environmental laws.

 Be a complete, permanent building or space.

 Use a reasonable site boundary.

 Comply with the minimum occupancy rates of one or more full-time-

equivalent occupant to be eligible for Indoor Environment Quality

optional credits.

 Commit to sharing whole-building energy and use data with the

USGBC and or the Green building Certification Institute for Five

years after occupancy, even if ownership or tenancy changes.

Additional information on Minimum Program Requirements can be found in

the USGBC document

“LEED 2009 MPR Supplemental Guidance.”

The process.

The USGBC develops the LEED Rating systems, but since 2009, the Green

Building Certification Institute (GBCI) has administered the registration and


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certification of buildings. The GBCI describes the process, which is

administered using LEED Online v3 tool, as follow:

1. Registered the project with LEED Online at the GBCI website and pay

the registration feed. LEED Online includes an optional rating system selector

questionnaire to help determine which rating system is most appropriate.

2. For LEED-CS, an optional precertification application may be made.

The GBCI’s formal recognition of the developer’s goal for the project to

achieve the LEED-CS certification may be helpful in marketing to potential

tenants.

3. Build the online credit scorecard by selecting the optimal credits that

will be pursued. All project team members may be granted access; in addition,

LEED Online v3 allows the project administrator to assign responsibility for

credits to different team members by name.

4. Access credits form the project scorecard and document credit

compliance online.

5. Upon the completing project documentation, submit it for review and

certification.

6. Commit to providing whole-building energy and water usage data to

the USGBC and or the GBCI for at least the for five years after occupancy

begins. This commitment must be honored even if the owner or tenant changes.
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Related Studies

Local studies

According to Arenal, Arvin et.al, on their study entitled “A Proposed Design of an

Environmental Friendly Three-Storey Reinforced Concrete Parking Building in Lucena City”

(2012), a proposed environment friendly building will lessen the pollution caused by the

vehicle by the cure of plants that absorbs air pollutants and convert the carbon dioxide. Also

lesser electricity that will used in the entire building because of the use solar panels on top of

the building that will generate the needed activity. The mentioned study was related to the

present study in implementing the construction of green buildings in helping out the

environment to lessen the pollution and problems brought about by construction industry.

This related study guided the researcher in innovating the design of three-storey library

integrate building using sustainable design and sources.

According to the study “Integration of Green Building Concept in Design of a Three-

Storey Building”, the vision of the development of the greenhouse building as an integrated

technological system that approaches zero average annual energy consumption has been the

consent of vertical and building construction design and with emphasis on being cost

effective and comfortable to the standards and regulation of different countries. Analysis

environmental costs-benefits, actions and means involved overall framework for the

sustainable integration of the green houses with buildings through completion of the ethnical

design of the building. (Manahan 2012)

According to the study “A Propose Three Storey Maritime School Located at Manuel

S. Enverga University Foundation, Lucena City”, to be able to accommodate the growing

demands of our radically over changing world and the present trend augmenting population,
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 42

buildings and various structure has evolved. (Landicho et. Al, 2006). This project study is of

the same purpose, the construction of a Three Storey Integrated Library of Ibabang Dupay

Lucena City.

According to the study “A Propose Five Storey Engineering School Building” the

world is highly appreciated the tremendous accomplishments of engineers of the decades.

They are acknowledged for building structure either vertical or horizontal, from simple to

very complicated one, from symmetrical to irregular shapes and from low rise to sky

scrapers. The vast technological advancement paved way from the achievement of the

modern builders. (Generoso et. Al, 2001).

Foreign studies

According to Silvio Burrattino Melhado & Luciana Alves de Oliveira (2011) entitled

“Conceptual Model for the Integrated Design of Building Facades”, the building design

process is composed of design processes for the building's various systems. The process for

each system design should be based on requirements defined early in the programme and

executed by a multidisciplinary team led by a design coordinator responsible for the

coordination and integration of all processes. In Brazil, building firms tend to develop

fragmented designs with little regard for the advantages of integrated design. This hinders the

use of new solutions, such as innovative facade technologies, that could enhance building

performance and increase the efficiency of construction and maintenance. The facade

influences building performance and construction and maintenance costs. It is a system that

requires a specific development method and extensive consideration during the design

process. In this context, a conceptual model of a commercial building was proposed to

develop integrated construction and renovation designs of building facades. This article
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describes the model, which was prepared based on the literature and on case studies

involving construction projects in Brazil and France.

According to Wong, Johnny K. W.; Heng Li (January 2009) entitled “Development

of intelligence analytic models for integrated building management systems (IBMS) in

intelligent buildings”, with the availability of innumerable 'intelligent' building products and

the dearth of inclusive evaluation tools, design teams are confronted with the quandary of

choosing the opposite building control systems to suit the needs of a particular intelligent

building project. The paucity of measures that represent the degree of system intelligence and

indicate the desirable goal in intelligent building control systems design inhibits the

consumers from comparing numerous products from the viewpoint of intelligence. This

article is designed to develop a model for facilitating the system intelligence analysis for the

integrated building management system (IBMS) in the intelligent building. To achieve these

objectives, systematic research activities are conducted to first develop, test and refine the

general conceptual model using consecutive surveys; then, to convert the developed

conceptual framework to the practical model; and, finally, to evaluate the effectiveness of the

practical model by means of expert validation. The findings of this study suggest that IBMS

has a distinctive set of intelligence attributes and indicators. The research findings also

indicate that operational benefits of the intelligent building exert a considerable degree of

influence on the relative importance of intelligence indicators of the IBMS in the model. This

research suggests a benchmark to measure the degree of intelligence of one control system

candidate against another.

According to Siti Halimah Yusof & Md. Azree Othuman Mydin (2014) entitled

“Solar Integrated Energy System for Green Building” that a green building is a kind of
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sustainable development and energy-saving building, has a very important significance for

alleviating strained resources, protecting the environment to reduce pollution. And the solar

energy is not only an energy, and a renewable energy, but which rich in resources. It not only

free use of, but also to be transported and it produces no pollution to environment and more

widely using in the green building. Early, solar building just passed the light and heat of the

sun in order to light up and heat the building. But now, the green building obtains solar

energy by adopting ‘active’. This ‘active’ green building is a kind of heating system consists

of solar energy collector, radiator, pump and fan, or air conditioning-building combined with

absorption chiller. One of the green building which is Shanghai Research Institute of

Building Science contain simple green energy technologies, such as solar thermal

technology, solar photovolcanic, natural ventilation, natural lighting, and indoor virescence.

Hence, there an example of solar integrated energy system including heating, air

conditioning, natural ventilation and hot water supplied which applied in green building.

According to ZinCo USA, Inc. A green roof system provider, green roof weights vary

depending on the build-up. A thin layered extensive green roof, when saturated with water,

will weigh between 18-30 lb/sq.ft. On the other hand, an intensive green roof requires a

higher load bearing capacity. Depending on the build-up height, weights for intensive roofs

can range from 60-80 lb/sq.ft. The determination of the loadings performed by ZinCo USA

Inc. Conformed to ASTM E2397-05 standard practice for determination of dead loads and

live loads associated with green roof systems.

According to the entitled “Is that Mass or just a garden on your roof?” One cubic foot

of dry, agricultural dirt or loam typically use for a “Green” roof weighs between 70 and 80

pounds. Saturated with water the weight can increase by as much as 35%, to around 90 to
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100 pounds per cubic foot containing soil 6 inches deep can add over 5000 pounds of dead

load to the roof structure, roughly 50 p.s.f. or mre. (Moehring. 2009)


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UNIT III

Methods and Procedures

This unit presents the research methodologies of the study including research design,

research environment, procedures, and design concepts in order to achieve the anticipated

result of the project study.

Research Design

A research design is the “blue print” of the project study in order to have

systematized research. For the project study “A proposed design of a three-storey library

integrated building located in Ibabang Dupay, Lucena City” the researchers used Research

and Development type of research. Research and Development (R&D) is one of the means

by which project can experience future growth through innovating and developing processes.

R&D conduct an investigative activities with the intention of making a discovery that can

either lead to the development of new procedures, or to enhance of existing procedures.

Through the help of R&D process the researchers assured that it can improve the existing

procedures and operations in designing of an integrated building.

The researchers can design, develop, and evaluate the proposed three-storey library

integrated building through Research and Development has been applied in accomplishing

research. R&D is a systematic approach that can be used for the construction of useful

solution to an existing problem through gathering scientific knowledge in order to develop

effective and efficient design of the study.


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In order to design, the researchers gathered all the necessary data and information that

is needed for the library integrated building structure. It must consider the loads and technical

specification requirements of NSCP that will support in the computation process.

The researchers developed a useful integrated building idea for the library in Lucena

City through stimulating the importance of conventional design by its use of a highly

collaborative, multidisciplinary project team. The various designers on a project meet

occasionally to ensure that their solutions don’t clash, but for the most part their aim is to

stay out of each other’s way.

And the researchers also evaluate that the design of project structure will be safe,

economical, and environmental friendly base on the standard parameters. The proposed

design of a three-storey library integrated building will be attained by the said methodology.

Research Environment

Conducting viable study is always necessary to gather primary data and information

about the certain subject or proposed project study in order to have effective output in line

with the objectives of the study. The researchers also take some interview in the development

and presentation of building plans, layouts, technical specifications, program of works, bill of

materials, and cost estimates from the students of the College of Architecture and Fine Arts,

the faculty of Civil Engineering and Technical Department, and authorized technical men are

all involve in achievement of each objective of the study.

The proposed library is a three-storey structure, which features numerous facilities for

learning services. The integrated design concept is applied on library that collaborates for the

environmental aspect to benefit the populace of Lucena City. The proposed project structure
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 48

will be constructed along National Highway, Ibabang Dupay Lucena City. It is accessible to

every point in town and from different establishments because public vehicles are always

accessible. It is also near from the different schools where the student can access freely and

from the hospital for emergency purpose.

The proposed structure will have an area of 15,000 square meters and will be

constructed within 28,985 square meters lot. The building will be occupied by approximately

4,500 students that provide the necessary services. The study is expected be absolutely done

within eight months of difficult research, which will follow a certain timeline specified.

Procedures

To be able to meet the objectives of the proposed project study, the researcher

conceptualized a plan that would consider design requirements. All the data needed in the

study were gathered from various sources. Subsequently, the researcher followed a

systematic procedure in designing a library integrated building.

Data Gathering

Data collection is the process of gathering and measuring information on

variables of interest, in an established systematic way that enables one to answer

stated research questions, test hypotheses, and evaluate outcomes. The data collection

component of research is common to all fields of study. While methods vary by

discipline the emphasis on ensuring accurate and honest collection remains the same.

(Roman. 2010)

The proposed study requires enough and sufficient information. Hence, it is

data – intensive. For the purpose, two types of data were gathered: primary and

secondary. Primary data were derived from answers gathered from structured
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interviews. The researcher used open questions to the interviewee regarding the

study. All collected information has been analyzed thoroughly for the purpose of

getting sufficient background to the study. While secondary data includes all

published documents and literatures related in implementing the proposed library

integrated building. Reviewing related literature and studies satisfied the theoretical

and actual analysis of the library integrated design. It represented a large amount of

statistical and theoretical literatures that granted awareness of the wide range research

concerning the theory and methodology related to the study. Web based research was

also conducted to profound impact on the way ideas are formed. Thus, the researchers

are channeled academically by earnings of sorted documents and materials.

Site Investigation

Site investigation is to collect systematically and record all the necessary data

which will be headed or will help in the design and construction processes at the

proposed work. Anything on the site and on adjacent sites which may affect the

proposed work or conversely anything appertaining to the proposed works which may

affect on adjacent site should be recorded.

Soil Analysis

Atterberg’s Limit Determination is one of the Index Properties of soil that a

generally used. This is the reason that clay exhibits different behavior with the

different amounts of moisture content. The Atterberg’s Limit or consistency limits

namely liquid limit, plastic limit, and shrinkage limit are useful in determining

properties of soil.
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1. Liquid Limit

The change which caused the sample of soil changes from viscous to

plastic stage the moisture content. Moist clay have a higher liquid limit

values while sand and silt have lower values. The liquid limit of soil is

therefore define as the water content expressed as a percentage weight of

the over dry soil, at the boundary between liquid and plastic state of soil.

It can be determine in the laboratory using liquid limit device, which

consist basically of brass cup and a hard rubber base. The brass cup can

dropped on the base by a can operate by a tank.

Top perform the liquid test, a soil paste is to be placed on the cup. A

groove is out at the center of the soil paste using the standard grooving

tool. Then, using the can operate by the crank, the cup is lifted to the

height of 10mm and dropped. The moisture content in percent, which is

required to close a distance of 12- 17mm along the bottom of the groove

after of blows, is defines as the liquid limit.

The liquid limit test done by first placing the soil sample on mixing

dish and then add about 15-20mm add distilled water then stir, knead and

chop with spatula place the sample on the liquid limit device to a depth of

10mm make a groove on the middle by means of grooving tool, allowing a

maximum of 6 strokes turn the crane at a rate of two revolutions until two

sides of the sample. Lastly, plot the flow curve and determine the liquid
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limit by the formula given below. The liquid limit is expressed as the

moisture content in percentage of the oven-dry weight corresponding to 25

blows.

𝑊1 − 𝑊2
𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝐶𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡 = × 100%
𝑊2

Where:

W1 = Weight of wet soil sample

W2 = Weight of oven dried soil

2. Plastic Limit

The plastic limit shows the percentage of the water which soil changes

from plastic to semi-solid state. The plastic limit is define as the water

content expressed as a percentage of the weight of the oven dry soil at the

boundary between plastic and semi-solid states of consistency.

A condition when the water content where the soil can just be rolled

into a 1/8” or 3.2mm diameter thread before crumbling. The test is simple

and is performed by repeatedly rolling a ellipsoidal soil by the fingers on a

glass plate.

To test the plastic limit, first mix the air dried soil sample in a mixing

dish with distilled water and shaped about 8g of soil into a ball. Then

formed it into ellipsoidal shaped mass, roll it between fingers in a piece of


LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 52

glass. The rate of the rolling must be 80-90 strokes per minute. When the

diameter of the thread becomes 3.2 breaks into 8 pieces and squeeze it

between thumbs and fingers continue the procedure of rolling again until it

crumbles. Determine the water content thru the formula given. Plastic

limit it expressed as the moisture content in percentage of the oven-dried

weight of the crumbled soil thread.

𝑊𝑎 − 𝑊𝑏
𝑃𝑙𝑎𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑐 𝐿𝑖𝑚𝑖𝑡 = × 100%
𝑊𝑏

Where:

Wa = weight of combined soil thread

Wb = weight of over dried-crumbled soil thread

3. Shrinkage Limit

When water evaporate from soil, it shrink in volume up to a certain

limit beyond which no decrease in volume takes place. Shrinkage limit it

is therefore define as the most moisture content beyond which any

reduction in the moisture content will not cause further decrease in

volume.

4. Plasticity Index

The numerical difference between the liquid limit and plastic limit.
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 53

5. Liquidity Limit

The ratio expressed as a percentage of a natural water content of soil

minus its plastic limit to its plasticity index.

6. Water Content

The determination of water content, unit weight and void ration is an

important requirement in laboratory test and is part of the test included in

more elaborate tests. Water content is an important measure in the

compaction of soil. In order that correct water content is obtain from a soil

sample several sample at different point must be taken. They are then

mixed and the water content is thin obtained from this soil sample. The

unit weight is determined from representative undisturbed sample.

Apparatus:

1. Container 5. Large knife wire saw spatula

2. Triple beam balance 6. Small metal can

3. Oven 7. Graduated cylinder

4. Desiccators 8. Paraffin

Procedure:

1. Weigh the empty container.

2. Weigh the container and soil sample.


LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 54

3. Dry the container with the soil sample at a constant

temperature between 105oC to 110oC.

4. The drying time will depend upon the size and type of soil (1-

6hrs).

5. Remove the container and let it cool to room temperature.

6. If the sample is to be weighed within 1hr cool it at a room

temperature. If the sample is not to be weighed at once, it

should be place in a desiccators for cooling.

7. Grain Size Analysis

This is determined by sieve analysis for coarse-grained particles in the soil

and by sedimentation analysis consists of sieving and measured quality of the

soil through successively smaller sieves. The weight retained is expressed as a

percentage of the total weight of a sample. As larger grains settle down faster

in water. The soil sample is measured on 75-micrometer.

The grain size test is an exercise in identifying the size of soil grain

present. The sizes when plotted on a grain size curve will be a guided to the

interrelation of the different grain sizes and can be also be a source for

identification of the original soil. A characteristic of the soil that can be

identified from the grain size chart is whether the soil is well graded or not.

Apparatus:

1. Set of sieve

2. Triple beam balance


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3. Timer

Procedure:

1. Weight of sieves to be used up to 0.1 gram.

2. Select test sample and break soil into its individual particles with the

fingers or the robber tipped pestle.

3. Weight a specimen of approximately 500grams.

4. Sieve the soil through a nest of sieve by hand for at least 10 minutes.

5. Weight to 0.1gram each sieve with the soil in it.

6. Subtract the weight obtained in step 1 from those of steps to give the

soil retained in #200 sieve.

Structural Design

The proposed project structure was built through structural design

computation and technical specification considering the Ultimate Strength Design

(USD) of the National Structural Code of the Philippines (NSCP 2010), the American

Concrete Institute (ACI 318-11 Codes), for area lay - outing of the project proposal,

and existing laws and regulations of the Municipal Engineering of Lucena City. The

researchers keep an eye on the steps and procedures in the design of different

structural components, (1) seismic analysis by portal method will be used for analysis

of building frame due to the effects of wind loads and lateral loads, (2) frame analysis

will be used in the determination of the velocity pressure exposure coefficients and

lateral forces, (3) slab, beam, column, and foundation design will be computed using

direct design method. In connection of this, the researchers are confident that the
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 56

structure is safe and economical for the populace of Lucena City. Here are the

guidelines specified in the National Structural Code of the Philippines:

General design procedure

The steps in the plastic design of portals, according to SP: 6(6) – 1972, are

given below:

a) Determine possible loading conditions.

b) Compute the factored design load combination(s).

c) Estimate the plastic moment ratios of frame members.

d) Analyze the frame for each loading condition and calculate the maximum

requiredplastic moment capacity, Mp

e) Select the section, and

f) Check the design for other secondary modes of failure.

Design base shear. The total design base shear in a given direction shall be

determined from the following formula:

𝑍𝐼𝐶
V= W
𝑅𝑊

1.25 𝑆
C= 𝑇 2/3

T = CT (hn)3/4

Vertical distribution of force. The total force shall be distributed over the

height of the structure in conformance with the Formulas () in the absence of a more

rigorous procedure.

V = Ft + ∑𝑛𝑖=1 𝐹𝑖
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Ft = 0.07 TV

(𝑉− 𝐹𝑡 )𝑊𝑥 ℎ𝑥
Fx = ∑𝑛
𝑖=1 𝑊𝑖ℎ 𝑖

Steps in the design of one-way slabs (flexure).

I. Identify the uniform floor pressure (Pa) to be carried by the slab. This load

may consist of the of:

1. Live load Pressure

2. Dead load Pressure

3. Ceiling Load and Other attachments below the Slab

II. Determine the minimum slab thickness “h”. If necessary adjust this value

depending on your judgment.

III. Compute the weight of Slab (Pa)

Weight = 𝛾conc x h

IV. Calculate the factored moment (Mu) to be carried by the Slab.

Uniform Load, wu = Factored Pressure x 1m

V. Compute the effective depth , d:

d = h- covering (usually 20mm)- ½ (main bar diameter)

VI. Compute the required steel ratio 𝜌:


LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 58

Solve for Rn from Mu = ∅ Rnbd2 where b= 1000mm

0.85 𝑓𝑐′ 2𝑅𝑛


𝜌= (1 − √1 − 0.85𝑓𝑐′
𝑓𝑦

Solve 𝜌max and 𝜌min

If 𝜌is less than 𝜌max and greater than 𝜌min ,use𝜌

If 𝜌is greater than 𝜌max, increase the depth of slab to ensure ductile

failure

If 𝜌is less tha𝜌min, use 𝜌= 𝜌in

VII. Compute the required main bar spacing:

As = 𝜌𝑏𝑑 = 𝜌(1000) d ≥ 𝜌t b h

𝐴𝑏𝑎𝑟
Spacing, 𝑆𝑡 = 𝑥 1000
𝐴𝑠

Steps in designing two-way slabs.

I. Determine whether the slab geometry and loading allow the use of the direct

design method.

II. Select slab thickness to satisfy deflection and shear requirements. Such

calculations require a knowledge of the supporting beam or column

dimensions A reasonable value of such a dimension of columns or beams

would be 8 to 15% of the average of the long and short span dimensions,
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 59

namely (l1 +l2)/2. For shear check, the critical section is at a distance d/2 from

the face of the support.

III. Divide the structure into equivalent design frames bound by centerlines of

panels on each side of a line of columns.

IV. Compute the total statically factored moment

2 2
𝑀𝑜 = wul lu
8

V. Select the coefficient factors of the negative and positive moments of slab and

calculate the respective factored moments.

VI. Distribute the factored equivalent frame moments from step 4 to the column

and middle strips.

VII. Determine whether the trial slab thickness chosen is adequate for moment-

shear transfer in the case of flat plates at the interior column junction

computing that portion of the moment transferred by shear and the properties

of the critical shear section at distance d/2 from column face.

VIII. Design the flexural reinforcement to resist the factored moments in step 6.

IX. Select the size and spacing of the reinforcement to fulfill the requirements for

crack control, bar development lengths, and shrinkage and temperature

stresses.

Step in the design of Singly Reinforced Rectangular Beam for Flexure:

I. Determine the values of loads, DL, LL, and other loads

II. Approximate the weight of beam (DL) as follows:


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Small Beams: 2 kN/m

Medium-sized beams: 3.5 kN/m

Large-sized Beams: 7kN/m

Or Weight of Beam in kN/m = 24 kN/m3 x Beam are in m2

III. Determine the maximum and minimum shear and moment of the continuous

beam through moment distribution method.

IV. Compute the factored load on different load combinations

Example: factored Load = 1.2DL + 1.6 LL

V. Compute the factored moment to be raised by the beam, Mu

VI. Try the value of steel ratio ƿ from 0.7 ƿmaxto 0.8 ƿmax, but must not be less

than ƿmin. This value of ƿwill provide enough allowance in the actual value of

ƿdue to rounding-off of the number of bars to be used so that it will not

exceed the maximum ƿ.

0.85fc ′ β600
Ƿb =
𝑓𝑦 (600 + 𝑓𝑦)

β = 0.85 for fc’ ≤ 28 MPa

0.05
β = 0.85 - (fc’-28) for fc’ ≥28 MPa
7

𝜌𝑓𝑦
VII. Compute the value of 𝜔, 𝜔 = 𝑓𝑐′

VIII. Solve for the reduction factor ∅ ∶

Solve for C:
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 61

Note: For Singly reinforced rectangular beam, 𝜌 is directly

proportional to c.
3
C = (assumed factor) x cmax where: cmax = 7 𝑑

The assumed factor may range from 0.7 to 0.8 as suggested in

step V.

𝑑−𝑐
𝑓𝑠 = 600
𝑐

If fs ≥1000MPa, tension-contrlled, ∅ = 0.90

𝑓𝑠−𝑓𝑦
If fs ≥1000MPa, transition, ∅ = 0.65 + 0.25 1000−𝑓𝑦

Solve for bd2 :

MU = ∅ 𝐹𝑐 ′ 𝜔 bd2 (1 − 0.59𝜔)

bd2 = ___________________________

IX. Try a ration d/b (fro d= 1.5 to d=2b), and solve for d. (round off this value to

to reasonable dimension). After solving for d, substitute its value to Step VII

and solve for b.Compute the weight of the beam and compare it to the

assumption made in step II.

X. Solve for the required steel area and number of bars:

𝐴𝑠 = 𝜌𝑏𝑑

Number of the bars (diameter = D)

𝜋
𝐴𝑠 = 4 x D2 x number of bars
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Minimum steel ratio.

Sections 5.10.5.1 of NSCP provides that the minimum steel ratio be 1.4/𝑓𝑦 . It

also states that in T-beams where the web is in tension , the ratio 𝜌 shall be computed

for this purpose using width of web.

𝐴𝑠
In checking for maximum 𝜌 (𝜌𝑚𝑎𝑥 ), use 𝜌 = 𝑏 (𝑜𝑛𝑙𝑦 𝑖𝑓 𝑎 < 𝑡)
𝑓𝑑

𝐴𝑠
In checking for minimum 𝜌 (𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛 ), use 𝜌 = 𝑏
𝑤𝑑

For Interior Beam:

𝑏𝑓 is the smallest of:

1. L/4

2. 16t + 𝑏𝑤

𝑆1 𝑆2
3. + + 𝑏𝑤
2 2

For End Beam

𝑏′𝑓 is the smallest of:

1. L/12 + 𝑏′𝑤

2. 6t + 𝑏′𝑤
𝑆3
3. + 𝑏′𝑤
2

For symmetrical interior beam (𝑆1 = 𝑆2 = 𝑆)


LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 63

𝑏𝑓 is the smallest of:

1. L/4

2. 16t + 𝑏𝑤

3. Center-to-center spacing of beams

4. Isolated beams in which T-shape are used to provide a flange

for additional compression area shall have a flange thickness not less

than ½ the width of the web and an effective flange width not more

than four times the width of the web.

t≥ 𝑏𝑤 /2

b≤ 4𝑏𝑤

Steps in Finding 𝑴𝒏 of a Doubly Reinforced Rectangular Beam with Given

𝑨𝒔, 𝑨′ 𝒔, and other Beam Properties

There are three possible cases in doubly reinforced beams.

Case 1. Both tension and compression yields (𝑓𝑠 = 𝑓 ′ 𝑠 = 𝑓𝑦)

Case 2.Tension Steel yields and compression steel does not

(𝑓𝑠 = 𝑓𝑦, 𝑓 ′ 𝑠 < 𝑓𝑦)

Case 3. Tension Steel does not yield and compression steel yields.

(𝑓𝑠 = 𝑓𝑦, 𝑓𝑠 < 𝑓𝑦)


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Note: For doubly reinforced beams with effective depth d = 250 mm or

more, it is not possible for both steel not to yield.

I. Assume compression steel yields (𝑓𝑠 ′ = 𝑓𝑦)

As2 = A’s

As1 = As - As2

II. Solve for a and c ( assuming tension steel yields):

C1 = T2 0.85 fc’ab = As1 fy

A =____________

A=𝛽1𝑐

C = ___________

𝑑−𝑐
Check :fs =600 𝑐

If fs>fy, tension steel yields , proceed to Step III

If fs<fy, tension steel not yields , proceed to Stepp VI

III. Solve for the stress in compression steel

𝑐−𝑑
𝑓𝑠 = 600
𝑐

If fs>fy, proceed to Step VI


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If fs<fy, proceed to Step V

IV. Since 𝑓𝑠 ′ > 𝑓𝑦, compression steel yields

𝑀𝑛 = 𝑀𝑛1 + 𝑀𝑛2

𝑎
𝑇1 (𝑑 − ) + 𝑇2 (𝑑 − 𝑑 ′ )
2

𝑎
𝐴𝑀𝑛 = 𝑎𝑠1 𝑓𝑦 (𝑑 − ) = 𝑎𝑠2 𝑓𝑦 (𝑑 − 𝑑′ )
2

V. If fs<fy , compression steel does not yield.

𝑐−𝑑
𝑓𝑦]𝑠 = 600 ( )
𝑐

From the stress diagram :

C1 + C2 = T

0.85 fc’ab + As’fs = Asfy

𝑐−𝑑′
0.85 fc 𝛽1𝑐𝑏 + 𝐴𝑠 600 = 𝐴𝑠𝑓𝑦
𝑐

Solve for c by quadratic formula.

Solve for fs’,

𝑐−𝑑
𝑓𝑠 ′ = 600 − = __________________
𝑐
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Solve for a,

𝑎 = 𝛽1𝑐 = ________________________

Solve for Mn :

𝑀𝑛 = 𝑀𝑛1 + 𝑀𝑛2

𝑎
𝑀𝑛 = 𝑐1 (𝑑 − ) = 𝑐2 (𝑑 − 𝑑 ′ )
2

𝑎
𝑀𝑛 = 0.85𝑓𝑐 𝑎𝑏 (𝑑 − ) + 𝐴′ 𝑠𝑓𝑠(𝑑 − 𝑑′ )
2

VI. Fs<fy but Fs = fy

T = Cc + C2 As fs = 0.85 fc’ ab + A’s fy

𝑑−𝑐
As x 600 = 0.85 fc’ (𝛽1𝑐)𝑏 + 𝐴′ 𝑠𝑓𝑦
𝑐

C =_____________ ; a = 𝛽1𝑐 = ___________

𝑀𝑛 = 𝑀𝑛1 = 𝑀𝑐2

𝑎
𝑀𝑛 = 0.85 𝑓𝑐 ′ 𝑎𝑏 (𝑑 − ) + 𝐴′ 𝑠𝑓𝑦 (𝑑 − 𝑑 ′ )
2

Step in designing axially loaded columns.

I. Determine Pu.

Pu= 1.4DL + 1.6LL


LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 67

Pu.=𝜙𝑂. 80[𝑜. 85𝑓𝑐 ′ (1 − 𝑃𝑔) + 𝑓𝑦𝑃𝑔]

Pu.=𝜙𝑂. 80[𝑜. 85𝑓𝑐 ′ (𝐴𝑔 − 𝐴𝑠) + 𝑓𝑦𝐴𝑠]

II. Assume Pg= 0.003 and 𝜙 = 0.70

III. Solve for the Gross Area and Dimension of Footing:

𝑃𝑢
Ag =
𝜙𝑂.80 [𝑜.85𝑓𝑐 ′ (1−𝑃𝑔)+𝑓𝑦𝑃𝑔]}

As = AgPg

Ag= L2

L = _______________________________

IV. Check for actual Gross Area to allowable.

V. Find the required Steel Reinforcement.

As = AgPg

Assume for diameter of reinforcement bar to be used;

𝜋
𝐴𝑠 = 4 x D2 x number of bars

VI. Check for Steel Reinforcement to the Allowable.

VII. Check for Slenderness Ratio.

Slenderness Ratio = L / r
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 68

r = 0.3 h

L /r = 32 – (Mu1 / Mu2) < 22

VIII. Vertical Spacing of ties shall be the smallest of the following:

a. 16 db (Diameter of main bar)

b. 48 x Tie Bar Diameter

c. Least Dimension of Column

IX. Check for allowable Pufrom Actual Pu.

Spiral Column

The axial load capacity of the spiral column is given by

∅𝑃𝑛 = ∅0.85(0.85𝑓𝑐 ′ (𝑎𝑔 − 𝑎𝑠𝑡) + 𝑓𝑦𝐴𝑠𝑡)

Where:

∅ = 0.75

Limits of reinforcement for tied Column Section 410.10

I. Ast shall not be less than 0.01Ag and Ast shall not be more than 0.08Ag

II. The minimum number of longitudinal bars is 6.

Sizes and Spacing of main Bars and Ties


LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 69

I. Spirals shall consist of evenly spaced continous bar or wire of such size and

so assembled to permit handling and placing without distortion from designed

dimensions.

II. For cast-inplace construction, size of spirals shall not be less than 10mm

diameter.

III. Clear spacing between spiral shaft shall not exceed 75mm, not be less than

25mm.

IV. Anchorage of spiral reinforcement shall be provided by 1 ½ extra turns of

spiral bar or wire at each end of a spiral unit.

V. Spiral reinforcement shall be spliced, if needed, by any one of the

following mthods:

1. Lap splices not less than the larger of 300mm and the length

indicated in one of (1) through (5) below:

(1) Deformed uncoated bar or wire ------------------------------------48db

(2) Plain coated bar or wire---------------------------------------------72db

(3) Epoxy-coated deformed bar or wire ------------------------------72db

(4) Plain uncoated bar or wire with a stardardstrirrup or tie hook at

ends of lapped spiral reinforcement ---------------------------------------------------

---------------------48db
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 70

(5) epoxy-coated deformed bar or wire with a standard stirrup of the

hook at ends of lapped spiral reinforcement. The hooks shall be embedded

within the core confined by the spiral reinforcement -------------------------------

-----------------------------------------48db

VI. Spiral shall extend from the top of the footing or slab in any story to level

of the lowest horizontal reinforcement in members supported above.

VII. Where Beams or brackets do not frame into all side of a column, ties

shall extend above termination of spiral to bottom of shall, drop panel or shear

cap.

IX. In the column with capitals, spiral shall extend to a level at which the

diameter or width of capital is two times that of the column.

X. Spirals shall be held firmly in place and true to line.

XI. Splices of spiral reinforcement shall be lap splices 48db but not less than

300mm or welded.

XII. The percentage of spiral steel 𝜌𝑠 is computed from the following

equations:

𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑝𝑖𝑟𝑎𝑙 𝑖𝑛 𝑜𝑛𝑒 𝑙𝑜𝑜𝑝


𝜌𝑠 =
𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑐𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑒 𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑒 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑎 𝑝𝑖𝑡𝑐ℎ𝑠

4𝑎𝑠(𝑑𝑐 − 𝑑𝑏)
𝜌𝑠 =
𝑠𝐷𝑐 2
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 71

Where As is the cross-sectional area of spiral bar, Dc is diameter of

the core out to ot of the spiral and db is the diameter of the spiral bar.

VI. The minimum spiral percentage (Section 410.10.3)

𝐴𝑠 𝑓𝑐′
𝜌𝑠𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 0.45 ( − 1)
𝐴𝑐 𝑓𝑦ℎ

Step in designing combined footing.

1. Assume weight of footing between 6% to 8%

Wt. = __ % (dead load + live load)

2. Total load

T.L. = assume wt. of footing + dead load + live load

3. Compute the required area of footing using the relation

𝑤𝑡.𝑜𝑓𝑓𝑜𝑜𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔+𝑑𝑒𝑎𝑑𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑+𝑙𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑
Req’d Area = 𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒𝑠𝑜𝑖𝑙𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒

4. Required area (dimension)

Req’d Area = BL

5. Compute the ultimate column load, 𝑃𝑢

Pu = 1.4 DL + 1.6 LL

6. Compute the net upward soil pressure, 𝑞𝑢


LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 72

𝑃𝑢
qu =𝐴𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎

7. Compute the allowable ltimate soil pressure, 𝑞𝑎

𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒𝑠𝑜𝑖𝑙𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒𝑋𝑃𝑢
qa = 𝐷𝐿+𝐿𝐿

8. Compute the depth of footing from bream shear in short direction

𝑢𝑣
𝑣𝑛 = 𝜑𝑏𝑑 ( actual )

Where: 𝑣𝑢 = 𝑞𝑢 (𝐿)(𝑥)

1
𝑣𝑐 = 6 𝑓𝑐′( allowable)

9. Check wt. of footing

Wt. of footing = 𝜔𝑉

Wt. of footing < assume wt. of footing

10. Compute reinforcement:

LONG DIRECTION (use L = short)

a. Compute steel ratio, 𝜌

𝑥
From bending: 𝑀𝑢 = 𝑞𝑢 (𝐿)(𝑥)(2)

𝑀𝑢 = 𝜑𝑓𝑐 ′ 𝑏𝑑 2𝜔 (1-0.59𝜔)
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 73

𝜔𝑓𝑐′
𝜌= 𝑓𝑦

b. Compare with 𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛

1.4
𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 𝑓𝑦

If 𝜌<𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛 ; use 𝜌

c. Compute for steel area requirement

𝐴𝑠 = 𝜌bd

d. Compute for the numbers of bars

𝐴𝑠
n=𝜋
𝑑2
4

e. Compute the required development length

0.02 𝐴𝑏𝑓𝑦
Req’d Ld =
√𝑓𝑐′

Min. Ld = 0.06 𝑑𝑏 𝑓𝑦

𝐿−𝑐
Available Ld = - cc > Req’d Ld > min. Ld
2

SHORT DIRECTION (use L = long )

a. Compute steel ratio, 𝜌


LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 74

𝑥
From bending: 𝑀𝑢 = 𝑞𝑢 (𝐿)(𝑥)(2)

𝑀𝑢 = 𝜑𝑓𝑐 ′ 𝑏𝑑 2𝜔 (1-0.59𝜔)

𝜔𝑓𝑐′
𝜌= 𝑓𝑦

b. Compare with 𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛

1.4
𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 𝑓𝑦

If 𝜌<𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛 ; use 𝜌

c. Compute for steel area requirement

𝐴𝑠 = 𝜌bd

d. Compute 𝐴𝑠1 ( centership )

𝐴𝑠1 2
=
𝐴𝑠 𝛽+1

𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑔𝑠𝑖𝑑𝑒
Where: 𝛽 = 𝑠ℎ𝑜𝑟𝑡𝑠𝑖𝑑𝑒

e. Compute for the number of bars ( 𝐴𝑠1 )

𝐴𝑠1
n=𝜋
𝑑2
4

f. Compute 𝐴𝑠2 ( outership )


LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 75

𝐴𝑠 = 𝐴𝑠1 + 2 𝐴𝑠2

g. Compute for the number of bars (𝐴𝑠2 )

𝐴𝑠2
n=𝜋
𝑑2
4

h. Check development length

0.02 𝐴𝑏𝑓𝑦
Req’d Ld =
√𝑓𝑐′

Min. Ld = 0.06 𝑑𝑏 𝑓𝑦

𝐿−𝑐
Available Ld = - cc > Req’d Ld > min. Ld
2

Working Plans and Layouts

The working drawings contain the necessary details and information to enable

the one to know the exact picture of all the elements, measurements, and how the

various structural parts are to be put together to form the whole structure. The

structural designs and drawings include the following; the perspective, site

development plan, ground floor plan, second floor plan, and third floor plan, roof

deck plan, front elevation, rear elevation, left side and right side elevation, cross-

section, longitudinal section, detail of stairs and footing, electrical lay-out, foundation

plan, detail of column footing, detail of room beam, detail of floor beam, detail of

sewerage vault, and detail of plumbing layout.


LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 76

Layouts shall be constructed through Computer Aided Drafting (specifically

AutoCAD 2010), and structural modeling will be based on the layouts produced by

drafting.

Technical Specifications

A specification is an explicit set of requirements to be satisfied by a material,

product or service. Specifications would be written to assure the implementation of

the requirements needed to assure proper installation.

The set of specifications shall govern the methods of construction to be used

for the “Proposed design of a three-storey Library Integrated Building”. The

construction shall conform to all the requirements of the City Engineering of Lucena,

Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH), and the local regulation of the

city.

Program of Works Method

The method used to determine the number of days that the project will be

completed is through the PERT/CPM, in which it indicates the number of hour each

laborer could perform in a day.

This shall be done by manual computation utilizing PERT/CPM method, and

checking it by Primavera Computer Software.

Cost Estimates and Bill of Materials

The estimates of materials used by the researchers are based on the following

method; (1) Volume Method will be used in estimating the slabs, (2) Area Method

will be used for estimating the footing, CHB and RSB, (3) Linear Method will be
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 77

used for estimating the footings, beams, and columns, (4) Direct Counting Method

will be used for estimating the footing, beams and columns.

After determining the quantity of materials needed for the construction

project, the data should be presented as ‘Bill of Materials’. It should include the

summary cost estimates for materials, labor, and other construction expenses.

Design Concepts

Design of the different structural components shall be concept accordingly to the

specification. Specification shall govern the methods of construction and the kind of

materials to be used for the proposed building in the plans and detail drawings. The technical

specification of the study was based on National Structural Code of the Philippines (NSCP

2010), Ultimate Strength Design (USD) Method, American Concrete Institute (ACI 318-11

Codes), and the existing laws and regulations of the City Engineering of Lucena City. Cost

estimate was based on the book of Max Fajardo in estimating the total amount of the

proposed structure. The Green Building Design was also included in the environmental

concept of the design of the study. The researchers used LEED green building system in

order to apply the green building concept, which is a certified certification in promoting and

building green building structures.


LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 78

UNIT IV

Results and Discussion

The results of the data analysis are presented in this chapter. The data were collected

and then processed in response to the problems posed in chapter 1 of this dissertation. The

four fundamental goals of this study drove the collection of the data and the subsequent data

analysis. These objectives were accomplished. The findings presented in this chapter

demonstrate the potential for merging theory and practice.

A. Social acceptability.

Demographic Profile

Table 4.0: Distribution of Responses According to Gender

Gender Frequency Percentage

Male 48 48%

Female 52 52%

Total 100 100%

It is illustrated by table above the distribution of responses according to the

respondent gender, it shows that out of one hundred (100) respondents, forty-eight (48) or

48% states that they are male and fifty-two (52) or 52% says that they are female.
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 79

Table 4.1: Distribution of Responses According to Age

Age Frequency Percentage

16-25 80 80%

26-35 13 13%

36-45 7 7%

Total 100 100%

It is illustrated by table above the distribution of responses according to the

respondent age, it shows that out of one hundred (100) respondents, eighty (80) or 80% states

that they are in 16-25 years old, thirteen (13) or 13% says that they are in 26-35 years old,

and seven (7) or 7% says that they are in 36-45 years old.

Table 4.2: Distribution of Responses According to Socio-Economic Status

Gender Frequency Percentage

Faculty 10 10%

Parent 10 10%

Students 67 67%

Others 13 13%

Total 100 100%

It is illustrated by table above the distribution of responses according to the

respondent class, it shows that out of one hundred (100) respondents, ten (10) or 10% states
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 80

that they are faculty, ten (10) or 10% says that they are parent, and sixty-seven (67) or 67%

says that they are students, and thirteen (13) or 13% states that they are others.

Table 4.3: Results of the questionnaire - opinionnaire of the study.

5 4 3 2 1
Question % % % % %
1. Are you satisfied with the library services 29 49 13 8 1
being offered to you in your community?

2. Do you think, constructing a library will 50 45 5 0 0


help this community?

3. Are you in favor of constructing a new 56 40 4 0 0


library?

4. Are you in favor of constructing a library 49 43 8 0 0


INTEGRATED building?

5. Do you think it will meet the services 56 39 5 0 0


needed by the demands of the
community?

The final result of the survey shows that a fair quantity or percentage of the randomly

chosen population has fair and favorable interest in the construction of the hospital. The first

question indicates more than half of the randomly chosen population (49%) disagrees with

the fact that they have satisfactory library services being offered in the locale. 50% (50 out of

100 respondents) agrees that constructing a new library will help their community. Question

3 and 4 shows that more than half of the randomly chosen population (an average of 56%)

will be in favor of constructing a new library, specifically the INTEGRATED building. And

lastly, 56% of the randomly chosen population thinks that it will meet the demands of the

community.
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 81

B. Atterberg Limit Determination

Project : A Design of a Three-Storey Library Integrated Building

Location of the Project : Brgy. Ibabang Dupay Lucena City

Description of Soil : Macolod Clay Loam

Liquid Limit Determination

Table 4.4
Liquid Limit Determination
Can Number 1 2 3
Weight of wet 16.69 17.04 19.03
soil+can
Weight of dry 13.8 13.25 14.6
soil+can
Weight of can 5.5 5.4 5.4
Weight of dry soil 8.3 7.85 9.2
Moisture loose 2.89 3.19 4.43
Water content, w% 43.75 40.62 38.15
Number of blows, N 37 24 12

Plastic Limit Determination

Table 4.5
Plastic Limit Determination
Can Number 1 2
Weight of wet soil+can 11.30 11.26
Weight of dry soil+can 10.42 10.35
Weight of can 6.7 6.7
Weight of dry soil 3.72 3.65
Moisture loose 0.88 0.91
Water content, w% 23.66 24.93
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 82

Liquid Limit = 40.12

Plastic Limit = 24.30

Plastic Index = 15.82

Water Content Determination

Project : A Design of a Three-Storey Library Integrated Building

Location of the Project : Brgy. Ibabang Dupay Lucena City

Description of Soil : Macolod clay loam

Table 4.6
Water Content Determination
Boring Number 1 2 3
Container Number 1 2 3
Weight of cup+soil 30.19 31.66 28.52
Weight of cup+dry 22.6 22.73 22.7
soil
Weight of cup 6.7 6.7 6.7
Weight of water 9.59 8.93 5.82
Water Content, w% 60.31 55.71 36.38

(60.31+55.71+36.38)
Average Water Content = = 50.8%
3

Grain Size Analysis-Mechanical

Sieve Analysis and Grain Shape

Table 4.7
Sieve Analysis and Grain Shape
Sieve No. Diameter Weight %Retained Weight %Passing
(mm) Retained Passing
(mm)
4 0 0 657 657 100
8 2.38 14 2.13 643 97.87
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 83

10 1.68 29.3 4.46 613.7 93.41


40 0.42 44.3 6.8 569.4 86.61
60 0.25 67.12 10.22 502.28 76.39
100 0.15 59.8 9.1 442.38 67.29
200 0.075 82.38 12.54 360.1 54.75

Based from the result of the Atterberg’s Limit Determination Test, the soil’s

classified as inorganic clay of medium plasticity wait allowable soil pressure of 100-300kPa

C. SEISMIC ANALYSIS

Assumption of Loading

Slab = 170mm

Beam = (460 × 600) mm

Column = 750mm × 750mm

Cross beam = 300mm × 400mm

DEAD LOAD

Loading concrete = 23.54kN/𝑚3

25 mm concrete topping = .60kPa

Floor finish = 0.77kPa

150 mm CHB exterior wall = 2.40kPa both face plastered

100 mm CHB interior wall = 1.76kPa both way plastered

Partition = 2.1kN/ 𝑚3

Vegetation = 10.2kPa

Utility = 0.04kPa

Ceiling = 0.24kPa
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 84

LIVE LOAD

Category Description Uniform Load Concentrated Load


(KPa) (KN)
Libraries Reading room 2.9kpa 4.52 kN
Stock room 7.2kPa 4.52 kN
Corridor above ground 3.8kPa 4.5kN
floor
Roof deck Ground floor corridors 4.8kPa 4.5kN
Stairway 1.9kPa

DEAD LOADS / FLOORS

Roof deck

Slab = (.17)(23.54)(30)(30) = 3601.62kN

Beam = (.45)(.6)(23.54)[30(6) + 30(8)} = 2288.10kN

Cross beam = (.3)(.4)[30(4)](23.54) = 338.98kN

Parapet = (.15)(1.2)(23.54)(60) = 254.232kN

Finishing = (.77)(30)(30) = 693kN

Ceiling = (.24)(30)(30) = 216kN

Utility = (.04)(30)(30) = 36kN

Vegetation = (10.2)(30)(30) = 9180kN

Total = 16607.92kN

3rd Floor Loading

Slab = (.17)(23.54)(30)(30 ) = 3601.62kN

Beam = (.45)(.6)(23.54)[30(6) + 30(8)} = 2660.44kN

Column = (.750)(.750)(23.54)(5)(24) =1588.95kN

Finishing = (.77)(30)(30) = 693kN

Ceiling = (.24)(30)(30) = 216kN


LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 85

Utility = (.04)(30)(30) = 36kN

CHB exterior = (2.4)(5)(30+30) = 720kN

CHB interior = (1.76)(5)(300) = 2640kN

Cross beam = (.3)(.4)[30(4)](23.54) = 338.98kN

Total = 12504kN

2nd Floor Loading

Slab = (.17)(23.54)(30)(30 ) = 3601.62kN

Beam = (.45)(.6)(23.54)[30(6) + 30(8)} = 2660.44kN

Column = (.750)(.750)(23.54)(5)(24) = 1588.95kN

Finishing = (.77)(30)(30) = 693kN

Ceiling = (.24)(30)(30) = 216kN

Utility = (.04)(30)(30) = 36kN

CHB exterior = (2.4)(5)(30+30) = 720kN

CHB interior = (1.76)(5)(300) = 2640kN

Cross beam = (.3)(.4)[30(4)](23.54) = 338.98kN

Total = 12504 kN

Ground Floor Loading

Slab = (.17)(23.54)(30)(30 ) = 3601.62kN

Beam = (.45)(.6)(23.54)[30(6) + 30(8)} = 2669.44kN

Column = (.750)(.750)(23.54)(5)(24) = 1588.95kN

Finishing = (.77)(30)(30) = 693kN

Ceiling = (.24)(30)(30) = 216kN


LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 86

Utility = (.04)(30)(30) = 36kN

CHB exterior = (2.4)(5)(30+30) = 720kN

CHB interior = (1.76)(5)(300) = 2640kN

Cross beam = (.3)(.4)[30(4)](23.54) = 338.98kN

Total = 12504 kN

Floor beam Dead Load(kN) Storey height


Roof deck 16607.92 5m.
3rd floor 12504 5m.
2nd floor 12504 5m.
Ground floor 12504 0
Total 54119.92 15m.

D. EARTHQUAKE LOADS (Section 208)

E- Force Resisting Structural Systems of Concrete Table 208-11

R - Numerical coefficient representative = 5.6

𝐹𝑡 = 0.07𝑇𝑉 = The concentrated force 𝐹𝑡, at the top which addition to 𝐹𝑛

(𝑉−𝐹𝑡)𝑊𝑥ℎ𝑥
𝐹𝑥= ∑𝑛
= at each bad designated as x the force 𝐹𝑥
𝑖=1 𝑊𝑖ℎ𝑖

𝑇 = elastic fundamental period of vibration of structure in the direction under

consideration

𝑇 = 𝐶𝑇 (ℎ𝑛) 3/4

𝐶𝑇 = 0.0731 for reinforced concrete moment resisting force and eccentrically braced

force.

Zone Factor 𝑍 = 0.40

Seismic Importance Factor 1= 1.00

𝑁𝑎 = Near source factor used in determination of 𝐶𝑎


LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 87

= 1.00 (if ≥ 10km closest distance to known seismic source)

𝑁𝑣 = Near source factor used in determination of 𝐶𝑣

= 1.00 ( if ≥ 15𝑘𝑚 disest distance to known seismic source)

𝐶𝑎 = Seismic coefficient, (table 208-7) = 0.40𝑁𝑎

𝐶𝑣 = Seismic coefficient, (table 208-8) = 0.56𝑁𝑣

208.5.2 Static Procedure

𝑉 = Design Base Shear

0.8𝑁𝑣1𝑊 𝐶𝑣1𝑊 2.5𝐶𝑎1𝑊


𝑉= < <
𝑅 𝑅𝑇 𝑅

2.5𝐶𝑎1𝑊
𝑉𝑚𝑎𝑥 =
𝑅

0.8𝑁𝑣1𝑊
𝑉𝑚𝑖𝑛 =
𝑅

𝑉𝑚𝑖𝑛 < 𝑉 < 𝑉𝑚𝑎𝑥

𝑇 = 𝐶𝑇 (ℎ𝑛) 3/4

ℎ𝑛 = 15𝑚 , 𝐶𝑇 = 0.0731

𝑇 = 0.0731(15)3/4

= 0.5571sec. < 0.70sec. ; THEFORE 𝐹𝑡 = 0


LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 88

𝐶𝑣 = 0.56𝑁𝑣 = 0.56(1)

= 0.56

𝐼 = 1.00

𝑊 = 54119.92𝑘𝑁

𝑅 = 5.6

𝐶𝑣𝐼𝑊 0.56(1)(54119.92)
𝑉= =
𝑅𝑇 5.6(0.5571)

= 9714.58 KN

2.5𝐶𝑎𝐼𝑊 2.5(0.56)(1)(54119.92)
𝑉𝑚𝑎𝑥 = =
𝑅 5.6

= 13529.98 KN

0.8𝐶𝑎𝐼𝑊 0.8(1)(1)(54119.92)
𝑉𝑚𝑖𝑛 = =
𝑅 5.6

= 7731.42 KN

7731.42𝑘𝑁 < 9714.58𝑘𝑁 < 13529.98𝑘𝑁 (okay)

𝑉𝑚𝑖𝑛 < 𝑉 < 𝑉𝑚𝑎𝑥

USE 𝑉 = 9714.58𝐾𝑁

Floor Wx(kN) hx(m) Wxhx Fx


Roof Deck 16607.92 15 249118.80 5542.02
3rd Floor 12504 10 125040 2781.70
2ND Floor 12504 5 62520 1390.85
Ground Floor 12504 0 0 0
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 89

436678.8 9714.57

(𝑉 − 𝐹𝑡)𝑊𝑥ℎ𝑥
𝐹𝑥 =
⅀𝑊𝑥ℎ𝑥

(9714.58)(249118.8)
𝐹𝑥𝑅𝑓 =
436678.8
= 5542.02 KN

(9714.58)(125040)
𝐹𝑥3𝑟𝑑 =
436678.8
= 2781.70 KN

(9714.58)(62520)
𝐹𝑥2𝑛𝑑 =
43667.8
= 1390.85KN

E. Wind Load

Design of Wind Forces, F (KN)

Velocity Pressure:

qz = 47.3 x 10-3 kz

iw = Importance Factor (NSCP 2010, Table 207-3)

kz = Velocity Pressure Exposure (NSCP 2010, Table 207-4)

kzt = Wind Speed up on terrain (NSCP 2010, Sec. 207.5, 7)

Therefore,

v = 250 kph zone 1 (NSCP 2010, Fig. 207-1)

iw = 1.15 (for special occupancy category III from NSCP 2010, Table 207-3)

kzt = (1 + k1k2k3)2 (NSCP 2010, Sec. 207.5.7)

kzt = (1 + 0.26(0.02))2 = 1.01

kd = Wind directionality factor


2
kz = 2.01(z/zg)∝
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 90

zg = 365m (Table 207-5)

∝ = 7.0 (Table 207-5)

Velocity Pressure Exposure Coefficient, kz

@roof deck, z = 15m


2
15 7
kz = 2.01 (365) = 0.81

@3rd floor, z = 10m


2
10 7
kz = 2.01 (365) = 0.72

@2nd floor, z = 5m
2
5 7
kz = 2.01 (365) = 0.59

Velocity Pressure, qz

@roof deck

qz = 47.3 x 10-6 kzkztkdv2iw

= 47.3 x 10-6(0.81) (1.01) (0.85) (2502) (1.15)

= 2.36 kPa

@3rd floor

qz = 47.3 x 10-6 kzkztkdv2iw

= 47.3 x 10-6 (0.72) (1.01) (0.85) (2502) (1.15)

= 2.10 kPa

@2nd floor

qz = 47.3 x 10-6 kzkztkdv2iw

= 47.3 x 10-6 (0.59) (1.01) (0.85) (2502) (1.15)


LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 91

= 1. 72 kPa

Design of Wind Pressure, P

F = qzGCfAf (NSCP 2010, Table 207.1)

where:

qz = at height z above the ground

G = given in NSCP 2010, Sc. 207-4

G = 0.84

Cf = for all type of structure

Af = projected area of normal wind

@roof deck

F = qzGCfAf

= 2.36(0.84) (15) (2)

= 59. 47 KN

@3rd floor

F = qzGCfAf

= 2.10(0.84) (15) (2)

= 52.92 KN

@2nd floor

F = qzGCfAf

= 1.72(0.84) (15) (2)

= 43.34 KN

F. FRAME ANALYSIS

A. EARTHQUAKE LOAD

FxRD = 5542.02 KN

Fx3rd = 2781.70 KN
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 92

Fx2nd = 1390.85 KN

B. WIND LOAD

FRD = 59.47 KN

F3rd = 52.92 KN

F2nd = 43.34 KN

LATERAL FORCE AT FRAME A AND B

For roof deck

FxRD + FRD = 5542.02 KN + 59.47 KN

= 5601.49 KN

For 3rd floor

Fx3rd + F3rd = 2781.70 KN + 52.92 KN

= 2834.62 KN

For 2nd floor

Fx2nd + F2nd = 1390.85 KN + 43.34 KN

= 1434.19 KN

FRAME A

@ Roof deck

Total horizontal shear = 5601.49 KN

Let x = shear carried by the exterior column

2x = shear carried by the interior column

x + (2x) (2) + x = 5601.49KN

6x = 5601.49KN
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 93

x = 9333.58 KN

2x = 1867.16 KN

@ Third floor

Total horizontal shear = 2834.62 + 5601.49 = 8436.11 KN

Let x = shear carried by the exterior column

2x = shear carried by the interior column

x + (2x) (2) + x = 8436.11 KN

6x = 8436.11 KN

x = 1406.02 KN

2x = 2812. 04 KN

@ Second floor

Total horizontal shear = 8436.11 + 1434.19

= 9878.3 KN

Let x = shear carried by the exterior column

2x = shear carried by the interior column

x + (2x) (2) + x = 9878.3 KN

6x = 9878.3 KN

x = 1645.05 KN

2x = 3290.1KN

FRAME B

@ Roof deck

Total horizontal shear = 5601.49 KN

Let x = shear carried by the exterior column

2x = shear carried by the interior column

x + 4(2x) + x = 5601.49 KN
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 94

10x = 5601.49 KN

x = 560.149 KN

2x = 1120.3KN

@ Third floor

Total horizontal shear = 2834.62 + 5601.49 = 8436.11 KN

Let x = shear carried by the exterior column

2x = shear carried by the interior column

x + 4(2x) + x = 8436.11 KN

10x = 8436.11 KN

x = 843.611 KN

2x = 1687.22 KN

@ Second floor

Total horizontal shear = 8436.11 + 1434.19

= 9878.3 KN

Let x = shear carried by the exterior column

2x = shear carried by the interior column

x + 4(2x) + x = 9878.3 KN

10x = 9878.3 KN

x = 987.83 KN

2x = 1975.66 KN
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 95
Figure 2. FRAME A-Traverse Section
Figure 3. FRAME B – Longitudinal Section
G. STRUCTURAL DESIGN COMPUTATIONS

Design of Reinforce Concrete Slab

Computation of Loads: Considering 1meter strip

DEADLOAD ADDITIONAL (DLA)

Weight of Partition = 2.1 KN/m2(1m)

= 2.1KN/m

Weight of Electrical and Plumbing = 0.04KN/m2(1m)

= 0.04KN/m

Weight of Floor Finish = 0.77KN/m2(1m)

= 0.77KN/m

Weight of Ceiling = 0.24KN/m2(1m)

= 0.24KN/m

TOTAL DLA = 3.15KN/m

perimeter of parcel
Min. thickness = 180

(12000+6000)(2)
Min. thickness =
180

Min. thickness = 200mm

Weight of slab (DLS) = (.200)(23.54KN/m3)(1m)

= 4.708KN/m

DLTOTAL = DLS + DLA

= 4.71KN/m + 3.15KN/m

= 7.86KN/m
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 99

Live Load

Reading rooms = 2.9kPa

Stock rooms = 7.2kPa

Corridors above ground floor = 3.8kPa

SLAB-1

LL = 2.9KN/m2(1m)

= 2.9KN/m

DL = 7.86KN/m

Min. thickness = .200m or 200mm

Wu = 1.2DL + 1.6LL

= 1.2(7.86) + 1.6(2.9)

= 9.432KN/m + 4.64KN/m

= 14.10KN/m

Ls
m=
Lb
6 1
m= =
12 2

m = 0.5

Negative Moments

From table (Negative moments at continuous edge) Case 2

-Cs = 0.086

-Cb = 0.006
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 100

Ls = 6m

Lb = 12m

Ms = CsWLs2

Ms = 0.086(14.1)(6)2

Ms = 43.65KN/m

Ms = CbWLb2

Mb = 0.006(14.1)(12)2

Mb = 12.18KN/m

POSITIVE MOMENT

DL LL

CsDL = 0.037 CsLL = 0.066

CsDL = 0.002 CsLL = 0.004

Along Short Direction

MsDL = 0.037(9.432)(6)2

= 12.56KN/m

MsLL = 0.006(4.64)(6)2

= 11.02 KN/m

MTS = MsDL + MsLL

= 12.56 + 11.02

= 23.58KN/m
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 101

Along Long Direction

MbDL = 0.002(9.432)(12)2

= 2.72KN/m

MbLL = 0.004(4.64)(12)2

= 2.67KN/m

MbT = MbDL + MbDL

= 2.72 + 2.67

= 5.39KN/m

Negative moment at discontinuous edges equal 1/3 positive moments


1
-Ms = 3 (23.58)

= 7.86KN/m
1
-Mb = 3 (5.38)

= 1.79KN/m

Along short direction

1. Midspan

Mu = ∅f ′ c bd2 ω (1 − 0.59ω)

23.58x106 = 0.9(21)(1000)(169)2 ω (1 − 0.59ω)

ω = 0.0449

ωfc′
ρ= = 3.41x10-3
fy

1.4 1.4
ρmin = = 276 MPa = 0.00507
fy
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 102

 ρmin > ρ

Use ρ = 0.00507

As = ρbd

= 0.00507(1000)(169)

= 856.83mm2

Ab
S=
As

Use 12mm ∅ RSB:

π
(12)2 (1000)
4
S=
856.03

= 131.99mm

Say 130mm of spacing

2. Continuous edge

Mu = ∅f ′ c bd2 ω (1 − 0.59ω)

43.65x106 = 0.9(21)(1000)(169)2 ω (1 − 0.59ω)

ω = 0.08513

ωfc′
ρ= = 6.48x10-3
fy

1.4 1.4
ρmin = = 276 MPa = 0.00507
fy

 ρmin < ρ
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 103

As = ρbd

= 6.48x10-3(1000)(169)

= 1095.12mm2

Ab (1000) 36000π
S= = = 103.27mm
As 1095.12

Say 100mm of spacing

3. Discontinuous Edge

Mu = ∅f ′ c bd2 ω (1 − 0.59ω)
7.86x106 = 0.9(21)(1000)(169)2 ω (1 − 0.59ω)

ω = 0.0146
ωfc′
ρ= = 1.11x10−3
fy

 ρmin > ρ

Use ρ = 5.07x10-3

As = ρbd

= 5.07x10−3 (1000)(169)

= 857.25mm2

Ab (1000) 36000π
S= = = 131.93mm
As 857.25

Say 130mm of spacing


LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 104

Along long direction

1. Midspan

d = 169-5 = 164mm

Mu = ∅f ′ c bd2 ω (1 − 0.59ω)
5.38x106 = 0.9(21)(1000)(164)2 ω (1 − 0.59ω)

ω = 0.0107
ωfc′
ρ= = x10−4
fy

 ρmin > ρ

As = ρbd

= 5.07x10−3 (1000)(164)

= 831.48mm2

Ab (1000) 36000π
S= = = 136.01mm
As 831.48

Say 130mm of spacing

2. Continuous Edge

Mu = ∅f ′ c bd2 ω (1 − 0.59ω)
12.18x106 = 0.9(21)(1000)(169)2 ω (1 − 0.59ω)

ω = 0.0229
ωfc′
Ρ= = 1.74x10−3
fy

 ρmin > ρ

Use ρ = 5.07x10-3

Say 130mm of spacing


LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 105

3. Discontinuous Edge

Mu = ∅f ′ c bd2 ω (1 − 0.59ω)
1.79x106 = 0.9(21)(1000)(169)2 ω (1 − 0.59ω)

ω = 0.00332
ωfc′
ρ= = 2.53x10−4
fy

 ρmin > ρ

Say 130mm of spacing or 3 times the spacing of midspan

S = 3(130) = 390mm < 500mm

Say 390mm (ACI Code)

Bent up two of every three bars from the bottom

SLAB – 2

LL = 3.8 KN/m2(1m)

= 3.8KN/m

DL = 7.86KN/m

Min. thickness = .200m or 200mm

Wu = 1.2DL + 1.6LL

= 1.2(7.86) + 1.6(3.8)

= 9.432KN/m + 9.432KN/m

= 15.51KN/m

Ls
m=
Lb
6 1
m= =
12 2

m = 0.5
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 106

Negative Moments

From table (Negative moments at continuous edge) Case 2

-Cs = 0.086

-Cb = 0.006

Ms = CsWLs2

Ms = 0.086(15.51)(6)2

Ms = 48.01KN/m

Ms = CbWLb2

Mb = 0.006(15.51)(12)2

Mb = 13.4KN/m

POSITIVE MOMENT

DL LL

CsDL = 0.037 CsLL = 0.066

CsDL = 0.002 CsLL = 0.004

Along Short Direction

MsDL = 0.037(9.432)(6)2

= 12.56KN/m

MsLL = 0.006(6.08)(6)2

= 14.45 KN/m

MTS = MsDL + MsLL

= 12.56 + 14.45

= 27.01KN/m
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 107

Along Long Direction

MbDL = 0.002(9.432)(12)2

= 2.72KN/m

MbLL = 0.004(6.08)(12)2

= 3.5KN/m

MbT = MbDL + MbDL

= 2.72 + 3.5

= 6.22KN/m

Negative moment at discontinuous edges equal 1/3 positive moments


1
-Ms = 3 (27.01)

= 9KN/m
1
-Mb = 3 (6.22)

= 2.07KN/m

Along short direction

1. Midspan

Mu = ∅f ′ c bd2 ω (1 − 0.59ω)

27.01x106 = 0.9(21)(1000)(169)2 ω (1 − 0.59ω)

ω = 0.0516

ωfc′
ρ= = 3.92x10-3
fy
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 108

1.4 1.4
ρmin = = 276 MPa = 0.00507
fy

As = ρbd = 856.83mm2

Ab (1000) 36000π
S= = = 131.99mm
As 856.83

Say 130mm of spacing

2. Continuous Edge

Mu = ∅f ′ c bd2 ω (1 − 0.59ω)

48.01x106 = 0.9(21)(1000)(169)2 ω (1 − 0.59ω)

ω = 0.0941

ωfc′
ρ= = 0.00716
fy

As = ρbd = 1210.93mm2
Ab (1000) 36000π
S= = 1210.93 = 93.4mm
As

Say 90mm of spacing

3. Discontinuous Edge

Use 3 times the spacing of midspan (moment is only 1/3 of midspan)

S = 3(130) = 390mm <500mm ACI Code

Say 90mm of spacing

Note: Bent up two of every three bars from the bottom steel.
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 109

Along long direction

1. Midspan

Mu = ∅f ′ c bd2 ω (1 − 0.59ω)

6.27x106 = 0.9(21)(1000)(164)2 ω (1 − 0.59ω)

ω = 0.0133

ωfc′
ρ= = 1.03x10-3
fy

1.4 1.4
ρmin = = 276 MPa = 0.00507
fy

As = ρbd

= 5.07x10−3 (1000)(164)

= 831.48mm2
Ab (1000) 25000π
S= = = 94.46mm
As 831.48

Say 90mm of spacing

2. Continuous Edge

Mu = ∅f ′ c bd2 ω (1 − 0.59ω)

13.4x106 = 0.9(21)(1000)(169)2 ω (1 − 0.59ω)

ω = 0.0252

ωfc′
ρ= = 1.92x10-3
fy
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 110

As = ρbd = 856.83mm2

Ab (1000) 36000π
S= = = 131.99mm
As 856.83

Say 130mm of spacing

3. Discontinuous Edge

S = 3(90) = 270mm <500mm ACI Code

Say 270mm of spacing

Note: Bent up two of every three bars from the bottom steel.

SLAB – 3

LL = 7.2KN/m2(1m)

= 7.2KN/m

DL = 7.86KN/m

Min. thickness = .200m or 200mm

Wu = 1.2DL + 1.6LL

= 1.2(7.86) + 1.6(7.2)

= 9.432KN/m + 11.52KN/m

= 20.95KN/m
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 111

Ls
m=
Lb
6 1
m= =
12 2

m = 0.5

Negative Moments

From table (Negative moments at continuous edge) Case 2

-Cs = 0.086 Ls = 6m

-Cb = 0.006 Lb = 12m

Ms = CsWLs2

Ms = 0.086(20.95)(6)2

Ms = 64.86KN/m

Ms = CbWLb2

Mb = 0.006(20.95)(12)2

Mb = 18.01KN/m

POSITIVE MOMENT

DL LL

CsDL = 0.037 CsLL = 0.066

CsDL = 0.002 CsLL = 0.004

Along Short Direction

MsDL = 0.037(9.432)(6)2

= 12.56KN/m
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 112

MsLL = 0.066(11.52)(6)2

= 27.37KN/m

MTS = MsDL + MsLL

= 12.56 + 27.37

= 39.93KN/m

Along Long Direction

MbDL = 0.002(9.432)(12)2

= 2.72KN/m

MbLL = 0.004(11.52)(12)2

= 6.64KN/m

MbT = MbDL + MbDL

= 2.72 + 6.64

= 9.36KN/m

Along short direction

1. Midspan

Mu = ∅f ′ c bd2 ω (1 − 0.59ω)

39.93x106 = 0.9(21)(1000)(169)2 ω (1 − 0.59ω)

ω = 0.0775

ωfc′
ρ= = 0.00589
fy

As = ρbd = 996.76mm2
Ab (1000) 36000π
S= = = 113.46mm
As 996.76

Say 110mm of spacing


LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 113

2. Continuous Edge

Mu = ∅f ′ c bd2 ω (1 − 0.59ω)

64.86x106 = 0.9(21)(1000)(169)2 ω (1 − 0.59ω)

ω = 0.13014

ωfc′
ρ= = 0.00990
fy

As = ρbd = 1673.54mm2
Ab (1000) 36000π
S= = 1673.54 = 67.58mm
As

Say 60mm of spacing

3. Discontinuous Edge

S = 3(110) = 330mm <500mm ACI Code

Say 330mm of spacing

Note: Bent up two of every three bars from the bottom steel.

Along long direction

1. Midspan

Mu = ∅f ′ c bd2 ω (1 − 0.59ω)

9.36x106 = 0.9(21)(1000)(164)2 ω (1 − 0.59ω)

ω = 0.0186

ωfc′
ρ= = 1.42x10-3
fy
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 114

1.4 1.4
ρmin = = 276 MPa = 0.00507
fy

As = ρbd

= 5.07x10−3 (1000)(164)

= 831.48mm2

Ab (1000) 25000π
S= = = 94.46mm
As 831.48

Say 90mm of spacing

2. Continuous Edge

Mu = ∅f ′ c bd2 ω (1 − 0.59ω)

18.01x106 = 0.9(21)(1000)(169)2 ω (1 − 0.59ω)

ω = 0.034

ωfc′
ρ= = 2.59x10-3
fy

As = ρbd = 856.83mm2
Ab (1000) 36000π
S= = = 131.99mm
As 856.83

Say 130mm of spacing

3. Discontinuous Edge

S = 3(90) = 270mm <500mm ACI Code

Say 270mm of spacing

Note: Bent up two of every three bars from the bottom steel.
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 115

Design of Reinforced Concrete Beam

Interior beam

Cross Beam (B-1)

Interior – 300mm x 400mm

Length of beam = 6m

Tributary area = 6(5) = 30m2

ADDITIONAL DEADLOAD

Weight of Partition = 2.1(5) = 10.5KN/m

Weight of Floor Finish = 0.77(5) = 3.85KN/m

Weight of Ceiling = 0.24(5) = 1.2KN/m

Weight of Electrical and Plumbing = 0.04(5) = 0.2KN/m

Weight of Slab = 0.2(23.54)(5) = 23.54KN/m

Weight of Interior Beam = 2.82KN/m

DLTOTAL = 15.75 + 23.54 + 2.82

= 42.11KN/m

LLTOTAL = 7.2(5)

= 36KN/m

Wu = 1.2DL + 1.6LL

= 1.2(42.11) + 1.6(36)

= 108.13KN/m
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 116

Wu L2 108.13(6)2
Mu = =
12 12
= 324.396KN/m

0.85β600fc ′
ρb = = 0.03765
(fy + 600)fy

ρmax = 0.02824

ρ = 0.9ρmax = 0.02542

ρfy
w= = 0.3341
fc′

M1 = ∅fc ′ bd2 w(1 − 0.59w)

= 0.9(21)(300)(360)2 w(1 − 0.59w)

= 197.26KN/m

Mu > M1 it needs reinforcement in the compression

M2 = Mu − M1

M2 = 324.4 − 197.26

= 127.14KN/m

ρ = 0.02542

As1 = ρbd

= 0.02542(300)(360)
= 2745.36mm2

M2 127.14x106
As2 = =
fy(d − d′ ) 276(360 − 40)

As2 = 1436.54mm2
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 117

As1 + As2 = As

As = 2745.36 + 1436.54

= 4184.898mm2

N36 = 2 – 36mm ∅RSB

N32 = 3 – 32mm ∅RSB

Check if compression steel yield


𝜎 𝜎
𝐸= ;𝑡 = 𝐸
𝑡

276
𝑡𝑦 = 200000 = 1.38𝑥10−3

𝜖𝑠 ′ 𝜖𝑐 =0.003
(𝑐−𝑑′ )
= 𝑐

C1 = T1

0.85fc’ab = As1fy

1As fy 2745.36(276)
a = 0.85fc ′ b = 0.85(21)(300)

a = 141.498mm say 142mm


a 141.498
c=β= 0.85

c = 166.47 say 166mm


𝜖𝑠 ′ 0.003
(166−40)
= 166

𝜖 s′ = 2.28x10-3 > 𝜖 y

 compression steel yields

fs′ = fy =fs

As′ = As2 = 1436.54mm2


LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 118

N28 =2-32mmØ RSB

Check if compression steel yield using ACI Code

0.85fc ′ β600d′
ρ − ρ′ >
fyd(600 − fy)

As 4448.50
ρ= = = 0.04119
bd 300(360)

As2 1608.49
ρ′ = = = 0.01489
bd 300(360)

0.85(21)(0.85)(600)(40)
= 0.01131
276(360)(600 − 276)

ρ − ρ′ = 0.4119 − 0.01710 = 0.026296

0.026296>0.01131 (OKAY)

ρmax = 0.75ρb + ρ′

= 0.02824 + 0.01489

= 0.04313

ρmin < ρ < ρmax (OKAY)

Web Reinforced

Wu = 108.13KN/m

Wu L
Vu = − Wu L
2
Vu = 285.46KN/m

1
Vc = √fc ′ bd
6
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 119

1
= 6 √21(300)(360)

= 82.49KN

1
∅Vc < Vu
2
1
(0.85)(82.49) < Vu
2
35.06KN < 285.46KN

 Use stirrup or provide web reinforcement

Spacing of Stirrup

Vu
Vs = − Vc

285.46
= − 35.06
0.85

= 253.35KN

122 π(2)
Av = = 226.19mm2
4
Av fyd 226.19(276)(360)
S= =
Vs 253.35

S = 88.7mm say 80mm

d
Smax =
2
360
= = 180mm
2

 Therefore use 12mm∅RSB stirrup @ 180mm O.C


LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 120

Girder Beam (B-2)

Length of cross beam = 6m

Tributary area = 8(2) = 16m2

DEADLOAD ADDITIONAL

Weight of Partition = 2.1 KN/m2(1m)

= 2.1KN/m

Weight of Electrical and Plumbing = 0.04KN/m2(1m)

= 0.04KN/m

Weight of Floor Finish = 0.77KN/m2(1m)

= 0.77KN/m

Weight of Ceiling = 0.24KN/m2(1m)

= 0.24KN/m

TOTAL DLA = 3.15KN/m

Weight of Slab = 0.2(23.54)(1.33)

= 6.26KN/m

Weight of cross beam = 0.3(0.4)(23.54)

= 2.82KN/m

Weight of girder beam= 0.4(0.55)(23.54)

= 5.18KN/m

DLTOTAL = DLA + WS + WCB + WGB

= 3.15 + 6.26 + 2.82 + 5.18

= 17.41KN/m
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 121

LIVELOAD = 7.2kPa (1.33m) = 9.58KN/m

Wu = 1.2DL + 1.6LL

= 1.2(17.41) + 1.6(9.58)

= 36.22KN/m

Mu = 716.61KN/m

M1 = ∅fc ′ bd2 w(1 − 0.59w)

= 0.9(21)(400)(510)2 w(1 − 0.59w)

= 527.85KN/m

Mu > M1 it needs reinforcement in the compression side

M2 = Mu − M1

M2 = 716.61 − 527.82

= 188.76KN/m

ρ = 0.02542

As1 = ρbd

= 0.02542(400)(510)
= 5185.68mm2

M2 188.76x106
As2 = =
fy(d − d′ ) 276(510 − 40)

As2 = 1455.13mm2

As1 + As2 = As

As = 5185.68 + 1455.13

= 6640.81mm2
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 122

Use 32mm and 36mm ∅RSB

5-36mm ∅RSB

2-32mm ∅RSB

Check if the compression steel yield


𝜎 𝜎
𝐸= ;𝜖 = 𝐸
𝑡

276
𝜖𝑦 = 200000 = 1.38𝑥10−3

𝜖 s′ > 𝜖 y

C1 = T1

0.85fc’ab = As1fy

1 As fy 5185.68(276)
a = 0.85fc ′ b = 0.85(21)(400)

a = 200.45mm
a 200.45
c=β= 0.85

c = 235.83mm

𝜖𝑠 ′ 𝜖𝑐 = 0.003 (235.83 − 40)(0.003)



= ; 𝜖𝑠′ =
(𝑐 − 𝑑 ) 𝑐 (235.83

𝜖 s′ = 2.49x10-3

𝜖 s′ > 𝜖 y

1.38x10-3 > 2.49x10-3

 compression steel yield

fs′ = fy =fs

As′ = As2 = 1455.13mm2

N32 = 1.81

say 2-32mmØ RSB


LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 123

Check if compression steel yields using ACI Code

0.85fc ′ β600d′
ρ − ρ′ >
fyd(600 − fy)
𝐴𝑠 6697.88
ρ = 𝑏𝑑 = 400(510) = 0.03283

1608.5
ρ′ = 400(510) = 7.88x10−3

0.85fc ′ β600d′ 0.85(0.85)(21)(40)(600)


=
fyd(600 − fy) 276(510)(600 − 276)

= 0.00798

ρ - ρ′ = 0.03283 – 7.88x10-3

= 0.02495

0.02495 > 7.88x10-3 (OKAY)

ρmax = 0.75ρb + ρ′

= 0.02824 + 7.88x10-3

= 0.03612
1.4
ρmin = 276 = 5.07x10−3

ρmin < ρ < ρmax (OKAY)


LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 124

Web Reinforced

Wu = 59.72KN/m
Wu L
Vu = − Wu d
2
59.72(12)
= − 59.72(0.510)
2

Vu = 327.85KN

1
Vc = √fc ′ bd
6
1
= 6 √21(400)(510)

= 155.81KN/m

Vu > ∅Vc (0.5)

Vu > 0.85(155.81)(0.5)

Vu > 66.22KN

 Use stirrup or provide web reinforcement

Spacing

Vu
Vs = − Vc

327.85
= − 155.81
0.85

= 229.895KN

122 π(2)
Av = = 226.19mm2
4
Av fyd 226.19(276)(510)
S= =
Vs 229.895

S = 162.98mm say 160mm


LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 125

 Provide 12mm∅RSB stirrup @ 160mm O.C

1
Vs < √fc′bd
3
1
229.895 < √21(400)(510)
3
229.895 < 311.62KN

d
Smax =
2
510
= = 225mm
2

 use 12mm∅RSB stirrup

Check for Av:


bS 400(160)
Av = 3fy = 3(276)

Av = 77.29mm2
2(12)2 (π)
Av < = 226.19mm2 (OKAY)
4

Exterior Beam (B-3)

Length of cross beam = 6m

Tributary area = 4(6) = 24m2

DEADLOAD ADDITIONAL

Weight of Partition = 2.1 KN/m2(1m)

= 2.1KN/m

Weight of Electrical and Plumbing = 0.04KN/m2(1m)

= 0.04KN/m

Weight of Floor Finish = 0.77KN/m2(1m)

= 0.77KN/m
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 126

Weight of Ceiling = 0.24KN/m2(1m)

= 0.24KN/m

DLA = 3.15KN/m

Weight of Slab = 0.2(23.54)(4)

= 18.83KN/m

Weight of cross beam = 0.3(0.4)(23.54)

= 2.82KN/m

DLTOTAL = DLA + WS + WCB

= 3.15 + 2.82 + 18.83

= 24.75KN/m

LIVELOAD = 7.2kPa(4m) = 28.8KN/m

Wu = 1.2DL + 1.6LL

= 1.2(24.75) + 1.6(28.8)

= 75.78KN/m

Wu L2
Mu =
12
75.78(6)2
=
12
= 227.34KN/m
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 127

0.85fc ′ β600
ρb = = 0.03765
fy(fy + 600)

ρmax = 0.75ρb = 0.02824

ρ = 0.9ρmax = 0.02542

As1 = ρbd

= 0.02542(300)(360)

= 2745.36mm2

M1 = ∅fc ′ bd2 ω(1 − 0.59ω)

ρfy
ω=
fc′
0.02542(276)
=
21
ω = 0.3341

0.3341
M1 = 0.9(21)(300)(360)2 (0.3341) (1 − )
1.7
M1 = 197.26KN/m

Mu > M 1 it needs reinforcement in the compression side

M2 = Mu – M1

= 227.34 – 197.26

= 30.08KN/m

M2 = As2fy(d-d′)

d′ = 40mm
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 128

M2
As2 =
fy(d − d′ )
30.08x106
= 276(360−40)

= 340.58mm2

As = As1 +As2

= 2745.36 + 340.58

= 3085.94mm2

Use 32-mmØ RSB


As 3085.94(4)
N32 = = (32)2 π
= 3.85
Ab

Say 4-32mmØ RSB in tension side

Check if compression steel yield


𝜎 𝜎
𝐸= ;𝜖 = 𝐸
𝜖

276
𝜖𝑦 = 200000 = 1.38𝑥10−3

C 1 = T1

0.85fc’ab = As1fy

1As fy 2745.36(276)
a = 0.85fc ′ b = 0.85(21)(300)

a = 141.498mm

a 141.498
c=β= 0.85

c = 166.47
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 129

𝜖𝑠 ′ 𝜖𝑐 𝜖𝑠 ′ 𝜖𝑐 (0.003)
= ; =
(𝑐−𝑑′ ) 𝑐 (166−40) 166.47

𝜖 s′ = 2.28x10-3

𝜖 s′ > 𝜖 y

 compression steel yield

fs′ = fy =fs

As′ = As2 = 340.58mm2

N20 = 1.08 say 2 - 20mmØ RSB

Check if compression steel yields using ACI Code

0.85fc ′ β600d′

ρ−ρ >
fyd(600 − fy)
4(322 π)
ρ = 4(300)(360) = 0.02979

202 π
ρ′ = 2(300)(360) = 5.82x10−3

0.85fc ′ β600d′ 0.85(0.85)(21)(40)(600)


=
fyd(600 − fy) 276(360)(600 − 276)

= 0.01131

ρ - ρ′ = 0.02979 – 0.00582

= 0.02397

0.02397 > 0.01131 (OKAY)

ρmax = 0.75ρb + ρ′

= 0.02824 + 5.28x10-3

= 0.03352
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 130

1.4
ρmin = 276 = 5.07x10−3

ρmin < ρ < ρmax (OKAY)

Web Reinforced

Wu = 75.78KN/m

Wu L
Vu = − Wu d
2
75.78(6)
= − 75.78(0.36)
2

Vu = 200.06KN

1
Vc = √fc ′ bd
6
1
= 6 √21(300)(360)

= 82.49KN/m

Vu > ∅Vc (1/2)

Vu > 0.85(82.49)(0.5)

Vu > 35.05KN

 Use stirrup or provide web reinforcement

Spacing

Vu
Vs = − Vc

200.06
= − 82.49
0.85

= 152.86KN
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 131

122 π(2)
Av = = 226.19mm2
4
Av fyd 226.19(276)(360)
S= =
Vs 152.86

S = 147.02mm say 140mm

1
Vs < √fc′bd
3
1
152.86 < √21(300)(360)
3
152.86 < 164.97KN

d
Smax =
2
360
= = 180mm
2

Check for Av:


bS 300(180)
Av = 3fy = 3(276)

Av = 65.21mm2
2(12)2 (π)
Av < = 226.19mm2
4

 Therefore use 12mm∅RSB stirrup @ 180mm O.C


LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 132

Design of Reinforce Concrete Column

Interior Column (C-1)

Tributary Area = 9(6) = 54𝑚2

Dead Load

Roof Deck

Slab = 0.2(9)(6)(23.54) = 254.23KN

Ceiling = 0.24(54) = 12.96KN

Utility = 0.04(54) = 2.16KN

Finishing = 0.77(54) = 41.58KN

Vegetation = 4.8(54) = 259.20KN

Beam = [0.4(0.55)(9)+0.3(0.4)(6)]23.54 = 63.56KN

Total = 633.69KN

Third Floor

Slab = 0.2(9)(6)(23.54) = 254.23KN

Ceiling = 0.24(54) = 12.96KN

Utility = 0.04(54) = 2.16KN

Finishing = 0.77(54) = 41.58KN

Partition = 2.1(54) = 113.40KN

Beam = [0.4(0.55)(9)+0.3(0.4)(6)](23.54) = 63.56KN

Column = 0.7(0.7)(4.5)(23.54) = 51.91KN

Total = 539.80KN
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 133

1st Floor & 2nd Floor loading is equal

To the total load of 3rd Floor = 539.80KN

𝐷𝐿𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 633.69 + 539.80 + 539.80 + 539.80

= 2253.09KN

LL= 7.2(54) + 3.8(54) + 3.8(54) + 3.8(54)

= 1004.4KN

Pu = 12DL + 1.6LL

= 1.2(2253.09) + 1.6(1004.40)

Pu = 4310.40KN

Try Pg = 0.03
𝑃𝑢 4310.75
Ag =Ø(𝑜.80)[0.85𝑓𝑐 ′ (1−𝑃𝑔)+𝑓𝑦𝑃𝑔] = 0.70(0.80)[0.85(21)(1−0.03)+276(0.03)

4310.75
Ag = = 300758.673𝑚𝑚2
14.33292

ℎ2 = 𝐴𝑔 = 300758.67𝑚𝑚2

ℎ = 548.41𝑚𝑚

Say 700mm × 700mm

𝐴𝑔 = 700(700) = 490000𝑚𝑚2

𝐴𝑠 = 𝑃𝑔𝐴𝑔 = 0.03(490000) = 14700𝑚𝑚2

Try 36mmØ & 32mmØ RSB


2162 𝜋
12 ( ) = 3888𝜋
4
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 134

3888𝜋
𝑁32 = 𝐴𝑠 − 𝐴
𝑏(32𝑚𝑚Ø)

(14700−3888𝜋)4
𝑁32 = 322 𝜋

Say 12 – 36mmØ RSB

4 – 32mmØ RSB

𝐴𝑠 15431.50
𝑃𝑔 = 𝐴𝑔 = 490000

𝑃𝑔 = 0.031 > 0.01 < 0.08 (𝑜. 𝑘. )

Check for Slenderness ratio r


𝐿 𝑀
= 34 − 12 𝑀1
𝑟 2

𝑀1
=1
𝑀2

𝐿
= 34 − 12 = 32
𝑟

𝑟 = 0.3(ℎ) = 0.3(700)

𝑟 = 210𝑚𝑚

𝐿 = Unsupported length

𝐿 = 4500𝑚𝑚

𝐿 4500
= = 21.43 < 22 (𝑜. 𝑘. )
𝑟 210

Therefore; (slenderness ratio may be neglected)

Spacing of tie wires (12mmØ)

1. 16 bars dia. = 16(36) = 576mm


2. 48 tie dia. = 40(12) = 576mm
3. Least dimension = (700) = 700mm

Use spacing of 12mmØ @ 570mm on center


LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 135

𝑃𝑢 = Ø(0.8)[0.85𝑓𝑐 ′ (𝐴𝑔 − 𝐴𝑠𝑡 ) + 𝑓𝑦𝐴𝑠𝑡 ]

Ø = 0.7

𝑃𝑢 = 0.7(0.8)[0.85(21)(490000 − 15431.50) + 276(15431.50)]

𝑃𝑢 = 7128.88 > 4310.75𝐾𝑁 (𝑠𝑎𝑓𝑒)

(Safe load it could carry)

Exterior Column (C-2)

Tributary Area = 6(6) = 36𝑚2

Dead Load

Roof Deck

Slab = 0.2(36)(23.54) = 169.49KN

Ceiling = 0.24(36) = 8.64KN

Utility = 0.04(36) = 1.44KN

Finishing = 0.77(36) = 27.72KN

Vegetation = 4.8(36) = 172.80KN

Beam = [0.4(0.55) + 0.3(0.4)(6)](23.54) = 48.02KN

Total = 428.11KN

Third Floor

Slab = 0.2(36)(23.54) = 169.49KN

Beam = [0.4(0.55) + 0.3(0.4)(6)](23.54) = 48.02KN

Column = 0.7(0.7)(23.54)(4.5) = 51.91KN

Ceiling = 0.24(36) = 8.64KN

Utility = 0.04(36) = 1.44KN


LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 136

Partition = 2.1(36) = 75.6KN

Finishing = 0.77(36) = 27.72KN

Total = 382.82KN

1st Floor & 2nd Floor loading is equal to the total load of 3rd Floor

= 382.82KN

Total Dead Load

428.11 + 382.82 + 382.82 + 382.82

𝐷𝐿𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 1576.57KN

Total Live Load

7.2(36) + 3.8(36) + 3.8(36) + 3.8(36)

𝐿𝐿𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 669.60KN

𝑃𝑢 = 1.2𝐷𝐿 + 1.6𝐿𝐿 = 1.2(1576.57) + 1.6(669.60)

𝑃𝑢 = 2963.24𝐾𝑁

Try Pg = 0.03 Pu = 2963.24


𝑃𝑢
𝐴𝑔 = 0.7(0.8)[0.85(21)(1−0.03)+ 276(0.03)]

𝐴𝑔 = 206743.92𝑚𝑚2

ℎ2 = 𝐴𝑔 = 206743.92𝑚𝑚2

ℎ = 450.69𝑚𝑚2
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 137

Try 700mm × 700mm

𝐴𝑔 = 700(700) = 490000𝑚𝑚2

𝐴𝑠 = 𝐴𝑔𝑃𝑔 = 490000(0.03)

𝐴𝑠 = 14700𝑚𝑚2

Try 36mmØ & 32mmØ RSB

12(362𝜋)
4
𝑁32 = 𝐴𝑠 − 𝐴𝑏 (22𝑚𝑚Ø)

𝑁32 = 3.09

Say 4 − 32𝑚𝑚Ø 𝑅𝑆𝐵

12 − 32𝑚𝑚Ø 𝑅𝑆𝐵

12(362 𝜋) 4(322 𝜋)
𝐴𝑠𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 = +
4 4

𝐴𝑠𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 = 15431.50𝑚𝑚2

𝐴𝑠𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 15431.50
𝑃𝑔 = =
𝐴𝑔 490000

𝑃𝑔 = 0.031 > 0.01 < 0.08 (𝑜. 𝑘. )

Check for slenderness ratio


𝐿 𝑀
= 34 − 12 𝑀1
𝑟 2

𝑀1
=1
𝑀2

𝐿
= 34 − 12(1) = 22
𝑟

𝑟 = 0.3ℎ = 0.3(700)

𝑟 = 210𝑚𝑚
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 138

𝐿 4500
= = 21.42 < 22
𝑟 210

Therefore; Slenderness ratio maybe neglected

Spacing of Tie wires (12mmØ)

1. 16 bar dia. = 16(36) = 576mm


2. 48 tie dia. = 48912) = 576mm
3. Least dimension = 700mm

Use spacing of 12mmØ @ 570mm on center

𝑃𝑢 = Ø(0.80)[0.85(𝑓𝑐 ′ )(𝐴𝑔 − 𝐴𝑠𝑡 ) + 𝑓𝑦𝐴𝑠𝑡

Ø = 0.7

𝑃𝑢 = 0.7(0.80)[0.85(21)(490000 − 15431.50) + 276(15431.50)]

𝑃𝑢 = 7128.88𝐾𝑁 > 2963.24𝐾𝑁 (𝑠𝑎𝑓𝑒)

(Safe load it could carry)


LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 139

Design of Footing

Interior Footing (F-1)

Dead Load = 2253.09kN

Live Load = 1004.4kN

Allowable soil pressure = 235kPa

fc’= 21MPa

fy= 276MPa

Cross section of column= 700mm x 700mm

Assume weight of footing 8%-10% of column load

Weight of footing = 0.08(DL+LL)

= 0.08(2253.09+1004.4)

= 260.60kN

Total Load = 2253.09+1004.4+260.6

= 3518.09kN
𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝐿𝑜𝑎𝑑 3518.09𝑘𝑁
A = 𝑆𝑜𝑖𝑙 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 = 235𝑘𝑁/𝑚2

Area = 14.97𝑚2 = 𝐿2
L = 3.9m say 4m or 4000mm

Depth = 20%(4000mm)

= 800mm
𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑑 𝐿𝑜𝑎𝑑 1.2(𝐷𝐿)+1.6(𝐿𝐿)
𝑞𝑛𝑒𝑡 = =
𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝐹𝑜𝑜𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 42

4310.75
𝑞𝑛𝑒𝑡 = = 269.42kPa
42

Allowable ultimate soil pressure (9𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤 )


(𝑆𝑜𝑖𝑙 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒)𝑃𝑢 235(4310.75)
𝑞𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤 = =
𝐷𝐿+𝐿𝐿 3257.49

𝑞𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤 = 310.98kPa
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 140

9𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤 > 9𝑛𝑒𝑡 (safe)

Compute “d” base on punching shear


2 1 1
𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤 = (1+𝛽𝑐) 6 (√𝑓𝑐′) > 3 (√𝑓𝑐′)

1
𝛽𝑐= 5 = 1

2 1
(1+1) 6 (√21) = 2.29

1
(√𝑓𝑐′) = 1.52
3

bd= ø𝑉𝑛 = ø𝑉𝑐 = 𝑉𝑢

= 1.52(0.85)(4)(700+d)(d)

𝑉𝑣 = 9𝑛𝑒𝑡 (𝐴𝑠ℎ𝑎𝑑𝑒𝑑 )

5.168d (700+d) = 269.42x10−3 [(−400)2 − (700 + 𝑑)2 ]

d= 583.16mm say 600mm

Check for Beam Shear

𝑉𝑢 = 9𝑛𝑒𝑡 (𝐴𝑠ℎ𝑎𝑑𝑒𝑑 ) = 269.42x10−3 (4000)(2000-d)


1 1
ø𝑉𝑐 = ø 6 √𝑓𝑐′bd = 0.856 √21(4000)d

𝑉𝑢 = φ𝑉𝑐 bd

269.42𝑥10−3 (4000)(2000−𝑑) 𝑉
𝑢
= = 𝑉𝑛 = ø𝑏𝑑 < 𝑉𝑐
0.85−4000𝑑

1 1
𝑉𝑛 = 0.739MPa 𝑉𝑐 = 6 √𝑓𝑐′ = 6 √21

𝑉𝑐 = 0.76𝑀𝑃𝑎

𝑉𝑛 < 𝑉𝑐 (safe)
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 141

By Bending

𝑀𝑢 = øfc’b𝑑2 w(1-0.59w)
𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑛
𝑀𝑢 = 9𝑛𝑒𝑡 (𝐴𝑠ℎ𝑎𝑑𝑒𝑑 )( )
2

1650
=269.42x10−3(4000)(1650)2 ( )
2

𝑀𝑢 =1466.99kN·m

𝑀𝑢 = 0.9(21)(4000)(600)2 w(1-0.59w)

𝑀𝑢 = øfc’b𝑑2 w(1-0.59w)
𝑀𝑢
= fc’w(1-0.59w)
ø𝑏𝑑2

𝑀𝑢 = 1.13MPa

0.85𝑓𝑐′ 2𝑀
𝑢
𝜌= [1 − √1 − 0.85𝑓𝑐 ′ ]
𝑓𝑦

𝜌= 0.00423
𝜌𝑓𝑦
𝜔=
𝑓𝑐′

1.4 1.4
𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 𝑓𝑦 = 276 = 5.07x10−3

∴ use 𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛

𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 5.07x10−3

Steel Area Required

As= 𝜌bd = 5.07x10−3 (4000)(600)

As= 12168𝑚𝑚2

∴ use 20mm ∅ RSB

25 - 20mm ∅ RSB
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 142

Ld = Development length
0.02 ∆𝑏 𝑓𝑦
Ld =
√𝑓𝑐′

202 𝜋
0.02( )276
4
=
√21

Ld= 378.42mmsss

Min. Req’d Ld

Ld = 0.06 𝑑𝑏 fy or 300 mm

Ld = 0.06(20)(776)

Ld = 331.2mm

Ld furnished = 1650-75 = 1575mm

Check for Bearing Strength

𝐴2
B.S = ∅ 0.85fc’𝐴1 √ ⁄𝐴
1

∅ = 0.7

𝐴1 = (700)(700) = 490000𝑚𝑚2

𝐴2 = (4000)2 = 16000000𝑚𝑚2 √𝐴2⁄𝐴 = √5.71 > 2 use 2


1

B.S = 0.7(0.85)(21) 490000(2)

B.S = 12245kN > 𝑃𝑢 = 4310.75kN (safe)(no need)

Minimum area of dowel or extension b or required by the code:

Area = 0.005(700)2 = 2450𝑚𝑚2

At least 4 column bars (32mm ∅) must be extended into the footing.


LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 143

Exterior Footing

DEAD LOAD = 1576.57KN

LIVE LOAD = 669.6KN

Allowable soil pressure = 235kPa

fc’= 21MPa

fy = 276MPa

Cross sectional of column = 700mm × 700mm

Assume weight of footing 8% - 10% of column load

Weight of footing = 0.08(DL + LL)

= 0.08(1576.57 + 669.60) = 179.69KN

Total load = 1576.57 + 669.60 + 179.69 = 2425.86KN


𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 2425.86𝐾𝑁
𝐴 = 𝑆𝑜𝑖𝑙 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 = 235𝐾𝑁/𝑚2

𝐴 = 10.32𝑚2 = 𝐿2

𝐿 = 3.2 𝑠𝑎𝑦 3.5𝑚

Depth of footing = 20%(3500) = 700mm


𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑑 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑
𝑞𝑛𝑒𝑡 = 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑓𝑜𝑜𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔

2969.24𝐾𝑁
𝑞𝑛𝑒𝑡 = = 242.38𝐾𝑁
3.52

Allowable ultimate soil pressure (𝑞𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤 )


𝑆𝑜𝑖𝑙 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 235(2969.24)
𝑞𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤 = =
𝐷𝐿+𝐿𝐿 2246.17

𝑞𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤 = 310.02 𝐾𝑃𝑎

𝑞𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤 > 𝑞𝑛𝑒𝑡 (𝑠𝑎𝑓𝑒)


LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 144

Compute “d” base on punching shear


2 1 1
𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤 = (1 + 𝛽) 6 √𝑓𝑐′ > √𝑓𝑐′
3

𝐿𝑐
𝛽𝑐 = 𝑆𝑐 = 1

2 1 1
(1 + 1) 6 √𝑓𝑐′ > 3 √𝑓𝑐′

2.29 = .1.53
1 𝑉𝑣
𝑉𝑛 = √𝑓𝑐′ = 1.53 = Ø = 0.85 ; 𝑏𝑜 = 4(200 + 𝑑)
3 Ø𝑏𝑜𝑑

𝑉𝑣 = 𝑞𝑛𝑒𝑡 = [35002 − (200 − 𝑑)2 ]

1.53(0.85)(4)(200 + 𝑑)𝑑 = 242.38 × 10−3 [35002 − (200 − 𝑑)2 ]

𝑑 = 445.09𝑚𝑚 𝑠𝑎𝑦 450𝑚𝑚


20
Total depth = 450 + 25 + = 535𝑚𝑚
2

Check for beam shear

𝑉𝑣 = ∅𝑉𝑐
1
𝑉𝑣 = 6 √𝑓𝑐 ′ 𝑏𝑑

𝑉𝑣 = 𝑞𝑛𝑒𝑡 (3500)(1750 − 𝑑)

242.38 × 10−3 (3500)(1750 − 450) = 0.85 𝑉𝑛 (3500)(450)

𝑉𝑛 = 0.82 𝑉𝑐 = 0.76

𝑉𝑛 > 𝑉𝑐 (𝑛𝑜𝑡 𝑠𝑎𝑓𝑒)

Base on beam shear “d”

𝑉𝑢 = 241.38 × 10−3 (1750 − 𝑑)(3500)


1
𝑉𝑐 = 6 √21 (3500)𝑑
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 145

1
242.38(1750 − 𝑑)(3500) = 0.85 (6) √21 (3500)𝑑

𝑑 = 475.74𝑚𝑚 say 500mm

Total depth of footing = 500 + 75 + 1.5(20) = 605mm

𝑉𝑛 < 𝑉𝑐 (𝑠𝑎𝑓𝑒)

By Bending

𝑀𝑤 = ∅𝑓𝑐 ′ 𝑏𝑑 2 (1-0.59w)

1400
𝑀𝑤 = 1400(3500)(242.38)(10) ( )
2

𝑀𝑤 = 831.36 𝐾𝑁 − 𝑚

831.36×102
𝑃𝑢 = 0.9(21)(3500)(500)2 = 0.0503

𝑓𝑐 ′ 0.05 2𝑃𝑢
𝜌= [1 − √1 − 0.85𝑓𝑐 ′ ]
𝑓𝑦

𝜌 = 0.000182
1.4
𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛 = = 5.07 × 10−3
𝑓𝑦

Therefore; use 𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛

Steel area required

𝐴𝑠 = 𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑏𝑑

𝐴𝑠 = 5.07 × 10−3 (3500)(500)

𝐴𝑠 = 8872.5𝑚𝑚2

Use 25mmØ RSB

19 − 25𝑚𝑚Ø RSB
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 146

Ld = Development length

0.02𝐴𝑏𝑓𝑦
𝐿𝑑 =
√𝑓𝑐 ′

𝜋
0.02(252 )(276)
4
𝐿𝑑 =
√21

𝐿𝑑 = 591.28𝑚𝑚

Min. load

𝐿𝑑 = 0.06𝑑𝑏𝑓𝑦

𝐿𝑑 = 0.06(25)(276) = 414𝑚𝑚

Load furnished

1400 − 75 = 1325𝑚𝑚

Check for bending strength

𝐴 𝐴
𝐵. 𝑆. = Ø 0.85𝑓𝑐 ′ 𝐴1 √𝐴1 √𝐴1 = > 2
2 2

𝐴1 = 7002 = 490000𝑚𝑚2

𝐴2 = 35002 = 12250000𝑚𝑚2

Ø = 0.7

𝐵. 𝑆. = 0.7(0.05)(21)(49000)(2)

𝐵. 𝑆. = 12241.1𝐾𝑁 > 𝑃𝑢 = 2963.24𝐾𝑁

Minimum area load or extension bar required by the code

𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 = 0.005(200)2 = 2450𝑚𝑚2

at trust 4 column bars (32mmØ) trust be extended into the footing


LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 147

Design of Reinforced Concrete Stair

Thread (t) = 300mm = 0.3m

Rise (e) = 160mm = 0.16m

No. of Steps = 30
1
S = 25(t)(12)

1
= 25(300)(12)

S =144mm

𝑠√𝑟 2 +𝑡 2 (23.54)2
Wt. of slab = 𝑡

144√0.162 +0.32 (23.54)2


= 0.3

Wt. of slab = 3.39kN/𝑚2


𝑟
Wt. of steps = 2(23.54)

0.16
= (23.54)
2

= 1.88kN/𝑚2

Total DeadLoad = 3.39+1.88

= 5.27kN/𝑚2

Consider in Strip :

DeadLoad = 5.27 kN/𝑚2 (1m) = 5.27kN/m

LiveLoad = 3.9 kN/𝑚2 (1m) = 3.9 kN/m

Ultimate Load

Wu = 1.2DL+1.6LL

= 1.2(5.27)+1.6(3.9)

Wu = 6.32+6.24

Wu = 12.56kN/m
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 148

Ultimate Moment
𝑊𝑢𝐿2 (12.56)(4)2
Mu = =
8 8

Mu = 25.12kN.m

Use 10mm ø bars

d = s-25

= 200-25

d = 175mm

Mw = øfy’b𝑑 2 w(1-0.59w)

75.12x106 = 0.9(21)(1000)(175)2 w(1-0.59w)

w = 0.045
𝑤𝑓𝑐′ 0.045(21)
𝜌= =
𝑓𝑦 276

𝜌 = 3.42x10−3
1.4
𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 𝑓𝑦 = 5.07x10−3

∴ use 𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 0.00507

As = 𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛 bd = 0.00507(1000)(175)

As = 887.68𝑚𝑚2

∴ use 12mm ∅ bars


887.68(4)
𝑁12 = 122 𝜋

𝑁12 = 4.84

Say 8-12mm ∅ BSB


1000(∆𝑏)
S= = 127.41mm
∆𝑠

Say 130mm

Mas S = St or 500mm
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 149

Min S = 100mm

Min S<S<Max S (ok)

Area or Temperature Bars

As = 0.002bt

As = 0.002(1000)(175)

As = 350𝑚𝑚2

Using 10mm ∅ RSB

1000 (102 𝜋)
S= = 224.39mm
350(4)

Say S = 230mm

Mas S = St or 500mm

Min S = 1000mm

Min S < S < Max S (ok)

Check for Shear


𝑊𝑢𝐿 (12.56)(4)
R= =
2 2

R = 25.12kN

𝑅 75.12𝑥103
V = 𝑏𝑑 = (1000)(175)

V = 0.14
1 1
𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤 = 6 √𝑓𝑐′ = 6 √21

𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤 = 0.76

𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤 > V (ok) (safe)

Design of Landing

Dimension = 2m x 4m

Use t = 200mm = 0.2m

Considering in Strip
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 150

Dead Load = 23.54(2)(1) = 47.08kN/m

Live Load = 3.9(1) = 3.9kN/m

Ultimate Load

Wu = DL(1.2) + LL(1.6)

= 1.2(43.08) + 1.6(3.9)

Wu = 62.74kN/m

Ultimate Moment :

𝑊𝑢𝐿2 119.2342
Mu = 8
= 8

Mu = 125.47kN.m
12
d = S – 26 – ( 2 )

= 200 – 26 – 6

d = 169mm

Mw = øfy’b𝑑 2 w(1-0.59w)

125.43x106 = 0.9(21)(1000)(169)2 w(1-0.59w)

W = 0.2778

𝑓𝑐 ′ 𝑤
𝜌= = 0.0211
𝑓𝑦

𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 0.00507

As = 𝜌bd = 0.00507(1000)(175)

As = 887.25𝑚𝑚2

Use 12mm ∅ RSB

887.25(4)
𝑁12 = = 7.85
122 𝜋

Say 8-12mm ∅ RSB


LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 151

Max S = 500mm

Min S = 100mm

Min S < S < Max S

Area of Temperature Bars

𝐴𝑠𝑡 = 0.002(1000)(175)

𝐴𝑠𝑡 = 350𝑚𝑚2

Use 10mm ∅ RSB

1000(𝐴𝑠𝑡 )
S= 𝐴𝑠𝑡

1000(102 𝜋)
= 350(4)

S = 224.39mm

Say 230mm

Min S < S < Max S (ok)

Check for Shear

𝑊𝑢𝐿 (12.74)(4)
R= =
2 2

R = 125.48kN

𝑅 125.48𝑥103
V = 𝑏𝑑 = 1000(169)

V = 8.74
1 1
𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤 = 6 √𝑓𝑐 ′ = 6 √21

𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤 = 0.76

𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤 > V (safe)


LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 152

Design of an L - Shaped Retaining Wall (Reservoir)

δbackfill = 15.7KN/m2

Allowable Soil Pressure = 270 KPa

Angle or repose Ø = 30°

Cen Friction = 0.5

Fss = 1.75

Fsu = 2.0

fc’ = 20.7MPa

fy = 276MPa

Approximate Relation:

C = 0.1H

B = 0.6H

t = 180mm

Design of Stem:

Considering 1 meter strip wall

Try B = 0.6(2.5)

= 1.5m

t = 250

c = 0.1(2.5) = 0.25m

c = 250mm

𝑊ℎ2
P = 𝐶𝑠 2

1−𝑠𝑖𝑛∅
Cs = 1+𝑠𝑖𝑛∅ (active pressure)

1−𝑠𝑖𝑛30
Cs = 1+𝑠𝑖𝑛30 = 0.333
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 153

15700(2.25)2 (1.7)
𝑃 = 0.333 2

P = 22497.17N

Note: Earth Pressure should be multiplied by 1.7


Mu = 𝑃 3

(2.25)(1000)
Mu = 22497.17 3

Mu = 16.87x106 N-mm

1.4 1.4
𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛 = = 276
𝑓𝑦

𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 0.00507

𝑤𝑓𝑐 ′
𝜌= 𝑓𝑦

𝑤(20.7)
0.0057 = 276

w = 0.0676

Mu = ∅fc ′ bd2 w(1 − 0.59w)

16.87x106 = 0.9(20.7)(1000)d2(0.0676)(1-0.59(0.0676)

d = 118.12

say 119mm (required)

Actual d furnished: Assume 16′′ Ø vertical bars

d = 200 – 7 – 8

d = 122mm
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 154

By Shear:

Vu = 22497.17
𝑢 𝑉
V = ∅𝑏𝑑

22497.17
V = 0.85(1000)(122)

V = 0.217MPa

Allowable Shearing Stress:


1
𝑉𝑎 = 6 √𝑓𝑐′

1
𝑉𝑎 = 6 √20.7

Va = 0.76MPa (safe)

Steel Requirements:

As = pbd

As = 0.00507(1000)(122)

As = 618.54mm2

Using 16mm Ø
𝜋 1000
(16)2 = = 618.54𝑚𝑚2
4 𝑆

S = 325.06mm

Say 325mm O.C


LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 155

Horizontal Bars on Stem:

As = 0.0025bt (ACI Specification)

As = 0.0025(92500)(250)

As = 1562.5mm2

For Front Face (Exposed Area)


2 2
Use 3 of As = 3 (1562.5) = 1041.67𝑚𝑚2

𝜋 2500
(16)2 = = 1041.67𝑚𝑚2
4 𝑠

S = 188.49mm

Say 180mm O.C

Vertical Temperature Bars:

As = 0.0025bt (ACI Specification)

As = 0.0025(1000)(200)

As = 300mm2

𝜋 1000
(10)2 = = 300
4 𝑠

S = 261.79mm

Say 200mm

𝑊ℎ2
P = 𝐶𝑠 2

(15700)(2.5)2
P = 0.333 = 16337.81𝑁
2
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 156

W1 = (2.25)(1.3)(1)(15700) = 55922.5

W2 = (0.25)(1.3)(1)(2400)(9.81) = 7651.8

W3 = (0.2)(2.5)(1)(2400)(9.81) = 11772

Ry = W1 + W2 + W3

Ry = 45922.5 + 7651.8 + 11772

Ry = 65346.3KN

RM = W1 + (0.95) + W2(0.95) + W3(0.15)

RM = 45922.5(0.95) + 7651.8(0.95) + 1177.2(0.15)

RM = 52661.385

ℎ 2.25
OM = P3 = 16337.81 = 12253.36
3

Ry(x) = RM – OM

65346.3(x) = 52661.385 – 12253.36

x = 0.62

e = 0.75 – 0.62

e = 0.13

𝑅𝑦 6𝑒
𝑓𝑚𝑎𝑥 = (1 + )
𝐿 𝐿

65346.3 6(0.13)
𝑓𝑚𝑎𝑥 = (1 + )
1.5 1.5

fmax = 66.22KN/m2 < allowable soil pressure


LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 157

𝑅𝑦 6𝑒
𝑓𝑚𝑖𝑛 = (1 − )
𝐿 𝐿

65346.3 6(0.13)
𝑓𝑚𝑖𝑛 = (1 − )
1.5 1.5

fmin = 20.91KN/m2

𝑅𝑀 52661.385
F.S = 𝑂𝑀 = = 4.30 > 2.0 (𝑠𝑎𝑓𝑒)
12253.3

Design of the Base (neglect soil pressure)

Multiply by 1.4 (Load Factor)

Mu = W1(0.65) + W2(0.05(1.4))

Mu = ((45922.5 + 7651.8)((0.65)(1.4))

Mu = 48752.61N-m

Mu = 48752613KN-m

d = 200 – 70 – 8

d = 122

Mu = ∅fc ′ bd2 w(1 − 0.59w)

48752613 = 0.90(20.7)(1000)(122)2w(1 – 0.59w)

0.17582 = w – 0.59w2

w = 0.2

1.4 1.4
𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛 = =
𝑓𝑦 276

𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 0.00507
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 158

𝑤𝑓𝑐 ′
𝜌= 𝑓𝑦

0.2(20.7)
𝜌= 276

𝜌 = 0.015 > 𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛

Steel Requirements:

As = pbd

As = 0.015(1000)(122)

As = 1830mm2

Using 16mm ∅

𝜋 1000
(16)2 = = 1830
4 𝑠

S = 109.87mm

Say 110mm O.C

By Shear:

Vu = (W1 + W2)(1.4)

Vu = (45922.5 + 7651.8)(1.4)

Vu = 75004.02N

𝑉𝑢 75004.02
𝑉= =
∅𝑏𝑑 0.85(1000)(122)

V = 0.72MPa

Allowable Shearing Stress:


1
𝑉𝑎 = 6 √𝑓𝑐 ′

1
𝑉𝑎 = 6 √20.7 = 0.76 > 0.72𝑀𝑃𝑎 (𝑠𝑎𝑓𝑒)
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 159

Temperature Bars:

As = 0.0025bt (ACI Specification)

As = 0.0025(1000)(200)

As = 500mm2

Using 10mm ∅

𝜋 1000
(10)2 = = 500
4 𝑠

S = 89.76mm

Say 80mm O.C

H. TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION

ITEM 100: General Requirements

All parts of the construction shall be finished with first class workmanship to the
fullest panel and meaning of the plans and this specification, and to the inter satisfaction of
the Engineer and owner.

The construction shall conform to all the requirement of the Department of Public
Works and Highways (DPWH), and the local: rules and regulation of the City of Lucena.

1.1 Mobilization

Include the transportation to the site of Contractor’s plans, materials, equipment,


employees, furnishing, and temporary facilities.

1.2 Temporary Facilities

Temporary facilities shall include but not be limited to the following items:

a. Site/Field Office it shall be 4m x 5m filed office located by the Engineer.


The field office shall be wooden construction with plywood siding and
corrugated G.I. Sheet roofing. It shall be provided with necessary facilities
specified by the Engineer.

b. Workshops, warehouse, stockpile areas and storage areas for materials


equipment.
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 160

c. Construction camp for housing and accommodation of Contractor’s


employees.

d. Community facilities including potable water supply, electrical power


requirements, drainage, sewerage disposal, sanitations, first aid, refuse
collection, temporary fence and barricades, and fire protection facilities.

ITEM 200: Site of Working

2.1 Site Clearing and Grubbing

All superficial obstruction shall be demolished and removed from the site and spread
uniformly over the areas adjacent to the proposed building or otherwise disposed off to
disposal areas approved by the engineer.

The building site shall be leveled according to the plans and cleared of rubbish, roots
and other deleterious materials to a suitable sub-grade.

2.2 Excavation

All excavation shall be made to grade shown in the drawings. A backhoe shall be
used in the performance of the work, where the building site is covered with any kind of fill,
the excavations for footing shall be made deeper until the stratum of the safe bearing capacity
of the soil reached. Then it shall be refilled to the proper grade with thoroughly compacted
suitable materials approved by the Engineer.

Whenever water is encountered in the excavation process, it shall be removed by


building or pumping diverted to suitable disposal points.

2.3 Backfills and Fills

Whenever the concrete for foundations is hard enough to withstand the pressure
resulting from fills. The materials removed from excavation shall use for backfill around
them. The fill and backfill materials shall be free from roots, wood scraps and other
extraneous materials.

Backfills and fills shall be placed in layers not exceeding 150mm in thickness and
each layer shall be thoroughly compacted.

ITEM 300: Concrete

All concrete shall be mixed thoroughly by an appropriate concrete mixer until there is
a uniform distribution of the cement and aggregates. It should be deposited as nearly as
practicable in its final position, care being taken to avoid segregation of aggregates.

3.1 Materials
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 161

3.1.1 Cement

Cement shall be high quality brand Portland cement conforming to the


“Specification for Portland Cement” (PNS 07 1983). Fortune cement was the brand of
Portland cement used.

Alternative cement so selected must meet the requirements of Portland and


Pozzolan cements and approved by the Engineer in charge of construction.

3.1.2 Aggregates

Concrete aggregates shall conform to the “Specification for Concrete


Aggregates” (PNS 18). Aggregates should by adequate strength and durability.

3.2.3 Water

Water used in mixing concrete shall be clean and free from injurious amounts
of oils, acids, alkalis, salts, organic materials, or other substance that maybe
deleterious to the concrete or reinforcement.

3.1.4 Admixture

Admixture is subjected to prior approval of the Engineer. An admixture shall


be shown capable of maintaining essentially the same performance throughout the
work.

3.1.5 Metal Reinforcement

All steel reinforcing bars to be used in this construction shall consist of round
deformed bars with lugs or projections on their sides to provide a greater bond
between the concrete and steel. All steel reinforcing bars shall be accurately placed
and secured against displacement by trying them together at each bar intersection
with Gauge No. 16 galvanized iron wire.

The steel reinforcing bars indicated for footing s, columns, slabs, beams
girders and other concrete members shall all conform to the number, size, and spacing
as indicated in the drawing or schedule of steel reinforcements.

3.2 Storage Materials

Cement and aggregates shall be stored in such manners as to prevent


deterioration or intrusion of foreign matter. Any material that has deteriorated, or has
been contaminated shall not be used.

3.3 Proportioning of Concrete


LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 162

The following proportions of concrete mixtures shall be used for the various
parts of building.

Foundation and Tie Beam – Class A (1:2:4)

Columns, Beams and Slabs – Class A (1:2:4)

Reinforced Concrete Stairs – Class A (1:2:4)

Concrete slab shall be mixture of 1 part cement, 2 parts of fine aggregates, and
5 parts of coarse aggregates by volume plus enough clean water to make the mixture
into a pliable paste.

The fine aggregate for concrete shall consist of natural sand or of inner
materials with similar characteristics having clean hard and durable grains free from
organic material or loam.

The coarse aggregate shall consist of crashed rock of durable and strong
utilities or clean and hard gravel. Nominal maximum size of the coarse aggregate
shall not be larger that:

a. 1/5 the narrowest dimension between sides of forms nor,


b. 1/3 the depth of slabs nor,
c. 3/4 the minimum clears spacing between individual reinforcing bars or
wires. This function shall not if in the judgment of the Engineer,
workability and methods of consolidation are such that concrete can be
placed without honeycomb or voids.

3.4 Forms of Concrete Works

All forms for concrete works shall be properly braced or tied together so as
maintain the correct position and shape of the concrete member. Forms shall be made
constructed sufficiently tight to prevent bulging and seepage of water. Forms shall be
made removed until the concrete has attained sufficient strength to support its own
weight and any load that may be placed on it.

3.5 Concrete Slab Floors on Fill

Concrete Slab on Fill shall be poured on the gravel not less than 100mm thick.
Each concrete slab coarse shall be poured alternately to the indicator floor finish.
Reinforcement for the slab floors shall be prior to the judgment of the Engineer
supervising the construction.
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 163

ITEM 400: Masonry

4.1 Materials

4.1.1 Concrete Hollow Blocks

Concrete hollow blocks shall be a standard product of recognized


manufacturer conforming to the “Specification of Concrete Hollow Blocks” (PNS 16)

All exterior concrete hollow blocks to be used for the first floor walls are at
least 1mm thick. For interior walls and partitions of the comfort room at least 10mm
thick shall be used. Concrete hollow blocks walls shall be laid and the cells filed with
cement mortar consisting 1 part Portland cement and 3 part sand by volume. They
shall be reinforced with 10mm diameter bars spaced not more than 8000mm on
centers both ways.

The mixture of cement plaster for concrete hollow blocks wall finishes
indicated in the drawing shall be 1 part cement, 1 part lime and 3 parts sand.

4.1.2 Cement, Reinforcing Steel and Water

Cement, reinforcing steel and water shall be specified in ITEM 300.

4.2 Delivery, Storage and Protection of Materials

Storage of materials shall be as specified on ITEM 300: Concrete and as specified


here in.

4.2.1 Concrete Masonry shall immediately upon delivery be stacked under a covered
area or otherwise be protected from exposure to the weather and contact with the soil.

ITEM 500: Metals

5.1 Materials

5.1.1 Stairway railings shall be Stainless and steel pipes of standard weight
conforming to the specification of ASTM A53-88.

5.2 Fabrication

5.2.1 Fabrication

The work shall be formed to the shape and sized shown and assembled as
detail. Structural members shall be fabricated and assembled properly in the shop to
the greatest extent as possible.
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 164

ITEM 600: Thermal and Moisture Protection

6.1 Waterproofing of Roof Deck Slab

Waterproofing materials shall be product of reputable manufacturer recommended by


the Engineer. Sahara should be used as the admixture water proofing the roof deck slab.
Other concrete waterproofing such as protoseal shall be used for coating the roof deck to
ensure that water will not penetrate on the concrete.

6.2 Roof Accessories

Roof accessories such as drain pipes and downspouts shall be adequately provided as
shown in the drawing plans.

All waterproofed surfaces roof sidings, gutters and downspouts system shall be tested
for water tightness by flushing of flooding with water as directed by the engineer. If any leak
occurs, the work shall be repaired or reconstructed. Test shall be repeated until satisfactory
result has been attained.

ITEM 700: Doors and Windows

7.1 Doors and Doorframes

Interior doors and doorframes shall confirm to the sizes, design and kind of materials
specified in the schedule of doors.

7.2 Glass Windows

Glass windows to be used in the project shall conform to the sizes and designs shown
in details of windows. Glass wall cladding, glass and installation method shall be as
suggested by the fabricator and approved by the Engineer.

ITEM 800: Finishes

8.1 Cement Finish on Masonry Walls

Plastering work shall be coordinated properly with the work of other trades. The work
of other trade shall be protected from damage during plastering operations. The mixing of
plaster shall be specified in ITEM 400: MASONRY Scaffolding to be used during the work
shall be strong and well braced, overloading of scaffolding shall not be permitted.

8.2 Cement Finish on Concrete Floor Slabs

Finishing for floors and slabs shall be as directed by the Engineer.

8.3 Other Cement Finish


LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 165

All surface defects shall be repaired with cement mortar. Cement shall be of the same
composition as to that used for concrete.

8.4 Tile Works

Tile Works shall not be started until roughing-ins for plumbing and electrical work
has been completed and tested. The work of all other trades in the area where the work is to
be done shall be protected from damage in workmanship manner as directed by the Engineer.
The materials and method of installation shall conform to the drawings or as specified by the
Engineer.

8.5 Painting

All painting work for this project shall be done with the use of Boysen paint products.
The paint to be used for interior coating should be BS8701 KNOxOUT Air Cleaning Paint.
The Engineer or the officials of the city of Tayabas shall also direct the color. The storage
and application of the paint shall conform to the specification of the manufacturer.

The work of all trades in the area where the work is to be done shall be protected
from damage in workmanship manner as directed by the Engineer.

8.6 Other Surface Fluids

On all finishes not indicated in the drawings described herein the contractor shall
submit samples of the said finishes to the Engineer for approval and selection before
commencing the work.

ITEM 900: Electrical

9.1 Basic Electrical Materials and Method

The installation of all electrical system shall be as shown in the drawings or as


directed by the Engineer or an expert Electrician.

Materials to be used shall be indicated in the drawings or may be replaced by other


items or similar purpose and quality and subjected to the approval of the Engineer or expert
Electrician.

9.2 Lighting

All materials to be subjected to the approval of the Engineer.

9.3 Testing

All electrical system shall be repaired or replaced if found faculty. The system shall
be tested until satisfactory results are attained and approved by the Engineer.
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 166

ITEM 1000: Specialties

10.1 Telephone Specialties

The administration office inside the building shall be installed with a telephone
system. The telephone company to which the owner wants to apply shall do installation.

10.2 Toiler Accessories

Toilet accessories shall include only the necessary items needed in a public toilet.
Waterless urinals and dual flush water closet shall be used in the toilet. It shall be provided as
directed by the Engineer.

ITEM 1100: Mechanical

11.1 Fire Protection

Fire extinguishing units shall be supplied and installed in strategic location as


specified in the drawings or as directed by the Engineer.

11.2 Plumbing

Plumbing shall be installed as shown in the drawings or as directed by the Engineer


or an expert plumber.

11.3 Septic Tank

The septic tank shall be constructed as shown in the drawings. It shall chamber into
sedimentation tank and leaching chamber. The effluent from the leaching chamber shall be
discharged to the nearest catch basin or storm drainage system.

ITEM 1200: Conveying System

12.1 Transportation System

Transportation system to be used for delivery of supply shall include jeeps, trucks,
and delivery vans. There shall be provisions for a road around the building where these
vehicles could move conveniently.

ITEM 1300: Green Roof

13.1 Quality Assurance

13.1.1 The installation of all green roof system shall be as shown in the drawings or
as directed by the Engineer or by the System Provider.
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 167

13.1.2 Work of this section shall be installed by a recognized green roof or landscape
contractor. The contractor shall have adequate equipment, skilled workers with
extensive practical experience, skill and knowledge of plants horticulture techniques
and overall landscape design requirements.

13.1.3 The green roof manufacturer shall inspect the roofing system prior to
commencement of work during application and upon completion.

13.1.4 Prior to the installation of the green roof system test the water tightness of the
roofing system by flood testing for at least a 48 hour period or electronic leak
detection.

13.1.4.1 Any excess water that is not contained by the engineered soil medium
shall drain positively to the existing roof drain. Utilize composite drainage
mats to assist with drainage. The selection of the roof waterproofing system
must support the ease of leak detection and not allow water to travel under the
waterproofing.

13.2 Layers of Green Roof

The green roof system shall include: 1) a waterproofing membrane, 2) an


engineered soil support system that includes insulation and elements for critical
moisture retention and drainage system and 4) an engineered growing medium and
selection plantings.
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 168

I. COST ESTIMATES AND BILL OF MATERIALS

Table 4.8a
Cost Estimates and Bill of Materials
COST
TOTAL
DESCRIPTION QUANTITY UNIT PER LABOR
COST
QUATITY
45% of
total
material
cost
I.MOBILIZATION AND TEMPORARY
Per day 50,000.00
FACILITIES
II. SITE CLEARING AND GRUBBING Per day 100,000.00
III. EXCAVATION 2700 Cu. m. 350 945000
IV. BACK FILLS AND FILLS 1350 Cu. m. 450 607500
Soil Treatment 1 Lot 32,000.00 32000
TOTAL 1734500 780525
V. CONCRETE WORKS
A. Footing
Portland Cement(FORTUNE CEMENT) 6330 bags 240 1519200
Sand 339 cu. m. 850 288150
Gravel 678 cu. m. 850 576300
B. Column
Portland Cement(FORTUNE CEMENT) 4154 Bags 240 996960
Sand 222 cu. m. 850 188700
Gravel 444 cu. m. 850 377400
C. Slab and Stair Case
Portland Cement(FORTUNE CEMENT) 16956 Bags 240 4069440
Sand 907 cu. m. 850 770950
Gravel 1814 cu. m. 850 1541900
Sahara cement for roof deck 30,000 kl. 25 750000
Protoseal 360 Gal. 2000 720000
D. Beam and Girders
Portland Cement(FORTUNE CEMENT) 4833 Bags 240 1159920
Sand 259 cu. m. 850 220150
Gravel 518 cu. m. 850 440300
TOTAL 13619370 6128716.5
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 169

Table 4.8b
Cost Estimates and Bill of Materials
E. METAL REINFORCEMENT
36mm dia. X 6m. RSB (G-40) 6804 pcs. 1480 10069920
32mm dia. X 6m. RSB (G-40) 3747 pcs. 1146 4294062
25mm dia. 6m. RSB (G-40) 2448 pcs. 813 1990224
20mm dia. 6m. RSB (G-40) 166 pcs. 480 79680
12mm dia. X 6m. RSB (G-40) 23347 pcs. 245 5720015
10mm dia. X 6m. RSB (G-40) 19063 pcs. 125 2382875
No.16 of G.I Tie Wire (40cm) 10800 kg. 60 648000
TOTAL 23194552 10437548.4
VI. FORM WORKS
Ordinary Plywood (1/2 X 4FT X 8FT) 3870 pcs. 460 1780200
Ordinary Plywood (3/4 X 4FT X 8FT) 1350 pcs. 1200 1620000
Cocolumber (2” X 2” X 12'' ) 4000 bd ft. 19 76000
Cocolumber (2” X 3'' X 12'') 6800 bd ft. 19 129200
CWN Assorted 50 kg. 60 3000
Scaffolding 500 set 3500 1750000
Shoring Jack 400 set 2000 800000
TOTAL 6158400 2771280
VII. TILE WORKS
Tile Grout 2910 bags 65 189150
Tile Trim (6') 620 pcs 45 27900
Granite Tiles (.6m x .6m ) 22500 pcs 185 4162500
Unglazed Floor Tiles (0.60m x 0.60m) 30856 pcs 125 3857000
TOTAL 15194950 6837727.5
VIII. MANSORY WORKS
No. 6” CHB 70200 pcs. 12 842400
No. 4” CHB 25346 pcs. 8 202768
Portland Cement(FORTUNE CEMENT) 6848 bags. 240 1643520
Sand 591 cu. m. 850 502350
No.16 of G.I Tie Wire (40cm) 360 kg. 60 21600
TOTAL 3212638 1445687.1
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 170

Table 4.8c
Cost Estimates and Bill of Materials
IX. STEEL WORKS

Stainless Pipe 2 1/2” SCH 40(6m) 400 pcs. 3100 1240000

1 ½” X 1 ½” X 3/16” Angle Bar 180 pcs. 400 72000

TOTAL 1312000 590400

X. ROOFING & CLADDING

Color Span Duel Loop (794mm x 12m) 334 1 m. 594 198396

Polycarbonate (3’× 8’ × ¼’) 52 pcs. 2350 122200

Aluminum wall cladding (4’×8’× ¼’) 285 pcs. 2400 684000

TOTAL 1004596 452068.2

XI. DOOR AND WINDOWS

80× 2.1 3”× 6”DoorJump Panel Door 45 set 6800 306000

Double swing Flush Door (1.0m × 2.1m) 3 set 8500 25500


Aluminum Steel Double Swing Door (0.9m ×
3 set 7000 21000
2.1m)
Aluminum Steel Double Swing Door (0.8m ×
3 set 6000 18000
2.1m)
PVC Door (0.8m ×2.1m) 18 set 1800 32400

Steel Door (1.0m ×2.1m) 4 set 23000 92000

Steel Door (0.8m ×2.1m) 5 set 22400 112000


Glass wall cladding with awning type window
16 set 18000 288000
(3.0m × 1.2m)
Glass wall cladding with awning type window
1 set 20000 20000
(1.8m × 2.8m)
Glass wall cladding with awning type window
2 set 4000 8000
(0.6m × 0.5m)
Glass wall cladding with awning type window
60 set 15000 900000
(1.5m × 1.2m)
Glass wall cladding with awning type window
4 set 17000 68000
(4.3m × 5m)
Glass wall cladding with awning type window
2 set 18000 36000
(6.0m × 5m)
Steel casement (0.5m × 0.5m) 16 set 1500 24000

Steel casement (1.5m × 1.2m) 4 set 3000 12000

TOTAL 1962900 883305


LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 171

Table 4.8d
Cost Estimates and Bill of Materials
XII. PLUMBING

100mm Ø Closet bend 47 pcs. 85 3995

100mm Ø WYE 47 pcs. 140 6580

100mm×50mm Ø Reducer Sanitary Tee 47 pcs. 50 2350

Floor drain 50mm Ø trap 25 pcs. 95 2375

Vent stack 47 pcs. 85 3995

75mmØ ¼ bend 47 pcs. 42 1974

50mmØ trap 50 pcs. 40 2000

50mmØ sanitary tee 50 pcs. 58 2900

50mmØ waste pipe 50 pcs. 47 2350

50mmØ ¼ bend 93 pcs. 85 7905

100×50mm reducer sanitary tee 50 pcs. 50 2500

50mmØ vent pipe 50 pcs. 70 3500

75×50mmØ reducer tee 50 pcs. 58.95 2947.5

75mmØ vent pipe 34 pcs. 72.5 2465

100mmØ clean out with plug 34 pcs. 73.75 2507.5

100mmØ soil pipe 34 pcs. 100 3400

100×75mmØ reducer tee 68 pcs. 140 9520

Epoxy (Pioneer A&B) 5 liter 1760 8800

Solvent (Neltex brand) 25 cc. 175 4375

Teflon tape 50 pcs. 10 500

¾” Ø G.I. Check valve 1 pcs. 460 460

¾” Ø G.I. Gate valve 1 pcs. 410 410

¾” Ø Water Meter 1 pcs. 1700 1700

1hp Motor Pump 2 pcs. 8499.75 16999.5

TOTAL 96508.5 43428.825


LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 172

Table 4.8e
Cost Estimates and Bill of Materials
XIII. PAINTING WORKS

Flat Latex (white) 600 tin 1764.85 1058910

Masonry Putty 200 gal. 573.65 114730

Quick Drying Enamel 95 gal. 406.53 38620.35

Paint Thinner 80 gal. 353.5 28280

B8701 Knockout Air Cleaning Paint 180 tin 3640 655200

Concrete neutralizer 188 Lt. 471.8 88698.4

Patching Compound 2250 kg. 26.35 59287.5

Sand Paper # 120 150 Yard 50 7500

Sand Paper # 80 100 Yard 60 6000

4” Nylon Brush 60 pcs. 349.75 20985

2” Nylon Brush 80 gal. 50 4000

Paint Roller 60 gal. 70 4200

TOTAL 2086411.25 938885.063

XIV. ELECTRIC WORK

Water pump outlet 2 pcs. 1200 2400

Automatic circuit breaker 59 set 5621 331639

Electric wire (lamp) (k/mm2) 50 roll 3835.25 191762.5

Electric wire (outlet) (12mm2) 50 roll 2615.75 130787.5

Electric wire tape 50 roll 22.5 1125

Gang switch (250V) 28 pcs. 50 1400

2 Gang switch (250V) 99 pcs. 65 6435

3 Gang switch (250V) 35 pcs. 85 2975

Compact Fluorescent lamp (250V) 35 pcs. 500 17500

Plate Assemble for Single-Gang switch 28 pcs. 65 1820

Plate Assemble for Two-Gang switch 99 pcs. 105 10395

Plate Assemble for Three-Gang switch 35 pcs. 145 5075

Fluorescent lamp (250V) 333 pcs. 500 166500

Duplex convenient outlets 268 pcs. 185 49580

Electric wire, For Service Entrance (8.0mm2) 10 meter 72.5 725


LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 173

Table 4.8f
Cost Estimates and Bill of Materials
Telephone Outlet 45 set 260 11700

Telephone Cable 200 meter 10 2000

Solvent (Neltex) 30 cc 175 5250

Entrance Cap – 25mmØ (1”) 2 pcs. 698 1396

Octagon Box, Deep Type w/ Cover (painted) 250 set 200 50000

TOTAL 990465 445709.25

XV. TOILET WORKS AND FIXTURES

Water Closet dual Flush 54 set 21000 1134000

Urinal (MARIWASA PACKAGE) 9 pcs. 1399 12591

Waterless Urinal 9 pcs. 8709.12 78382.08

Lavatory with Fittings 54 set 1250 67500

Floor Drain (OSAKA 3”×3”) 14 pcs. 330 4620

Soap Holder 6 pcs. 370 2220

Paper Holder 14 pcs. 470 6580

Portland Cement (FORTUNE BRAND) 1115 bags 195 217425

Sand 66 cu. m. 580 38280

Tile Grout (STANDARD) 150 bags 60 9000

TILE Trim (6ft.) 116 pcs. 45 5220

Glazed Tiles (0.20m×0.20m) 4815 pcs. 23 110745

Glazed Tiles (0.40m×0.40m) 18353 pcs. 56 1027768

Unglazed tiles (0.20m×0.20m) 2850 pcs. 21 59850

TOTAL 2774181.08 1248381

XVI. SEPTIC TANK & WATER TANK

Portland Cement (FORTUNE BRAND) 103 bags 195 20085

Sand 5.6 cu. m. 850 4760

Gravel 11.2 cu. m. 850 9520

No. 16 G.I. Tie Wire (40cm) 6 kl. 60 360

# 4 CHB 456 pcs. 8 3648

12mmØ dia. RSB 86 pcs. 184 15824

TOTAL 54197 24388.65


LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 174

Table 4.8g
Cost Estimates and Bill of Materials
XVII. GREEN ROOF

Waterproof membrane 1800 Sq.m. 300 540000

Floor Drain (OSAKA 4”×4”) 72 pcs. 380 27360


Protection board SONOSHIELD DBS 6200
POLYPROPYLENE DRAIN BOARD 11238 Sq.ft. 35 393330
SYSTEM
Drainage storage layer (oldroyd Xv20
1800 Sq.m. 550 990000
GreenXtra)
Filter Fabric 1800 Sq.m. 750 1350000

Roof Insulation Ga. #26 1800 Sq.m. 90 162000

Landscaping 1800 Sq.m. 170 306000

TOTAL 3768690 1695911

77164358.8 27886234

TOTAL MATERIAL and LABOR COST 105050593


MISCELLENEOUS

10% Material and labor cost 10505059.3

CONTINGENCIES
5% OF Material, Labor and
5777782.6
Miscellaneous cost
CONTRACTOR PROFIT

15% of Material Labor, Misc., Cont. cost 18200015.2

VAT
12% of Material , Labor, Misc., Cont.,
16744014
Contr. Cost
TOTAL COST OF THE PROJECT 156277464
57880.54 per sq.
UNIT COST
m.

J. PROGRAM OF WORKS

The method used to determine the number of days that the project will be completed

is through the PERT/CPM, in which it indicates the number of hour each laborer could

perform in a day.
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 175

Table 4.9: CPM/PERT Activity

NODE ACTIVITY DURATION


1-2 a. Mobilization and temporary facilities 14days
2-3 b. Site layout and staking 7days
2-4 c. Earthworks 7days

a) Site cleaning and grubbing


b) Excavation
c) Backfill and fills

4-6 d. Steel works 90days


3-5 e. Soil poisoning 7days
6-5 f. Gravel Bedding 10days
5-7 g. Carpentry and Wood work 100days
7-9 h. Plumbing and Sanitary work 60days
7-8 i. Electrical work 45days
9-10, 8-10 j. Concrete and Masonry/Fence work 90days
10-11 k. Mechanical work 70days
10-12 l. Stainless and Handrill works 42days
10-13 m. Doors and Windows Installation 42days
11-14 n. Solar Panel Installation 60days
13-15 o. Tile works 50days
15-18 p. Green roof installation 35days
15-16 q. Painting works 42days
15-17 r. Outside works 21days
16-19, 17-19, s. Clean-up 21days
18-19

19-20 t. Demobilization 7days

Figure 4: CPM/PERT Diagram


LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 176

Critical Path = A-C-D-F-G-H-J-M-O-Q-S-T

Total number of working days for the completion of the proposed project study is 540

days.

Figure 2.1: Program Evaluation and Review Techniques (PERT)

Figure 2.2: Program Evaluation and Review Techniques (PERT) – Critical Path Method
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 177

Results of the LEED – NC 2014.

The following are the results of the possible certification for the LEED – NC, which

was based on the critical analysis and judgments of the researcher’s output of the structure’s

design;

Y ? N
1 Credit Integrative Process 1

9 0 0 Location and Transportation 16


LEED for Neighborhood
Credit 16
Development Location
1 Credit Sensitive Land Protection 1
1 Credit High Priority Site 2
Surrounding Density and
3 Credit 5
Diverse Uses
2 Credit Access to Quality Transit 5
1 Credit Bicycle Facilities 1
1 Credit Reduced Parking Footprint 1
Green
0 Credit 1
Vehicles

8 0 0 Sustainable Sites 10
Construction Activity
Y Prereq Required
Pollution Prevention
1 Credit Site Assessment 1
Site Development - Protect
1 Credit 2
or Restore Habitat
1 Credit Open Space 1
3 Credit Rainwater Management 3
1 Credit Heat Island Reduction 2
1 Credit Light Pollution Reduction 1

6 0 0 Water Efficiency 11
Outdoor Water Use
Y Prereq Required
Reduction
Indoor Water Use
Y Prereq Required
Reduction
Building-
Level
Y Prereq Required
Water
Metering
1 Credit Outdoor Water Use 2
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 178

Reduction
Indoor Water Use
4 Credit 6
Reduction
0 Credit Cooling Tower Water Use 2
Water
1 Credit 1
Metering

21 0 0 Energy and Atmosphere 33


Fundamental
Y Prereq Commissioning and Required
Verification
Minimum Energy
Y Prereq Required
Performance
Building-Level Energy
Y Prereq Required
Metering
Fundamental Refrigerant
Y Prereq Required
Management
1 Credit Enhanced Commissioning 6
Optimize Energy
12 Credit 18
Performance
Advanced Energy
1 Credit 1
Metering
2 Credit Demand Response 2
Renewable Energy
3 Credit 3
Production
Enhanced Refrigerant
1 Credit 1
Management
Green Power and Carbon
1 Credit 2
Offsets
5 0 0 Materials and Resources 13
Y Prereq Storage and Collection of Recyclables Required
Construction and Demolition Waste Management
Y Prereq Required
Planning
2 Credit Building Life-Cycle Impact Reduction 5
Building Product Disclosure and Optimization -
1 Credit Environmental Product 2
Declarations
Building Product Disclosure and Optimization -
0 Credit 2
Sourcing of Raw Materials
Building Product Disclosure and Optimization -
2 Credit 2
Material Ingredients
0 Credit Construction and Demolition Waste Management 2

12 0 0 Indoor Environmental Quality 16


Y Prereq Minimum Indoor Air Quality Performance Required
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 179

Y Prereq Environmental Tobacco Smoke Control Required


1 Credit Enhanced Indoor Air Quality Strategies 2
2 Credit Low-Emitting Materials 3
Construction Indoor Air
1 Credit 1
Quality Management Plan
1 Credit Indoor Air Quality Assessment 2
1 Credit Thermal Comfort 1
1 Credit Interior Lighting 2
3 Credit Daylight 3
1 Credit Quality Views 1
1 Credit Acoustic Performance 1

4 0 0 Innovation 6
3 Credit Innovation 5
1 Credit LEED Accredited Professional 1

4 0 0 Regional Priority 4
Regional Priority:
1 Credit 1
Specific Credit
Regional Priority:
1 Credit 1
Specific Credit
Regional Priority:
1 Credit 1
Specific Credit
Regional Priority:
1 Credit 1
Specific Credit

70 0 0 TOTALS Possible Points: 110

Certified: 40 to 49 points

Silver: 50 to 59 points

Gold: 60 to 79 points

Platinum: 80 to 110

Result : 70 points, Gold

The results of the certification shows that the structure scored a total of 70 points, in

which it qualified for “Gold” LEED – NC certification.


LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 180

Summary of Findings and Results

This set of data and findings will present a summary of the findings made in this unit

in order to have clear presentation of the results of this unit and be the basis of which the

objectives of this study has been attained or not.

Atterberg Limit Determination

Project : A Design of a Three-Storey Library Integrated Building

Location of the Project : Brgy. Ibabang Dupay Lucena City

Description of Soil : Macolod Clay Loam

Liquid Limit Determination

Table 4.4
Liquid Limit Determination
Can Number 1 2 3
Weight of wet 16.69 17.04 19.03
soil+can
Weight of dry 13.8 13.25 14.6
soil+can
Weight of can 5.5 5.4 5.4
Weight of dry soil 8.3 7.85 9.2
Moisture loose 2.89 3.19 4.43
Water content, w% 43.75 40.62 38.15
Number of blows, N 37 24 12

Plastic Limit Determination

Table 4.5
Plastic Limit Determination
Can Number 1 2
Weight of wet soil+can 11.30 11.26
Weight of dry soil+can 10.42 10.35
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 181

Weight of can 6.7 6.7


Weight of dry soil 3.72 3.65
Moisture loose 0.88 0.91
Water content, w% 23.66 24.93

Liquid Limit = 40.12

Plastic Limit = 24.30

Plastic Index = 15.82

Water Content Determination

Project : A Design of a Three-Storey Library Integrated Building

Location of the Project : Brgy. Ibabang Dupay Lucena City

Description of Soil : Macolod clay loam

Table 4.6
Water Content Determination
Boring Number 1 2 3
Container Number 1 2 3
Weight of cup+soil 30.19 31.66 28.52
Weight of cup+dry 22.6 22.73 22.7
soil
Weight of cup 6.7 6.7 6.7
Weight of water 9.59 8.93 5.82
Water Content, w% 60.31 55.71 36.38

(60.31+55.71+36.38)
Average Water Content = = 50.8%
3

Grain Size Analysis-Mechanical

Sieve Analysis and Grain Shape


LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 182

Table 4.7
Sieve Analysis and Grain Shape
Sieve No. Diameter Weight %Retained Weight %Passing
(mm) Retained Passing
(mm)
4 0 0 657 657 100
8 2.38 14 2.13 643 97.87
10 1.68 29.3 4.46 613.7 93.41
40 0.42 44.3 6.8 569.4 86.61
60 0.25 67.12 10.22 502.28 76.39
100 0.15 59.8 9.1 442.38 67.29
200 0.075 82.38 12.54 360.1 54.75

Based from the result of the Atterberg’s Limit Determination Test, the soil’s

classified as inorganic clay of medium plasticity wait allowable soil pressure of 100-300kPa

LATERAL LOAD COMPUTATION

Floor Wx(kN) hx(m) Wxhx Fx


Roof Deck 16607.92 15 249118.80 5542.02
3rd Floor 12504 10 125040 2781.70
2ND Floor 12504 5 62520 1390.85
Ground Floor 12504 0 0 0
436678.8 9714.57

SLAB DETAILS (Use 12mm∅ bars, t = 200mm)

Mark ALONG SHORT ALONG LONG DISCONTINUOS


DIRECTION DIRECTION EDGE
@ midspan @ @ midspan @ @ short @ long
(mm) continuous (mm) continuous direction direction
edge (mm) edge (mm) (mm) (mm)
S1 130 100 130 130 130 130
S2 130 90 90 130 90 270
S3 110 60 90 130 330 270
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 183

BEAM DETAILS
Mark B(mm) D(mm) L (O.C.) REINFORCEMENTS STIRURUPS, 12mm∅
TOP BOT. BARS
BARS
B1 300 400 varies 2 -32mm∅ 2 – 36mm∅ 50mm center to center
3 – 32mm∅ from face of supported
and the rest
B2 400 550 varies 2 -32mm∅ 5 – 36mm∅ 60mm center to center
2 – 32mm∅ from face of support and
the rest
B3 300 400 varies 2 -20mm∅ 4 – 32mm∅ 50mm center to center
from face of support and
the rest

COLUMN DETAILS

Mark L(mm) W(mm) REINFORCEMENTS LATERAL TIES

C1 0.70 0.70 12 – 36mmØ RSB 12mm dia. bars spaced @ 576mm center

(ext) 4 – 32mmØ RSB to center from face of support and the rest

C2 0.70 0.70 12 – 36mmØ RSB 12mm dia. bars spaced @ 576mm center

(int) 4 – 32mmØ RSB to center from face of support and the rest

FOOTING DETAILS

Use B = 4m, L = 4m and d = .7m with 25 – 25mm∅ main bars each side on center. At

exterior and interior column use 12 – 36mm∅ and 4 – 32mm∅ main bars.

RC STAIRS DETAILS

Use thread = 300mm and rise = 180mm with 10mm∅ main bars.
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 184

Program of Works.

From the procedure used, the researchers utilized the PERT/CPM method to identify

the number of days of the actual constructions of the proposed design. The total numbers of

working days for the completion of the proposed project study is 523 days.

Technical Specification.

The written Technical Specification will conform to all the standard specification

used in the design of the study, with an identified and detailed materials and execution of the

construction of the project study.

Cost Estimates and Bill of Materials.

Using simple costing method in estimating quantity of materials and computing all

the necessary materials and equipment used based on the current price and the rate of labor

and considering the activities to be done, the researchers arrive to the probable cost of the

Library Integrated Building to be 156,277,464pesos.


LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 185

UNIT V

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION

This unit summarizes and discusses the results of the study based on the objectives

defined. Furthermore, this part will also make conclusions based on previous analysis that

were made and make necessary recommendations for further improvement.

CONCLUSIONS

Based on the research and design and after thorough analysis and evaluation, the

researcher have concluded the following:

1. Based on the standard evaluation, the researchers concluded that the necessary

knowledge, concepts, theories and principles in building construction, site

investigation, structural analysis and design, as well as the application of LEED

Green Building systems was applied in the study “A Design of a Three-Storey

Library Integrated Building.” The design conforms to the technical specification and

was uniformly guided by the processes in the conceptual framework.

2. Structural details, plans, and drawings, were readied in response to the needs of the

structure. Details are result of computation, however, emphasized. And that all works

are based on the technical specification as specified in the National Structural Code of

the Philippines, National Building Code, and other codes for the implementation of

the project.

3. Using simple costing method in estimating the quantity of materials and computing

all the necessary materials used base on the current price and rate of labor and

considering the activities to be done in designed three-storey building.


LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 186

RECOMMENDATIONS

In order to improve the project study, the researchers have presented the following

recommendations:

1. Since the library is designed with an integrated building concept, materials used in the

construction shall be environmentally-friendly composition. Furthermore, materials

of this composition are recommended to be used more in the construction as

compared to ordinary commercial materials.

2. The structure must maintain its Green characteristics by following the LEED-NC

specifications. Use of advanced and environmentally-friendly technology can help in

sustaining the quality of the green structures.

3. Installation of solar panels and rainwater harvester are included in the design of the

library integrated building and this will provide an alternative electrical energy and

water source. The advantages of solar panels and rainwater harvester are

environmentally sound for it produces virtually no pollution and will lessen water and

electricity fee.

4. Design of structural elements of the structures should always be checked to the

minimum requirements postulated by the codes to avoid unnecessary circumstances

to improve the quality of performance of each structure.

5. The researchers suggest this paper to the students who will undertake the same study

to serve as reference and to further improve or expand the scope of this project study.
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 187

References

Arenal, A. D. (2012). A Proposed Design of an Environment Friendly Three Storey

Reinforced Concrete Parking Building in Lucena City. Lucena City.

Besavilla, V. I. (2007). Fundamentals of Reinforced Concrete. Cebu City, Philippines: VIB

Publisher.

Besavilla, V.I. (2007), Structural Analysis, Cebu City, Philippines: VIB Publisher.

Generoso (2001). A Proposed Five Storey Engineering School Building.

Guillesania, D.I. Fundamentals of Reinforced Concrete Design, Second Edition, Ormoc City:

Diego Inucencio Tapang Guillesania

Landicho, M. A. (2006). A Proposed Three Storey Maritime School Located in Manuel S.

Enverga University Foundation, University Site, Lucena City. Lucena City: BSCE

Thesis University Foundation, Lucena City.

Manahan (2012). Integration of Green Building Concept in Design of a Three-Storey

Building.

Moehring. (2009). Is that Mass or just a garden on your roof?

Siti, H. Y. (2014). Solar Integrated Energy System for Green Building.

http://acta.fih.upt.ro/pdf/2014-3/ACTA-2014-3-18.pdf

Tagayun, V. (2002). Estimating Bill of Materials.

Wong, J. K. W. (January 2009). Development of intelligence analytic models for integrated

building management systems (IBMS) in intelligent buildings.


LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 188

APPENDIX A

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL

March 2016

DR. GUILLERMO M. RAGO JR.


Dean, College of Engineering and Technical Department
Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation

Thru: ENGR. RAMELA B. RAMIREZ


Project Study Adviser

Dear Sir:

Presented here in an independent probe and should not be regarded as a basis of expansion
program of any Library Integrated Building. However, any interested party who would like
to give credit to this work for some insights about Library Integrated Building construction
an use the ideas and relevant information of this research whichever are considered
applicable.

The author presents this study “A Design of a Three-Storey Library Integrated Building
Located in Ibabang Dupay Lucena City” that focus on developing and nurturing the skills of
individual through training. This paper combines the researchers’ knowledge learned in the
school curriculum and skills acquired in present work place. A prioritized work presented
with pride and compliance with the Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering requirements.

Respectfully yours,

BRYAN G. CANADA
Researcher

REYNALD VINCENT P. CO
Researcher

IRENE R. PASTRANA
Researcher

MATTHEW SIMON D. SAN MIGUEL


Researcher
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 189

APPENDIX B

SOIL GEOLOGY AND SOIL CHARACTERISTICS

SITE GEOLOGY AND SOIL CHARACTERISTICS

SOIL PROFILE SHEAR WAVE SPT, UNDRAINED


VELOCITY, Vs N SHEAR
STRENGTH
TYPE NAME / GENERIC
DESCRIPTION
Sa hard rock > 1500 m/s
Sb Rock 760 – 1500 m/s
Sc very dense soil and 360 – 760 m/s > 50 > 100
soft rock
Sd stiff soil profile 180 – 360 m/s 15 – 50 – 100
50
Se soft soil profile < 180 m/s < 50 < 50
Sf soil requiring site specific evaluation (see section 208 4.3.1)

APPENDIX C

OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS

OCCUPANCY CATEGORY IMPORTANCE FACTOR 1


Earthquake Wind

I. Essential Facilities 1.5 1.15

II. Hazardous Facilities 1.25 1.15

III. Special Occupancy Structures 1.00 1.15

IV. Standard Occupancy Structures 1.00 1.00


LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 190

APPENDIX D

NEAR SOURCE FACTOR (Nv and Na)

Near Source Factor, Na

CLOSEST DISTANCE TO

SIESMIC KNOWN SEISMIC

SOURCE SOURCE

TYPE ≤ 5 km ≥ 10 km

A 1.2 1.0

B 1.0 1.0

C 1.0 1.0

Near Source Factor, Nv

CLOSEST DISTANCE TO

SIESMIC KNOWN SEISMIC

SOURCE SOURCE

TYPE ≤ 5 km 10 km ≥ 15 km

A 1.6 1.2 1.0

B 1.2 1.0 1.0

C 1.0 1.0 1.0


LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 191

APPENDIX E

LATERAL FORCE FACTOR K FOR BUILDING AND OTHER STRUCTURE

Type of Structure K

1. Buildings with full framing systems except as below 1.00

1.33
2. Buildings with a box system supported only by load bearing walls

3. Buildings with dual bracing systems consisting of a ductile moment - 0.80


resisting frame and shear

0.67
4. Buildings with a ductile moment - resisting frame capable of
resisting the entire lateral force
2.50
5. Elevated tanks, including contents, supported by four or more cross -
braced legs and not supported by a building 2.00

6.Other structure

APPENDIX F

Seismic Coefficient

Seismic Cofficient (Ca and Cv) Seismic Cofficient (Ca and Cv)
Seismic Zone Factor Z Seismic Zone Factor Z
Soil Profile Type Soil Profile Type
Z = 0.20 Z = 0.40 Z = 0.20 Z = 0.40
Sa 0.16 0.32 Na Sa 0.16 0.32 Nv
Sb 0.2 0.40 Na Sb 0.2 0.40 Nv
Sc 0.24 0.40 Na Sc 0.32 0.56 Nv
Sd 0.28 0.44 Na Sd 0.3 0.64 Nv
Se 0.34 0.36 Na Se 0.64 0.96 Nv
Site Specifc geotechnical investigation and dynamic site response analysis shall be
Sf
performed to determined seismic coefficents
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 192

APPENDIX G

UNIFORM LIVE LOAD AND CONCENTRATED LOAD

Use of Occupancy Uniform Load, Pa Concentrated Load,


Category N
Description
1. Armories 7200 0
2. Assembly areas Fixed seating areas 2400 0
and auditorium and
balconies there with Movable seating and 4800 0
other areas

Stage areas and 6000 0


enclosed platforms
3. Cornices, 3000 0
marques and
residential balconies
4. Exit facilities 4800 0
5. Garages General storage and/ 4800 0
or repair

Private pleasure car 2400


storage
6. Hospitals Wards and rooms 2000 4500
7. Libraries Reading rooms 3000 4500

Stack rooms 6000 6700


8. Manufacturing Light 3600 8900

Heavy 6000 13400


9. Offices 2400 8900
10. Printing Plants Press rooms 7200 11200

Composing and
linotype rooms
11. Residential 2000 0
12. Restrooms
13. Reviewing 4800 0
stands, grandstands
and bleachers
14. Roof deck Same as areas
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 193

served or for the


type of occupancy
accommodated
15. Schools Classrooms 2000 4500
16. Sidewalks and Public Access 12000
driveways
17. Storage Light 6000
Heavy 12000
18. Stores Retail 3600 8900

Wholesale 4800 13400


19. Low cost 1500
housing unit

APPENDIX H

COEFFICIENTS FOR MOMENTS IN SLABS

Ratio Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Case 4 Case 5 Case 6 Case 7 Case 8 Case 9
𝐴 B
M=
𝐵
A
Wa 0.50 0.50 0.17 0.50 0.83 0.71 0.29 0.33 0.67
1.00
Wb 0.50 0.50 0.83 0.50 0.17 0.29 0.71 0.67 0.3
Wa 0.55 0.55 0.20 0.55 0.86 0.86 0.33 0.38 0.71
0.95
Wb 0.45 0.45 0.80 0.45 0.14 0.14 0.67 0.62 0.29
Wa 0.60 0.60 0.23 0.60 0.88 0.79 0.38 0.43 0.75
0.90
Wb 0.40 0.40 0.77 0.40 0.12 0.21 0.62 0.57 0.25
Wa 0.66 0.66 0.28 0.66 0.90 0.83 0.43 0.49 0.79
0.85
Wb 0.34 0.34 0.72 0.34 0.10 0.17 0.57 0.51 0.21
Wa 0.71 0.71 0.33 0.71 0.92 0.86 0.49 0.55 0.83
0.80
Wb 0.29 0.29 0.67 0.29 0.008 0.14 0.51 0.45 0.17
Wa 0.76 0.76 0.39 0.76 0.94 0.88 0.56 0.61 0.84
0.75
Wb 0.24 0.24 0.61 0.24 0.06` 0.12 0.44 0.39 0.14
Wa 0.81 0.81 0.45 0.81 0.95 0.91 0.62 0.68 0.89
0.70
Wb 0.19 0.19 0.55 0.19 0.05 0.09 0.38 0.32 0.11
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 194

Wa 0.85 0.85 0.53 0.85 0.96 0.93 0.69 0.74 0.92


0.65
Wb 0.15 0.15 0.47 0.15 0.04 0.07 0.31 0.26 0.08
Wa 0.89 0.89 0.69 0.89 0.98 0.96 0.81 0.85 0.95
0.60
Wb 0.11 0.11 0.31 0.11 0.02 0.04 0.19 0.15 0.05
Wa 0.92 0.92 0.69 0.92 0.98 0.96 0.81 0.85 0.95
0.55
Wb 0.08 0.008 0.31 0.08 0.02 0.04 0.19 0.15 0.05
Wa 0.94 0.94 0.76 0.94 0.99 0.97 0.86 0.89 0.97
0.50
Wb 0.06 0.04 0.24 0.06 0.01 0.03 0.14 0.11 0.03

Coefficients for Live Load Positive Moment in Slabs

MA pos LL = CALL x w x A2

MB pos LL = CBLL x w x B2

Where w = total uniform live load

Ratio Case1 Case Case 3 Case 4 Case 5 Case 6 Case 7 Case 8 Case 9
m= A 2
LA/LB B
CALL 0.036 0.027 0.027 0.032 0.032 0.035 0.032 0.028 0.030
1.00
CBLL 0.036 0.027 0.032 0.032 0.027 0.032 0.035 0.030 0.028
CALL 0.40 0.030 0.031 0.035 0.034 0.038 0.036 0.031 0.032
0.95
CBLL 0.033 0.025 0.029 0.029 0.024 0.029 0.032 0.027 0.025
CALL 0.045 0.034 0.035 0.039 0.037 0.042 0.040 0.035 0.036
0.90
CBLL 0.029 0.022 0.027 0.026 0.021 0.025 0.029 0.024 0.022
CALL 0.050 0.037 0.040 0.043 0.041 0.046 0.045 0.040 0.039
0.85
CBLL 0.026 0.019 0.024 0.023 0.019 0.022 0.026 0.022 0.020
CALL 0.056 0.041 0.045 0.048 0.044 0.051 0.051 0.044 0.042
0.80
CBLL 0.023 0.017 0.022 0.020 0.016 0.019 0.023 0.019 0.0147
CALL 0.061 0.045 0.051 0.052 0.047 0.055 0.056 0.049 0.046
0.75
CBLL 0.019 0.014 0.019 0.016 0.013 0.016 0.020 0.016 0.013
CALL 0.068 0.049 0.057 0.057 0.051 0.060 0.063 0.054 0.050
0.70
CBLL 0.016 0.012 0.016 0.014 0.011 0.013 0.017 0.014 0.011
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 195

CALL 0.074 0.053 0.064 0.062 0.055 0.064 0.070 0.059 0.054
0.65
CBLL 0.013 0.010 0.014 0.011 0.009 0.010 0.014 0.011 0.007
CALL 0.081 0.058 0.071 0.067 0.059 0.068 0.077 0.065 0.059
0.60
CBLL 0.010 0.007 0.011 0.009 0.007 0.008 0.011 0.009 0.007
CALL 0.088 0.062 0.080 0.072 0.063 0.073 0.085 0.070 0.063
0.55
CBLL 0.008 0.006 0.009 0.007 0.005 0.006 0.009 0.007 0.006
CALL 0.095 0.066 0.088 0.077 0.067 0.078 0.092 0.076 0.067
0.50
CBLL 0.006 0.04 0.007 0.005 0.004 0.005 0.007 0.005 0.004

Coefficients for Dead Load Positive Moment in Slabs

MA pos DL = CADL x w x A2

MB pos DL = CBDL x w x B2

Where w = total uniform load

Ratio Case Case 2 Case 3 Case 4 Case 5 Case 6 Case 7 Case 8 Case 9
m= 1
LA/LB A
B
CA neg 0.045 0.050 0.075 0.071 0.033 0.061
1.95
CB neg 0.045 0.076 0.050 0.071 0.061 0.033
CA neg 0.055 0.060 0.080 0.079 0.043 0.068
1.90
CB neg 0.037 0.070 0.040 0.062 0.052 0.025
CA neg 0.060 0.066 0.082 0.083 0.049 0.072
1.85
CB neg 0.031 0.065 0.034 0.057 0.046 0.021
CA neg 0.065 0.071 0.083 0.086 0.055 0.075
1.80
CB neg 0.027 0.061 0.029 0.051 0.041 0.017
CA neg 0.067 0.076 0.085 0.088 0.061 0.078
1.75
CB neg 0.022 0.056 0.024 0.044 0.036 0.014
CA neg 0.074 0.081 0.086 0.091 0.068 0.081
1.70
CB neg 0.017 0.050 0.019 0.038 0.029 0.011
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 196

CA neg 0.077 0.085 0.087 0.093 0.074 0.083


1.65
CB neg 0.014 0.043 0.015 0.031 0.024 0.008
CA neg 0.081 0.089 0.088 0.095 0.080 0.085
1.60
CB neg 0.010 0.035 0.011 0.024 0.018 0.006
CA neg 0.084 0.092 0.089 0.096 0.085 0.086
1.55
CB neg 0.007 0.028 0.008 0.019 0.014 0.005
CA neg 0.086 0.094 0.090 0.097 0.089 0.088
1.50
CB neg 0.006 0.022 0.006 0.014 0.010 0.003

APPENDIX I
WALL PRESSURE COEFFICIENT, Cp
Surface L/B Cp Use with
Windward wall All values 0.8 qz
0-1 -0.5
Leeward wall 2 -0.3 qh
≥4 -0.2
Side walls All values -0.7 qh

APPENDIX J

MINIMUM CONCRETE COVER FOR CAST-IN PLACE CONCRETE

Minimum Cover
Mm
(a) Concrete cast against and 75
permanently exposed to earth
(b) Concrete exposed to earth or
weather;
20mm through 36mm bars 50
16mm bar, W31 or D31 wire, 40
and smaller
(c) Concrete not exposed to
weather or in contact with
ground:
Slabs, walls, joists:
32mm bar and smaller 20
Beams, columns
Primary reinforcement , ties,
stirrups, spirals 40
Shells, folded place
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 197

members: 20
20mm bar and larger 12
16mm bar, W31 or D31 wire,
and smaller

APPENDIX K
PHILIPPINE STANDARD REINFORCING STEEL BAR

Table 407-2 Steel Reinforcement Information on Sizes, Areas and Weights of


Various Steel Reinforcements

ASTM STANDARD PHILIPPINE STANDARD (SI)

Nominal Nominal Nominal Bar Size Nominal Nominal


Diameter, mm Area, mm2 mass, kg/m Designation Area, mm2 mass, kg/m

9.5 71 0.560 10 79 0.618

12.7 129 0.994 12 113 0.890

15.9 199 1.552 16 201 1.580

19.1 284 2.235 20 314 2.465

22.2 387 3.042 n.a n.a n.a

25.4 510 3.973 25 491 3.851

28.7 645 5.060 28 616 4.831

32.3 819 6.404 32 804 6.310

35.8 1006 7.907 36 1019 7.986

43.0 1452 11.380 42 1385 10.870

57.3 2581 20.240 58 2642 20.729


LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 198

APPENDIX L

Table 1-A LEED 2014 for New Construction Prerequisites and Credits

Y ? N
Credit Integrative Process 1

Location and Transportation 16


LEED for Neighborhood
Credit 16
Development Location
Credit Sensitive Land Protection 1
Credit High Priority Site 2
Surrounding Density and
Credit 5
Diverse Uses
Credit Access to Quality Transit 5
Credit Bicycle Facilities 1
Credit Reduced Parking Footprint 1
Green
Credit 1
Vehicles

Sustainable Sites 10
Construction Activity
Prereq Required
Pollution Prevention
Credit Site Assessment 1
Site Development - Protect
Credit 2
or Restore Habitat
Credit Open Space 1
Credit Rainwater Management 3
Credit Heat Island Reduction 2
Credit Light Pollution Reduction 1

Water Efficiency 11
Outdoor Water Use
Prereq Required
Reduction
Indoor Water Use
Prereq Required
Reduction
Building-
Level
Prereq Required
Water
Metering
Outdoor Water Use
Credit 2
Reduction
Indoor Water Use
Credit 6
Reduction
Credit Cooling Tower Water Use 2
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 199

Water
Credit 1
Metering

Energy and Atmosphere 33


Fundamental
Prereq Commissioning and Required
Verification
Minimum Energy
Prereq Required
Performance
Building-Level Energy
Prereq Required
Metering
Fundamental Refrigerant
Prereq Required
Management
Credit Enhanced Commissioning 6
Optimize Energy
Credit 18
Performance
Advanced Energy
Credit 1
Metering
Credit Demand Response 2
Renewable Energy
Credit 3
Production
Enhanced Refrigerant
Credit 1
Management
Green Power and Carbon
Credit 2
Offsets
Materials and Resources 13
Prereq Storage and Collection of Recyclables Required
Construction and Demolition Waste Management
Prereq Required
Planning
Credit Building Life-Cycle Impact Reduction 5
Building Product Disclosure and Optimization -
Credit Environmental Product 2
Declarations
Building Product Disclosure and Optimization -
Credit 2
Sourcing of Raw Materials
Building Product Disclosure and Optimization -
Credit 2
Material Ingredients
Credit Construction and Demolition Waste Management 2

Indoor Environmental Quality 16


Prereq Minimum Indoor Air Quality Performance Required
Prereq Environmental Tobacco Smoke Control Required
Credit Enhanced Indoor Air Quality Strategies 2
Credit Low-Emitting Materials 3
Credit Construction Indoor Air 1
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 200

Quality Management Plan


Credit Indoor Air Quality Assessment 2
Credit Thermal Comfort 1
Credit Interior Lighting 2
Credit Daylight 3
Credit Quality Views 1
Credit Acoustic Performance 1

Innovation 6
Credit Innovation 5
Credit LEED Accredited Professional 1

Regional Priority 4
Regional Priority:
Credit 1
Specific Credit
Regional Priority:
Credit 1
Specific Credit
Regional Priority:
Credit 1
Specific Credit
Regional Priority:
Credit 1
Specific Credit

0 TOTALS Possible Points: 110

Certified: 40 to 49 points

Silver: 50 to 59 points

Gold: 60 to 79 points

Platinum: 80 to 110
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 201

PROJECT STUDY SURVEY

Customer (Please tick off (/). Faculty Parent

Students Others_________

Name(optional): ______________________________ Age:


_________

Gender: F M

Instructions: The following are questions about the relevance of our project study “A
Proposed Design of a Three-Storey Library Integrated Building in Ibabang Dupay Lucena
City”. Kindly evaluate the following items using the scale below:

5 – Strongly Agree 3 – Fairly Agree 1 – Strongly Disagree

4 - Agree 2 - Disagree

5 4 3 2 1
SOCIAL ACCEPTANCE SA A FA D SD
CONSIDERATIONS
1. Are you satisfied with the library services
being offered to you in your community?
2. Do you think, constructing a library will
help this community?
3. Are you in favor of constructing a new
library?
4. Are you in favor of constructing a library
INTEGRATED building?
5. Do you think it will meet the services
needed by the demands of the
community?

Kindly provide comments, suggestions etc.:

___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
______________________________
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 202

CURRICULUM VITAE

BRYAN G. CANADA
Naning st. Phase 8A Brgy. Ibabang Dupay
Lucena City
CP # 0918-674-5084
e-mail : babz_199204@yahoo.com

PERSONAL DATA:

Birthdate: August 4, 1992


Birthplace: Patnanungan, Quezon
Age: 23
Civil Status: Single
Name of Father: Rafael S. Canada
Name of Mother: Remedios B. Canada
Citizenship: Filipino
Religion: Roman Catholic
Sex: Male
Language Spoken: Filipino, English

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND:

Tertiary: BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN CIVIL ENGINEERING


Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation

Secondary:
Name of School: Patnanungan National High School
Date Graduated: 2007

Primary:
Name of School: Patnanungan Elementary School
Date Graduated: 2003

ORGANIZATION:
Name of Organization: Philippine Institute Of Civil Engineers
Position: Member
Inclusive Dates: 2013- up to present
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 203

SKILLS:

Languages: English, Tagalog


Computer Literate and Proficient in Microsoft Office Applications
Basic knowledge in AutoCAD

TRAININGS/SEMINARS ATTENDED:

“Safe And Sound:An Engineering Checklist on Redefining Safety”


Held at NCAS Auditorium, UPLB
Los Banos, Philippines
February 7, 2015

“Bridging the Gap between Theoretical Studies and Applications in Civil


Engineering”
Held at Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation
Lucena City, Quezon Philippines
December 10, 2013

“National Civil Engineering Symposium”


Held at Villamor Hall, University of the Philippines - Diliman
Quezon City, Philippines
September 10, 2015

CHARACTER REFERENCES:

Engr. Ramela B. Ramirez


Professor – College of Engineering
Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation
Contact No. 09339276165

I hereby certify that the above information is true and correct to the best of my
knowledge and belief.

____________________________
Signature over printed name
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 204

CURRICULUM VITAE

REYNALD VINCENT P. CO
#8 Brgy. Uno, Barcelona St.
Lucena City
CP # 0946-863-8199
e-mail : reynald_co@yahoo.com

PERSONAL DATA:

Birthdate: June 27, 1992


Birthplace: Lucena City
Age: 23
Civil Status: Single
Name of Father: Rommel B. Co
Name of Mother: Rosalea P. Co
Citizenship: Filipino
Religion: Roman Catholic
Sex: Male
Language Spoken: Filipino, English

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND:

Tertiary: BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN CIVIL ENGINEERING


Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation

Secondary:
Name of School: SECOND PHILIPPINE INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL
P.O. Box 729, Riyadh 11372 , Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Awards Received : Loyalty Awardee, Deportment Awardee,Varsity Award
Date Graduated: 2011

Primary:
Name of School: SECOND PHILIPPINE INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL
P.O. Box 729, Riyadh 11372 , Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Date Graduated: 2007

ORGANIZATION:
Name of Organization: Philippine Institute Of Civil Engineers
Position: Member
Inclusive Dates: 2013 – up to present
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 205

SKILLS:

Languages: English, Tagalog


Computer Literate and Proficient in Microsoft Office Applications
Basic knowledge in AutoCAD

TRAININGS/SEMINARS ATTENDED:

“Safe And Sound:An Engineering Checklist on Redefining Safety”


Held at NCAS Auditorium, UPLB
Los Banos, Philippines
February 7, 2015

“Bridging the Gap between Theoretical Studies and Applications in Civil


Engineering”
Held at Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation
Lucena City, Quezon Philippines
December 10, 2013

“National Civil Engineering Symposium”


Held at Villamor Hall, University of the Philippines - Diliman
Quezon City, Philippines
September 10, 2015

CHARACTER REFERENCES:

Engr. Ramela B. Ramirez


Professor – College of Engineering
Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation
Contact No. 09339276165

I hereby certify that the above information is true and correct to the best of my
knowledge and belief.

____________________________
Signature over printed name
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 206

CURRICULUM VITAE

IRENE R. PASTRANA
Gumamela St. Ph. V Intertown Homes Subv. Brgy. Bukal
Pagbilao, Quezon
CP # 0917-279-6827
e-mail: irenerecto15@gmail.com

PERSONAL DATA:

Birthdate: July 15, 1994


Birthplace: Lucena City
Age: 21
Civil Status: Single
Name of Father: Ernesto T. Pastrana
Name of Mother: Leny R. Pastrana
Citizenship: Filipino
Religion: Roman Catholic
Sex: Female
Language Spoken: Filipino, English

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND:

Tertiary: BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN CIVIL ENGINEERING


Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation

Secondary:
Name of School: Talipan National High School
Date Graduated: 2011

Primary:
Name of School: Pagbilao Central Elementary School
Date Graduated: 2007

ORGANIZATION:
Name of Organization: Philippine Institute Of Civil Engineers
Position: Member
Inclusive Dates: 2013-up to present

Name of Organization: Student Assistants and Foundation Grantees


Association
Position: Member
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 207

Inclusive Dates: 2012 up to present

SKILLS:

Computer Literate
Able to operate MS Office (Word, Excel, and PowerPoint)
Familiar with Auto Cad
Good communication and writing skills
Competent to work in long hours and to a flexible environment

TRAININGS/SEMINARS ATTENDED:

“Safe And Sound:An Engineering Checklist on Redefining Safety”


Held at NCAS Auditorium, UPLB
Los Banos, Philippines
February 7, 2015

“Bridging the Gap between Theoretical Studies and Applications in Civil


Engineering”
Held at Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation
Lucena City, Quezon Philippines
December 10, 2013

“National Civil Engineering Symposium”


Held at Villamor Hall, University of the Philippines - Diliman
Quezon City, Philippines
September 10, 2015

CHARACTER REFERENCES:

Engr. Ramela B. Ramirez


Professor – College of Engineering
Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation
Contact No. 09339276165

I hereby certify that the above information is true and correct to the best of my
knowledge and belief.

____________________________
Signature over printed name
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 208

CURRICULUM VITAE

MATTHEW SIMON D. SAN MIGUEL


Prk. Sampaguita, Brgy. Silangang Mayao
Lucena City
CP # 09289944307
e-mail : sanmiguel_matthew@yahoo.com

PERSONAL DATA:

Birthdate: August 2, 1994


Birthplace: Lucena City
Age: 21
Civil Status: Single
Name of Father: Rodelio A. San Miguel
Name of Mother: Sarah D. San Miguel
Citizenship: Filipino
Religion: Roman Catholic
Sex: Male
Language Spoken: Filipino, English

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND:

Tertiary: BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN CIVIL ENGINEERING


Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation

Secondary:
Name of School: Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation (BED)
Date Graduated: 2011

Primary:
Name of School: Magill Memorial Sch
Date Graduated: 2007

ORGANIZATION:
Name of Organization: Philippine Institute Of Civil Engineers
Position: President
Inclusive Dates: 2015-2016
LIBRARY INTEGRATED BUILDING 209

SKILLS:

Languages: English, Tagalog


Computer Literate and Proficient in Microsoft Office Applications
Basic knowledge in AutoCAD

TRAININGS/SEMINARS ATTENDED:

“Envergans Above and Beyond: Discovering the Different Faces of Leadership”


Held at Batis Aramin Resort And Hotel,
Lucban, Quezon Philippines
January 12, 2014

“Safe And Sound:An Engineering Checklist on Redefining Safety”


Held at NCAS Auditorium, UPLB
Los Banos, Philippines
February 7, 2015

“Bridging the Gap between Theoretical Studies and Applications in Civil


Engineering”
Held at Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation
Lucena City, Quezon Philippines
December 10, 2013

“National Civil Engineering Symposium”


Held at Villamor Hall, University of the Philippines - Dilima
Quezon City, Philippines
September 10, 2015

CHARACTER REFERENCES:

Engr. Ramela B. Ramirez


Professor – College of Engineering
Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation
Contact No. 09339276165

I hereby certify that the above information is true and correct to the best of my
knowledge and belief.

____________________________
Signature over printed name