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FABRICATION OF Al-SiC-TiO2 BY FUNCTIONAL

GRADIENT METHOD

A PROJECT REPORT

Submitted by

A.LIVINGSTONE (AC14UME076)
D.PATRICK PAUL DEEBARAJ (AC14UME111)
G.PAVIN KUMAR (AC14UME112)
M.PRAKASH (AC14UME118)

In partial fulfillment for the award of the degree


of
BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING
in
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

ADHIYAMAAN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, HOSUR


(Autonomous)
(Approved by AICTE, New Delhi, Accredited by NBA-AICTE, New Delhi
Accredited by NAAC-UGC, New Delhi with ‘A’ grade)

ANNA UNIVERSITY, CHENNAI 600 025


APRIL 2018

ANNA UNIVERSITY, CHENNAI 600 025

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BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

Certified that this Mini Project report title “FABRICATION OF Al-SiC-TiO2 BY


FUNCTIONAL GRADIENT METHOD” is the bonafide work
A.LIVINGSTONE, D.PATRICK PAUL DEEBARAJ, G.PAVIN KUMAR,
M.PRAKASH, who carried out the mini project under my supervision.

SIGNATURE SIGNATURE
Dr.CHANNANKAIAH M.E.,Ph.D., Mr.B.MADHU M.E,
PROFESSOR & HEAD, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR,
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering,
Adhiyamaan college of Engineering, Adhiyamaan college of Engineering,
Dr.M.G.R.Nagar, Dr.M.G.R.Nagar,
Hosur – 635109. Hosur – 635109.

Submitted for VIVA-VOCE examination held on ………..……….at Adhiyamaan


College of Engineering (Autonomous), Hosur.

INTERNAL EXAMINER EXTERNAL EXAMINAR

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

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First and foremost, our thanks are to the almighty, the great Architect of the
universe, who blessed us to successfully pursue our Bachelor of Engineering and to
successfully accomplish our project.

We would like to express our heart full thanks and our regards to
Dr.G.RANGANATH, M.E., Ph.D., Principal, Adhiyamaan College of
Engineering, Hosur for his endorsement of this project work.

We are proudly grateful in expressing our sincere thanks to


Dr.CHANNANKAIAH, M.E., Ph.D., Head of the Department, Mechanical
Engineering, for providing the facilities to carry out this project successfully.

We feel lated expressing deep and sincere thanks to our guide Mr.B.MADHU
M.E, Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, for his
continuous help regarding this project and sincere guidance.

We would also extend our thanks to other concerned staff of Department of


Mechanical Engineering for their involvement and help in carrying this project work
efficiently.

Last but not least, we express our deep gratitude to our parents and to our
friends for their encouragement and support.

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ABSTRACT
It is a manual paper cutting machine consists of two sections. One sections is
automatic paper feeding mechanism and the second section is conversion of rotary
motion into linear reciprocating motion of scissor. The first section consists of
Geneva wheel disk eyed with a shaft at one end and the other end is
connected with chain sprocket wheel. This Geneva wheel shaft is
supported on two plumber block bearings. This sprocket wheel transmit the
rotary motion from the Geneva wheel to the paper feeding rollers through a chain
drive. Hence when the Geneva wheel is rotated, the paper also moved for cutting
operation.
The Paper cutting process is a main part of the all industries. Normally the
Paper cutting machine is manually hand operated one for medium and small scale
industries. In our project is “PAPER CUTTING MACHINE USING GENEVA
MECHANISM”.
Automation in the modern world is inevitable. Any automatic machine aimed
at the economical use of man, machine, and material worth the most. In our project
Geneva mechanism is utilized for automated operation for both Paper feeding as
well as cutting tool operation.
The Paper cutting machine works with the help of roller feed which is
operated with the help of Geneva wheel. It is used to cut the small size of Paper. The
machine is portable in size, so easy transportable.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER TITLE PAGE NO


NO.
ABSTRACT
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF FIGURES
1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 OBJECTIVE
2 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 PROJECT DESCRIPTION
2.1.1 Working Principle
2.1.2 Material Selection
2.1.2.1 Frame
2.1.2.2 Roller
2.1.2.3 Chain Sprocket
2.1.2.4 Geneva Gear
2.2 LITERATURE STUDIED
3 FABRICATION
3.1 MATERIAL SELECTION
3.1.1 Measuring and Marking
3.1.2 Welding
3.2 Design Calculation
3.2.1 Geneva Gear Calculation
3.2.2 Chain Drive Calculation

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3.3 ADVANTAGES
3.4 APPLICATION
3.5 BUDGET AND BILL OF MATERIAL
3.6 COST ESTIMATION
4 CONCLUSION
4.1 REFERENCES

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LIST OF TABLES

TABLE NO. DESCRIPTIONS

1 Specification of sprocket
2 Budget and bill of material
3 Cost estimation

LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE No. TITLE


2.1 Frame
2.2 Chain drive
2.3 Roman chain link
2.4 First chain drives: Roman c200 AD
2.5 Roller chain
2.6 Geneva mechanism
2.7 Internal Geneva mechanism
3.1 Arc Welding

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LIST OF SYMBOLS

SYMBOL DESCRIPTION

Z Number of teeth
M Module of teeth
Mt Transmitted torque
D Diameter of the sprocket
Σ Induced bending stress
Ks Service factor
Pt Tangential force
Pc Centrifugal tension
Ps DFSagging tension
N Factor of safety
Q Breaking load
A Centre distance

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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

Traditional hand lever cutting machine6++- has drawback viz. it doesn’t


provide safety to operator. It is not user friendly as every time user has to adjust the
paper to desired cut position and hold the paper before taking cut. It is very time
consuming and tedious process to take a job with different cut size so such machine
also accuracy job taken on this machine depends on operators skills. To overcome
problems automatic paper cutting machine is designed, in order to reduce the time
for marking and cutting the papers. Geneva mechanism is commonly used indexing
mechanism where an intermittent motion is required.

The conventional Geneva mechanism is generally simple and inexpensive.


Because there is no special curved profile on any of the components except straight
lines and circular arcs. The paper cutting is done by crank and lever mechanism.
After cutting, the spring connected to the cutter will bring the cutter back to its
original position. The main purpose of this machine is to reduce time for marking
the papers. Hence, this machine is working fully based on timing.

It has got wide application area in books or notebook manufacturing industry,


visiting cards or labels manufacturing industry etc.

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1.1 OBJECTIVE
The objective of this project is to design and to fabricate the paper cutter
using Geneva Mechanism.

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CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

Literature survey is carried out to select suitable materials for the fabrication of paper
cutter using Geneva Mechanism. Various reference books and journals have been
referred and literatures were studied.

2.1 PROJECT DESCRIPTION

2.1.1 WORKING PRINCIPLE


In this project we propose the model Paper cutting machine which overcomes
the drawbacks of existing system. This project works on the principle of Geneva
mechanism. When the rotating sprocket activates the mechanism then the Paper gets
feed into the machine as well as the cutting tool which gets attached with the separate
cam as activated and the paper gets cut.
This project consists of one chain drive which is connected to a Geneva
mechanism. Driven plate is connected to the cam which conveys the Paper from the
sheet stock. The working principle is, when we rotate the hand lever it will turn the
pin which is attached to the driven plate. Driven plate is connected to the conveyor
which rolls the paper and spring acted knife cuts the paper. Driven plate consists of
four slots it maintains the time gap to cut the Paper.

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2.1.2 MATERIAL SELECTION
2.1.2.1 FRAME

The frame is made up of mild steel and is designed to support the Geneva gear
and the chain drive. The frame has four legs of height 80mm. The chain
drive,Geneva gear and the rollers are mounted on the frame.

FIGURE 2.1 FRAME

2.1.2.2 ROLLER

Rollers are used in the machine for the purpose of pulling the paper from the
paper roll by means of friction. The two rollers of equal diameters are placed parallel
between which the papers are pulled out from the paper roll. The rollers are welded
to the ball bearings to insist the rotary motion of the rollers.

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2.1.2.3 CHAIN SPROCKET
Chain drive:
Chain drives are a means of transmitting power like gears, shafts and belt
drives
Characteristics:
• High axial stiffness
• Low bending stiffness
• High efficiency
• Relatively cheap

FIGURE 2.2 CHAIN DRIVE

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SPECIFICATION OF SPROCKET:
MATERIAL High Carbon Steel
PITCH 12.7mm
WIDTH 30mm
TEETH 13
BALLS High Carbon High Chromium Steel
Balls

TABLE 1

Introduction of chain drive:

FIGURE 2.3 ROMAN CHAIN LINK

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FIGURE 2.4 FIRST CHAIN DRIVE
 Roman chain drives are used to lift the water.
 Hans Renold (Switzerland) 1880 – invented modern bush roller chain.

Bush roller chains:

A A

FIGURE 2.5 ROLLER CHAIN

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2.1.2.4 GENEVA MECHANISM

FIGURE 2.6 GENEVA MECHANISM

The Geneva drive is also commonly called a Maltese cross mechanism. The
Geneva mechanism translates a continuous rotation into an intermittent rotary
motion. The rotating drive wheel has a pin that reaches into a slot of the driven
wheel. The drive wheel also has a raised circular blocking disc that locks the driven
wheel in position between steps (Figure 1.3). There are three basic types of Geneva
motion mechanisms, namely external, internal and spherical. The spherical Geneva
mechanism is very rarely used. In the simplest form, the driven wheel has four slots
and hence for each rotation of the drive wheel it advances by one step of 90°. If the
driven wheel has n slots, it advances by 360°/n per full rotation of the drive wheel.

In an internal Geneva drive the axis of the drive wheel of the internal drive
are supported on only one side (Figure 2.7). The angle by which the drive wheel has

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to rotate to effect one step rotation of the driven wheel is always smaller than 180°
in an external Geneva drive and is always greater than 180° in an internal one. The
external form is the more common, as it can be built smaller and can withstand
higher mechanical stresses.

FIGURE 2.7 INTERNAL GENEVA MECHANISM

Because the driven wheel always under full control of the driver, impact is a
problem. It can be reduced by designing the pin in such a way that the pin picks up
the driven member as slowly as possible. Both the Geneva mechanisms can be used
for light and heavy duty applications. Generally, they are used in assembly
machines.

Intermittent linear motion from rotary motion can also be obtained using a
Geneva mechanism. This type of movement is basically required in packaging,
assembly operations, and stamping, embossing operations in manufacturing
automation.

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2.2 LITERATURE STUDIED

The design and analysis of paper cutting machine based on Geneva was
analyzed by Vijay et al, they presented a comparison of the position, velocity,
acceleration, and jerk between the classical Geneva wheel mechanism and the
proposed mechanism. This analysis presents a kinematic study of a mechanism
incorporating a Geneva wheel and a gear train to achieve intermittent motion and
was declared as a designated analysis and succeeded largely due to its positive
economic factors. The design and fabrication of paper cutting machine using Geneva
mechanism is useful to cut papers in equal and accurate dimension.

The analysis and synthesis of Geneva mechanism with elliptical crank has
been studied by Han Jiguang Yu Kang et al, it has been analyzed that for both
internal and external Geneva mechanism, the kinematics coefficient of the Geneva
mechanism is a constant if the groove number of the Geneva wheel is a constant.
The elliptic crank using as the drive crank of the Geneva wheel is equal to the
mechanism which has a variable length and a variable speed along the elliptical
moving crank. Therefore the kinematics coefficient of the Geneva mechanism can
be changed.

The analysis and modeling of Geneva mechanism was studied by Georgata


and Elena et al, the paper presents some aspects theoretical and practical based on
the finite element analysis and modeling of Geneva mechanism with four slots, using
the CATIA graphic program. This type of mechanism is an example of intermittent
gearing that translates a continuous rotation into an intermittent rotary motion. It
consists of alternate periods of motion and rest without reversing direction. Also it
gives some design parameters with specify a Geneva mechanism will be defined

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precisely such as number of driving cranks, number of slots, wheel diameter, pin
diameter, etc. Finite element analysis (FEA) can be used for creating a finite element
model (preprocessing). The paper focus on the modeling and finite element analysis
of Geneva mechanism with four slots. This technique has the ability to change the
shape of Geneva mechanism with changing any kinematic properties.
Hrones and Nelson et al, in their paper on Analysis of the Four-Bar Linkage
gives review that a 4-bar mechanism is a basic 1-DOF (degree of freedom)
mechanism. A 4-bar is created by selecting four link lengths and joining the links
with revolute joints to form a loop. A wide variety of paths are possible by arbitrarily
choosing a point on the coupler curve. These different curves can be obtained by
constructing a physical model of the mechanism and viewing the path of various
points without detailed mathematical analysis. In the Force analysis of the Geneva
wheel and face cam in automat,
Madhoo et al, driven the automat using single motor for different operations.
Here they focus on two main parts they are Geneva wheel and Face cam which are
used for their respective operations. Geneva Wheel is used to index the drum which
consists of 96 spindles. Due to this Geneva mechanism each of the spindles will hold
the ceramic body when the drum is being indexed. Due to which there is a force
which is generated in the Geneva wheel is in maximum and minimum position in
Cutting mechanism by giving feed through Geneva mechanism.

Kalisindhur et al, designed a mechanism for cutting by giving intermittent


feed. This intermittent feed is given by continuous rotation of circular disk in Geneva
mechanism. We have designed a belt drive with the help of Geneva mechanism
which is used for giving feed and gives smooth operation and smooth movement of
the feed at required time interval. The feed from the Geneva drive was cut by using
slotted lever mechanism which was designed using slider crank mechanism.
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CHAPTER 3
FABRICATION
3.1 MATERIAL SELECTION
The metal frame is generally made of mild steel bars for machining, suitable
for lightly stressed components including studs, bolts, gears and shafts. It can be
case-hardened to improve wear resistant. They are available in bright rounds,
squares and flats and hot rolled rounds.

Suitable machining allowances therefore be added when ordering. It does not


contain any additions for enhancing mechanical or machining properties. Bright
drawn mild steel is an improved quality material, free of sale, and has been cold
worked to size. It is produced to close dimensional tolerances. Straightness and
flatness are better than the black steel. It is more suitable for repetition precision
machining. Bright drawn steel has more consistent hardness, and increased tensile
strength. Bright steel can also be obtained in precision turned or ground formed if
desired.

3.1.1 MEASURING AND MARKING


The measuring and marking are carried out for the accuracy of the frame and
other components. By using a taper and marker the marking and measuring are done.
Measuring from point ''A'' to point ''B'' is a simple process, but your results still
depend on how accurately you are able to translate a measurement into a physical
mark on a piece of wood. If you've ever tried to hold a tape measure flat on a board
while you accurately mark off a measurement, you know that just getting a clearly
defined mark in exactly the right spot can be a surprising challenge.

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3.1.2 WELDING
Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials, usually
metals or thermoplastics, by causing fusion, which is distinct from lower
temperature metal-joining techniques such as brazing and soldering, which do not

FIGURE 3.1 WELDING


melt the base metal. In addition to melting the base metal, a filler material is typically
added to the joint to form a pool of molten material (the weld pool) that cools to
form a joint that is usually stronger than the base material. Pressure may also be used
in conjunction with heat, or by itself, to produce a weld. Although less common,
there are also solid state welding processes such as friction welding or shielded
active gas welding in which metal does not melt.
However, joining metals requires more than moving an electrode along a joint.
Metals at high temperatures tend to react chemically with elements in the air -
oxygen and nitrogen. When metal in the molten pool comes into contact with air,
oxides and nitrides form which destroy the strength and toughness of the weld joint.
Therefore, many arc-welding processes provide some means of covering the arc and
the molten pool with a protective shield of gas, vapor, or slag. This is called arc
shielding. This shielding prevents or minimizes contact of the molten metal with air.
Shielding also may improve the weld. An example is a granular flux, which actually
adds deoxidizers to the weld.

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3.2 DESIGN CALCULATION

3.2.1 DESIGN CALCULATION OF GENEVA GEAR

Center Distance
C=b/cos(180/n)
C=5/cos(180/4)
C=7cm

Driven crank radius


a=√c^2-b^2
a=√(7)^2-5^2
a=4.8cm

Slot center length


S=(a+b)-c
=(4.8+5)-7
S=2.8cm

Width
W=p+t
=0.3+0.4
W=0.7cm

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Stop Arc Radius
Y=a-(p×1.5)
=4.8-(0.3×1.5)
Y=4.35cm

Clearance Arc
V=bz/a
=10×6.59/4.8
V=6.5cm

3.2.2 DESIGN CALCULAITON OF CHAIN DRIVE

Transmission ratio, i=Z2/Z1 (From PSG DB 7.74)


From D.B, Z1=13, i=1, Z2=13

Center distance,
a=30x9.525 (From PSG DB 7.74)
a=286.5mm.

Breaking load (Q),


Where, Ks= Service Factor
v = Velocity
Q= Breaking Load (From PSG DB 7.74)
Ks=1, n=18 (From PSG DB 7.74) .
v= (25x18x9.52) / (60x1000)
v=0.0714m/s.
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N= Power
N = (Qxv)/(75xnxks)
N = (910x0.0717)/(75x18x1)
= 0.0481hp

Factor of safety

The Design is safe because the actual factor of safety is greater than the
allowed factor of safety in the PSG data book (7.77) Allowed FOS 7.5 <
Actual FOS 16.1
Factor of Safety, [n]=Q/(P) (FROM PSG DB)
[n]=910/55.2=16.1
P=Pt+Pc+Ps
Pt=(75xN)/v =(75x0.0481)/0.0714
Tangential force,Pt=50.5.
Pc=(Wv2)/g
Centrifugal Tension Pc =(0.41x(0.0714)2)/9.81
Pc=2.1x10-4
Ps=K x W x A
Sagging Tension Ps =40*0.41*0.2865
Ps=4.68
P=50.5+(2.1*10-4)+4.68
P=55.2

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Bearing Stress
The design is safe because the value of actual breaking load is greater than
the allowed breaking load (910) as mentioned in PSG DB(7.71) during the selection
of chain.
Q=(Nx75xnxKs)/v (FROM PSG DB)
Q=(0.0481x75x18x1)/0.0714
Q=909.4Kgf
• To find length,
l=lpxP Where,
lp=2ap+((z1+z2)/P)+(((z1-z2)/2x3.14)2/ap) l=length of chain
ap=a0/P=286.5/9.525=30 lp=length of continuous chain
lp=60+((25+50)/9.525)+((25/2x3.14)2/ap) ao=centre distance
lp=68.4mm
l=lpxP
l=651.5mm

Diameter of the Sprocket


Driven(Z2)
d2=P/(sin(180/z1))
d2=9.525/(sin(180/13))
d2=39.8mm
Driver(Z1)
d1=P/(sin(180/z2))
d1=9.525/(sin(180/13))
d1=39.8mm.

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3.3 ADVANTAGES
• Time saving machine.

• Maintain the accuracy.

• Less manual power.

• Reliable.

• Can vary the length of cutting.

3.4 APPLICAIONS

• It can able to use in paper cutting industries.

• It can able to use in paper crafting.

• It can be used in many small scale paper industries.

• It can be used to cut the color papers for designing.

• It can be used in stationary stores.

3.5 PROCESS PLANNING AND COST ESTIMATION


Sl No Item Quantity Price
1 Frame 1 300
2 Sprockets 2 400
3 Roller 2 300
4 Chain 1 200
5 Scissor 1 50
6 Spring 1 50
7 Geneva gear 1 500
TABLE 2
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3.6 COST ESTIMATION
Sl No Praticulars Cost
1 Material Cost 1800
2 Fabrication Cost 1500
3 Travelling Cost 300
4 Miscellaneous Cost 200
TOTAL 3800
TABLE 3

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CHAPTER 4
CONCLUSION

 This project work has provided us an excellent opportunity and


experience, to use our limited knowledge.

 We gained a lot of practical knowledge regarding, planning,


purchasing, assembling and machining while doing this project work.

 We feel that the project work is a good solution to bridge the gates
between institution and industries.

 We have completed the work with the limited time successfully. The
“GENEVA PAPER CUTTING MACHINE” is working with
satisfactory conditions.
 We are able to understand the difficulties in maintaining the tolerances
and also quality.
 We have done to our ability and skill making maximum use of available
facilities.
 In conclusion remarks of our project work, let us add a few more lines
about our impression project work.

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4.1 REFERENCES

1. C.Y.Cheng,Y.Lin, Improving dynamic performance of the Geneva


mechanism using non-linear spring elements, Mechanism and Machine
Theory 30(1995) 119–129.

2. E.A.Dijksman,Jerk-free Geneva wheel driving, Journal of Mechanisms 1


(1966) 235–283.

3. E.A.Fenton,Geneva mechanisms connected in series, ASME Journal of


Engineering for Industry 97 (1975) 603–608.

4. E.A.Sadek,J.L.Lloyd,M.R.Smith,A new design of Geneva drive to reduce


shock loading, Mechanism and Machine Theory 25(1990) 589–595.

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