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CHAPTEER ONE

INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study

The term ‘social media’ is quite often mentioned these days. It is a new phenomenon

and one would probably imagine that everyone knows or understands what it means.

Nearly ninety percent (if not more) of all online or internet users use social media in

one way or the other (Kietzmann and Kristopher, 2011; Dolwick, 2009). The

emergence of social media began in the early days of internet when people started

sharing information and communicating with one another (Boyd et al., 2010) but

unfortunately; the platforms used then were more ‘technology intensive’ and required

some level of expertise before use. Hence, the number of people using social media

platforms then was limited. Over a period of time as technology advanced, platforms

that are less sophisticated were developed thus, enabling billions of regular internet

users, without any technology background, to use the services (Boyd et al., 2010;

Baden et al, 2009) and this marked a turning point in the history of internet, making

the internet technology all inclusive in such a way that people no longer remain silent

spectators to the content being dished out to them. Now, they could create their own

content, share it with others, respond to people, collaborate with them and many more

(Andreas and Haenlein, 2010). This user interaction is what gave impetus to the

today’s increasingly emerging social media networks and sites.

Social media network sites such as, Facebook, Twitter, Likedin, Youtube, Google+,

etc now allow member individuals to interact with one another and to build

relationships even many companies across the world have joined but they joined only

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the fastest growing networks such as Facebook and Twitter, so as to connect with their

customers (Trattner and Kappe 2012). The social media networks act so fantastically

as the vehicle helping companies to gain traffic or attention to their own website

usually through the use of Links via the adverts they place on the social media

websites (Chinag and Chung, 2011; Deis and Hensel, 2010). It also acts just as the

traditional Word of Mouth in mainstream marketing does. Corporate messages

uploaded on the sites spread very fast from users to users and presumably resonate in

favour of the company (Deis and Hensel, 2010). In these regards, social media

networks, ever since 2008, have become the new 21st century paradigmatic market

medium for businesses to exploit (IMAP, 2010) and influence their customers’

purchasing behaviour more. This is because, globally, a survey report reveals that

about half of the 400 million active users of Facebook alone log on each day and

spend over 500 billion minutes per month on the same site. (Oracle Retail, 2010) and

sequel to this notion, virtually all businesses now employ social media networks as an

extension of their existing corporate marketing strategies especially the retail industry

in order to capture and serve customarily those active users with a broad range of

lifestyle brands of products across the universe. And in the light of this, many firms in

Nigeria also have started plunging into using these platforms. This current study thus

seeks to explore the patronage behaviour of Nigerian consumers via these growing

social media networks especially from those companies that utilize them for their

marketing activities.

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1.2 Statement of the Problem

The rapid adoption and evolution of social media networks across all countries of the

world today has spurred many businesses to devising strategies in order to invite

millions of active users of the networks to their product offerings usually on their own

websites. Nigeria is not exempted of this growing phenomenon. Many businesses in

the country now strive to replicate those online dealings and transaction patterns

which their counterpart abroad practice. An example of this is Amazon, the world’s

largest online retailer, selling a broad range of lifestyle brands of products to

customers at their doorsteps across many countries. In Nigeria, a good number of

similar online retailers such as Jumia, Konga, Dealdey, 3Stiches, Taafoo, Buyright.bz

etc have now emerged and some are still up coming. They also offer a broad range of

lifestyle product brands such as electronics, computers, phones, books, home

appliances, toys, etc. also at customers’ doorsteps but within Nigeria only.

Apart from the rising competition among the currently existing rivals, there seems to

be a daunting tendency that Nigerians would never dare transact business via the

internet with any unseen person who displays many attractive pictures of product

items, tagged with prices and might not physically exist anywhere but prompting

prospective buyers to pay upfront so that the items would be delivered at their

doorsteps anywhere in the country. This has always been a questionable issue as a

result of the pervasive menaces of Yahoo-Yahoo internet frauds and has shaped the

perception of many Nigerians toward being careful when operating on the internet

especially when it comes to their supply of certain personal information. Meanwhile,

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many of the Nigerian online retailers have provided sufficient rooms for any likely

doubt about the authenticity of their transaction via the social media networks with

any prospective customers by allowing them to pay for any product of their choice on

delivery. But still, other numerous problems proliferate thus, impeding against the

patronage tendencies of Nigerians.

Existing philosophies (theoretical perspectives) provide that there could be a service

quality gap usually in terms of the retailer’s understanding of what prospective

customers want, how they want it, as well as how to cater for them satisfactorily since

the genesis of the transaction through these growing social media network platforms is

done without any physical contact between the retailer and prospective consumers.

The retailers might lack the knowledge or understanding of what the prospective

customers specifically wanted or preferred either as a result of the disillusion in the

product information and attributes they uploaded or as a result of not constantly

updating information regarding the available product items. This was the experience

of an individual who bought a blouse for a friend from JUMIA from their e-store.

Some days later, JUMIA sent him a mail that the dress was out of stock and that he

should pick another one. This went on for weeks and he then noticed he would no

longer need the product item but there were issues regarding refund of his money.

According to the individual, “They kept telling me to reorder. It was frustrating but

after I did thrice, my item was delivered to me”. There could be many people

suffering from this type of encounter out there. Some of whom might lose both their

money and the product item they ordered. And this might affect their continued

patronage of the online retailers.

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Even where the prospective customers are served well – in terms of the understanding

and fulfilment of their needs, accessibility problem could hinder Nigerians from

patronising the online retailers. In Nigeria, there is a problem of poor internet network

everywhere and since this retail business via social media networks is online,

accessing the product categories in the mall of the retailer would be difficult. Similarly

the problem of poor or inadequate power supply could affect prospective consumers’

access to the online retailers’ mall. Meanwhile, the problem of bad road network also

in Nigeria could technically affect the patronage of many prospective buyers or

customers. For instance, the bad road network could make the retailer’s delivery

agents to spend more time on the road especially in traffic hence, causing delay as to

when the item is promptly needed. Subsequent orders may be impeded as result of

this. Still on the accessibility problem, the distance to cover before reaching the

customer may as well affect prospective consumer’s patronage if he/she considers that

the delivery agent would find it difficult to locate his/her village.

Finally, the patronage of these today emerging online retailers may be jeopardized

either by Nigerian consumers’ knowledge level of computer/internet or by their

awareness of the existence of online shopping opportunities which many of them

might not know could avail them the most ever convenient shopping experience than

travelling uncomfortably and unsafely through Nigerian roads to the market. While

there may be some other likely factors affecting the patronage of online retailers by

Nigerian consumers, it is therefore against the forgoing observations that this current

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study has been carried out so as to empirically obtain the impacts the social media

networks could have on the patronage of the online retailers by Nigerians who use the

media networks.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to harness the impact of social media networks on

consumer patronage of the products of online retailers who utilise them for

ecommerce purposes. The specific objectives however include:

i. To determine the perception of the consumers toward online shopping

ii. To ascertain the match between the online retailers’ understanding and fulfilment

of consumers wants through the use of social media networks for e-trading.

iii. To determine the extent to which Nigerians patronize the online retailers.

iv. To determine whether consumers’ patronage of the online retailers is a function of

their knowledge or awareness level of such online shopping opportunities

v. To examine the patronage level of consumers as a function of online retailers’

accessibility

vi. To assess the consumers’ patronage experience as a determinant of their

subsequent orders from the retailers

1.4 Research Questions

i. What is the perception of Nigerian consumers toward online shopping?

ii. What match is between online retailers’ understanding and fulfilment of

consumers’

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wants when using social media networks for e-trading in Nigeria?

iii. To what extent do Nigerian consumers patronize online retailers?

iv. How does consumers’ knowledge/awareness level of online shopping opportunity

functionally affect their patronage behaviour toward online retailers?

v. What effect does online retailers’ accessibility have on the patronage level of

Nigerian consumers?

vi. How does consumers’ patronage experience determine their subsequent orders

from the retailers?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

H01: There is no difference in the perception of Nigerian consumers toward online

shopping

H02: There is no match between online retailers’ understanding and fulfilment of

consumers’

wants when using social media networks for e-trading in Nigeria

H03: Nigerian consumers do not significantly patronize online retailers.

H04: Consumers’ knowledge/awareness level of online shopping opportunity does not

have any functional relationship with their patronage behaviour toward online

retailers.

H05: Online retailers’ accessibility does not have any effect on the patronage level of

Nigerian consumers.

H06: Consumers’ patronage experience does not determine their subsequent orders

from the retailers

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1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will be ubiquitously useful, particularly in educating and enlightening most

small and medium sized retailers in the Nigerian neighbourhoods, on how they can

plunge into this emerging opportunity of selling their products not only in their

locality but now to the entire world via social media networks. While this can

constitute an implication on the national economic development of Nigeria, the study

can also serve as a basis for planning, decision making and formulation of an

enriching competitive strategy for satisfying the teeming online consumers.

Meanwhile, marketing students in tertiary institutions are not exempted from the

beneficiaries of this study. It will not only broaden their understanding as per the new

development in retail business but help some of them who may wish to set up their

own business of buying and selling to tread through their career paths to reality. It

cannot be overlooked that the outcome of this study can be found useful as a basis for

any future similar studies but finally, the researcher of the study will benefit most.

This is because it will widen his knowledge as far as the use of social media networks

as an integrated marketing strategy is concerned and in Nigeria today, it seems this

area of marketing – eCommerce is not yet flooded. Hence, by exploring and

contributing to the body of knowledge of marketing with the outcome of this study, it

would earn the researcher a remarkable credit when the study becomes a reference

material for others.

1.7 Scope and Limitations of the Study

This study is scoped from two main angles: desk and field study areas. The desk study

part encompassed the review of literature with the aim of identifying lagging research

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areas which this current study seeks to bridge. The review of the literature also

included the theorizations for describing the processes involved in the use of social

media networks for achieving consumers’ patronage. In this case, the Service Quality

Gap Model which views consumers’ continued patronage from the Understanding

Gap and Fulfilling Gap perspectives was employed. Other aspects of the desk study

part of this current study included the conceptualisation of the term ‘social media

network’ by first conceptualising the terms ‘social’, ‘media’, and finally, ‘network’.

On the other part of this study which is the field research study part, only two most

popular participants in the industry of online retailing: JUMIA and KONGA in

Nigeria were used as the case study. As for online shopping consumers, these were

captured from Lagos and Enugu state only. These two groups of respondents were

captured only by the use of questionnaire as the data collection instrument.

Some factors that hindered this study from being carried out more elaborately than the

scope covered are however discussed here as follows:

Time

The available time duration for this study seemed to be very short. The researcher

could only carry out the study out in a miniature form. It ought to be extensively

carried out either by covering an entire geo-political zone in the country or by

covering the entire nation.

Financial and Human Resources

This was another limiting factor that prompted the study to remain as little as this. The

inadequacy of funds and competent research assistants jeopardized the wish of the

researcher regarding how extensive this study should have been.

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Technical Inefficiency

There was a felt technical incapacitation as regard the data collection method adopted

for this study. The online shopping consumers who also are active users of social

media networks ought to have been contacted through the use of an online survey

method in such a way that they would be persuaded to complete the when they are

attempting to log on or after they might have logged on to their social networks. This

can only be helped done by the management of the social media networks such as

Facebook, Twitter, Likedin, etc but how to contact them was the technical problem

suffered in this study.

1.8 Profile of JUMIA and KONGA

1.8.1 Jumia Nigeria Ltd

Jumia Nigeria is one of the today’s Nigerian one-stop online retail shops offering a

wide selection of products including Mobile Phones, Computers, Electronics, Home

Appliances, Toys, Books, Wears and many more but not limited to either Men only or

Women's Fashion, thus, bringing them right to customers’ doorstep. Jumia was

formerly owned by Rocket Internet who sold all its African holdings including

Kasuwa, an online electronic, gadgets and content store like Amazon, and Sabunta,

also an online clothing and fashion store, both to Millicom who then consolidated

both companies into Jumia. As a global company which has assets under supervision

of approximately $2.0 trillion and assets under management of about $1.3 trillion (as

of June 30, 2012), Jumia’s clients include institutions, retail investors and high-net

worth of individuals in every major market throughout the world. Jumia Nigeria also

offers a wide selection of styles and brands, 100% convenience with 24/7 online

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access from home or office, secure payment such as Bank Deposit/Online banking and

Cash on Delivery, exceptional customer care service, Fast next-day or two to five days

delivery and returns after 7 days and lots more. Jumia can be followed up on social

media like Facebook, Twitter, and Youtube.

1.8.2 Konga Nigeria Ltd

Konga Nigeria is also one of the today’s Nigerian one-stop online retail shops offering

a wide selection of products including Mobile Phones, Computers, Electronics, Home

Appliances, Toys, Books, Wears and many more just as Jumia, bringing them right to

customers’ doorstep. Konga is an indirect competitor to Jumia in four categories and

currently only delivers to Lagos. It also offers a wide selection of styles and brands,

100% convenience with 24/7 online access from home or office, secure payment such

as Bank Deposit/Online banking and Cash on Delivery, exceptional customer care

service, Fast next-day or two to three days delivery and lots more. Konga also can be

followed up on social media like Facebook, Twitter, and Youtube.

1.9 Definition of Terms

Social

This simply relates or refers to society (human society); how it is organized

particularly the way in which the people in the society relate, behave and interact with

one another. In this current study, the term ‘social’ however connotes the group or

society of Browsers. It refers to how they relate, interact and behave with one another.

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Media

The term ‘media’ is the plural of ‘medium’. It simply refers to the various means of

mass communication considered as whole in reaching the public or the masses. It

could be through television, radio, magazines, newspapers, mobile devices, internet,

etc. Here in this current study however, the term ‘media’ means or is used as the

various means through which the group of Browsers are reached in different parts of

the world.

Network

The term ‘network’ means an interconnection (via cable and/or wireless) of a group of

computers and peripherals which are capable of sharing software and hardware

resources between many users (Baden et al., 2009). Internet is an example of a global

network of networks. As a communication terminology, it, that is, network can be

referred to as a system that enables users of telephones, computers or data

communication lines to exchange information over long distances by connecting with

each other through a system of routers, servers, switches, and the likes (Dolwick,

2009). The Merriam-Webster dictionary however defines networking as the exchange

of information or services among individuals, groups, or institutions.

Social Media

The term ‘social media’ is any electronic medium of communication (such as Internet,

Websites or Mobile phones usually for social networking and blogging) through

which users (Browsers) create online communities to share information, ideas,

personal messages, and other content (like videos).

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Social Media Networks

This refers to the interconnection of the group of social media users (Browsers) across

the universe. Internet remains the network that is facilitating the interconnectivity.

There are however a numbers of social media networks connecting people into the

society of the users across the world. Some of which include; Facebook, Yahoo,

Google, Likedin, 2go, Baddoo, Whatsapp, Skype, YouTube, etc. Through all these

networks, users can blog, chat, relate with one another, exchange contacts, etc

Consumers

A consumer could be a person, group of persons or households who are final users of

a product and or services. The meaning of the term ‘consumer’ may vary significantly

by context but, a common definition is an individual who buys products or services

for personal use and not for manufacturing other product items or for resale. Here in

this study, the term ‘consumer’ is referred to as the group of individuals who order for

products from online retailers via the social media networks for personal use. They

expect the products ordered for to be delivered at their doorsteps.

Patronage

This term simply refers to the support or kindness offered in a condescending way. It

is, in the context of this study, used to mean the support of the consumers by regularly

purchasing goods from a particular firm.

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REFERENCES
Andreas, K., and Haenlein, M. (2010). Users of the World, Unite! The Challenges and
Opportunities of Social Media. Business Horizons 8(2): 44-67

Chiang, I. and Chung, H. (2011). Exploring the Impact of Blog Marketing on


Consumers. Social Behaviour and Personality. 39(9): 1245-1251.

Deis, M.H., and Hensel, K. (2010). Using Social Media to Increase Advertising and
Improve Marketing. Entrepreneurial Executives, 4(2): 87-93.

Haythornthwaite, C. (2005). Social Networks and Internet Connectivity Effects.


Information, Communication, & Society, 8(2), 125-147

Kietzmann, H.J., and Kristopher, H. (2011). Social Media? Get Serious!


Understanding the Functional Building Blocks of Social Media. Business
Horizon, 53(1); 61-64

Nigel, M., Graham, J., and Hodges, A. (20120. Social Media: A complete Guide. New
York: McGraw-Hill Inc.

Trattner, C., and Kappe. F. (2012). Social Stream Marketing on Facebook: A case
Study International Journal of Social and Humanistic Computing.

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CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 Introduction

This chapter is in three main parts: conceptualizations; theoretical framework; and

empirical reviews. The concept of social media network as well as other related

concepts were conceptualised under the first part. Existing theories on how social

media networks can form or help create holistic consumer patronage effect were

reviewed under the second section while existing related studies were empirically

reviewed in the third section. Gaps in the existing literature and studies which would

be filled through this current study were subsequently identified together with how

they would be bridged.

2.1 Conceptualizations

To conceptualize the terms ‘Social Media Network’ and ‘Consumer Patronage’ as

applicable to this current study, the various concepts or terms that make up these

principal concepts were first conceptualized so as to provide a basis for easy

understanding of the principal concepts.

2.1.1 Conceptualizing the Term ‘Social Media Network’

The term ‘Social Media Network’ consists of three terms: social, media and network.

The term ‘social’ ubiquitously refers to the characteristic of living organisms as

applied to populations of humans. It in short, always refers to the interaction among

humans and to their collective co-existence irrespective of whether they are aware of

interaction or not, and irrespective of whether the interaction is voluntary or

involuntary (Dolwick, 2009). Based on this definition, it can be inferred that the term
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‘social’ reflects the characteristic of a society which allows a group of people living in

the society to relate or interact together.

The term ‘media’ as the plural of ‘medium’, simply refers to the means of

communication, such as radio, television, newspapers, and magazines that reach or

influence people widely. BusinessDictionary.com corroborates this definition and

adds that it (media) is the communication channels through which news,

entertainment, education, data, or promotional messages are disseminated. Media

however includes every broadcasting and narrowcasting medium such as newspapers,

magazines, TV, radio, billboards, direct mail, telephone, fax, and internet.

As a computer terminology, the term ‘network’ means an interconnection (via cable

and/or wireless) of a group of computers and peripherals which are capable of sharing

software and hardware resources between many users (Baden et al., 2009). Internet is

an example of a global network of networks. As a communication terminology, it,

network can be referred to as a system that enables users of telephones or data

communication lines to exchange information over long distances by connecting with

each other through a system of routers, servers, switches, and the likes (Dolwick,

2009). The Merriam-Webster dictionary however defines networking as the exchange

of information or services among individuals, groups, or institutions; specifically: the

cultivation or enhancement of productive relationships for employment or business.

Meaning of Social Media

With the foregoing definitions, the term ‘Social Media’ can now be conceptualised.

Agichten et al., (2008) define it as a form of electronic communication (such as

Internet, Websites or Mobile phones usually for social networking and blogging)

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through which users create online communities to share information, ideas, personal

messages, and other content (like videos). Tang et al., (2012) also define social media

as the means of interactions among people through which they create, share, and

exchange information and ideas in virtual communities (computer-aid) and networks.

Social media however can meaningfully be regarded as a group of internet-based

applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of websites,

and that allows creation and exchange of user-generated content. Simply put, it

depends on mobile and web-based technologies to create highly interactive platforms

through which individuals and communities share, co-create, discuss, and modify

user-generated content. It introduces substantial and pervasive changes to

communication between organizations, communities and individuals (Kietzmann and

Kristopher, 2011). Social media differs from traditional/industrial media in many

aspects such as quality (Tang et al., (2012), reach, frequency, usability, immediacy

and permanence (Nigel, Graham and Hodges, 2012) all of which are enhanced by the

internet. There are many effects that stem from internet usage. As a result, according

to Nigel et al., (2012), many internet users would continue to spend more time with

social media sites than any other type of site.

Meaning of Social Network

From the meaning of ‘social’ and ‘network’ as given above, the term Social Network

can meaningfully be inferred as an internet-based services that allow individuals to (i)

construct a public or semi-public profile within a bounded system, (ii) articulate a list

of users with whom they share a connection, and (iii) view and traverse their list of

connections and those made by others within the system. The nature and nomenclature

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of these connections may vary from site to site. While the term "Social Network Site"

appears to have been widely employed to describe this emerging phenomenon

(Keitzmann and Kristopher, 2011; Tang et al., 2012; Baden et al., 2009), it also

appears in most public discourses, and the two terms: Social Network Site and Social

Networking Site seem to be often used interchangeably. Here in this study, the term

network suffixing ‘social media’ would be employed and not "networking" simply for

two reasons: emphasis and scope. "Networking" emphasizes relationship initiation,

often between strangers and while it may be possible on some sites, it might not be the

primary purpose of many of others, nor is it what differentiates them from other forms

of computer-mediated communication (CMC) (Dolwick, 2009).

Fig. 2.1: Social Network


Source: Dolwick, J.S. (2009). The ‘Social’ and Beyond: Introducing Actor Network journal of
Social Anthropology, 3 (2): 451-459.

What makes social network sites unique is not only that they allow individuals to meet

strangers, but rather that they enable users to articulate and make visible their social

networks. This can result in connections between individuals that would not otherwise

have been made, but that is often not the primary goal, and these meetings are
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frequently between "latent ties" (Haythornthwaite, 2005) who share some offline

connection. Meanwhile, on many of the large social network sites [SNSs], many

participants are not necessarily "networking" or looking to meet new people; instead,

they are primarily communicating with people who are already a part of their

extended social network (Keitzmann and Kristopher, 2011).

Social Media Networks Defined

To emphasize these articulated concepts [Social + Media + Network] as Social Media

Networks, a wide variety of technical features however constitutes their backbone an

consists of visible profiles that display an articulated list of Friends who are also users

of the system. Profiles are unique pages where one can "type oneself into being"

(Sundén, 2003, p. 3). After joining an SNS, an individual is asked to fill out forms

containing a series of questions. The profile is generated using the answers to these

questions, which typically include descriptors such as age, location, interests, and an

"about me" section. Most sites also encourage users to upload a profile photo. Some

sites allow users to enhance their profiles by adding multimedia content or modifying

their profile's look and feel. Others, such as Facebook, allow users to add modules

("Applications") that enhance their profile. The visibility of a profile varies by site and

according to user discretion. By default, profiles on Friendster and Tribe.net are

crawled by search engines, making them visible to anyone, regardless of whether or

not the viewer has an account. Alternatively, LinkedIn controls what a viewer may see

based on whether she or he has a paid account. Sites like MySpace allow users to

choose whether they want their profile to be public or "Friends only." Facebook takes

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a different approach—by default, users who are part of the same "network" can view

each other's profiles, unless a profile owner has decided to deny permission to those in

their network. Structural variations around visibility and access are one of the primary

ways that SNSs differentiate themselves from each other.

After joining a social network site, users are prompted to identify others in the system

with whom they have a relationship. The label for these relationships differs

depending on the site—popular terms include "Friends," "Contacts," and "Fans." Most

SNSs require bidirectional confirmation for Friendship, but some do not. These one-

directional ties are sometimes labeled as "Fans" or "Followers," but many sites call

these Friends as well. The term "Friends" can be misleading, because the connection

does not necessarily mean friendship in the everyday vernacular sense, and the

reasons people connect are varied (boyd, 2006a).

The public display of connections is a crucial component of the social media

networks. The Friends list contains links to each Friend's profile, enabling viewers to

traverse the network graph by clicking through the Friends lists. On most sites, the list

of Friends is visible to anyone who is permitted to view the profile, although there are

exceptions. For instance, some MySpace users have hacked their profiles to hide the

Friends display, and LinkedIn allows users to opt out of displaying their network.

Most SNSs also provide a mechanism for users to leave messages on their Friends'

profiles. This feature typically involves leaving "comments," although sites employ

various labels for this feature. In addition, social media networks often have a private

messaging feature similar to webmail. While both private messages and comments are

popular on most of the major social networks, they are not universally available.

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Facebook for example is available universally unlike 2go which seem to exist only in

African countries. Although, it is not all social network sites began as such. QQ

started as a Chinese instant messaging service, LunarStorm as a community site,

Cyworld as a Korean discussion forum tool, and Skyrock (formerly Skyblog) was a

French blogging service before adding SNS features. Classmates.com, a directory of

school affiliates launched in 1995, began supporting articulated lists of Friends after

SNSs became popular. AsianAvenue, MiGente, and BlackPlanet were early popular

ethnic community sites with limited Friends functionality before re-launching in 2005-

2006 with SNS features and structure.

Beyond profiles, Friends, comments, and private messaging, SNSs vary greatly in

their features and user base. Some have photo-sharing or video-sharing capabilities;

others have built-in blogging and instant messaging technology. There are mobile-

specific SNSs (e.g., Dodgeball), but some web-based SNSs also support limited

mobile interactions (e.g., Facebook, MySpace, and Cyworld). Many SNSs target

people from specific geographical regions or linguistic groups, although this does not

always determine the site's constituency. Orkut, for example, was launched in the

United States with an English-only interface, but Portuguese-speaking Brazilians

quickly became the dominant user group (Kopytoff, 2004). Some sites are designed

with specific ethnic, religious, sexual orientation, political, or other identity-driven

categories in mind. There are even social media network sites for dogs (Dogster) and

cats (Catster), although their owners must manage their profiles. While social media

networks are often designed to be widely accessible, many attract homogeneous

populations initially, so it is not uncommon to find groups using sites to segregate

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themselves by nationality, age, educational level, or other factors that typically

segment society (Hargittai, this issue), even if that was not the intention of the

designers.

Based on the foregoing, the term social media network however comprises the

network medium usually facilitated by the internet through people around the world

are connected to chat, interact, share contacts and photos, relate with one another, etc.

These media are platforms which many firms now increasingly exploit to showcase

their products and interested consumers or prospects then follow the firms up through

the links provided on the social media site.

2.1.2 Consumer Patronage Behaviour through Social Media Networks

Retailers are increasingly using internationalization strategy in order to enhance their

competitiveness, increase sales and make good profits. One of which is the today’s

proliferating usage of Social Media Networks. Since the 1990s, many retailers across

the world have been entering this enterprising marketplace and as a result, the rivalry

between domestic and foreign retailers becomes fiercer everyday (Anic and

Jovancevic, 2004). With the increasing expansion of these foreign retailers and shifts

in consumers’ attitudes and behaviour, domestic retailers feel stronger pressures to

make their competitive strategies more effective so that they can compete against the

foreign retailers who are already utilising social media networks to penetrate the

domestic retailers’ established markets. A good example of this in Nigeria is the

emerging competition among foreign online retailers like Amazon and domestic

counterparts like Jumia, Konga, Buyrite, Deealdey, etc. Strategic positioning has now

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become the critical issue for gaining both a sustained long-term growth and persistent

customers’ patronage. The key question now has been how these domestic retailers

can get Nigerian consumers to visit their online stores more frequently and buy more

merchandise on each visit. Since the success in retailing industry depends on

consumers, most domestic retailers are now also moving into social media which their

counterparts abroad exploit (Chaney and Gamble, 2008).

For consumers to patronize the domestic retailers, the study of Laroche et. al (2005)

suggests that a country’s image affects consumers’ product evaluation (attitudes to a

product) through their beliefs about the product’s attributes such as quality, reliability

and pricing. Attitude theory may explain how countries are seen in the mind of the

consumers, what beliefs and emotions towards a country they have, how this

information affects their reactions towards a country (Roth and Diamantopoulos,

2009). Attitudes are complex system comprising the persons’ beliefs about the object,

their feelings towards the object, and action tendencies with respect to the object. As

such they include cognitive, affective and conative aspects, and represent the way

people react to a stimulus. Consumers mentally process objective information about

the product or retailer and form an impression of the benefits they provide. They

express the preference or lack of preference for stores, brands and other marketing

stimuli by reflecting a favourable or unfavourable attitude, which might affect their

purchasing intention and purchases (Dmitrovic, Vida and Reardon, 2009). Many

studies have examined consumers’ attitudes towards domestic and foreign products

(Bhuian, 1997; Beaudoin, 1998; Dickerson, 1982; Wang and Heitmeyer, 2006), while

only a few studies explored the consumers’ evaluation of domestic and foreign

23
retailers (Hyllegard et al., 2005; Chaney and Gamble, 2008; Ilter, Aykol, Ozgen,

2009; Anic and Jovancevic, 2009). The results of those studies are inconsistent.

Although there is some indication that consumers have more positive attitudes

towards foreign products or retailers than domestic products or retailers (Strutton,

True, and Rody, 1995; Wang and Heitmeyer, 2006; Chaney and Gamble, 2008), other

research suggests that consumers perceive more favourably domestic products or

retailers than foreign products or retailers (Dickerson, 1982; Hyllegard et al., 2005).

Domestic retailers were shown to be better evaluated than foreign retailers on several

store attributes, including product quality, product assortment, pricing, structure and

store layout (Hyllegard et al., 2005). International retailer is likely to be rated higher

by consumers in its home country than consumers in its foreign subsidiaries (Burt and

Carralero-Encinas, 2000). In all therefore, by establishing online stores, a foreign

retailer might expect some resistance in terms of boycotts with consumers who are

more supportive to their domestic retailers (Zarkada- Fraser and Fraser, 2002) but in

Nigeria, the reverse might be the case simply because of the belief and attitude that an

average consumer has toward foreign made products or retailers.

2.2 Theoretical Framework

It is assumed that any business with high service quality will meet its customers’

needs and would remain economically competitive. Understanding and improving

operational processes; identifying problems quickly and systematically; establishing

valid and reliable service performance measures and measuring customer satisfaction

and other performance outcomes are all however assumed to be the foundational

24
factors for firms with high service quality. Where these mismatches with customers’

expectations, there would be a gap and can jeopardize the firm’s success or customers’

patronage. Therefore, to understand the processes involved in the use of social media

networks for the marketing and in influencing customers’ patronage behaviours

toward shopping via a company’s website or from the online social networks, the

Theory of Service Quality Gap Model propounded by Parasuraman, Zeithaml and

Berry (1985) has been considered appropriate. This model highlights the main

requirements for delivering high service quality. Customers generally have a tendency

to compare the service they 'experience' with the service they 'expect'. For example, if

a customer shops online from Jumia stores, he/she would have a predefined

expectation in terms of how he/she is to be treated or catered for; in terms of he/she

needs as ordered, etc. If the experience of this customer does not match the

expectation, there arises a gap. There are seven major potential gaps in this service

quality concept, which are shown in figure 2.2 below.

25
Word of Mouth Personal Needs Past
Communications Experience

Expected
Service

Gap 5

Perceived Services

Gap 6
Service Delivery
Gap 4 External Communications
(Including Pre & Post
to Customers
Contracts)

Gap 1 Gap 3

Employees’ Perception Translation of Perceptions


of Consumer into Service Quality
Expectations Specifications

Gap 2
Gap 7

Management Perception
of Consumer Expectations

Fig. 2.2: Service Quality Gap Model


Source: Luk and Layton (2002). Perception Gaps in Customer Expectations: Managers versus Service
Providers and Customers. The Service Industries Journal, 22(2) 109 – 128

Gap1: Customers’ expectations versus management perceptions: as a result of the

lack of a marketing research orientation, inadequate upward communication and too

many layers of management.

Gap2: Management perceptions versus service specifications: as a result of

inadequate commitment to service quality, a perception of unfeasibility, inadequate

task standardisation and an absence of goal setting.

26
Gap3: Service specifications versus service delivery: as a result of role ambiguity

and conflict, poor employee-job fit and poor technology-job fit, inappropriate

supervisory control systems, lack of perceived control and lack of teamwork.

Gap4: Service delivery versus external communication: as a result of inadequate

horizontal communications and propensity to over-promise.

Gap5: The discrepancy between customer expectations and their perceptions of

the service delivered: as a result of the influences exerted from the customer side and

the shortfalls (gaps) on the part of the service provider. In this case, customer

expectations are influenced by the extent of personal needs, word of mouth

recommendation and past service experiences.

Gap6: The discrepancy between customer expectations and employees’

perceptions: as a result

of the differences in the understanding of customer expectations by front-line service

providers.

Gap7: The discrepancy between employee’s perceptions and management

perceptions: as a result of the differences in the understanding of customer

expectations between managers and service providers.

These foregoing gaps can also occur in the online shopping by Nigerian consumers

from any of the today emerging online retail stores. Luk and Layton (2002) further

drew from Parasuraman et al., (1985) opinion that there many dimensions from which

consumers can view service quality. These include the following.

Dimensions of Service Quality

27
A customer's expectation of a particular service is determined by factors such as

recommendations, personal needs and past experiences. The expected service and the

perceived service sometimes may not be equal, thus leaving a gap. Ten determinants

that may influence the appearance of a gap were described by Parasuraman, Zeithaml

and Berry (1985).

Competence is the possession of the required skills and knowledge to perform the

service. For example, there may be competence in the knowledge and skill of contact

personnel, knowledge and skill of operational support personnel and research

capabilities of the organization.

Courtesy is the consideration for the customer's property and a clean and neat

appearance of contact personnel, manifesting as politeness, respect, and friendliness.

Credibility is the factors such as trustworthiness, belief and honesty. It involves

having the customer's best interests at prime position. It may be influenced by

company name, company reputation and the personal characteristics of the contact

personnel.

Security is the customer feeling free from danger, risk or doubt including physical

safety, financial security and confidentiality.

Access is approachability and ease of contact. For example, convenient office

operation hours and locations.

Communication means both informing customers in a language they are able to

understand and also listening to customers. A company may need to adjust its

language for the varying needs of its customers. Information might include for

28
example, explanation of the service and its cost, the relationship between services and

costs and assurances as to the way any problems are effectively managed.

Knowing the customer means making an effort to understand the customer's

individual needs, providing individualized attention, recognizing the customer when

they arrive and so on. This in turn helps in delighting the customers i.e. rising above

the expectations of the customer.

Tangibles are the physical evidence of the service, for instance, the appearance of the

physical facilities, tools and equipment used to provide the service; the appearance of

personnel and communication materials and the presence of other customers in the

service facility.

Reliability is the ability to perform the promised service in a dependable and accurate

manner. The service is performed correctly on the first occasion, the accounting is

correct, records are up to date and schedules are kept.

Responsiveness is to the readiness and willingness of employees to help customers in

providing prompt timely services, for example, mailing a transaction slip immediately

or setting up appointments quickly.

2.3 Empirical Reviews

Extant related studies on the impact of social media networks over consumer

patronage vary a lot both in approaches and the scopes covered. Anic and Vouk’s

(2005) study for example, was carried out on Exploring the Relationships between

Store Patronage Motives and Purchasing Outcomes for Major Shopping Trips in the

Croatian Grocery Retailing using survey research design method. These authors drew

29
from their perceived limited choice of stores which Croatian consumers had for their

grocery shopping trips before the beginning of the 1990s. And since then, a fast

expansion of supermarkets, hypermarkets, cash and carry stores and discounters have

been witnessed. Even with the entry of multinational retailers, and the continued shifts

in consumers’ attitudes and behaviour, the Croatian grocery retailers also have felt

ever stronger pressures to make their competitive strategies more effective, so that

they can increase their store traffic, enhance store loyalty and improve performance.

Although this current study, by using social media networks, centres on the

revolutionary improvement in the Retailing business environment which affects

consumers’ shopping behaviour, the main purport of Anic and Vouk’s (2005) study

was on the other hand meant to explore the relative importance of patronage motives

as individual values and factors, and link them with purchasing outcomes. Also, to

examine the relationship between consumers’ and managers’ view on store patronage

motives. The authors further conceptualize ‘store patronage motives’ as being “the

reasons for patronizing a store” – i.e. elements of a retailer’s merchandising mix that

are critical in customers’ patronage decision. Owing to the fact that, when designing

the retailing strategy, management first decides which store image to project to

selected market segment. Clearly, they need information not only about the target

market (consumers), but also on store attributes perceived by the market (consumers)

as important in store patronage decision (Osman, 2003). Several studies in this line of

thought have examined the question of how managers can understand consumer wants

(Understanding Gap) and the difference between consumer’s wants and retailer’s

delivery, i.e. Fulfilling Gap (Pathak, Crissy and Sweitzer, 2005; Nel, 2003). These

30
gaps are rooted in the service quality GAP model theory (Parasuraman, Zeithaml and

Berry, 1985). This theory rests on the notion that consumer perception of service

quality is influenced by a series of gaps that are occurring on the marketer’s side

associated with the design, marketing, and delivery of services. Little is known how

understanding and fulfilling gaps are related to retailers’ performance.

The findings of Anic and Vouk’s (2005) study however showed six (6) store

patronage motive factors with ‘shopping convenience’ being the most important factor

for generating store traffic. Four (4) shopper groups with significantly different

shopping behaviour were identified. Since retailers’ sales level is determined by store

traffic and not by the average spending per shopper, Anic and Vouk (2005)

recommended that retailers should focus on how to increase store traffic by offering

the best package of store attributes and loyalty programmes, targeting each shopper

group differently. Another existing related study which is also relevant to this current

work is the study of Tatt (2010) themed, Factors Influencing Consumer Buying

Behaviour of Luxury Branded Goods. This author also adopted survey research design

method by using questionnaire as the tool for data collection but premised the study

on the notion that consumer shopping behaviour is usually based on dollar value and

about acquiring needed goods and service whereas modern shoppers shop otherwise

particularly to reward themselves, to satisfy their psychological needs or to make

themselves feel good, show off their personality or to boost their self-esteem. In other

words, the purchased items have become an affirmation of the shoppers’ psyche.

While this line of thought is not far from Anic and Vouk’s (2005) patronage motive

study, Tatt (2010) however sought to specifically focus on how consumer buying

31
behaviour reacts with regards to luxury branded goods, and to understand whether

there is any interaction between the independent variables (Price, Perceived Quality,

Perceived Societal Status and Brand Loyalty) and moderating variable (Income) with

the dependent variable (Consumer Buying Behaviour). His findings revealed that

Perceived Social Status and Brand Loyalty are significantly related factors affecting

Consumer Buying Behaviour. Furthermore, Tatt’s (2005) findings indicated that

monthly Income does not moderate the interactions between the independent variable,

Brand Loyalty and the dependent variable, Consumer Buying Behaviour.

Vijayasarathy’s (2004) study is another existing related study but more related to this

current study than the foregoing reviewed ones especially because of the online

shopping scope it covered. The study was themed, “Predicting Consumer Intentions

to Use On-line Shopping: the Case for an Augment Technology Acceptance Model”.

Vijayasarathy (2004) draws from the context of explaining consumers’ intention to

use on-line shopping using Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) which was derived

from the theory of Reasoned Action. This theory focuses on two specific salient

beliefs — ‘ease of use’ and ‘usefulness’ and has been applied in the study of user

adoption of different technologies. The theory emerged as a reliable and robust model.

Besides the ‘ease of use’ and ‘usefulness’ constructs, Vijayasarathy (2004) offers

additional constructs in his quest for determining the increased predictive power of

online shopping. These constructs include: compatibility, privacy, security, normative

beliefs, and self- efficacy. A test of this model, with the data collected from 281

consumers, show support for seven of nine research hypotheses. Specifically,

compatibility, usefulness, ease of use, and security were found to be significant

32
predictors of consumers’ attitude towards on-line shopping, but privacy was not.

Furthermore, intention to use on-line shopping was strongly influenced by consumers’

attitude toward on-line shopping, normative beliefs, and self-efficacy. These entire

findings however show that there are indeed some strategic implications associated

with today’s increasingly used social media networks in retail marketing particularly

those ‘internet enhanced’ ones such as facebook, Youtube, Likedin, Yahoo, 2go,

Whatsapp, Baddoo, etc. Many retail organizations such as Amazon.com, Jumia.com,

Konga.com etc, now exploit them in order to serve their customers across different

parts of the world better. The increasing growth rate of the adoption of this new

phenomenon hence spurred Boyd and Ellison (2010) to qualitatively address the

definition, history and scholarly contributions to Social Network Sites.

2.4 Gaps in the Reviewed Literature

Academic researches that harness the profitable impact of the use of social media

networks in marketing practices seem to be very few let alone addressing its specific

impact on consumer patronage. Some existing closely related ones have been

empirically and conscientiously reviewed here. The existing gaps among them remain

the drive for this current study. One of which is that, there is no study to point or

address the perceptual construct of Nigerians at large toward the use of internet in

transacting business despite the menace of efraud (internet fraud) like Yahoo-yahoo.

While this has been observed as an important factor that may militate against

consumer patronage of the today emerging Nigerian online retailers, this current study

would empirically address the gap. Furthermore, ever since Jumia, Konga, Dealdey,

33
and many others have started operating like the popular Amazon (World class online

retailer), no study exists yet on the match or otherwise of the understanding and

fulfilment of consumers’ need despite that the processes involved in such commerce is

‘Online Booking or Buying and Doorstep Goods Delivery’. In addition, there is no

existing study yet to determine whether consumers’ patronage is a function of their

experience, spatial discrepancy or knowledge/awareness of the online shopping

especially in Nigeria. All these are areas of interest in this current study.

2.4 Summary of the Reviewed Literature

This chapter covered three essential areas: conceptualisations, theoretical frameworks,

and empirical reviews. In the conceptualisation part, the term ‘social media network’

was conceptualised by first defining the concepts such as; social, media, network,

social media and social networking before finally conceptualising the main term.

Social media network was conceptualised to mean those network media usually

facilitated by the internet through people around the world are connected to chat,

interact, share contacts and photos, relate with one another, etc. and are also

facilitating many firms to showcase their products. Interested consumers or prospects

however follow them up through the links provided on the social media site. In

addition to this, the patronage tendency of consumers via the social media networks

was conceptualised by critically harnessing the proliferating rate of adopting social

media networks as the internationalization strategy among both domestic and foreign

retailers usually because of the need to enhance their competitiveness, increase their

sales and make good profits, sequel to which the rivalry between the retailers becomes

34
fiercer everyday. Owing to need for the consumers to patronize the domestic retailers

like Nigerian online retailers, the study of Laroche et. al (2005) which suggests that a

country’s image affects consumers’ product evaluation (attitudes to a product) through

their beliefs about the product’s attributes such as quality, reliability and pricing, and

Attitude theory which explains how countries are seen in the mind of the consumers,

what beliefs and emotions towards a country they have, how this information affects

their reactions towards a country, were used to justify the stances of consumers in

patronising the retailers via social media networks. Originally, consumers mentally

process objective information about the product or retailer and form an impression of

the benefits they provide. They express the preference or lack of preference for stores,

brands and other marketing stimuli by reflecting a favourable or unfavourable attitude,

all of which might affect their purchasing intention and patronage.

As for the theoretical framework, the theory of Service Gap Model propounded by

Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry (1985) which was premised on the notion that

customers would generally have a tendency to compare the service they 'experience'

with the service they 'expect'. If the experience of this customer does not match the

expectation, there arises a gap. There are seven major potential gaps in this service

quality concept, which include: Customers’ expectations versus management

perceptions; Management perceptions versus service specifications; Service

specifications versus service delivery; Service delivery versus external

communication; The discrepancy between customer expectations and their perceptions

of the service delivered; The discrepancy between customer expectations and

employees’ perceptions; The discrepancy between employee’s perceptions and

35
management perceptions. Various dimensions of service quality include: Competence,

Courtesy, Credibility, Security, Communication, Information, Tangibles, Reliability,

and Responsiveness.

Of all the empirically reviewed studies, no one of them addresses the perceptual

construct of Nigerian consumers toward the use of internet in transacting business

despite the menace of efraud (internet fraud) like Yahoo-yahoo. While this might be

an important factor militating against consumer patronage, this current study

empirically covers this research area. Furthermore, ever since Jumia, Konga, Dealdey,

and many other online retailers have started operating in Nigeria like the popular

Amazon (World class online retailer), no study exists yet on the match or otherwise of

the understanding and fulfilment of consumers’ need despite that the processes

involved in such commerce is ‘Online Booking or Buying and Doorstep Goods

Delivery’. This present study looks critically into this research area also by studying

Jumia and Konga in terms of how their customers patronize via the use of social

media. In addition, there is no existing study yet to determine whether consumers’

patronage is a function of their experience, spatial discrepancy or

knowledge/awareness of the online shopping in Nigeria. This research area was also

covered in this study.

36
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39
CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.0 Introduction

This chapter discussed the methods employed in carrying out this study. These include

the design for the study that is the method for its logical enquiry, the determination of

an appropriately required sample size from the population, method for data collection,

data collection instrument, its validity and reliability, and finally, the method of data

analysis.

3.1 Research Design

A cross- sectional survey research design was employed for this study. The persuasive

impact of the marketing efforts of Nigerian online retailers via social media networks

could not be easily evaluated through any means other than the use of either

questionnaire or by interview survey.

3.2 Area of the Study

This study was carried out both in Enugu and Lagos states in Nigeria specifically, in

Education, Private and Public institutions. Enugu state is one of the oldest southeast

states in Nigeria created out of the old Anambra state. The capital of Enugu state is

Enugu also. It was created in August 27, 1991. It derived its name from the capital

city, ENUGU (top of the hill) which is regarded as the oldest urban area in the Igbo

speaking area of Southeast Nigeria. Lagos state on the other hand is also one of the

oldest southwest states in Nigeria. It is surrounded by an ocean through which the

Colonial masters came into Nigeria first, built their colony and settled in Lagos long

40
before Nigeria’s independence. The capital of Lagos state is Ikeja. Ikeja is the hub of

businesses in the state.

Since this current work was centred on the use of social media networks for arousing

consumers’ patronages toward most of the today’s Nigerian online retailers’ product

items, the study was however carried out across the Educational institutions

(specifically students whether postgraduate or undergraduate) in the states, as well as

in some selected private and public institutions.

3.3 Population of the Study

Two populations for this study consist of the members of Nigerian consumers and the

marketing staff of Jumia and Konga Nigeria Ltd. The United Nations Fund for

Population Activities (UNFPA) projected population figures for Enugu and Lagos

state using Nigeria’s 2006 National Population Census figure as basis were used for

this study Enugu and Lagos states were used as the population of the members of

Nigerian consumers which were used for this study. These include: Enugu state:

4,061,808; and Lagos state: 11,493,347 both as at 2013. The total population of these

consumers however is 15,555,155. On the other hand, the population of the marketing

staffs of Jumia and Konga Nigeria Ltd are 229 and 167 respectively. Summed up, this

gives 396.

3.4 Sample Size Determination

The required sample size for the survey conducted for this study was computed by

using Taro Yamane’s (1968) sample size determination formula. This was

mathematically computed using the

41
𝑁
𝑛=
1 + 𝑁(𝑒 2 )

Where

N is the population;

n is the required sample size

e is tolerable error margin in choosing the members of the sample

Therefore, at 95% confidence level such that 5% is the tolerable error margin, the required

sample size from the consumers was computed as thus:

15,555,155 15,555,155 15,555,155


𝑛= = =
1 + 15,555,155(0.052 ) 1 + 15,555,155(0.0025) 1 + 38,887.89

15,555,155
= = 399.99 ≈ 𝟒𝟎𝟎
38,888.89

Based on the above computation, the required sample size of Nigerian consumers for this

study is 400. These were collected from Enugu and Lagos state in the ratio of the population

of the state. These were further computed as thus using the formula;

𝑎
𝑘= x𝑛
𝑁

where

k = the specific number of sample to collect from each of the states;

a = the population of each state

N = the total population

n = the above computed sample size (i.e. 400)

For Enugu State:

4,061,808
𝑘= x 400 = 104.449 ≈ 104
15,555,155

For Lagos State:

11,493,347
𝑘= x 400 = 295.550819 ≈ 296
15,555,155

42
As for the required sample size of the marketing staffs of Jumia and Konga, this was also

computed by using the Taro Yamane’s formula at 95% confidence level such that 5% is the

tolerable error margin.

396 396 396 396


𝑛= 2
= = = = 198.99497 ≈ 𝟏𝟗𝟗
1 + 396(0.05 ) 1 + 396(0.0025) 1 + 0.99 1.99

Based on the above computation, the total number of marketing staff required as sample is

199. The number that was specifically obtained from each of Jumia and Konga were

computed as thus,

For Jumia:
229
𝑘= x 199 = 115.0782 ≈ 115
396

For Konga
167
𝑘= x 199 = 83.9217 ≈ 84
396

3.5 Sampling Technique

The sample sizes determined in 3.4 above were collected from their respective sources by

using Convenience Sampling Technique. Simple Random Sampling Technique should have

been considered appropriate but the researcher lacked an existing sampling frame for the

population members in Education, Private and Public institutions. The convenience sampling

technique however allowed the researcher to choose the required samples for the survey

conveniently using his own discretion but ensured unbiasedness in all ways.

3.6 Method of Data Collection

The data for this study was collected through the use of a structured questionnaire. This was

worded in two different forms: one to the Nigerian consumers who shop online while the

other one was directed at the marketing staffs of Jumia and Konga. The data were gathered

43
by the help of four (4) research assistants [three (3) in Lagos and one (1) other in Enugu

together with the researcher] who were slightly orientated on the central theme and the

pursuit of the study.

3.7 Validity and Reliability of the Data Collection Instrument

3.7.1 Validity of Instrument

A research instrument is said to be valid if it measures what it purports to measure (Elegbede,

2001). There are many ways this could be ascertained. This includes: face validity, content

validity, predictive validity etc. The researcher here in this study used both content validity

and face validity to find out if the research instrument is valid or not. The researcher did these

by giving out the research instrument to research experts and his research study supervisor

who helped in vetting the instrument before using it in the actual survey conducted. The

research experts ascertained the face validity of the instrument while the supervisor helped in

the aspect of content validity by correcting and putting straight some of the wordings of the

instrument.

3.7.2 Reliability of the Research Instrument

A research instrument is reliable if it reproducibly and consistently obtains the same or

closely related responses from the subjects (that is, the respondents) on whom it is

administered. Just as it is in the ascertainment of the validity of a research instrument

discussed in 3.7.1 above, there are also many ways in which the reliability of a research

instrument also could be measured, such as: Test-Retest, Split-half, Internal Consistency etc.

Here in this study, the researcher adopted the Internal Consistency method by using Cronbach

Alpha test in ascertaining the reliability of the pre-study responses collected through the

research instrument.

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Table 3.1: Reliability Statistics
Cronbach's Alpha Cronbach's Alpha N of Items
Based on
Standardized Items
.97 .960 20
Source: SPSS version 17.0

Table 3.1 above presents the reliability test result from SPSS version 17.0 for the internal
consistency of the items on the data collection instrument using the pre – study survey
responses. With the 0.60 Alpha Coefficient, it can be deduced that the data collection
instrument is reliable.
3.8 Methods of Data Analysis
Both descriptive and inferential statistical analytical methods were employed in this study.
The descriptive methods include the use tables, frequencies, charts (Bar and Pie Charts), and
percentages in analysing the responses obtained from the opinion survey while the inferential
statistical method include the use of appropriate Test of Significance methods in the
following order of the hypotheses set for this study.
Hypothesis One
One Way Classified Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used for testing this hypothesis.
The justification for choosing this method and not Independent Sample T-test which is an
alternative to this method is because ANOVA statistically helps in addressing or testing the
differences among three or more sample whereas, the Independent Sample T-test can only
help to test the difference between two samples only. As for the hypothesis, the researcher
sought to know whether there is a difference in the perception of consumers (in Education,
Private and Public Institutions) towards online shopping.
Decision Rule
Reject H0 if |p < 0.05| given the value of F computed. Otherwise, accept it.

Hypothesis Two
Hypothesis two sought to ascertain the match between the online retailers’ understanding and
the fulfilment of consumers wants through the use of social media networks for e-trading. To
test this hypothesis, Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation [PPMC] was used. This method
helped to check the strength of relationship (i.e. the match) between the understanding and
the fulfilment of consumers wants.

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Decision Rule
Reject H0 if |p < 0.05| given the value of PPMC (𝜸) computed. Otherwise, accept it.

Hypothesis Three
Hypothesis three sought to determine the extent to which Nigerian consumers patronize the
online retailers and to test this, chi-square (𝜒 2 ) was used.
Decision Rule
Reject H0 if |p < 0.05| given the value of chi-square (𝜒 2 ) computed. Otherwise, accept it.

Hypotheses Four, Five and Six


Simple Linear Regression was used to test hypotheses four, five and six respectively. A
model was developed for each of these hypotheses. In each model, the dependent and
independent variables as contained in the hypotheses were stated. They include:

𝑌1 = 𝛼 + 𝛽1 𝑋1 +. … + 𝑈1 ......................eq 1
𝑌2 = 𝛼 + 𝛽2 𝑋2 +. … + 𝑈2 ......................eq 2
𝑌3 = 𝛼 + 𝛽3 𝑋3 +. … + 𝑈3 ......................eq 3

Where
Equation 1 stands for hypothesis four, equation 2 for hypothesis five and equation 3 for
hypothesis six. 𝑌1 , 𝑌2 and 𝑌3 stand for consumers patronage behaviour in terms of their level
of patronage and their patronage experiences. Furthermore, 𝛼 in each of the equations above
stands for y-intercept value of the models [i.e. the consumers patronage behaviour when or
where all other factors remain constant] while 𝛽1, 𝛽2 and 𝛽3 stand as the predictors of the
independent variables 𝑋1 , 𝑋2 and 𝑋3. 𝑋1 stands for consumers’ knowledge or awareness level
of online shopping opportunities; 𝑋2 stands for online retailers’ accessibility; while 𝑋3 stands
for consumers’ subsequent orders.
Decision Rule
In each of the hypotheses, reject H0 where |p < 0.05| given the computed value of the
coefficient 𝛽 for each model.

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REFERENCES
Elegbede, A.O. (2001). Statistics for Social Sciences. Ibadan: Ollason Publishing Co. Ltd.,
p.72
Taro, Y. (1967). Elementary Sampling Theory. New Jersey:Prentice-Hall, Inc.,
Englewood Cliffs.

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