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ME 6604- GAS DYNAMICS AND JET PROPULSION PPGIT-35

ME6604 GAS DYNAMICS AND JET PROPULSION LTPC 3003


OBJECTIVES:
□ To understand the basic difference between incompressible and compressible flow.
□ To understand the phenomenon of shock waves and its effect on flow. To gain some basic
knowledge about jet propulsion and Rocket Propulsion.
(Use of Standard Gas Tables permitted)
UNIT I BASIC CONCEPTS AND ISENTROPIC FLOWS 6
Energy and momentum equations of compressible fluid flows – Stagnation states, Mach waves and
Mach cone – Effect of Mach number on compressibility – Isentropic flow through variable ducts –
Nozzle and Diffusers
UNIT II FLOW THROUGH DUCTS 9
Flows through constant area ducts with heat transfer (Rayleigh flow) and Friction (Fanno flow) –
variation of flow properties.
UNIT III NORMAL AND OBLIQUE SHOCKS 10
Governing equations – Variation of flow parameters across the normal and oblique shocks – Prandtl
–Meyer relations – Applications.
UNIT IV JET PROPULSION 10
Theory of jet propulsion – Thrust equation – Thrust power and propulsive efficiency – Operating
principle, cycle analysis and use of stagnation state performance of ram jet, turbojet, turbofan and
turbo prop engines.
UNIT V SPACE PROPULSION 10
Types of rocket engines – Propellants-feeding systems – Ignition and combustion – Theory of rocket
propulsion – Performance study – Staging – Terminal and characteristic velocity – Applications –
space flights.
TOTAL: 45 PERIODS
OUTCOMES:
□ Upon completion of this course, the students can able to successfully apply gas dynamics
principles in the Jet and Space Propulsion
TEXT BOOKS:
1. Anderson, J.D., "Modern Compressible flow", 3rd Edition, McGraw Hill, 2003.
2. Yahya, S.M. "Fundamentals of Compressible Flow", New Age International (P) Limited, New
Delhi, 1996.
REFERENCES:
1. Hill. P. and C. Peterson, "Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Propulsion", Addison – Wesley
Publishing company, 1992.
2. Zucrow. N.J., "Aircraft and Missile Propulsion", Vol.1 & II, John Wiley, 1975.
3. Zucrow. N.J., "Principles of Jet Propulsion and Gas Turbines", John Wiley, New York, 1970.
4. Sutton. G.P., "Rocket Propulsion Elements", John wiley, New York,1986,.
5. Shapiro. A.H.," Dynamics and Thermodynamics of Compressible fluid Flow", John wiley, New
York, 1953.
6. Ganesan. V., "Gas Turbines", Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co., New Delhi, 1999.
7. Somasundaram. PR.S.L., "Gas Dynamics and Jet Propulsions", New Age International
Publishers, 1996.
8. Babu. V., "Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics", ANE Books India, 2008.
9. Cohen. H., G.E.C. Rogers and Saravanamutto, "Gas Turbine Theory", Longman Group Ltd.,1980.
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 1
ME 6604- GAS DYNAMICS AND JET PROPULSION PPGIT-35
UNIT 1

BASIC CONCEPTS AND ISENTROPIC FLOWS

2 MARKS:

1.Write the steady flow energy equation for an adiabatic flow of air

2. Define Mach number?


The Mach number is an index of the ratio between inertia force and elastic force.
M ² = Inertia force ⁄ Elastic force
It is also defined as the ratio of the fluid velocity (c) to the velocity of sound (a).
M = c/a

3. Define the terms Nozzles and Diffuser

Nozzle: It is a device which is used to increase the velocity and decrease the pressure of fluids.
Diffuser: It is a device which is used to increase the pressure and decrease the velocity of fluids

4. What is meant by stagnation state with example?


The state of a fluid attained by isentropically decelerating it to zero velocity at zero elevation
is referred as stagnation state.
(e.g.) Fluid in a reservoir (or) in a settling chamber.

5. State the difference between compressible fluid and incompressible fluid?


Compressible flow is that type of flow in which the density of the fluid changes from point
to point, i.e., density is not constant for the fluid.
Examples: Gases, vapour
Incompressible flow is that type of flow in which the density of the fluid remains constant.
Examples: Liquids

6. Define Mach cone and Mach angle


Mach cone: Tangents drawn from the source point on the spheres define a conical surface
referred to as Mach cone.
Mach angle: The angle between the Mach line and the direction of motion of the body
(flow direction) is known as Mach angle

7. What is chocked flow through a nozzle?


The mass flow rate of nozzle is increased by decreasing the back pressure. The maximum
mass flow conditions are reached when the throat pressure ratio achieves critical value. After
that there is no further increase in mass flow with decrease in back pressure .This condition is
called chocking. At chocking condition M=1.

8. Write down the relationship between stagnation and static temperature in terms of the flow,
Mach number for the case of isentropic flow.

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 2


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