1 views

Original Title: Control Charts

Uploaded by Senthil Kumar

- A-A-208B
- 6-CONTROL CHART.pdf
- Taped Lecture 9_TQM
- quality control.docx
- TQM_Unit03
- Getting Started with SPC for Excel_V6.pdf
- Chapter_3 SQC
- wecdfgvrtbhynjumik
- iasj_2
- Article Statistical Proceess Control.pdf
- Attendance 5
- Quality Mgmt Control 17
- Group6_Group Work Part B_SecQ
- Green Belt Certification Process 09
- Breakthrough Strategy
- Multiple Regression Analysis _ Real Statistics Using Excel.pdf
- Six Sigma - I
- Errata Sheet
- PM Questions
- 164401-3838-IJET-IJENS.pdf

You are on page 1of 9

It is a process control tool to know whether the process is under statistical control or not.

Control charts, also known as Shewhart charts (after Walter A. Shewhart) or process-behavior

charts, are a statistical process control tool used to determine if a manufacturing or business process

is in a state of control.

Control Charts for Variables:

Often contains decimals (.006, 8.9, 74.05)

Various advantages of control charts for variables are as follows:

(1) Control charts warn in time, if required rectification is done, well in time the scrap and

percentage rejection can be reduced.

(2) Thus ensures product quality level.

(3) A control chart indicates whether the process is in control or out of control thus

information about the selection of process and tolerance limits are provided.

(5) The control charts separate out the chance and assignable causes of variations in the

observation thus substantial quality improvement is possible.

(6) Determines process variability that and detects unusual variations taking place. So

reputation of the concern/firm can be built by application of these charts.

(1) To establish whether the process is in statistical control and in which case the variability

is attributable to chance. The variability that is inherent in the process cannot be removed,

unless there is a change in the basic conditions under which the production system/process is

operating.

(2) It guides the production engineer in determining whether the process capability is

compatible with the design specifications.

3) To detect the trend of the observations for further planning, adjustment and resetting tools.

(4) To get prior information regarding the process, if that is likely to go out to control.

These charts are drawn as follows:

Step-1:

A number of samples of components coming out of the process are taken over a period of

time, each sample consisting of a number units n (n is usually 4 or 5 units or some times

more). The quality measurements x1, x2, x3 ………..xn are taken.

Step-2:

For each sample the average value x of all the measurements and the range R (i.e., the

difference between the highest and the lowest readings) are calculated.

Step-3:

After calculating x and R the control limits of the X and R charts are calculated as follows

with UCL and LCL as abbreviation for upper control limit and lower control limits.

where the factors A1, D2 and D3 depend on the number of items per sample and the larger this

number, the closer the limits. Table 9.1 gives values for these factors for various sample

sizes. As long as the X and R values for each sample are within the control limits the process

is said to be in statistical control.

Control Charts for Attributes:

These charts are used to achieve and maintain an acceptable quality level for a process whose

output products are not subjected to dimensional or quantitative measurement but can be

classified as good or bad or acceptable and non-acceptable, for example surface finish of a

product brightness of an item is either acceptable or not acceptable.

is required that is sometimes difficult as well as uneconomical.

There is another way of inspection also i.e., inspection by attributes. In this method actual

measurements are not done, instead the number of faults or defectives are counted. The size

of the defect and its location are not so important.

We can also say that the products are inspected the same way as by ‘Go’ and ‘Not Go’

gauges? The products are either accepted or rejected and their actual dimensions are not

measured for example 100 fan blades are inspected out of which 12 are found to be defective

so those 12 pieces are rejected.

The four most commonly used control charts for attributes are:

(1) Control charts from fraction defectives (p-charts)

Let samples of size n be taken randomly from the production process or output at different

time intervals. If d is the number of defectives in a sample, then the fraction defective in the

sample.

d = n.p

If p̅ is the proportion of defectives produced by the entire processing or the average fraction

defective and it is given by

p̅ = Total number of defective items in all the samples inspected/Total number of items in all

samples.

The p-chart is based on binomial distribution. The binomial distribution has the standard

deviation σp which is given by the relation.

Since the number of defective products cannot be negative if LCL sometimes comes out to be

negative, it is taken as zero, p-chart is used to plot and control fraction defectives when the

sample size remains uniform or it varies.

Using the same notations as in p-chart the standard deviation and control limits of np-

chart are as follows:

(3) Control Charts for Percent Defective (100 p-chart):

Using the same notation as in p, np charts, the standard deviation and control limits are

as follows:

Applicability of P-Charts:

(i) np or Number of defective chart is used where group size or sample size i.e. n is constant.

(ii) p-chart of fraction defective chart and 100 p or percent defective charts can be used where

sample size is variable or constant.

x̅ – R-Charts:

P-Charts:

4. There is less effect of the sample size over control limits.

5. Same P-chart may be applied to any number of quality characteristics on one item under

inspection.

rejections.

convenient to work with number of defects per unit rather than with fraction defective. The r-

chart is used for the control of the number of defects observed per unit.

The difference between p-chart and the r-chart is that the former takes into account the

number of items found defective in a given sample size (each defective item may have one or

more defects in it) while the latter records the number of defects found in a given sample size.

Although the application of c-chart is somewhat limited, compared with p-chart, there are

instances in industry where it is very useful e.g. in the control of number of defects in a bus

body, an aircraft a T.V. set, a computer, welding defect in a truss etc.

The construction of the control chart is similar to that of the p-chart except that here the

control limits are based on the Poisson distribution which has often been found fit to describe

distribution of defects.

- A-A-208BUploaded byRohit Anand
- 6-CONTROL CHART.pdfUploaded byAdinda Ondrio
- Taped Lecture 9_TQMUploaded bymohimran2002
- quality control.docxUploaded byshobhana
- TQM_Unit03Uploaded byreeteshhind
- Getting Started with SPC for Excel_V6.pdfUploaded byEdgar Agustin Barron Zamora
- Chapter_3 SQCUploaded byBoon Charisma Leo
- wecdfgvrtbhynjumikUploaded byRoberto C. S. Pedroga
- iasj_2Uploaded byDr alla talal yassin
- Article Statistical Proceess Control.pdfUploaded byayane_sendo
- Attendance 5Uploaded byayush
- Quality Mgmt Control 17Uploaded byraj
- Group6_Group Work Part B_SecQUploaded bySatyajeet Senapati
- Green Belt Certification Process 09Uploaded byJodi Goodrich
- Breakthrough StrategyUploaded byanjo0225
- Multiple Regression Analysis _ Real Statistics Using Excel.pdfUploaded byPuja Singh
- Six Sigma - IUploaded byNitin Patel
- Errata SheetUploaded byapi-3696796
- PM QuestionsUploaded bymohitranjan90
- 164401-3838-IJET-IJENS.pdfUploaded byAshroof Abdo
- Common and Special Causes of VariationUploaded byshrikant07
- Vw-qms Supplier AgreementUploaded bySuraj Rawat
- naivebayescon...Uploaded byAllwine Hutabarat
- AMR Group6 SectionA FinalUploaded byEr Akash Solanki
- Continual Improvement Manager in Iowa City IA Resume Ronald BehrensUploaded byRonaldBehrens
- Case Study RelianceUploaded bylovey
- StatisticianUploaded bydenciopo
- PMI-001-sUploaded byShrija Devendran
- cd_rom_7_westgard_multirule_systemUploaded byMaman Pariman
- critical path simulation using traingular distributionUploaded byHemantKumar

- MG1301- Lesson PlanUploaded bySenthil Kumar
- Agency Registration in Pf MsUploaded bySenthil Kumar
- Bench MarkingUploaded bySenthil Kumar
- Tnpsc Examcentre TemplateUploaded bySenthil Kumar
- Staff Data Format-1Uploaded bySenthil Kumar
- மட்டன் மிளகு தொக்குUploaded bySenthil Kumar
- Mathematics CalculusUploaded byuditagarwal1997
- Benchmark in 1Uploaded bySenthil Kumar
- GE6757-TQM-QBUploaded bySenthil Kumar
- Lesson Plan -MG6851-POMUploaded bySenthil Kumar
- TNPSC Form1-10Uploaded bySenthil Kumar
- பெப்பர் சிக்கன்Uploaded bySenthil Kumar
- CHE MODELUploaded bySenthil Kumar
- Digital Flame PhotometerUploaded bySenthil Kumar
- Gilligan TheoryUploaded bySenthil Kumar
- 01.CivilUploaded byNiranjan
- Mg2451 Engineering Economics and Cost Analysis Questions and AnswersUploaded bySenthil Kumar
- GE2025 Professional Ethics in EngineeringUploaded bySenthil Kumar
- Training and Development.docxUploaded bySenthil Kumar
- Training and Development.docxUploaded bySenthil Kumar
- NBA-SAR-CSE.pdfUploaded byJEEVA
- Staff Data Format-AUCUploaded bySenthil Kumar
- CS6301may16Uploaded bySenthil Kumar
- 08. MechanicalUploaded bykannanviknesh086319
- Mech VIII Sem CurriculumUploaded bySenthil Kumar
- UGC Student Affidavit Registration PageUploaded bySenthil Kumar
- வடித்த சாதம்Uploaded bySenthil Kumar
- SAR.pdfUploaded bykaustubh2008satpute
- Bhopal LeeUploaded byJR Deviente

- CaseUploaded bylokeshwarsinha
- Programming in c#Uploaded byAshik
- CLARKSBURG Clarksburg Town Center Plan of Compliance Design ConceptsUploaded byM-NCPPC
- Hastings FBI WmUploaded byKy Henderson
- ADB's Environmental SafeguardsUploaded byIndependent Evaluation at Asian Development Bank
- Steps to Complete Before Going to US F1 VISA InterviewUploaded bySujay Ramachandra
- Sect 8 - 2 D Glide Materials Overview Page 2 OnlyUploaded byReyyan Khalid
- SSITM Newsletter - "Lakshya" - July-Sept11Uploaded bySaket Jeswani
- Cutler Hammer panelUploaded bysumit4u13
- INTERMAR: intercomprehension at seaUploaded byErik Hemming
- SuffixesUploaded bymalupeng
- Guide Book.pdfUploaded byrasyid
- Role Play DmUploaded byAryani DwiRagupti Yuwono
- (Ebook) Martial Arts - Essence Of Surprise Attack - Cobb.pdfUploaded byJoãoTorres
- Tutorial 4.pdfUploaded byAmey
- ConvertXtoDVD v4 ManualUploaded bybartmanhi
- CIWEM HK Annual Conference 2012 2nd AnnouncementUploaded bybusterwong9958
- Lab Report #2 10 SchnittmanUploaded byncdesai91
- Brocade SAN Trends 2016Uploaded byneochiu
- 2018 Answer KeyUploaded byAkshay Pratap Singh Shekhawat
- malhotra13_tif.docUploaded byIsabella Mehnaz
- Magix Movie Edit Pro 2013Uploaded byRobert Kristiano
- Clay Brick vs Concrete Brick.Uploaded byJessica Sanders
- Link Planner User Guide v4.6.3Uploaded bynayzifumi
- Introduction to Steelmaking July 2013Uploaded byKhairol Anuar Mohammed
- EN010 302 Economics and Communication Skills(8)Uploaded byAby Panthalanickal
- CorporateProfile EnglishUploaded bylinze8415
- T8 B1 FAA Command Center Jim Ratkus Fdr- 4-5-04 MFR 714Uploaded by9/11 Document Archive
- GPS_WB_PTP_500_SSUploaded byAdvantec Srl
- GENEX Probe User Guide-(V200R003_04)Uploaded byMilovan Borjanic