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INTERNSHIP REPORT

2010 E.C

DECLARATION

I want to declare that this internship report is the internship report which I was prepared myself during my internship time in Addis pharmaceutical factory in 2010 E.C. I was justified here by my signature that this technical report is not copied from another report but it is my effort that worked out during my internship duration.

Date

Supervisor:

____________

signature: _____

Mentor:

signature: ______

_______________

Student:

signature: ______

_______________

INTERNSHIP REPORT 2010 E.C DECLARATION I want to declare that this internship report is the internship

INTERNSHIP REPORT

2010 E.C

PREFACE

This internship report contains the work done during my internship time for four months from October till January which I did in Addis pharmaceutical factory in Ethiopia, Eastern Tigray, Adigrat town under the monitor of Mr. Yemane and Mr. Brhane. As introduction of this document the accurate history of the company was explained and following to this all the experience which I have gained during the internship was included in this report.

INTERNSHIP REPORT 2010 E.C PREFACE This internship report contains the work done during my internship time

INTERNSHIP REPORT

2010 E.C

AKNOWELEDGEMENT

Even if I have not power, I would like to thanks for my God who give me not told gift in all circumstance.

Next whatever activity can not accomplish alone in desired manner, so I would like to forward my deepest thanks to all the electrical engineers’ who works in Addis pharmaceutical factory for their uninterrupted willingness to help me what I want regard to the practical skill. Here again I would like to thanks to all Addis pharmaceutical factory workers for their willingness that showed me the working principle of some machines in the place where they intended to operate. Finally, I fill happiness when I throw my heart thanks to the department of electrical and computer engineering for their activity that attached me to the industrial linkage to improve my practical knowledge. At the end I would like to thanks to my Advisor Marshet (Ms.c in electrical power engineering) who guided me and by supervised this document he offered me a comment.

INTERNSHIP REPORT 2010 E.C AKNOWELEDGEMENT Even if I have not power, I would like to thanks

INTERNSHIP REPORT

2010 E.C

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

This paper is the technical report that I was prepared in my practical attachment at Addis pharmaceutical factory.

This internship document contains the accurate history of the Addis pharmaceutical factory which is found in north of Ethiopia, Tigray region, Adigrat town which manufactures about ninety one (91) different medical drugs and this document holds the values I have refined in that company for the duration of time that allotted to be taken.

Also here in this internship report, the overall internship experience gained in terms of theoretical knowledge skills, practical skills, team plying skills, team leader skills, interpersonal communication skills and entrepreneurship skills etc. are presented.

Finally here in this document not all but a few of electrical equipments which are frequently used in Addis pharmaceutical factory and in another factory are written here in this report.

Lastly since in Addis pharmaceutical factory most of the electrical machines are motors, this document contains some frequently problems that happen with motors and the best troubleshooting solutions to be taken.

INTERNSHIP REPORT 2010 E.C EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This paper is the technical report that I was prepared

PREPARED BY GUESH A.

Page iv

INTERNSHIP REPORT

2010 E.C

Table of Contents

DECLARATION

 

i

 

PREFACE

ii

AKNOWELEDGEMENT

 

iii

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

iv

List

of

figure

vii

List of table

viii

List

of

abbreviation

ix

CHAPTER ONE

 

1

 

1

  • 1.1. Background of the hosting company

 

1

  • 1.2. Vision of the company

...............................................................................................................................

2

  • 1.3. Mission of the company

 

2

  • 1.4. Core values

................................................................................................................................................

3

  • 1.5. Main products and services

 

3

  • 1.6. End users of the company

..........................................................................................................................

7

  • 1.7. Over all organization and work flow

 

7

CHAPTER TWO

11

 

11

2.1. The way I was got into the company

...........................................................................................................

11

  • 2.2. Section of the company I was worked in

11

  • 2.3. The work flow of the section and the task I was executed

11

  • 2.4. Methods and procedures I have been used

 

12

  • 2.5. Fault analysis

of induction

14

 

2.5.1. Electrical equipment’s which I used in APF

18

  • 2.6. FORWARD REVERSE MOTOR

CONTROL

23

  • 2.8. Faced challenges and measurements taken

23

CHAPTER THREE

25

OVERALL INTERNSHIP EXPERIENCE GAINED

25

  • 3.1. Improving practical

skills

25

  • 3.2. Upgrading theoretical knowledge

............................................................................................................

25

  • 3.3. Interpersonal communication skills

25

  • 3.4. Team playing skills

26

Leader ship skills

  • 3.5. .....................................................................................................................................

27

  • 3.6. Understanding work ethics

 

27

  • 3.7. skills.............................................................................................................................

Entrepreneurship

27

 

CHAPTER

28

INTERNSHIP REPORT 2010 E.C Table of Contents DECLARATION i PREFACE ii AKNOWELEDGEMENT iii EXECUTIVE SUMMARY iv

INTERNSHIP REPORT

2010 E.C

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

..................................................................................................

28

4.1.

Conclusion

...............................................................................................................................................

28

4.2.

Recommendation

.....................................................................................................................................

28

Reference

............................................................................................................................................................

30

INTERNSHIP REPORT 2010 E.C CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION .................................................................................................. 28 4.1. Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................... 28 4.2. Recommendation .....................................................................................................................................

INTERNSHIP REPORT

2010 E.C

List of figure

Figure 1. 1:-organizational structure of APF until division head levels

9

figure 1. 2:- power flow of APF

10

Figure 2. 1:- work procedure of electrical section

12

Figure 2. 2:-:- an induction motor

14

Figure

2.

3:-

contactor

18

 

Figure 2. 4:- Relay Design

Error! Bookmark not defined.

Figure 2. 5:- relay

 

19

Figure 2. 6:- Overload relay`

20

Figure 2. 7:- Circuit

20

Figure 2. 8:- Fuse

21

Figure 2. 9:- transformer

22

Figure 2. 10:- frequency

 

22

INTERNSHIP REPORT 2010 E.C List of figure Figure 1. 1:-organizational structure of APF until division head

INTERNSHIP REPORT

2010 E.C

List of table

Table 1. 1 :- production capacity

..................................................................................................... Table 1. 2:- Registered drug administration

....................................................................................

3

5

Table2. 1:- fault analysis of any

motor

.......................................................................................

15

INTERNSHIP REPORT 2010 E.C List of table Table 1. 1 :- production capacity ..................................................................................................... Table 1.

INTERNSHIP REPORT

2010 E.C

List of abbreviation

APF………………………… Addis Pharmaceutical Factory

EEPCO……………………….Ethiopian Electric power corporation

Poc 01………………………

...power

control 01

HRM …………………………human resource management

PM …………………………

....product

management

FM…………………………… financial management

MED………………………….

.Maintenance engineering design

GM …………………………….general manager

PFC……………………………

power

factor correction

MP & WHM…………………

planning and warehouse management

R& D…………………………

research and development

QCM…………………………….quality control management G.C ………………………………general capsule

EFFORT………………………….Endowment Fund for the Rehabilitation of Tigray’

WHO ………………………

.......World

Health Organization

HPLC …………………………….High-performance liquid chromatography

INTERNSHIP REPORT 2010 E.C List of abbreviation APF………………………… Addis Pharmaceutical Factory EEPCO………………………. Ethiopian Electric power corporation

PREPARED BY GUESH A.

Page ix

INTERNSHIP REPORT

2010 E.C

CHAPTER ONE BACKGROUND OF ADDIS PHARMACEUTICAL FACTORY

1.1. Background of the hosting company

Addis Pharmaceutical Factory Share Company (APF) is the largest and high-tech pharmaceutical plant in Ethiopia; which is located in northern part of Ethiopia, in the town of Adigrat, Tigray Region - 898km from the capital and at an altitude of 2280 meters. The project was launched in June 1992 with working capital worth approximately birr 300 million. The company started its operations in 1997 with major shareholding of EFFORT; an organization engaged in Factory is in operation since March 1997.

INTERNSHIP REPORT 2010 E.C CHAPTER ONE BACKGROUND OF ADDIS PHARMACEUTICAL FACTORY 1.1. Background of the hosting

The company has been manufacturing more than 91 high quality pharmaceutical products of different therapeutic categories including Antibiotics, Gastro-intestinal

INTERNSHIP REPORT 2010 E.C CHAPTER ONE BACKGROUND OF ADDIS PHARMACEUTICAL FACTORY 1.1. Background of the hosting

INTERNSHIP REPORT

2010 E.C

drugs, Central Nervous system drugs, Cardiovascular drugs, anti diabetic agents, Antihistamines & Anti allergic, Antihelminthics, analgesics, Antiprotozoals, Respiratory drugs, dermatological sand Minerals & Vitamins and Large volume Parenterals; in various dosage forms. The company has more than nine production lines and fully equipped laboratories as well as utilities capable of producing tablets, capsules, syrups/suspensions, dry powders for reconstitution, injectable vials, liquid injectable ampoules, creams and ointments which can generally be categorized as non_betaLactam products [Tablets, Capsules (General), Syrups/Suspensions, Ampoules (Sterile), Ointment (sterile)] and beta -Lactam products [Vials (Sterile), Capsules and dry powders for reconstitution](1) .

  • 1.2. Vision of the company

    • To be the country’s most valued company to patients, customers, employees and investors.

    • Leader in quality, sales, price and stakeholder satisfaction.

    • The overall vision of APF is serving the citizen as a desirable model, able to continuously and successfully compete in the global market and involved in sustainable progressive development, providing safe, effective and affordable medicines both in sufficient quality and quantity to satisfy the current and future need of the society (1).

  • 1.3. Mission of the company

    • It aims to satisfy his customers’ needs by providing quality & effective medicine at affordable price.

    • It aims to satisfy his customer needs by providing both in quality and quantity effective medicine at reasonable profit and maximize the wealth of effort endowment in partnership with other development across and activity participating in economic activities that ensure regional and national development.

    • It aims to be one of the leading and progressive pharmaceutical factory and health care product manufacturing plants in Africa (1).

  • INTERNSHIP REPORT 2010 E.C drugs, Central Nervous system drugs, Cardiovascular drugs, anti diabetic agents, Antihistamines &

    INTERNSHIP REPORT

    2010 E.C

    • 1.4. Core values

      • Be innovative and resourcefulness.

      • Be learning organization.

      • Promptness in problem solving.

      • Focus on end user of APF’s products.

      • Inculcating companywide quality culture.

      • Operate with honesty and integrity (1).

  • 1.5. Main products and services

  • The quality and dosage forms conform to the standard set in USP and/or BP. The Entire production process is also in line with the principle of ‘Current Good Manufacturing practice’ set by the World Health Organization (WHO).Quality control department has built up a Good Laboratory Center that guarantees the quality for all products supplied. The quality control department is equipped with the latest Analytical technology instrumentations such as a computer Aided HPLC and spectra photometer. Highly qualified professional with enough expertise on the instrument, monitor the whole production flow.

    Products and production capacity of APF

    APF is able to produce 91products-Tablets, Capsules, Vials, Am poules, Syrups, suspension and Elixir and Dermatological preparations. The efficiency of the high-tech machineries and the skilled man-power play important role to the production capacity.

    The production capacity by each production line is:-

    Table 1. 1 :- production capacity (2)

    The production capacity by product line

    Wet line 1

    • 70000 210000 Tablets/hr

    Wet line 2

    • 70000 210000 Tablets/hr

    INTERNSHIP REPORT 2010 E.C 1.4. Core values  Be innovative and resourcefulness.  Be learning organization.

    INTERNSHIP REPORT

    2010 E.C

     

    Dry line

    70000 210000 Tablets/hr

       
     

    CAPSULES:

    General capsules:

    252000capsules/hr

     

    B -Lactum capsules:

    138000capsules/hr

     
     

    VIALS:

    7cc

    9000vials/hr

     

    20cc

    3200vials/hr

     

    SYRUP AND SUSPENSION:

     

    30ml

    6000

    Bottles/hr

    60ml

    6000

    Bottles/hr

    100ml

    5800

    Bottles/hr

    125ml

    5800

    Bottles/hr

     

    AMPOULES:

    1ml

    12000

    Am poules/hr

    2ml

    12000

    Am poules/hr

    5ml

    9960

    Am poules/hr

    10ml

    4020

    Am poules/hr

    DERMATOLOGICAL PREPARATIONS:

     

    60ml

    1500

    3600 Tube/hr

    INTERNSHIP REPORT 2010 E.C Dry line 70000 – 210000 Tablets/hr CAPSULES: General capsules: 252000capsules/hr B -Lactum

    INTERNSHIP REPORT

    2010 E.C

    DRUGS REGISTERED BY DRUG ADMINISTRATION & CONTROL AUTHORITY OF ETHIOPI

    Table 1. 2:- Registered drug administration (2)

    S/N Brand Name

    Generic Name

    unit Pack Size

    ADIPRIN

    A.S.A 300mg Tablet

    100*10’s

    ALUSIL

    ALUSI (120mg+250mg)

    100*10’s

    Table

    ALBAZOL

    Albendazole 200mg Tablet

    12*10’s

    ALBAZOL

    Albendazole 100mg/5ml

    100’s

    suspension of20ml

    AMOXID -250

    Amoxicillin250mg capsule

    100*10’s

    AMOXID-500

    Amoxicillin500mg capsule

    500’s

    APICILIN-250

    Ampicillin 250mg capsule

    100*10’s

    APICILIN-500

    Amoxicillin500mg capsule

    50*10’s

    APICILIN-500

    Amoxicillin

    500mg

    50*10’s

    capsule

    APICILIN-500

    Amoxicillin500mg capsule

    10*10’s

    BENZACIL-1.2

    Benzathine Penicillin

    50

    1.2miu

    BENZACIL-2.4

    Benzathine Penicillin 2.4miu

    50

    INTERNSHIP REPORT 2010 E.C DRUGS REGISTERED BY DRUG ADMINISTRATION & CONTROL AUTHORITY OF ETHIOPI Table 1.

    INTERNSHIP REPORT

    2010 E.C

     

    CET8RIN

    Cetrizine 10mg

    10*10’s

     

    CHLOQUIN

    Chloroquine phosphate

    100*10’s

    250mg Tablet

    POLARIN

    Chlorpheniramine 2mg/5ml

    1

    Syrup

    PEPTAC

    Cimetidine 400mg Tablet

    20*10’s

    CIFLOX -250

    Ciprofloxacin250mgTablet

    20*10’S

    CIFLOX-500

    Ciprofloxacin 500mg

    20*10’s

    CLOX 250

    Cloxacillin 250mg capsule

    50*10’s

    DICLONAP-50

    Diclofenac 50mg Tablet

    20*10’s

    DOXYCAP

    Doxycyclin 100mg capsule

    20*10’s

    FAMOD

    Famotidin 20mg Tablet

    10*10’s

    PROFEN

    Ibuprofen 400mgTablet

    10*10’s

    KONAZOLE

    Ketoconazole 200mg Tablet

    10*10’s

    KETRAN

    Levamisole 40mg Tablet

    10*10’s

    Management and Professional Mix

    APF has devoted a strong commitment to give the highest value to the professional competence and high caliber. Presently the man power mix includes different professional in all departments working for value adding and knowledge transfer.

    Marketing and Sales:

    INTERNSHIP REPORT 2010 E.C CET8RIN Cetrizine 10mg 10*10’s CHLOQUIN Chloroquine phosphate 100*10’s 250mg Tablet POLARIN Chlorpheniramine

    INTERNSHIP REPORT

    2010 E.C

    Customer satisfaction in terms of delivering Quality and variety of medicine, maintaining all the time availability, keeping packaging and pricing interest of customers is the ultimate objective and performance of APF in its marketing endeavor.

    Considerable changes have been observed through promotion efforts on image reengineering and product introduction to wholesalers, pharmacies, Drug shops and RDVs. Promotion effort have been started targeting physicians in line with DACA rules.

    APF is constantly introducing new products following customer interests. Product varieties now reached to 91.

    The factory is now implementing intensive market penetration with affordable prices. The distribution is done through domestic whole-sellers, institutional buyers and different sales and

    distribution branches; Mekelle, Hawassa and Bihar Dar. APF products’ coverage is increasing

    through time. The target is to attain distinctive competence of the local pharmaceutical market in

    the short future through import substitution, variety and availability.

    • 1.6. End users of the company

    The company has been involving in making medical drugs in order to serve the society. So the end users of the company are people, government and private institutions etc.

    • 1.7. Over all organization and work flow

    APF is one of a public enterprise set up to specialize in medicine resources development engineering consultancy service 15 years back.APF is pharmaceutical company that produces a lot of drugs and most of the drugs are produced from explosive gasses. Company APF facilitates its work by dividing all its activities in to different departments. Each department has its own role to improve the productivity of the company. The work flow of each department is as

    follows:-

    Firstly purchasing department purchases the appropriate raw materials to be converted in to a product from the suppliers of the company. And the purchasing department supplies the purchased raw materials into warehouse department (raw material warehouse).

    INTERNSHIP REPORT 2010 E.C Customer satisfaction in terms of delivering Quality and variety of medicine, maintaining

    INTERNSHIP REPORT

    2010 E.C

    Warehouse department, the raw materials receiver receives the raw materials supplied by the purchaser of the company. Almost all of the raw materials come from china. And these raw materials are known as beta-lactamic and non-betalactamic. Quality control department controls (checks) the quality and amount of the raw materials. Quality assurance department insures the standardized qualification of checked raw materials and it classifies for the checked raw materials as approved and rejected.

    The rejected raw materials are raw materials that unsatisfied and have bad quality. And these rejected raw materials stored in the rejection area until they are fired. And the approved raw materials are raw materials that satisfied quality and then, warehouse department receives these approved raw materials and send to production department based on this department requisition form

    The production department receives the approved raw materials and divides them in to each production line to be converted into a product. And production department sends the product into finished products warehouse and finished products ware house department provides the finished products into marketing department. Marketing department sells the products into customers of the company.

    Maintenance and engineering department exercises the maintenance activities of the company. Maintenance and engineering department have enough work shop with enough technological maintenance machines, and enough spare parts store. Managing department of the company performs an activities related to human resource and controls every department (1).

    THE GENERAL STRUCTURAL WORK FLOW THE COMPANY IS AS FOLLOWS:

    INTERNSHIP REPORT 2010 E.C Warehouse department, the raw materials receiver receives the raw materials supplied by
    INTERNSHIP REPORT 2010 E.C
    INTERNSHIP REPORT
    2010 E.C

    Figure 1. 1:-organizational structure of APF until division head levels (2)

    Electrical power flow of APF

    Electricity is one of the most blessings thing that scientist created for mankind and modern life is some part of this, so world without electricity is nothing today. Addis pharmaceutical factory uses two electrical power sources; main line (Ethiopian electric power corporation) and distribution generator. The power from Ethiopian electric power corporation (EEPCO) comes from “Sassoon” power station Rated with 15kv and stepped down by step-down transformer to 380/220 at controlled frequency of 50 Hz. The second electrical power source is the distribution generator. Addis pharmaceutical factory (APF) contains two manual start standby generators. When there is power outage, the whole company uses electrical power fed from this diesel generator.

    INTERNSHIP REPORT 2010 E.C Figure 1. 1:-organizational structure of APF until division head levels (2) Electrical

    INTERNSHIP REPORT

    2010 E.C

    EEPCO

    Distribution generator
    Distribution
    generator
    PC-01 PFC Compressor Chiller Boiler Workshop Water PC-02 treatment
    PC-01
    PFC
    Compressor
    Chiller
    Boiler
    Workshop
    Water
    PC-02
    treatment
    INTERNSHIP REPORT 2010 E.C EEPCO Distribution generator PC-01 PFC Compressor Chiller Boiler Workshop Water PC-02 treatment

    LPC

    Tablet

    weight 1

    Tablet

    weight 2

    Tablet drying
    Tablet
    drying
    • Ampoule

    Syrup
    Syrup
    BC
    BC

    Head office

    Cafe Clinic Administration Blistering Cleaning Coating Sterling Y-cone Compre machine machine machine machin granulator ssors Vial
    Cafe
    Clinic
    Administration
    Blistering
    Cleaning
    Coating
    Sterling
    Y-cone
    Compre
    machine
    machine
    machine
    machin
    granulator
    ssors
    Vial
    Vial
    Vial
    Vial
    labelin
    e
    washing
    fillin
    cappin
    g
    g
    g
    Cap
    Drum
    Granu
    Dry
    Blistering
    Cap
    Double
    Cap
    inspection 2
    & chiller
    inspection 1
    mixer
    cone
    lator
    suspension
    filling
    INTERNSHIP REPORT 2010 E.C EEPCO Distribution generator PC-01 PFC Compressor Chiller Boiler Workshop Water PC-02 treatment
    INTERNSHIP REPORT 2010 E.C EEPCO Distribution generator PC-01 PFC Compressor Chiller Boiler Workshop Water PC-02 treatment

    Belt

    Bottle

    Capping

    Filling

    Labeling

    derive

    cleaning

    machine

    machine

    machine

    figure 1. 2:- power flow of APF

    INTERNSHIP REPORT 2010 E.C EEPCO Distribution generator PC-01 PFC Compressor Chiller Boiler Workshop Water PC-02 treatment

    INTERNSHIP REPORT

    2010 E.C

    CHAPTER TWO OVERALL ENTRNSHIP EXPERIENCE

    In Addis pharmaceutical factory, I have improved my knowledge on team playing skills, team

    leader skills, interpersonal communication skills, work ethics skills and skills.

    practical knowledge

    • 2.1. The way I was got into the company

    In 2009 E.C at the end of the first semester the practically internship acceptance format letter reached in my hand from the electrical and computer engineering department and the head of the department told me to search the company which accept me and to insert the acceptance letter back to the department. During that time, I was gathered some idea by asking to the students who were attached to different industry all about the activity that performed in the company focused on electrical power activity, as a result one student who was attached in APF told me that in APF mostly the activity concerned on electrical workshop which deals with repairing, maintenance, testing electrical equipment etc. Ultimately, I was decided to take my internship in that area but the company did not accept me due to my late, however Esubalew himself attached me to it.

    • 2.2. Section of the company I was worked in

    In APF there are about ten departments which each of them contributes their function to the company. Electrical engineering is one of the ten departments that I was worked in which concerned with electrical maintenance, testing, supervising any electrical faults in the company and comes troubleshooting the problems.

    • 2.3. The work flow of the section and the task I was executed

    The work flow of this section is that, the staff workers will always stay in their office or work shop based on their program. The local workers of the production area or those who responsible for monitoring the machine call to the engineers who stay in the workshop and the engineers supervise the occur problem after that they discuss all about the happened problem at the end and comes with solution.

    INTERNSHIP REPORT 2010 E.C CHAPTER TWO OVERALL ENTRNSHIP EXPERIENCE In Addis pharmaceutical factory, I have improved

    INTERNSHIP REPORT

    2010 E.C

    The work procedure of the electrical section is look like this:

    Electrical Electrical Supervising Testing Maintenance Manager engineers in Any faults workshop Testing Replacement s Or putting
    Electrical
    Electrical
    Supervising
    Testing
    Maintenance
    Manager
    engineers
    in
    Any faults
    workshop
    Testing
    Replacement
    s
    Or
    putting
    for reserve

    Figure 2. 1:- work procedure of electrical section

    I was worked in the electrical section which concerned with maintenance, testing, supervising any electrical fault in the company and troubleshooting etc. In the company all the electrical engineer works in cooperation in the electrical workshop and they supervise all the electrical machines as well as the electrical equipment. If there is any faults in any of the electrical machines the worker who is responsible to work on that machine reported the problems, so the electrical engineer supervise the problem and take the best solution as needed. During my internship duration I was spend my time by working with them in this electrical section.

    2.4. Methods and procedures I have been used

    In Addis pharmaceutical factory I was used the following methods to solve any problems that happened in my work section.

    • 1. I was taken an observation of any problem that happened

    in the section when the

    engineers supervise any fault

    • 2. I was asked and discussed all about the problem that faced in the company with the workers

    • 3. I used Google searching in order to get full information all about the electrical equipment function and the reason for electrical equipment failure.

    • 4. When there an ambiguity in any problem I was asked to the engineers

    In order to supervise and get solution to any problems that occurred in the company I have taken some basic procedures with the company engineers out of them the following steps are the most:

    INTERNSHIP REPORT 2010 E.C The work procedure of the electrical section is look like this: Electrical

    INTERNSHIP REPORT

    2010 E.C

    When I was worked in APF, the following procedures that intended on solving any problems in safety manner have saved in my mind.

    First step preparation: The first and foremost step is before beginning to troubleshoot any fault; I have been familiar with the company safety precautions, rules, and procedures while troubleshooting any electrical failure as well as gathered information regarding the problem and carefully understand how the problem is troubleshoot.

    Secondly I have taken an observation with the company engineers on the fault area as most faults provide obvious clues as to their cause. Through careful observation and a little bit of reasoning, most faults can be identified as to the actual component with very little testing.

    Thirdly I was discussed with the workers to define the problem area that on which part is the problem happened based on my experience and applied logic and reasoning to my observations to determine the problem area of the malfunctioning equipment.

    Fourthly once the problem area has been defined and identifying the possible causes of the malfunction of the electrical equipment by observing the manual prepared in the company and by relating to the knowledge I have searched in the Google.

    Finally I was discussed with the intended workers in order to identify the most probable causes from the list of possible causes.

    INTERNSHIP REPORT 2010 E.C When I was worked in APF, the following procedures that intended on

    INTERNSHIP REPORT

    2010 E.C

    2.5. Fault analysis of induction

    INTERNSHIP REPORT 2010 E.C 2.5. Fault analysis of induction Figure 2. 2:-:- an induction motor ()

    Figure 2. 2:-:- an induction motor ()

    an induction motor or asynchronous motor is an AC electric motor in which the electric current in the rotor needed to produce torque is obtained by electromagnetic induction from the field of the stator winding(6). Based on supply induction motor is classified into two:

    • 1. Single phase induction motor

    • 2. Three-Phase Induction Motor

    One of the most common electrical motor used in any industrial is the induction motor, so in Addis pharmaceutical factory in every process there are so many induction motors that help in providing a twisting force. Those motors are also known as asynchronous motors because it runs at speed less than it synchronous speed. An induction motor comprises a magnetic circuit interlinking two electric circuits which are placed on the two main parts of the machine: (i) the stationary part called the stator and (ii) the rotating part called the rotor. Power is transferred from one part to the other by electromagnetic induction. For this induction machine is referred as an electromechanical energy conversion device which converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. Rotor is supported on bearings at each end.

    In Addis pharmaceutical factory when I was deal with any problems that concerned with the induction motor as well as another motor with the engineers and we first studied the type of the

    INTERNSHIP REPORT 2010 E.C 2.5. Fault analysis of induction Figure 2. 2:-:- an induction motor ()

    INTERNSHIP REPORT

    2010 E.C

    problem, its causes, and at the end we put the remedy. I have developed my practical knowledge on the induction motor problems as well as another motor and the best remedy to be taken which are frequently happened is described as flows.

    Table2. 1:- fault analysis of any

    motor()

    Problems

    Possible cause

     

    Tests

    Solutions

    Motor will not start.

    • 1. Fault with supply.

    1.

    Check for correct

    • 1. Fit new fuses, reset

    • 2. Wrong connections

    voltage

    at

     

    motor

    circuit breakers, etc.

    in control circuit.

     

    terminals.

     
    • 2. Sort

    out

    control

     

    ensure contactors operate.

    2.

    Check

    to

    circuit.

    Supply or Started trips

    • 1. Wrong

    or

    loose

    1.

    Check all lugs are

    • 1. Fix up connections.

    out at start.

    connections.

    properly crimped or

    • 2. Change motor for

    • 2. Motor overloaded.

    soldered,

     

    and

    correct size.

     

    3.Low Voltage due to

    connections are tight.

    • 3. Change cables for

    volt drop in cables

    2.

    Check load

     

    correct size.

     
    • 4. Overload or circuit

    performance data

    4.Correct setting of

    breaker incorrectly set

    against motor

    overload or breaker or

    or sized.

    performance data.

    change.

    3.

    Measure voltage at

    motor terminals while

    motor starting.

     

    4.Check settings of overload and circuit breaker and allow for starting current

    INTERNSHIP REPORT 2010 E.C problem, its causes, and at the end we put the remedy. I

    INTERNSHIP REPORT

    2010 E.C

    Motor starts but has

    1.

    Incorrect

    1.

    Check connection

    1.

    Sort out and correct

    no torque. Motor does not reach full speed or

    connection.

    diagram and

    connections.

    2.

    Delta wound motor

    nameplate data.

    2.

    Check timer and

    takes a long time to

    connects in star.

    2.

    Check load

    starter control circuit.

    accelerate.

    3.

    Star/Delta starter

    performance data

    3.Change motor for

    staying in Star.

    against motor performance data.

    correct size.

    4.

    Inertia of load to

    4.

    Change cables for

    high.

    3.Measure voltage at motor terminals while

    correct size.

    5.

    Motor overloaded.

    6.

    Low voltage due to

    motor starting

    volt drop in cables.

    Motor Overheating.

    1.

    Motor overloaded.

    1.

    Check load

    1.

    Fix problem with

    2.

    Ineffective cooling.

    performance data.

    load or fit larger

    3.

    Excessive ambient.

    2.

    Check connection

    motor.

    4.

    Delta wound motor

    diagram and

    2.

    Sort out

    in star.

    nameplate data.

    connections.

    5.

    Motor “Single

    Phasing”.

    3.

    Check volts and

    amps in all three

    3.

    Restore supply to

    all phases.

    6.

    Wrong voltage or

    phases.

    4.

    Correct voltage or

    frequency.

    4.Check nameplate

    frequency.

    7.

    Supply voltage

    5.Measure phase to

    5.

    Balance supply or

     

    phase voltage

    accept unbalance.

    INTERNSHIP REPORT 2010 E.C Motor starts but has 1. Incorrect 1. Check connection 1. Sort out

    INTERNSHIP REPORT

     

    2010 E.C

     
     

    unbalanced.

    accurately

       
     

    No

    load

    amps

    in

    1.Incorrect connection

    1.

    Check

    connection

    • 1. Sort out and correct

    excess

    of

    Full

    load

    2.

    Star wound motor

    diagram

     

    and

    connections at motor

    amps

    connection Delta.

    nameplate data.

    terminals.

     
    • 2. Correct supply

    3.

    Voltage in excess

    2.

    Measure voltage at

    voltage

     

    of nameplate.

    motor terminals.

    • 3. Change motor for

    4.

    Motor supplied for

    3.

    Compare supply

    correct voltage and

    different voltage or frequency.

    voltage and frequency to nameplate.

    frequency

     

    Unbalanced amps in

    1.Unbalanced

    supply

    1.Measure

    phase

    to

    1.Balance supply

    different phases when

    voltage

    phase

    voltage

    motor loaded

    accurately

    Excessive electric

     

    1.

    Wrong connections.

    1.

    Check connections

    1

    ..

    Fix up connection

    noise

     

    2.

    Check voltage with

     
     

    2.

    Wrong voltage.

    nameplate

    2.

    Correct voltage.

    3.

    Motor ‘Single-

    3.

    Check volts with

     

    3.

    Restore supply to

    Phasing’.

    amps in all three phases.

    all three phases.

    Motor runs in wrong

    1.Wrong connections

    1.Watch shaft rotation

    1.

    Swap and two

    direction

    phases of supply.

    INTERNSHIP REPORT 2010 E.C unbalanced. accurately No load amps in 1.Incorrect connection 1. Check connection 1.

    INTERNSHIP REPORT

     

    2010 E.C

     

    Motor amps in excess

    1.

    Motor overloaded.

    • 1. Check load and

    1.

    Fix problem with

    of nameplate full load

    2.

    Low supply

    performance data.

    load or fit larger

    amps on load

    voltage.

    • 2. Measure voltage at

    motor.

     

    motor terminals

    2.

    Fix problem,

    3.

    Wrong voltage or

    • 3. Check nameplate.

    maybe with larger

    frequency.

    • 4. Check nameplate

    cables.

     

    4.

    Wrong

    5 & 6. Check volts

    3.

    Correct voltage or

    Connections.

    and amps in all three

    frequency.

     

    5.

    Motor ‘Single-

    phases.

    4.

    Sort out and

    Phasing’.

    • 7. Measure motor

    speed and check load

    correct. 5 & 6. Restore

    6.

    Supply voltage

    unbalanced.

    speed requirements.

    balanced supply to all

    three phases.

     

    7.

    Motor Speed not

    7.

    Change motor for

    matched to load.

    correct motor speed.

    2.5.1. Electrical equipment’s which I used in APF

    In Addis pharmaceutical factory I have gained some practical knowledge on some basic electrical equipment which are always used in any industrial company as well as in where as they are needed mostly how to read the rating of voltage, current, power of different electrical equipment and how to test if it is normal or defective. Not all but a few of them are listed below.

    Contactor

    INTERNSHIP REPORT 2010 E.C Motor amps in excess 1. Motor overloaded. 1. Check load and 1.

    Figure 2. 3:- contactor (3)

    An electrical contactor is an electromagnetic switch similar to a relay. It is a switch which can be controlled with the current/pulse to switch over an electrically powered circuit. When current

    INTERNSHIP REPORT 2010 E.C Motor amps in excess 1. Motor overloaded. 1. Check load and 1.

    INTERNSHIP REPORT

    2010 E.C

    passed through the electromagnet, a magnetic field is produced. This results in the contact between movable core and contactor.

    Relay

    We know that most of the high end industrial application devices have relays for their effective working. Relays are simple switches which are operated both electrically and mechanically. Relays consist of an electromagnet and also a set of contacts. The switching mechanism is carried out with the help of the electromagnet. The main operation of a relay comes in places where only a low-power signal can be used to control a circuit.

    INTERNSHIP REPORT 2010 E.C passed through the electromagnet, a magnetic field is produced. This results in

    Overload relays

    Figure 2. 4:- relay (4)

    An overload relay is a relay that opens a circuit when the load in the circuit exceeds a preset value in order to provide over load protection usually to excess current.

    .

    INTERNSHIP REPORT 2010 E.C passed through the electromagnet, a magnetic field is produced. This results in

    INTERNSHIP REPORT

    2010 E.C

    INTERNSHIP REPORT 2010 E.C Figure 2. 5:- Overload relay (5) Circuit breaker A circuit breaker isespecially one that is part of a machine and causes it to start or stop working at specific times. PREPARED BY GUESH A . Page 20 " id="pdf-obj-28-8" src="pdf-obj-28-8.jpg">

    Figure 2. 5:- Overload relay (5)

    Circuit breaker

    A circuit breaker is an automatic switch, which is an on-load device, designed using electromechanical techniques to prevent power overload damage or short circuits. A circuit breaker has a solenoid inside, and it is kept at a certain voltage level, to keep the triggering mechanism in balance. Once a fault is observed in the circuit, such as an overload or a short circuit, the switch iss triggered, and the current flow is discontinued. After solving the pertaining problem in the electrical system, the circuit breaker can be switched back to on again.

    INTERNSHIP REPORT 2010 E.C Figure 2. 5:- Overload relay (5) Circuit breaker A circuit breaker isespecially one that is part of a machine and causes it to start or stop working at specific times. PREPARED BY GUESH A . Page 20 " id="pdf-obj-28-16" src="pdf-obj-28-16.jpg">

    Figure 2. 6:- Circuit breaker (7)

    Timer

    A timer is a device that measures time, especially one that is part of a machine and causes it to start or stop working at specific times.

    INTERNSHIP REPORT 2010 E.C Figure 2. 5:- Overload relay (5) Circuit breaker A circuit breaker isespecially one that is part of a machine and causes it to start or stop working at specific times. PREPARED BY GUESH A . Page 20 " id="pdf-obj-28-33" src="pdf-obj-28-33.jpg">

    INTERNSHIP REPORT

    2010 E.C

    Fuse

    INTERNSHIP REPORT 2010 E.C Fuse Figure 2. 7:- Fuse (8) The verb "fuse" means "to melt".

    Figure 2. 7:- Fuse (8)

    The verb "fuse" means "to melt". A fuse is an over current responsive safety device used to protect an electrical circuit from the effects of excessive current. It is placed in series with the electrical circuit it is intended to protect. Its essential component is a strip of metal that will melt when the electric current in the circuit exceeds the fuse's rated value. The element (link) in the fuse melts and opens the circuits.

    The opening of a fuse signifies that something is wrong with the circuit and should be corrected before the current is turned back on. The problem can be an accident, a defective component or a worn-out component.

    Clamp meter

    A clamp meter is an electrical test tool that combines a basic digital multimeter with a current sensor used in measuring current flow in phase with out making contact.

    Digital multimeter

    In the company which I worked in we mostly use digital multimeter for measuring of voltage, current, resistance continuity etc.

    Transformer

    A transformer is an electrical device that transfers electrical energy between two or more circuit through electromagnetic induction. Power can be transferred between the two coils through the magnetic field, without a metallic connection between the two circuits.

    INTERNSHIP REPORT 2010 E.C Fuse Figure 2. 7:- Fuse (8) The verb "fuse" means "to melt".

    INTERNSHIP REPORT

    2010 E.C

    INTERNSHIP REPORT 2010 E.C Figure 2.9:- transformer (9) Frequency converter Variable frequency operation has been around,

    Figure 2.9:- transformer (9)

    Frequency converter

    Variable frequency operation has been around, in the form of the AC generator, since the advent of the induction motor. Frequency converter is a power conversion device. The frequency converter converts a basic fixed-frequency, fixed voltage sine-wave power (line power) to a variable-frequency, variable-voltage output used to control speed of induction motors.

    INTERNSHIP REPORT 2010 E.C Figure 2.9:- transformer (9) Frequency converter Variable frequency operation has been around,

    Figure 2.10:- frequency converter(10)

    Wire cutting tools

    These tools are used for cutting of wire when we need some wires in their limited length. We mostly used wire cutter and wire strippers.

    Screw driver

    Screwdrivers are used to drive in screws in electric fixtures, electrical boxes, or the outside plates to the wall or ceiling. I have used in my activity different types of screw driver out of them Phillips, slot type etc.

    Pliers and wrenches

    For many electrical jobs, tools to manipulate wires, nuts and bolts, and other electrical and mechanical objects are necessary. To loosen nuts and bolts, electricians can use wrenches. We have been using different types of pliers in the company that I joined in to list some of them: Linesman's pliers, side cutting pliers and needle nose pliers.

    INTERNSHIP REPORT 2010 E.C Figure 2.9:- transformer (9) Frequency converter Variable frequency operation has been around,

    INTERNSHIP REPORT

    2010 E.C

    • 2.6. FORWARD REVERSE MOTOR CONTROL

    The forward reverse motor control is used a system where forward and backward or upward and downward movement in the operation are needed. In Addis pharmaceutical factory some motors works in the forward reverse direction , so it obligates me to understand the control circuit and power circuit in order to solve smoothly when any problems happen in the forward reverse operation of the motor.

    • 2.7. How I have been good in perform my tasks

    When I was worked in Addis pharmaceutical factory, I become careful in any electrical hazards, flow the rule and regulation of the company, participating in open mindedness with all the workers as well as in observing any faults why it happens and in finding the best troubleshoot. When there was any ambiguity to me regarding to my work, Google website is my best friend in addition to the electrical engineers that works in Addis pharmaceutical factory. Generally in Addis pharmaceutical factory during my internship duration I was good in observing any electrical fault analysis, maintenance, testing etc.

    • 2.8. Faced challenges and measurements taken

    During performing my task I had not that much challenges but I was faced to few challenges. Some of them are:-

    • It becomes me difficult to understand the electrical manual at the starting time

    • The manual does not hold specific document for specific section so it becomes challenge me to understand

    • At the first time I was got ambiguity to understand hot to maintenance, test any electrical and to identify the type of faults.

    • The company has limitation in internet access so it is hard to search any problem immediately in that place.

    • At the first time it becomes me difficult know the function of each motor

    Measurements taken

    • I was asked for the workers to help me for all challenges regarding to the manual how to use

    INTERNSHIP REPORT 2010 E.C 2.6. FORWARD REVERSE MOTOR CONTROL The forward reverse motor control is used

    INTERNSHIP REPORT

    2010 E.C

    • By carefully flowed the process they flow, I control my challenges regarding to maintenance testing and analysis of any electrical faults.

    • I mostly use Google to solve unclear idea in my digital library

    • I took good attention to all some difficult activity to control all activity

    INTERNSHIP REPORT 2010 E.C  By carefully flowed the process they flow, I control my challenges

    INTERNSHIP REPORT

    2010 E.C

    CHAPTER THREE OVERALL INTERNSHIP EXPERIENCE GAINED

    In Addis pharmaceutical factory I have refined my skills which are good in any industrial or group works that are well to develop to apply in life at every moment either as leader or member. The following are the basic skills that I have gained in the Addis pharmaceutical factory:

    • 3.1. Improving practical skills

    Skill is the ability or knowledge acquired through deliberate, practice, training, and sustained effort to smoothly and adaptively carryout activities or job functions involving cognitive, technical and interpersonal skills. Practical skill is the skill gained through observation, practice, training and experiments of the theoretical knowledge to change into real situations and events rather than theory. There, in the Addis pharmaceutical factory I have improved my practical skills that mostly focused in electrical: machines, equipment's, circuit boards, tests, measurements, maintenance and how they work.

    • 3.2. Upgrading theoretical knowledge

    Theoretical knowledge is the knowledge that comes to have through reading written things, drawings and listening person who have experience on the salient point. Theoretical knowledge is the first knowledge which serves as source to upgrade practical skills. In the hosting company, I have upgraded my theoretical knowledge which I have obtained in the university which is in concept through practice, and training.

    • 3.3. Interpersonal communication skills

    The ability to communicate effectively with superiors, colleagues, and staff is essential, no matter what industry you work in. In the company that I have joined, there are so many people with different professions: as a result I have refined my speaking skills by communicating with them during in practice as well as by asking them to get an answer for anything which is not clear to me. The peoples who work in the company are always interest to communicate with each other as well as with the students. In the company area not only I simply refine my speaking skills but also have learned the ways of speaking, how to speak politely, how to wait others until they forwarded their view of points

    INTERNSHIP REPORT 2010 E.C CHAPTER THREE OVERALL INTERNSHIP EXPERIENCE GAINED In Addis pharmaceutical factory I have

    INTERNSHIP REPORT

    2010 E.C

    and at the end my mind have developed the basic communication skills that are key for work place success, which few of them are the listed below:

    • listening

    • nonverbal communication

    • clarity and concision

    • friendliness

    • confidence

    • empathy

    • open mindedness

    • respectfulness

    • Feedback etc.

    3.4. Team playing skills

    Teamwork is a unity when workers combine their individual skills in pursuit of a goal. Team member has equal role and important to the output. Without unity every output is not as the intended one, so in the company which set foot in I have learned the basic team playing skills in the workplace which includes the following few:

    • Helping and guiding with member,

    • Being able to clearly communicate,

    • Sharing openly and willingly,

    • Being an active participant,

    • Being flexible,

    • Showing commitment,

    • Being respectful,

    • Being reliable,

    • Decision making

    • Problem solving

    • And being able to mediate problems between team members in order to accomplish the final output in the desired way etc.

    INTERNSHIP REPORT 2010 E.C and at the end my mind have developed the basic communication skills

    INTERNSHIP REPORT

    2010 E.C

    3.5. Leader ship skills

    During the practical attachment I was observed that whether a company manager or a project leader requires a number of soft skills to help them positively interact with employees or team

    members and my mind have developed the salient skills to be a good leadership out of them which listed as follows:

    • Communication skills,

    • Motivation,

    • Positivity

    • Responsibility and trustworthiness etc.

    • 3.6. Understanding work ethics

    A work ethics is a set of moral principals an employee uses in his job which is vital to a company to achieve its goal and every employee from the manager to the entry work level workers must have a good work ethics to keep the company functioning at its peak. During the internship I have upgraded my knowledge on the characteristics of work ethics which are helps to identify who have positive work ethics even if it is not full identification among these few of them has listed below.

    • Punctuality,

    • Discipline,

    • Productivity,

    • Dedication,

    • Reliability,

    • Professionalism,

    • Respectfulness and respecting the rule and regulation of the company are the most one.

    • 3.7. Entrepreneurship skills

    Entrepreneurship skill is the capacity and willingness to develop organizes and manages a business venture along with any of its risks in order to make a profit. Addis pharmaceutical factory works design and supervision enterprise is governmental organization, which is

    INTERNSHIP REPORT 2010 E.C 3.5. Leader ship skills During the practical attachment I was observed that

    INTERNSHIP REPORT

    2010 E.C

    responsible for providing safe to the patients of human beings by the company of APF. The basic principle of this organization is to increase product of medicine factory. The success of work is done in the company through the display of the excellent works performed by the company and the good workers.

    CHAPTER FOUR CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

    • 4.1. Conclusion

    Addis pharmaceutical factory is one of the biggest factories in Ethiopia, Tigray, Adigrat town which deals in manufacturing medical drugs which serves the citizen as a desirable model, able to continuously and successfully compete in the global market and involved in sustainable progressive development, providing safe, effective and affordable medicines both in sufficient quality and quantity to satisfy the current and future need of the society. I have acquired a lot of knowledge, in both theoretical & practical during my internship program and I grasp different knowledge from my hosting company in maintenance, testing, measuring and fault analysis of electrical machines as well as any electrical equipment failure troubleshooting process. In the hosting company not only on academically but also I have refined my knowledge on team playing, team leader, interpersonal communication skills etc.

    • 4.2. Recommendation

    Recommendation is the mirror that tells the weakness which is not visible for the owner or the situation it may not give attention by the owner to its side effect. So I would like to recommend to my hosting company on the following few points:

    To improvement of company the following recommendation is useful;

    • In Addis pharmaceutical factory the backup generator in operated manually so their production capacity is decreased when power is outage till it on by the operator, so it

    INTERNSHIP REPORT 2010 E.C responsible for providing safe to the patients of human beings by the

    INTERNSHIP REPORT

    2010 E.C

    should be atomically operated using any methods especially automatic transfer switch.

    • The company does not monitor students where they go and spend their time, as a result I recommend the company to monitor the students for the next time

    • Another company motivates the students to do project that need for their company but my hosting motivate does not like these so it should motivate to solve any problem by identifying it.

    INTERNSHIP REPORT 2010 E.C should be atomically operated using any methods especially automatic transfer switch. 

    INTERNSHIP REPORT

    2010 E.C

    Reference

    (2).APF manual (3). https://www.google.com/search?q=images+of+electrical+contactors&tbm

    (4).https://www.google.com/search?=images+of+electrical++relays&oq=images+of+electrical++

    relay

    (5).https://www.google.com/search?=images+of+electrical+overload+relays&oq=images+of+ele

    ctrical+overload+relays

    (6) (IEC 60050 (Publication date: 1990-10). Section 411-31: Rotation Machinery - General,) (7) https://www.google.com/search?= images+of+electrical+circuit+breakers (8) https://www.google.com/search?= images+of+electrical+fuse (9) https://www.google.com/search?= images+of+electrical++transformer (10) https://www.google.com/search?= images+of+electrical++frequncey+convertor

    (11)http://www.enggcyclopedia.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/Figure-1-Electric-motor-

    structure.png

    INTERNSHIP REPORT 2010 E.C Reference (1) <a href=.http://www.apfethio.com/products/ (2).APF manual (3). https://www.google.com/search?q=images+of+electrical+contactors&tbm (4).https://www.google.com/search?=images+of+electrical++relays&oq=images+of+electrical++ relay (5).https://www.google.com/search?=images+of+electrical+overload+relays&oq=images+of+ele ctrical+overload+relays (6) (IEC 60050 (Publication date: 1990-10). Section 411-31: Rotation Machinery - General, ) (7) https://www.google.com/search?= images+of+electrical+circuit+breakers (8) https://www.google.com/search?= images+of+electrical+fuse (9) https://www.google.com/search?= images+of+electrical++transformer (10) https://www.google.com/search?= images+of+electrical++frequncey+convertor (11)http://www.enggcyclopedia.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/Figure-1-Electric-motor- structure.png PREPARED BY GUESH A . Page 30 " id="pdf-obj-38-32" src="pdf-obj-38-32.jpg">

    INTERNSHIP REPORT

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    INTERNSHIP REPORT 2010 E.C PREPARED BY GUESH A . Page 31