Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 44

ADIGAT UNIVERSITY

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY


DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER

ENGINEERING

INTERSHIP REPORT ON ADDIS PHARMACEUTIAL

FACTORY

SUBMITTED: TO THE DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND

COPUTER ENGINEERING (POWER STREAM) PREPARED BY:

ABADI TESFEU ID.NO:-RET/0001/06

Prepared by Abadi T. Page 1


DURATION FROM OCTOBER UP JANUARY

SUBMISSION DATE: - 30TH JANUARY 2010 E.C

ADIGRAT, TIGRAY, ETHIOPIA

DECLARATION

I want to declare that this internship report is the internship report which I prepared
myself when I worked in Addis pharmaceutical factory in 2010 E.C. I would like to
justify here by my signature that this technical report is not copied from another report
but it is my effort that I work out during my internship duration.

Date

Supervisor: ____________________ signature: _______

Mentor: _______________________ signature: _______

Student: ______________________ signature: _______

Prepared by Abadi T. Page 2


PREFACE

This internship report contains the work done during my internship time for four
months from October six till January 28 which I did in Addis pharmaceutical factory
Eastern Tigray, Adigrat town under the monitor of Mr. Yemane. As introduction of
this document the accurate history of the company was explained and following to
this all the experience gained during the internship was included in this report.

Prepared by Abadi T. Page 3


AKNOWELEDGEMENT

Even if I have not power, I would like to thanks for my God who give me not told
wealth in all circumstance.

Next whatever activity cannot accomplish alone in desired manner, so I would like to
forward my deepest thanks to all the electrical engineers’ who works in Addis
pharmaceutical factory for their uninterrupted willingness to help me what I want
regard to the practical skill.
Here again I would like to thanks to all Addis pharmaceutical factory workers for their
willingness to show me the working principle of some machines in the place where
they intended to operate. The work culture in APF really motivates that is everybody is
such a friendly and cheerful companion here that work stress is never comes in any way.

Finally, I fill happiness when I throw my heart thanks to the department of electrical
and computer engineering for their activity to attach me to the industrial linkage to
improve my practical knowledge.
At the end I would like to thanks to my Advisor Yriga for his willingness in guiding
me and his supervising to this document to offer me a comment.

Prepared by Abadi T. Page 4


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
This paper is the technical report that I documented when I worked in practical attachment in

Addis pharmaceutical factory.

This internship document contains the accurate history of the Addis pharmaceutical
factory which is found in north of Ethiopia, Tigray region, Adigrat town and this
document holds the values I have refined while I was worked in this company for the
duration of time that allotted to be taken.
This document holds the overall internship experience such as the theoretical
knowledge upgraded, the practical skills gained, as well as the team plying skills,
team leader skills, interpersonal communication skills and entrepreneurship skills etc.
Finally here in this document not all but a few of electrical equipment’s which are
frequently used in Addis pharmaceutical factory and in another factory are written
here in this report.
Lastly since in Addis pharmaceutical factory most of the electrical machines are
motors, this document contains some frequently problems that happen with motors
and the best troubleshooting solutions to be taken.

Prepared by Abadi T. Page 5


Contents
DECLARATION.................................................................................................................................ii
PREFACE..........................................................................................................................................iii
AKNOWELEDGEMENT.................................................................................................................iv
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY.................................................................................................................v
List of figures...................................................................................................................................viii
List of table......................................................................................................................................viii
CHAPTER ONE.................................................................................................................................1
Background of Addis pharmaceutical factory....................................................................................1
1.1. Background of the company..............................................................................................1
1.2. Vision of the company.............................................................................................................2
1.3. Mission of the company...........................................................................................................2
1.4. Core values...............................................................................................................................3
1.5. Main products and services......................................................................................................3
1.6. End users of the company........................................................................................................8
1.7. Over all organization and work flow.......................................................................................8
CHAPTER TWO..............................................................................................................................12
Over all internship experience..........................................................................................................12
2.1. The way I get into the company.................................................................................................12
2.2. Section of the company I worked in......................................................................................12
2.3. The work flow of the section and the task I executed...........................................................13
2.4. Methods and procedures have been using.............................................................................13
2.5. Fault analysis of induction.....................................................................................................15

Prepared by Abadi T. Page 6


2.5.1. Electrical equipment’s which I used in APF...................................................................19
2.6. FORWARD REVERSE MOTOR CONTROL......................................................................24
2.7. How I have been good in perform my tasks..........................................................................25
2.8. Faced challenges and measurements taken............................................................................25
CHAPTER THREE...........................................................................................................................26
Overall internship experience gained...............................................................................................26
3.1. Improving practical skills......................................................................................................26
3.2. Upgrading theoretical knowledge..........................................................................................26
3.3. Interpersonal communication skills.......................................................................................26
3.4. Team playing skills................................................................................................................27
3.5. Leader ship skills...................................................................................................................28
3.6. Understanding work ethics....................................................................................................28
3.7. Entrepreneurship skills...........................................................................................................29
CHAPTER FOUR.............................................................................................................................30
Conclusion and recommendation......................................................................................................30
4.1. Conclusion..............................................................................................................................30
4.2. Recommendation...................................................................................................................30
Reference...........................................................................................................................................31

Prepared by Abadi T. Page 7


List of figur
Figure 1. 1 : organizational structure of APF until division head levels.....................10
Figure 1. 2 : power flow of APF.................................................................................11
Y

Figure 2. 2 : an induction motor...................................................................................15


Figure 2. 3 : contactor.................................................................................................19
Figure 2. 4 :Relay Design.............................................................................................20
Figure 2. 5 : Timer........................................................................................................21
Figure 2. 6 : Overload relay.........................................................................................21
Figure 2. 7 : Circuit breaker.........................................................................................22
Figure 2. 8 : Fuse..........................................................................................................22
Figure 2. 9 : clamp meter.............................................................................................23
Figure 2. 10 : transformer.............................................................................................24
Figure 2. 11 : frequency converter...............................................................................24

Prepared by Abadi T. Page 8


List of tabl

Table 1. 1:- production capacity0...................................................................................4


Table 1. 2:- Registered drug administration...................................................................5
Table 2. 1:- fault analysis of any motor………………………………………………………….16

Prepared by Abadi T. Page 9


List of abbreviation

APF Addis Pharmaceutical Factory

EEPCO Ethiopian Electric power corporation

Poc 01 power control 01

HRM human resource management

PM product management
FM financial management
MED maintenance engineering design
GM general manager
PFC power factor control
MP & WHM material planning and warehouse management
R& D research and development
QCM quality control management
G.C general capsule

Prepared by Abadi T. Page 10


Prepared by Abadi T. Page 11
CHAPTER ONE

Background of Addis pharmaceutical factory

1.1 Background of the company

Addis Pharmaceutical Factory Share Company (APF) is the largest and high-tech
pharmaceutical plant in Ethiopia; the plant is located in northern part of Ethiopia, in
the town of Adigrat, Tigray Region - 898km from the capital and at an altitude of
2280 meters. The project was launched in June 1992 with working capital worth
approximately birr 300 million. Company started its operations in 1997 with major
shareholding of EFFORT; an organization engaged in Factory is in operation since
March 1997.
The company has been manufacturing more than 91 high quality pharmaceutical
products of different therapeutic categories including Antibiotics, Gastro-intestinal
drugs, Central Nervous system drugs, Cardiovascular drugs, anti-diabetic agents,
Antihistamines & Anti allergic, Antihelminthics, analgesics, Antiprotozoals,
Respiratory drugs, dermatological sand Minerals & Vitamins and Large volume
Parenterals; in various dosage forms.
The company has more than nine production lines and fully equipped laboratories as
well as utilities capable of producing tablets, capsules, syrups/suspensions, dry
powders for reconstitution, injectable vials, liquid injectable ampoules, creams and
ointments which can generally be categorized as non_betaLactam products [Tablets,
Capsules (General), Syrups/Suspensions, Ampoules (Sterile), Ointment (sterile)] and
beta -Lactam products [Vials (Sterile), Capsules and dry powders for reconstitution].
[1]

1.2. Vision of the company

Prepared by Abadi T. Page 1


 To be the country’s most valued company to patients, customers,
employees and investors.
 Leader in quality, sales, price and stakeholder satisfaction.
 The overall vision of APF is serving the citizen as a desirable model, able
to continuously and successfully compete in the global market and
involved in sustainable progressive development, providing safe, effective
and affordable medicines both in sufficient quality and quantity to satisfy
the current and future need of the society.[1]

1.3. Mission of the company

 It aims to satisfy his customers’ needs by providing quality & effective


medicine at affordable price.
 It aims to satisfy his customer needs by providing both in quality and
quantity effective medicine at reasonable profit and maximize the wealth
of effort endowment in partnership with other development across and
activity participating in economic activities that ensure regional and
national development.
 It aims to be one of the leading and progressive pharmaceutical factory
and health care product manufacturing plants in Africa.[1]

1.4. Core values

 Be innovative and resourcefulness.

 Be learning organization.

 Promptness in problem solving.

 Focus on end user of APF’s products.

 Inculcating companywide quality culture.

 Operate with honesty and integrity.[1]

Prepared by Abadi T. Page 2


1.5. Main products and services

The quality and dosage forms conform to the standard set in USP and/or BP. The
Entire production process is also in line with the principle of ‘Current Good
Manufacturing practice’ set by the World Health Organization (WHO).Quality control
department has built up a Good Laboratory Center that guarantees the quality for all
products supplied.
The quality control department is equipped with the latest Analytical technology
instrumentations such as a computer Aided HPLC and spectra photometer. Highly
qualified professional with enough expertise on the instrument, monitor the whole
production flow.[1]

Products and production capacity of APF

APF is able to produce 91products-Tablets, Capsules, Vials, Am poules, Syrups,


suspension and Elixir and Dermatological preparations. The efficiency of the high-
tech machineries and the skilled man-power play important role to the production
capacity.

The production capacity by each production line is:-

Table 1. 1:- production capacity [2]

The production capacity by product line

Wet line – 1 70000 – 210000 Tablets/hr

Wet line – 2 70000 – 210000 Tablets/hr

Prepared by Abadi T. Page 3


Dry line 70000 –210000 Tablets/hr

CAPSULES:

General capsules: 252000capsules/hr

B -Lactum capsules: 138000capsules/hr

VIALS:

7cc 9000vials/hr

20cc 3200vials/hr

SYRUP AND SUSPENSION:

30ml 6000 Bottles/hr

60ml 6000 Bottles/hr

100ml 5800 Bottles/hr

125ml 5800 Bottles/hr

AMPOULES:

1ml 12000 Am poules/hr

2ml 12000 Am poules/hr

5ml 9960 Am poules/hr

10ml 4020 Am poules/hr

DERMATOLOGICAL PREPARATIONS:

60ml 1500 – 3600 Tube/hr

DRUGS REGISTERED BY DRUG ADMINISTRATION & CONTROL


AUTHORITY OF ETHIOPI

Table 1. 2:- Registered drug administration [2]

S/N Brand Name Generic Name unit Pack Size

ADIPRIN A.S.A 300mg Tablet 100*10’s

Prepared by Abadi T. Page 4


ALUSIL ALUSI (120mg+250mg) 100*10’s

Table

ALBAZOL Albendazole 200mg Tablet 12*10’s

ALBAZOL Albendazole 100mg/5ml 100’s

suspension of20ml

AMOXID -250 Amoxicillin250mg capsule 100*10’s

AMOXID-500 Amoxicillin500mg capsule 500’s

APICILIN-250 Ampicillin 250mg capsule 100*10’s

APICILIN-500 Amoxicillin500mg capsule 50*10’s

APICILIN-500 Amoxicillin 500mg 50*10’s


capsule

APICILIN-500 Amoxicillin500mg capsule 10*10’s

BENZACIL-1.2 Benzathine Penicillin 50

1.2miu

BENZACIL-2.4 Benzathine Penicillin 2.4miu 50

CET8RIN Cetrizine 10mg 10*10’s

CHLOQUIN Chloroquine phosphate 100*10’s

250mg Tablet

POLARIN Chlorpheniramine 2mg/5ml 1

Syrup

PEPTAC Cimetidine 400mg Tablet 20*10’s

CIFLOX -250 Ciprofloxacin250mgTablet 20*10’S

CIFLOX-500 Ciprofloxacin 500mg 20*10’s

Prepared by Abadi T. Page 5


CLOX 250 Cloxacillin 250mg capsule 50*10’s

DICLONAP-50 Diclofenac 50mg Tablet 20*10’s

DOXYCAP Doxycyclin 100mg capsule 20*10’s

FAMOD Famotidin 20mg Tablet 10*10’s


PROFEN Ibuprofen 400mgTablet 10*10’s

KONAZOLE Ketoconazole 200mg Tablet 10*10’s

KETRAN Levamisole 40mg Tablet 10*10’s

BENZOLAM Mebendazole 1

DOPAMET Methyldopa 250mg Tablet 20*10’s

METACOLAR Metoclopramide Syrup 1

METAZOLE Metronidazole 250mg capsule 50*10’s

B-COMP Vitamin B-complex Tablet 50*10’s

CAPH Chloramphenicol 250mg 100*10’s


capsule

TINID Tinidazole 500mg Tablet 20*12’s

Quinine Sulphate 300mg 50*10’s


QUINE Tablet
PEN-G-S Penicillin G. Sodium 1miu 50

Management and Professional Mix

APF has devoted a strong commitment to give the highest value to the professional
competence and high caliber. Presently the man power mix includes different
professional in all departments working for value adding and knowledge transfer.

Prepared by Abadi T. Page 6


Marketing and Sales:

Customer satisfaction in terms of delivering Quality and variety of medicine,


maintaining all the time availability, keeping packaging and pricing interest of
customers is the ultimate objective and performance of APF in its marketing
endeavor.

Considerable changes have been observed through promotion efforts on image


reengineering and product introduction to wholesalers, pharmacies, Drug shops and
RDVs. Promotion effort have been started targeting physicians in line with DACA
rules.

APF is constantly introducing new products following customer interests. Product


varieties now reached to 91.

The factory is now implementing intensive market penetration with affordable prices.
The distribution is done through domestic whole-sellers, institutional buyers and
different sales and distribution branches; Mekelle, Hawassa and Bihar Dar. APF
products’ coverage is increasing through time. The target is to attain distinctive
competence of the local pharmaceutical market in the short future through import
substitution, variety and availability.

1.6. End users of the company

The company has been involving in making medical drugs in order to serve the
society. So the end users of the company are people, government and private
institutions etc.

1.7. Over all organization and work flow

Prepared by Abadi T. Page 7


APF is one of a public enterprise set up to specialize in medicine resources
development engineering consultancy service 15 years back.APF is pharmaceutical
company that produces a lot of drugs and most of the drugs are produced from
explosive gasses. Company APF facilitates its work by dividing all its activities in to
different departments. Each department has its own role to improve the productivity
of the company. The work flow of each department is as follows:-
Firstly purchasing department purchases the appropriate raw materials to be converted
in to a product from the suppliers of the company. And the purchasing department
supplies the purchased raw materials into warehouse department (raw material
warehouse).
 Warehouse department, the raw materials receiver receives the raw materials
supplied by the purchaser of the company. Almost all of the raw materials
come from china. And these raw materials are known as beta-lactamic and
non-betalactamic.
 Quality control department controls (checks) the quality and amount of the
raw materials.
 Quality assurance department insures the standardized qualification of
checked raw materials and it classifies for the checked raw materials as
approved and rejected. The rejected raw materials are raw materials that
unsatisfied and have bad quality. And these rejected raw materials stored in the
rejection area until they are fired.
And the approved raw materials are raw materials that satisfied quality and then,
warehouse department receives these approved raw materials and send to
production department based on this department requisition form.
The production department receives the approved raw materials and divides them
in to each production line to be converted into a product. And production department
 Sends the product into finished products warehouse and finished products
ware house department provides the finished products into marketing
department.

Prepared by Abadi T. Page 8


 Marketing department sells the products into customers of the company.
 Maintenance and engineering department exercises the maintenance activities
of the company. Maintenance and engineering department have enough work
shop with enough technological maintenance machines, and enough spare
parts store.
 Managing department of the company performs an activities related to human
resource and controls every department.

Prepared by Abadi T. Page 9


THE GENERAL STRUCTURAL WORK FLOW THE COMPANY IS AS
FOLLOWS:

Figure 1. 1 : organizational structure of APF until division head levels [2]

Electrical power flow of APF


Electricity is one of the most blessings thing that scientist created for mankind and
modern life is some part of this, so world without electricity is nothing today. Addis
pharmaceutical factory uses two electrical power sources; main line (Ethiopian
electric power corporation) and distribution generator. The power from Ethiopian

Prepared by Abadi T. Page 10


electric power corporation (EEPCO) comes from “Sassoon” power station Rated with
15kv and stepped down by step-down transformer to 380/220 at controlled frequency
of 50 Hz. The second electrical power source is the distribution generator. Addis
pharmaceutical factory (APF) contains two manual start standby generators. When
there is power outage, the whole company uses electrical power fed from this diesel
generator.
EEPCO

Distribution
generator

PC-01 PFC

Compressor Chiller Boiler Workshop Water


PC-02
treatment

Head office LPC Tablet Tablet Tablet G.C Syrup Ampoule BC


weight 1 weight 2 drying

Cafe Clinic Administration

Blistering Cleaning Coating Sterling Y-cone


machine Compres
machine machine granulator Vial
machine sors Vial Vial Vial
washing labeling
filling capping

Dry Blistering Cap inspection Cap Drum Double Granul Cap


suspension & chiller 1 inspection 2 mixer cone mixer ator fillings

Belt derive Bottle Capping Filling Labeling


cleaning machine machine machine

Prepared by Abadi T. Page 11


Figure 1. 2 : power flow of APF

CHAPTER TWO

Over all internship experience


In the company where I joined, I have refined my knowledge not only in team leader,
team playing, and interpersonal communication skills etc but also in academically I
have upgraded my practical knowledge. [1]

2.1. The way I get into the company


In 2009 E.C at the end of the first semester the practically internship acceptance
format paper had reached in my hand from the electrical and computer engineering
department and he had told us to search the company that we want to attach and to
insert the acceptance paper back to the department. During that time, I had gathered
some idea by asking to the students who had attached to different industry all about
the activity that performed in the company focused on electrical power activity, as a
result one student who had attached in APF told me that in APF mostly the activity
concerned on electrical workshop which deals with repairing, maintenance, testing
electrical equipment etc. Ultimately, I decided to take my internship in that area but I
could not get acceptance by the company but esubalew himself attached me to the
company.

2.2. Section of the company I worked in

In APF there are about ten departments which each of them contributes their function
to the company. I worked in the electrical section which concerned with maintenance,
testing, supervising any electrical fault in the company and troubleshooting etc .The

Prepared by Abadi T. Page 12


workshop of the company contains many electrical types of equipment which are
stored in the spare store house that when I started my internship work in such a way
that first I studied all the electrical equipment that found in the company with their
functions and their working principles. In the company all the electrical engineer
works in cooperation in the electrical workshop and they supervise all the electrical
machines as well as the electrical equipment. If there is any faults in any of the
electrical machines the worker who is responsible to work on that machine reported
the problems, so the electrical engineer supervise the problem and take the best
solution as needed. During my internship duration I spend my time by working with
them in all the electrical section.

2.3. The work flow of the section and the task I executed

I have been looking to industrial materials that needs a maintenance and the materials
we use in the process of the systems like relays, contactors, overload, timers, AC
machines and internally and externally. I was working in every section of the
company where there is a problem or an electrical fault but the workshop is the main
head for the maintenance area so I spent my and I have been working in this section
or department for last four months in my internship time.
The work flow of this section is that, the staff workers will always stay in their office
or work shop. The local workers of the production area or those responsible for
monitoring the machine call to the fixed line of the technicians and the technician on
duty will respond in no time and check out the recommended fault and we were in
touch in every electrical fault. And there is a procedure they follow, that is they first
ask a question for the workers responsible for monitoring what is wrong there, and
depending on the information they get the decides what to do. That is checking
providing a solution.

2.4. Methods and procedures have been using

When I worked in Addis pharmaceutical factory I used the following methods to solve
any problems that happened in my work section.

Prepared by Abadi T. Page 13


1. I take an observation of any problem that happened in the section
2. I asked and discuss all about the problem that faced with the workers
3. I use internet searching in order to get full information all about the electrical
equipment function and the reason for electrical equipment failure.
In order to supervise and get solution to any problems that occurred in the company I
follow some basic procedures out of them I mostly focused on the following steps:
When I was working in APF, I have saved in my mind the following procedures that intended

on solving any problems in safety manner.

First step preparation: The first and foremost step is before I begin to troubleshoot any
piece of equipment, I must be familiar with the company safety precautions, rules, and
procedures while troubleshooting any electrical failure. Next, I gathered information
regarding the equipment and the problem. I carefully understand how the equipment
is designed to operate.
Secondly I have taken an observation on the fault area as most faults provide obvious
clues as to their cause. Through careful observation and a little bit of reasoning, most
faults can be identified as to the actual component with very little testing.
Thirdly I discussed the workers to define the problem area that on which part is the
problem happened based on my experience that I have developed in my class. In this
stage I applied logic and reasoning to my observations to determine the problem area
of the malfunctioning equipment.
Fourthly once the problem area has been defined, I lead to identify the possible causes
of the malfunction of the electrical equipment by observing the manual prepared in
the company and by relating to the knowledge I have searched in the internet and the
one I have gained in my class combined with the help of testing.
Finally I have discussed with the intended workers in order to identify the most
probable causes from the list of possible causes at the end I have gained my practical
on the testing and repairing of the faulty equipment.

Prepared by Abadi T. Page 14


2.5. Fault analysis of induction

Figure 2. 1 : an induction motor

One of the most common electrical motor used in any industrial is the induction
motor, so in Addis pharmaceutical factory in very process there are so many induction
motors that help in providing a twisting force. Those motors are also known as
asynchronous motors because it runs at speed less than it synchronous speed. An
induction motor comprises a magnetic circuit interlinking two electric circuits which
are placed on the two main parts of the machine: (i) the stationary part called the
stator and (ii) the rotating part called the rotor. Power is transferred from one part to
the other by electromagnetic induction. For this induction machine is referred as an

Prepared by Abadi T. Page 15


electromechanical energy conversion device which converts electrical energy into
mechanical energy. Rotor is supported on bearings at each end.
In Addis pharmaceutical factory when I was deal with any problems that concerned
with the induction motor as well as another motor. we first studied the type of the
problem, its causes ,and at the end we put the remedy. I have developed my practical
knowledge on the induction motor problems as well as another motor and the best
remedy to be taken which are frequently happened is described as follows.

Table 2. 1:- fault analysis of any motor

Problems Possible cause Tests Solutions


Motor will not start. 1. Fault with supply. 1. Check for correct 1. Fit new fuses, reset

2. Wrong connections voltage at motor circuit breakers, etc.

in control circuit. terminals. 2. Sort out control


2. Check to ensure circuit.
contactors operate.
Supply or Started trips 1. Wrong or loose 1. Check all lugs are 1. Fix up connections.
out at start. connections. properly crimped or 2. Change motor for

2. Motor overloaded. soldered, and correct size.


connections are tight.
3.Low Voltage due to 3. Change cables for
volt drop in cables 2. Check load correct size.
performance data
4. Overload or circuit 4.Correct setting of
against motor
breaker incorrectly set overload or breaker or
performance data.
or sized. change.
3. Measure voltage at
motor terminals while
motor starting.

Prepared by Abadi T. Page 16


4.Check settings of
overload and circuit
breaker and allow for
starting current

Motor starts but has 1. Incorrect 1. Check connection 1. Sort out and correct
no torque. Motor does connection. diagram and connections.
not reach full speed or nameplate data.
2. Delta wound motor 2. Check timer and
takes a long time to
connects in star. 2. Check load starter control circuit.
accelerate.
3. Star/Delta starter performance data 3.Change motor for co
staying in Star. against motor
rrect size.
performance data.
4. Inertia of load to 4. Change cables for
high. 3.Measure voltage at
correct size.
motor terminals while
5. Motor overloaded.
motor starting
6. Low voltage due to
volt drop in cables.
Motor Overheating. 1. Motor overloaded. 1. Check load 1. Fix problem with

2. Ineffective cooling. performance data. load or fit larger

2. Check connection motor.


3. Excessive ambient.
diagram and 2. Sort out

Prepared by Abadi T. Page 17


4. Delta wound motor nameplate data. connections.
in star. 3. Check volts and 3. Restore supply to
5. Motor “Single amps in all three all phases.
Phasing”. phases. 4. Correct voltage or
6. Wrong voltage or 4.Check nameplate frequency.
frequency. 5.Measure phase to 5. Balance supply or
7. Supply voltage phase voltage accept unbalance.
unbalanced. accurately

No load amps in 1.Incorrect connection 1. Check connection 1. Sort out and correct
excess of Full load diagram and connections at motor
2. Star wound motor
amps nameplate data. terminals.
connection Delta.
2. Correct supply
3. Voltage in excess of 2. Measure voltage at
voltage
nameplate. motor terminals.
3. Change motor for
3. Compare supply
4. Motor supplied for
correct voltage and
voltage and frequency
different voltage or
frequency
to nameplate.
frequency.
Unbalanced amps in 1.Unbalanced supply 1.Measure phase to 1.Balance supply
different phases when voltage phase voltage
motor loaded accurately
Excessive electric 1. Wrong connections. 1. Check connections 1.. Fix up connection
noise 2. Check voltage with
2. Wrong voltage. 2. Correct voltage.
nameplate
3. Motor ‘Single-
3. Check volts with

Prepared by Abadi T. Page 18


Phasing’. amps in all three 3. Restore supply to
phases. all three phases.

Motor runs in wrong 1.Wrong connections 1.Watch shaft rotation 1. Swap and two
direction phases of supply.

Motor amps in excess 1. Motor overloaded. 1. Check load and 1. Fix problem with
of nameplate full load performance data. load or fit larger
2. Low supply
amps on load 2. Measure voltage at motor.
voltage.
motor terminals 2. Fix problem,
3. Wrong voltage or
3. Check nameplate. maybe with larger
frequency.
4. Check nameplate cables.
4. Wrong
5 & 6. Check volts 3. Correct voltage or
Connections.
and amps in all three frequency.
5. Motor ‘Single- phases. 4. Sort out and
Phasing’. 7. Measure motor correct.

6. Supply voltage speed and check load 5 & 6. Restore

unbalanced. speed requirements. balanced supply to all


three phases.
7. Motor Speed not
7. Change motor for
matched to load.
correct motor speed.

Prepared by Abadi T. Page 19


2.5.1. Electrical equipment’s which I used in APF

In Addis pharmaceutical factory I have gained some practical knowledge on some


basic electrical equipment which are always used in any industrial company as well as
in where as they are needed. I want to list some of them as follows.

Contactor

Figure 2. 2 : contactor [3]

An electrical contractor is an electromagnetic switch similar to a relay. It is a switch


which can be controlled with the current/pulse to switch over an electrically powered
circuit. When current passed through the electromagnet, a magnetic field is produced.
This results in the contact between movable core and contactor.

Relay

We know that most of the high end industrial application devices have relays for their
effective working. Relays are simple switches which are operated both electrically
and mechanically. Relays consist of an electromagnet and also a set of contacts. The
switching mechanism is carried out with the help of the electromagnet. The main
operation of a relay comes in places where only a low-power signal can be used to
control a circuit. The working of a relay can be better understood by explaining the
following diagram given below.

Prepared by Abadi T. Page 20


Figure 2. 3 :Relay Design [4]

The diagram shows an inner section diagram of a relay. An iron core is surrounded
by a control coil. As shown, the power source is given to the electromagnet
through a control switch and through contacts to the load. When current starts
flowing through the control coil, the electromagnet starts energizing and thus
intensifies the magnetic field. Thus the upper contact arm starts to be attracted to
the lower fixed arm and thus closes the contacts causing a short circuit for the
power to the load. On the other hand, if the relay was already de-energized when
the contacts were closed, then the contact move oppositely and make an open
circuit.
As soon as the coil current is off, the movable armature will be returned by a force
back to its initial position. This force will be almost equal to half the strength of
the magnetic force. This force is mainly provided by two factors. They are the
spring and also gravity.

Figure 2. 4 : Timer

Prepared by Abadi T. Page 21


Overload relays

A relay that opens a circuit when the load in the circuit exceeds a preset value, in
order to provide overload protection; usually responds to excessive current, but may
respond to excessive Value of power, temperature, or other quantities.

Figure 2. 5 : Overload relay [5]

Circuit breaker

A circuit breaker is an automatic switch, which is an on-load device, designed using


electromechanical techniques to prevent power overload damage or short circuits. A
circuit breaker has a solenoid inside, and it is kept at a certain voltage level, to keep
the triggering mechanism in balance. Once a fault is observed in the circuit, such as
an overload or a short circuit, the switch is triggered, and the current flow is
discontinued. After solving the pertaining problem in the electrical system, the circuit
breaker can be switched back to on again.

Prepared by Abadi T. Page 22


Figure 2. 6 : Circuit breaker [7]

Timer
A timer is a device that measures time, especially one that is part of a machine and
causes it to start or stop working at specific times.

Fuse

Figure 2. 7 : Fuse [8]

The verb "fuse" means "to melt". A fuse is an over current responsive safety device
used to protect an electrical circuit from the effects of excessive current. It is placed
in series with the electrical circuit it is intended to protect. Its essential component
is a strip of metal that will melt when the electric current in the circuit exceeds the
fuse's rated value. The element (link) in the fuse melts and opens the circuits.

Prepared by Abadi T. Page 23


The opening of a fuse signifies that something is wrong with the circuit and should
be corrected before the current is turned back on. The problem can be an accident, a
defective component or a worn-out component.

Clamp meter

A clamp meter is an electrical test tool that combines a basic


digital multimeter with a current sensor.

Figure 2. 8 : clamp meter

Digital multi meter

In the company which I worked in we mostly use digital multimeter for measuring of
voltage, current, resistance continuity etc.

Transformer

A transformer is an electrical device which, by the principles of electromagnetic


induction, transfers electrical energy from one electric circuit to another, without
changing the frequency. The energy transfer usually takes place with a change of

voltage and current. Transformers either increases or decreases AC voltage.

Prepared by Abadi T. Page 24


Figure 2. 9 : transformer [9]

Frequency converter

Frequency converter is a power conversion device. The frequency converter converts


a basic fixed-frequency, fixed voltage sine-wave power (line power) to a variable-
frequency, variable-voltage output used to control speed of induction motors.

Figure 2. 10 : frequency converter [10]

Wire cutting tools


These tools are used for cutting of wire when we need some wires in their limited
length. We mostly used wire cutter and wire strippers.

Screw driver
Screwdrivers are used to drive in screws in electric fixtures, electrical boxes, or
the outside plates to the wall or ceiling. I have used in my activity different types
of screw driver out of them Phillips, slot type etc.

Pliers and wrenches


For many electrical jobs, tools to manipulate wires, nuts and bolts, and other
electrical and mechanical objects are necessary. To loosen nuts and bolts,
electricians can use wrenches.

Prepared by Abadi T. Page 25


We have been using different types of pliers in the company that I joined in to list
some of them: Linesman's pliers, side cutting pliers and needle nose pliers.

2.6. FORWARD REVERSE MOTOR CONTROL

The forward reverse motor control is used a system where forward and backward or
upward and downward movement in the operation are needed. In Addis
pharmaceutical factory some motors works in the forward reverse direction , so it
obligates me to understand the control circuit and power circuit in order to solve
smoothly when any problems happen in the forward reverse operation of the motor.

2.7. How I have been good in perform my tasks

When I was working in APF, i become careful in any electrical hazards mean that I
carefully follow the precautions and I was participated in open mindedness with all
the works and I was always happy to learn, to observe any faults when they happened.
Finally I believe on knowing weakness improve strengthens so if I have got some
unclear ideas I did ask for them and I searched in the internet in order to make clear
that doubt.

2.8. Faced challenges and measurements taken

During performing my task I had not that much challenges but I was faced to few
challenges. Some of them are:-
 Documented materials for one specific section were difficult to found. For
example I wanted only about maintenance section how the work flow looks
like but this was difficult for me to find out this is because APF uses
documenting of different files in one big folder generally.
 I get difficult in managing the electrical activity in the first few days.

Measurements taken

 I asked for the workers to help me for all challenges regarding education.

Prepared by Abadi T. Page 26


 I mostly use Google to solve unclear idea.
 I took good attention to all some difficult activity.

CHAPTER THREE

Overall internship experience gained


In the company which I was attached I have refined my skills which are good in any
industrial or group works that I developed to apply in my life at every moment either
as leader or member.
The following are the basic skills that I have gained in the Addis pharmaceutical
factory:

3.1. Improving practical skills

Skill is the ability or knowledge acquired through deliberate, practice, training, and
sustained effort to smoothly and adaptively carryout activities or job functions
involving cognitive, technical and interpersonal skills. Practical skill is the skill
gained through observation, practice, training and experiments of the theoretical
knowledge to change into real situations and events rather than theory. There, in the
Addis pharmaceutical factory I have improved my practical skills that mostly focused
in electrical: machines, equipment's, circuit boards, tests, measurements, maintenance
and how they work.

3.2. Upgrading theoretical knowledge

Theoretical knowledge is the knowledge that comes to have through reading written
things, drawings and listening person who have experience on the salient point.
Theoretical knowledge is the first knowledge which serves as source to upgrade
practical skills. In the hosting company which I worked, I was upgrading my
theoretical knowledge which I obtain in the university which is in concept through
practice, and training.

3.3. Interpersonal communication skills

Prepared by Abadi T. Page 27


The ability to communicate effectively with superiors, colleagues, and staff is
essential, no matter what industry you work in. In the company that I joined I got so
many people with different professions: as a result I refine my speaking skills by
communicating with them during in practice as well as by asking them when I need to
get an answer for anything which is not clear to me. The peoples who work in the
company are always interest to communicate with each other as well as with the
students.
In the company area not only I simply refine my speaking skills but also I have
learned the ways of speaking, how to speak politely, how to wait others until they
forwarded their view of points. At the end I have learned and developed the basic
communication skills that are key for work place success, which few of them are the
listed below:
 listening
 nonverbal communication
 clarity and concision
 friendliness
 confidence
 empathy
 open mindedness
 respectfulness
 feedback
 Picking the right medium etc.

3.4. Team playing skills

Teamwork is a unity when workers combine their individual skills in pursuit of a goal.
Team member has equal role and important to the output. Without unity every output
is not as the intended one, so in the company which set foot in I have learned the basic
team playing skills in the workplace which includes the following few:
 Helping and guiding with member,
 Being able to clearly communicate,

Prepared by Abadi T. Page 28


 Sharing openly and willingly,
 Being an active participant,
 Being flexible,
 Showing commitment,
 Being respectful,
 Being reliable,
 Decision making
 Problem solving
 And being able to mediate problems between team members in
order to accomplish the final output in the desired way etc.

3.5. Leader ship skills

During the practical attachment I observed that whether a company manager or a


project leader requires a number of soft skills to help them positively interact with
employees or team members. I have developed the salient skills to be a good
leadership out of them which listed as follows:
 Communication skills,
 Motivation,
 Positivity
 Responsibility and trustworthiness etc.

3.6. Understanding work ethics

A work ethics is a set of moral principals an employee uses in his job which is vital to
a company to achieve its goal and every employee from the manager to the entry
work level workers must have a good work ethics to keep the company functioning at
its peak. During the internship I have upgraded my knowledge on the characteristics
of work ethics which are helps to identify who have positive work ethics among this
 Punctuality,
 Discipline,
 Productivity,
 Dedication,

Prepared by Abadi T. Page 29


 Reliability,
 Professionalism,
 Respectfulness and respecting the rule and regulation of the company
are the most one.

3.7. Entrepreneurship skills

The capacity and willingness to develop organize and manage a business venture
along with any of its risks in order to make a profit. Addis pharmaceutical factory
works design and supervision enterprise is governmental organization, which is
responsible for providing safe the patients of human beings by the company of APF.
The basic principle of this organization is increase product of medicine factory. The
success of work is done in the company through the display of the excellent works
performed by the company and the good workers.

Prepared by Abadi T. Page 30


CHAPTER FOUR

Conclusion and recommendation

4.1. Conclusion

I am lucky in participate my internship in this biggest company in our country. I have


acquired a lot of knowledge, in both theoretical & practical. Now, I am familiarizing
with different electrical equipment to control &maintenance industries. I upgrading
that maintain machine, repairing, replacing and also installing of the different
electrical equipment. During my internship program I grasp different knowledge from
my hosting company. At the time internship different practical works are
implementing. For me this program is the transition door to implement my technical
talent.
In working place it is important to know the technical words, because it enables me to
briefly communicate with the employees. So I want to give me my greatest
appreciation both the skilled and Unskilled workers who participated in this my
internship.
In general, these three consecutive month render me I widened practical skills and
theoretical knowledge.

4.2. Recommendation

To improvement of company the following recommendation is useful;


 use modern machineries & equipment, for example Blistering machine

 The lack of technical office should be want solution because the office with
workshop & it is not suitable to work.

Prepared by Abadi T. Page 31


 They should be supply the office materials like computer, seat, office & table.

 The utility power transformer house should be alarm alert for safety.

 APF should be implementing the automatic generator starting for better


production.

 Must use back up transformer

 They should have to schedule the time for checking electric line & machine.

Reference

[1] http://www.apfethio.com/products/

[2] APF manual


[3]https://www.google.com/search?q=images+of+electricasl+contactors&tbm
[4]https://www.google.com/search?=images+of+electrical+
+relays&oq=images+of+electrical++relay
[5]https://www.google.com/search?
=images+of+electrical+overload+relays&oq=images+of+electrical+overload+relays
[6] (IEC 60050 (Publication date: 1990-10). Section 411-31: Rotation Machinery -
General,)
[7] https://www.google.com/search?= images+of+electrical+circuit+breakers
[8] https://www.google.com/search?= images+of+electrical+fuse
[9] https://www.google.com/search?= images+of+electrical++transformer
[10]https://www.google.com/search?= images+of+electrical++frequncey+convertor

[11]http://www.enggcyclopedia.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/Figure-1-Electric-
motor-structure.png

Prepared by Abadi T. Page 32


Prepared by Abadi T. Page 33