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• Arab traders’ honesty

• Kiring Noor, the first Indian national to embrace Islam
• Sarqafi, Governor of Oman under Hazrat Umer (634 – 644), invaded sea ports near
Bombay without his permission


• Gifts and women from Ceylon

• Pirates attack
• Al Malik bin Abdul Malik as a Ummayyad Caliph
• Hijaj Bin Yousaf
• Muhammad Bin Qasim  Syrian soldiers  Entered from Makran
• Raja Dahir killed near Mehran (Indus) in June 712
• Rani Bai, Raja’s wife, challenged MBQ with 15,000 soldiers and defeated. She burnt


• 12 Dirham tax
• No social caste system
• Established Sadru Imam Al ajal for Islamic laws interpretation
• Suleman bin Abdul Malik called MBQ back and perished him in 715


• MBQ  712
• Mehmud Gahznavi – 2nd expediter – 17 attacks between 1000 to 1026
o Ghaznavid period ended in 1185 with death of Khusru Malik
• Ghuri period (1185 – 1192)  expanded to Bengal and Bihar
• Dehli Sultanate (1192 – 1526)  Muslim sufis
• Mughal era (1526 – 1857)  Muslims sufis
• Muslim sufis
o Shaikh Ismail in Ghaznavi period
o Ali Makhdom Hajveri came Lahore in 1035, Bahud Din Zakaria, Shaikh Fareed Dud Din,
Khawaja Bukhtiar Kaki, Nazam Ud Din Olia, Mujadid Alaf Sani, Hazrat Shahi Wali Ullah ,
Muin ud Din Chishty

• Cultural Influence
o Caste system
o Urdu and Hindi came into being
o Islamic way of construction
• Religious Influence
o Shankarachariya (Organizer of modern Hinduism) influenced by Islam
o Ramananda, Ghuru Nanik and Chaitanya were Hindu prominent leaders influenced by


I. Bagti Movement
• Started in 14th century
• Objective to check the popularity of Islam
• No difference between Ram and Raheem, Parn and Quran, Kasshi and Kahba
• Bagt Kabir, Ramananda, Guru Nanak and Dadu were prominent leaders

II. Din-E-Ilahi (1582)

• Akbar introduced in desire to win the collaboration of Rajput chiefs
• Marriages with Hindu girls
• Elevation of Hindu to imp positions
• Under Din e Elahi
o Worship of sun
o Jizya and pilgrimage tax abolished
o Akbar as shadow of god on earth
o Cow slaughter and Azan prohibited
o No child named as Muhammad
• Hazrat Mujadid Alaf Sani opposed Din e Elahi
• Muslims lost their hegemony

HAZRAT MUJADID ALAF SANI (June 1564 – Dec 1626)

• Sheikh Ahmad Sirhindi

• Father name  Sheikh Abdul Ahad
• Went to Delhi at age of 36
• Disciple of Khawaja Baqi Billah

Social Conditions during his time

• Populace belief in Karamat
• Ulema refer to Jurisprudence rather than Quran
• Akbar’s anti Islamic look
• Hindu cultural domination
• Bakhti Movement
• Wahdat al Wajood theory

Mujadid’s efforts
1. Jehad against Din-i-Ilahi
2. Theory of Wahdat-ul-Sahood
a. Countering Wahdat-ul-Wajood
3. Refusal to prostate – society purification
a. Jehangir imprisoned him in Gawaliar for three years
4. Preaching in fort of Gawaliar
5. Preparation of Disciples
6. Maktaba-e-Imam-e-Rabbani
a. Letters to important nobles and leaders
b. Abdur Rahim, Khan e Azam Mirza Aziz, Mufti Sardar Jehan
7. Books
a. Isbat ul Nabuwwat
b. Risla e Nabuwwat
i. Need & importance of Prophethood
c. Maktubat e Imam e Rabbai
d. Toheed e Shaheedi
i. Islamic philosophy
8. Two nation theory
a. First stone of two nation theory – first founder of Pakistan
9. Influence over Jehangir – Khutba; Cow Slaughter;

Shaikh imprisoned
• Asaf Jah, Jehangeer’s PM Shaikh summoned No prostration jailed
• After 3 years of imprisonment, Jehangeer released him giving him 10000 rupees
• He stayed 3 years in Jehangeer courts
“When seen in the perspective of history, whether accepted by Sufis or not, it is
in the rejection of monism that Sheikh’s claim for being the Mujadad of his
age.” IH Qureshi
“Sheikh Ahmad, an individual from Sirhind, rich in knowledge and vigorous in
action. I associated him for few days and found marvelous things in his
spiritual life. He will turn into a light which will illuminate the world.” Khawaja
Bakhtiar Kaki quoted by S M Ikram


• Father of Modern Muslim India

• Real name Qutabuddin
• Born at Delhi son of Shah Abdur Rahim (Fatwa e Alamgeeri) – scholar of Fiqa and
Islamic jurisprudence
• Got knowledge of Fiqah, Ahadith, Tafsir and Hikmat  completed study in 15 year of
• Went to Arabia for higher education and came back in July 1732
• He taught at Madrasa Rahimia for 12 years
• Aim  Revive the past glory of Muslims and purify the society inwardly

• Incapable successor of Aurangzeb
• Un-Islamic trends,
• Muslim life honour property not secured,
• Shia-Suni conflicts,
• Marhats and Sikhs challengers


1. Religious work
a. Translation of Holy Quran in Persian – 1738
b. Commentary on Hadith collection of Imam Muttah in Arabic and persian
c. Urged Muslims to follow Holy prophet & abandon un-Islamic trends
d. Trained students in different Islamic knowledge
e. Recommended application of Ijtehad
f. Initiated Tatbiq  liberal element
g. Balance b/w four schools –
h. Removed misunderstanding b/w Shai & Sunni – Khilafat-al-Khulafa
2. Political work
a. Marathas were threatening the Muslim empire
b. Wrote letters to seek help from Muslim nobles against Sikhs  won over Najib ud Dola,
Shuja ud Daula
c. Ahmad Shah Abdali  defeated Sikhs at the Third battle of Panipat in 1761
3. Social work
a. Strongly opposed integration of Islamic culture in subcontinent
b. Concept of reorientation of Muslim society
i. Basic social justice
ii. Removing social inequalities
c. Concept of economy
i. Production of wealth
ii. Consumption of wealth
iii. Distribution of wealth
iv. Exchange of wealth
4. Literary work
a. Izalat-al-Akifa
b. Khalifa-al-Khulafa
c. Al-Insaf-fi-Bayan-Sababa-al-Ikhtilaf
d. Master piece of literature 1738
e. Commentary on Hadith Imam Muttah
f. Quranic translation in Persian
g. Alfauz-ul-Qabir Fi-Usool-e-Tafseer
h. Hujjat-ul-Balagha – about decay, Ijtehad, Mujjad and Ruler

“I was informed through Ilham that I would have to undertake this

responsibility. The time has come when every injunction of the Sharia and
instruction of Islam should be presented to the world in a rational manner.”
Quoted by SM Ikram


• Inheretor of mantle of Shah Abdul Aziz

• Birth at Rai Barally in 1786
• Father Shah Illam Ullah
• Inspired by Shah Abdul Aziz
• 1810 – joined Nawab Ameer Khan as Sawar
• 1818 – wrote Seerat-e-Mustaqeem

• Punjab ruled by Ranjit Singh who mutilated Muslims
• NWFP by Sikhs

• Purification of Muslim society and destruction of British power through armed struggle
– Establishment of a state based on Islamic principles

Jehad Movement
• HQ at Nowshehra in Dec 1826
• Battles
1. OKARA 1826
2. HAZRO 1827
3. Yar Muhammad Conspiracy
 He joined Mujahideen in Pesh, force arouse to 80,000
 Tried to poision Syed Ahmad
 Killed by Mujahideen in 1829
 Ranjit Singh saved Peshawar and gave to Sultan Muhammad
5. HAZARA II 1830
 Sikh were attacked, Sultan M arrested
• Declaration of Khilafat (1830)
1. Sultan M pardoned & withdrew from Pesh
1. Sikh attacked, Syed Ahmad killed
Causes of Failure
1. Western generals Vantura and Elite in Ranjit’s army – training & modern war strategy
2. Outdated weapons of Mujahideen
3. Financial sources of Ranjit Singh
4. Misudnderstaning created by Ranjit Singh
5. Ranjit attracted Pathans by bribing who did spy, revolt & slaughtered Mujahideen
6. No support for poors – Zakat collection
7. Islamic laws during war – compulsory girls & widow marriage
8. Severe punishment
9. Pathans were against Wahabisim

“The movement led by Brelvi was a precursor for later Muslim national
movements of the subcontinent.” Dr. Sachin Sen


Wide scale ignorance of Muslims resulted in Hindu emergence in 19th century.

Haji Shariat Ullah (1781 - 1840)
Left for Arabia in 1799  influenced by MBA Wahab  started Faraizi Movement – stress
on Faraiz - when back  denied concept of Peer-Mureed  opposed Zamindar levied taxes
 Harassed by them  left Najabari  Death in Faridpur

Dudu Mian

(Mohsan Ud Din Ahmad)  divided Bangal into circles and appointed Khalifa  opposed tax
of Durga and land  Khas Mehal occupied on his direction  established his own state 
harassed by Zamindars thorough false charges  died in Sep 1824

TITU MIR (1782-1831)

Nisar Ali (Titu Mir) born in Bengal Visited Makkah in 1819 and influenced by Syed
Ahmed Barelvi.  On arrival back, he started preaching He made a fort in Narkalberia,
asked followers not to give beard tax (Kishan Rai) Kishan attacked but defeated  183
British army attacked Narkalberia and killed Titu Mir.

1. Security of Peassantory – Lathibardar  Political branch
2. Social Justice – Punchayat  Religious branch

Doctrine: 4 steps
1. Tauba
2. Fraiz
3. Tuheed
4. Dar-ul-Arab

Khalafat System:
1. Ustaad
2. Uprasta – Advisor to Ustaad
3. Superintendent Khalifa – 10 G K
4. Gaon Khalifa – 500 families

The War of Independence 1857 ended in disaster for the Muslims. The British chose to
believe that the Muslims were responsible for the anti-British uprising; therefore they
made them the subject of ruthless punishments and merciless vengeance. The British
had always looked upon the Muslims as their adversaries because they had ousted them
from power. With the rebellion of 1857, this feeling was intensified and every attempt
was made to ruin and suppress the Muslims forever. Their efforts resulted in the
liquidation of the Mughal rule and the Sub-continent came directly under the British
After dislodging the Muslim rulers from the throne, the new rulers, the British,
implemented a new educational policy with drastic changes. The policy banned Arabic,
Persian and religious education in schools and made English not only the medium of
instruction but also the official language in 1835. This spawned a negative attitude
amongst the Muslims towards everything modern and western, and a disinclination to
make use of the opportunities available under the new regime. This tendency, had it
continued for long, would have proven disastrous for the Muslim community.

Seeing this atmosphere of despair and despondency, Sir Syed launched his attempts to
revive the spirit of progress within the Muslim community of India. He was convinced
that the Muslims in their attempt to regenerate themselves, had failed to realize the fact
that mankind had entered a very important phase of its existence, i.e., an era of science
and learning. He knew that the realization of the very fact was the source of progress
and prosperity for the British. Therefore, modern education became the pivot of his
movement for regeneration of the Indian Muslims. He tried to transform the Muslim
outlook from a medieval one to a modern one.

Sir Syed Ahmad Khan (17 Oct, 1817 – 27 Mar 1898)

• Got knowledge from Farid ud Din (maternal-grandfather – Ex Mughal PM)

• Got knowledge of Quran, Arabic, Persian, History, Maths and Medicine

Joined gov’t in 1839 – after father’s death – in a clerical job  1841 – promoted as Sub-
Judge  1846 – transferred to Delhi  Chief judge in 1846  was offered an estate for
services rendered to British during war 1857 but he rejected  1877 – member of
imperial council  1886 – University of Edinburgh – LL.D degree 1888 – Knighthood

Educational Aspect of Aligarh Movement


1. Modern education for Muslims to compete Hindus

2. Cooperation with the British government

1. Schools
• Muradabad (1859)
• Ghazipur (1863)
2. Scientific society at Gahazipur (1864)
• (to translate modern work from English to urdu and Persian)
• 1866 – Society published Aligarh Gazette (to arouse sentiments of goodwill &
• Muhammadan Educational Conference
• Established in 1866  held public meetings, discussed modern education techniques 
Nawab Mohsan al Malik, Vaqar ul Malik, Maulana Shibli and Maulana Hali as members
3. Muhammadan Educational Conference
• Established in 1866  held public meetings, discussed modern education techniques 
Nawab Mohsan al Malik, Vaqar ul Malik, Maulana Shibli and Maulana Hali as members
1869 – went to England, studied education system of Oxford & Cambridge
4. Anjuman-i-Taraqi-i-Musalmanan-i-Hind (1870)
• to impart modern knowledge to Muslims
5. Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College
On pattern of Oxford  Fund raising committee formed 24th May, 1874, MAO High
school established  1877 – got status of college  western, eastern and Islamic
education  1920 – status of University

Political Aspects of Aligarh Movement

1. Muslims should avoid active politics

2. Sir Syed wrote “Risala-i-Asbab-Baghawqat-i-Hind

Causes of WOI 1857

1. Non representation of Indian in legislative councils

2. Conversion of Indian into Christianity
3. Mismanagement of Indian army
4. Ill advised measure of gov’t
• Consequence: Indian membership in Act 1861
3. 1866 – Sir Syed formed British India Association at Aligarh – to express grievances of
Indians to gov’t
4. wrote Loyal Muhammadans of India
5. Indian Patriotic Association 1888 – forum for those who did not join Congress
6. Muhammadan Political Association 1903 – Against Hindu Revivalist movements
a. Arya Smaj – Hindustan 1977
b. B G Tilak – Cow Slaughter
c. Shudhi -
d. Shangtahn -

Religious Services of Aligarh Movement

1. Wrote “Essay on the Life of Muhammad & Rebattle” in response to William Muire’s
objectionable remarks in “Life of Muhammad”
2. Philosophical commentary “Tabaeen-al-Kalam” on bible – point out similarities
3. Influenced by MBA Wahab and Shah Ismail Shaheed – having positive attitude
towards religion

Social services of Aligarh Movement

1. “Tahzib-ul-Akhlaq”  criticized conservative way of life and advised to adopt new trend
2. Established Orphanage houses
3. Founded Anjuman-i-Tariki-i-Urdu  protecting Urdu
4. Ahkam-i-Taham-i-Ahle-Kitab  Muslims can eat with Christians
Pioneer of two nation theory
• Advocate of Hindu Muslim unity
• Urdu Hindi controversy 1867 in Banaras, changed his views
• Shakespeare dialogue

Features of Aligarh

• Western & Eastern Education

• Islamic Education
• Residential College
• European and Indian staff
• Non-Muslim students
• Loyalist Disposition

Aligarh Movement after Sir Syed’s death

1. 1889 – Sir Syed proposed a trustee bill  Sir Syed as Sec. of the trust & Syed Mahmud
(son) as joint sec.
2. After Sir Syed’s death (1898), Syed Mahmud as Sec.  was a weak manager 
3. Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk as new sec  devoted  deposited six lac Rs to gov’t  handled
the conflict b/t two groups – Sahibzada Aftab Khan (in favor of European staff) &
Muhammad Ali Johar  Died in 1907
4. Nwab Vaqar ul Malik took over tussle on European staff arouse  Nawab resigned in
1912 – health
5. Nwab Muhammad Ishaq Khan  deposited 20 lac for status of University  1919-
college student played role in Tehrik e Khilafat

• Aligarh movement was cooperating with British

• Christians working to convert Muslims into Christianity
• Apr 1866 – Madrasah established at Deoband  2nd to Al Azhar Cairo
• Founder  Haji M. Abid floated the idea  Collection of fund  Managing committee –
Maulana M Qasim , Maulana Fazl ur Rehman, Maulana Zulfiqar, Maulana M Yaqoob 
Maulana Shabir A Usmani taught
• Maulana M Qasim first principal  worked devotedly  Madrasah came to known as
“Qasim al Uloom I Deoband”
• Madrasah followed Madrasah I Rahimia (Shah wali Ullah’s father) and British education
• Produced  Shah Abdur Rahim, Ashraf Ali Thanvi, Rashid Ahmad Ganghoi, Maulana
Mehmood ul Hassan

Political Services of Deoband

• Jamiat Ulama I Islam Thanvi group  lead by Ashraf Ali Thanvi, Shabir Ahmad Usmani
 Muslim league
• Jamiat-ul-Ulema-i-Hind  Madni group  lead by Maulana Hussain Madani, Mufti Kafayat
Ullah influenced by Abu-ul-Kalam Azad  Congress

Educational Services of Deoband

• A great religious Madrasah  2nd to Al Azhar

• Principals  Maulana M Qasim (1880)  Rashid Ahmad Ganghoi  Sheikh ul Hind M.
Mehmood Ul Hassan.

Deoband and Aligarh

• Policy towards British

• Political role of Muslims
• Emphasizing area of education

Rapprochement with Aligarh

• Jamiat-ul-Ansar (1906) at Deoband  Sahibzada Aftab A Khan attended the meeting 

Swap of education – religious and western
• Jamiat-i-Milia (1920)

• Aligarh  acquisition of western education

• Deoband  religious education
• Need for balanced school
• Committee was formed in 1892  Nadva-tul-Ulema established in 1894  functioned in
• Founder  Maulana Abdul Ghafoor  Shibli Naumani and Mau. Abdul Haq chalked out a
liberal program


• Promoting religious knowledge, moral uplift and social regeneration of Muslims, Work
to remove secretarial differences
• British gov’t opposed the idea (Anthony MacDonal expressed it as a political institute)

Nadva-tul-Ulema & Shibli Nohmani

• Shibli influenced by Maulana M Farooq – opposing Sir Syed while his father influenced
by Sir Syed
• Joined Aligarh as A Prof of Arabic in 1883  Impressed Sir Syed  Asset to Aligarh 
some serious differences  Man of arrogance and sensitive  resigned in 1904
• Associated with Nadva  used his expreince to bring reform  gave training in writing
(Syed Suleman Nadvi, Abu-al-Kalam Aza)
• Established academy”Dar-ul-Musanifin”
• Differences arouse  resigned

• Sikh raj in Punjab  Muslims backwardness

• 250 Muslims established for educational guidance  influenced by Aligarh
• Founder  Khalifa Hameed-ud-Din first president  Dr. M Nazir & Munshi Abdur Rehim
• Muthi bar atta scheme for funding


• politically Establishing educational institute

• Counter Christian missionaries
• Orphanage houses
• Stable Muslim society
• Preserve Muslim culture
• Organize Muslims

Educational Services

• Established several primary schools on Aligarh pattern  15 schools by 1894

• Madrasa tul Muslimin (Islamia High School Sheranwala Gate) in 1889
• Islamia College for women Lahore in 1938
• Islamia College Railway road, Islamia College civil lines, Islamia College cant, Hamayat
I Islam Law College & Center for adult education Lahore

Political Services

Students of Islamia College Railqway road  body guard of the Quaid  role in 1940
resolution  MSF led by Hamid Nizami

• Syed Hasan Afandi (President of Centeral Mohamadan Association of Karachi –

influenced by Sir Syed) established  Hassan died in 1896  Wali Muhammad took over
• 1n 1943 – Board of the Madrasah decided to rename as Sindh Muslim College
• Quaid got education from this institute


• Edward College (1888) was a Christian missionary  need for institute for Muslims 
Sahibzada Abdul Qayum established Dar-Ul-Uloom-Islamia in 1902
• Sahibzada Abdul Qayum established Funding committee in 1912  Dar-ul-Uloom raised
to Islamia College Peshawar
• Qaid got education from this institute  Sahibzada called Sir Syed of NWFP
• Islamia College has major contribution in 1947 referendum

The ideology of Pakistan stems from the instinct of the Muslim community of South Asia
to maintain their individuality by resisting all attempts by the Hindu society to absorb it.
Muslims of South Asia believe that Islam and Hinduism are not only two religions, but
also two social orders that have given birth to two distinct cultures with no similarities.

The ideology of Pakistan took shape through an evolutionary process. Historical

experience provided the base; with Sir Syed Ahmad Khan began the period of Muslim
self-awakening; Allama Iqbal provided the philosophical explanation; Quaid-i-Azam
translated it into a political reality; and the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan, by passing
Objectives Resolution in March 1949, gave it legal sanction. It was due to the realization
of Muslims of South Asia that they are different from the Hindus that they demanded
separate electorates. When they realized that their future in a 'Democratic India'
dominated by Hindu majority was not safe; they put forward their demand for a separate

As early as in the beginning of the 11th century, Al-Biruni observed that Hindus differed
from the Muslims in all matters and habits. He further elaborated his argument by
writing that the Hindus considered Muslims "Mlachha", or impure. And they forbid having
any connection with them, be it intermarriage or any other bond of relationship. They
even avoid sitting, eating and drinking with them, because they feel "polluted".

The Ideology of Pakistan has its roots deep in history. The history of South Asia is largely
a history of rivalry and conflict between the Hindus and Muslims of the region. Both
communities have been living together in the same area since the early 8th century,
since the advent of Islam in India. Yet, the two have failed to develop harmonious
relations. In the beginning, one could find the Muslims and Hindus struggling for
supremacy in the battlefield. Starting with the war between Muhammad bin Qasim and
Raja Dahir in 712, armed conflicts between Hindus and Muslims run in thousands.
Clashes between Mahmud of Ghazni and Jaypal, Muhammad Ghuri and Prithvi Raj, Babur
and Rana Sanga and Aurangzeb and Shivaji are cases in point.
When the Hindus of South Asia failed to establish Hindu Padshahi through force, they
opted for back door conspiracies. Bhakti Movement, Akbar’s diversion.



• A political ideology is a system of beliefs that explains and justifies a preferred political
order, either existing or proposed and offers a strategy (Institution, processes, program)
for its attainment.
• An ideology offers an interpretation of the past, explanation of the present and a vision
of the future
• Ideology is a set of beliefs, values and ideals of a group and a nation. It is deeply
ingrained in the social consciousness of the people.
• It is a set of principles, a framework of action and guidance system that gives order
and meaning to life and human action.


• When thinking of a nation or a social group is rejected.

• An ideology emerges when people feel strongly that they are being mistreated under
an existing order, when their status is threatened by fundamental changes occurring in
the society, and when the prevailing ideology no longer satisfies them


o Consciousness
o Analysis of current situation
o Creating new thinking
o Legitimate – De-legitimate
o Role of Leadership


• It is a motivating force
• It provides a common plate form.

• Based on ideals of Islam

• Historical experience provided the base; Allama Iqbal gave it a philosophical
explanation; Quaid-i-Azam translated it into a political reality; and the Constituent
Assembly of Pakistan, by passing Objectives Resolution in March 1949, gave it legal
• It was due to the realization of the Muslims of South Asia that they are different from
the Hindus that they demanded separate electorates. However when they realized that
their future in a ‘Democratic India’ dominated by Hindu majority was not safe, they
changed their demand to a separate state.
• Hindu British were exploiting Muslims in India. So Muslims adopted this ideology to
save their identity and culture from total elimination.


• Two-nation concept was based on Nationhood which was there long before Pak
Ideology. Muslim Traders – Attackers – Rulers (Qutb Ud Din Abik, Ghaznavi) – Sufis (Al
Hajveri, Sheikh Ahmad Serhandi)
• Based on fact that Muslims were separate nation having their own culture, civilization,
customs, literature, religion and way of life.
• Despite living together for more than one thousand years, they continue to develop
different cultures and traditions. Their eating habits, music, architecture and script, all
are poles apart.
• The basis of the Muslim nationhood was neither territorial nor racial or linguistic or
ethnic rather they were a nation because they belonged to the same faith, Islam. They
demanded that the areas where they were in majority should be constituted into a
sovereign state, wherein they could order their lives in accordance with the teachings of
Holy Quran and Sunnah of Holy Prophet (PBUH).
• The Muslims were put into the backwardness with the help of Hindus. This was one of
the outstanding motivations that paved the way to declare the separate identity of
nationalism, the Muslim nationalism
• Due to British and Hindu exploitation they were forced to safe guard their national and
relational identity.
• Sir Syed Ahmad Khan is pioneer of two nation theory. The Ali-Garh movement
produced educated leadership who could protect the Muslims’ rights on the Western
political lines.
• Two Nation Theory means that Pakistan should be a state where the Muslims should
have an opportunity to live according to their faith and creed established on the Islamic
principals. They should have all the resources at their disposal to enhance Islamic culture
and civilization.
• There are two major nations in British India. The Muslims are not a community but a
nation with a distinctive history, heritage, culture, civilization, and future aspirations. (All
India Muslim League)
• The Muslims wanted to preserve and protect their distinct identity and advance their
interests in India. They wanted to order their lives in accordance with their ideals and
philosophy of life without being overwhelmed by an unsympathetic majority.
• Initially, they demanded safeguards, constitutional guarantees and a federal system of
government with powers to the provinces for protection and advancement of their
heritage, identity and interests. Later, they demanded a separate state when neither the
British nor the Hindu majority community was willing to offer those guarantees and


• British expansion had more deepening impact on Muslims as “The people who were
important in history are no longer important” KK Aziz
• Urdu Hindi controversy under Congress leadership in 1867 in Banars
• Revivalist movements against Muslims – Bakhti, Deen e Elahi, Shuddi and Shanghtan
• Hindu attitude – Partition of Bangal and its repeal
• Political experience of Muslims under congress ministries in 1937-39


1. Enforcement of sovereignty of Allah Almighty

a. Quaid said “We do not demand Pakistan to acquire a piece of land, but we wanted a
homeland where we could introduce Islamic principals”
2. Establishment of Islamic democracy
a. Quaid at Sibbi in 1948 “It is my firm belief that our salvation lied in following the
golden rules of conduct as given by our great law giver, the prophet of Islam. Let us lay
the foundation our democratic system on Islamic ideals and practices”
3. Revival of Muslim image and Identity
4. Protection of Muslim culture and civilization
a. Urdu Hindi controversy
b. Shuddi and Sanghtan Movements
5. Two Nation Theory
6. Establishment of a balanced economic system
a. All highly courts and military positions were reserved for Hindus.
b. Agriculture and Industry was dominated by Hindus
c. Islamic system has the benefit for poor as well as rich – Zakat, Ushar

• He changed the course of history. He was a real charismatic leader possessing a

visionary leadership.
• Gave practical shape to the ideology given by Sir Syed and Allama Iqbal
• He started his political career in 1906 by joining the Indian National Congress. He was
elected to the Legislative Council in 1909 and in 1913 he also joined the All India Muslim
League (AIML). Now he was member of both the political parties.
• Having disagreement with Gandhi on the issue of Swaraj (self-rule), complete freedom
from the British and on using extra-constitutional means, Jinnah resigned from the
Congress in 1920.

His early efforts to promote Hindu-Muslim unity were materialized when THE LUCKNOW
PACT (1916) was signed. The Hindus accepted the Muslim demands:
o Separate Electorate
o One-third Seats in Central Legislature
o protection of minority rights

• In the Nehru Report, the accepted Muslim rights were ignored. Jinnah retaliated
forcefully by presenting 14 Points in 1929.
• 1935 onwards Quaid started emphasizing on separate identity of Muslim and a
separate nation. Started mobilizing masses.
• 1937  there are only two parties in India said Nehro on performance of ML in elctions.
Quaid said “Muslims are third party in India”
• 1939  “Muslim and Hindu are two nations. We are going to live as a nation and play a
role as a nation.”
• March 9, 1940  Quaid wrote his only article published in British media namely
“Time and Tide”. He discussed 1.How Hindu and Muslims are separate nations?
2. What should be future of India and how Muslims can be accommodated well?
• He emphasized on Islam as well as modern democracy, Social economic justice and
rights of minorities.

• “Pakistan was to be a modern democratic state that derived its ethical

foundation from Islam where the source of guidance and inspiration for
constitution making and governance is going to be Islam”

• “It has been taken for granted mistakenly that Muslims are a minority, and of
course we got used to it for such a long time that these settled notions
sometimes difficult to remove. The Muslims are not a minority; the Muslims are
a nation by every definition. By all canons of international law we are a
nation.” 23rd March 1940

• ““India is not a nation, nor a country. It is a sub continent of nationalities,

Hindus and Muslims belong the two major nations. The Hindus and the Muslims
belong to two different religion, philosophies. Social customs and literature.
They belong to two different civilizations which are based mainly on conflicting
ideas and conceptions. Their aspect on life and of life are different. It is quite
clear that both derive their inspirations from different sources of history” 23rd
March 1940

• “We are a nation with our distinct culture and civilization, language and
literature, art and architecture, sense of values and proportions, legal laws and
moral codes, customs and calendars, history and traditions. In short we have
our distinct outlook on life and of life By all canons of International law we are
a separate nation.” 1942

• The Muslims are nation by every right to establish their homeland” 1942
• “We should base our democracy on the principals and concepts of Islam” Feb

• “Pakistan does not mean freedom and independence only, but the Islamic
ideology as well which has to be preserved.” June 1945

• “I cannot understand a section of people who deliberately want to create a

mischief and make propaganda that the constitution of Pakistan will not be
made on the basis of Shariat. Islamic principals today are as applicable to life
as they were 1300 years ago.” Jan 25, 1948 Eid Milad Un Nabbi Karachi Bar

• Men like Allama Iqbal are born but in centuries

• His first public appearance was in 1899 at the annual session of Anjuman Himayat-i-
Islam in Lahore when he presented the poem, Nala-i-Yatim.
• At initial stages Dr Iqbal was a nationalist by ideas and his poetry contained verses like
Tarana-i- Hind.
• He wet Europe for higher education in 1905-08. Lived in England and got Phd from
Munich University. He stayed in Hindenburg where he wrote poem Daraye Nekar key
• Represented Muslims in second and third round table conferences in 1931 and 1932.
• Gave the famous Allah Abad Address which late on provided base for Lahore

• “I am fully convinced that Muslims of India will ultimately have to establish a

separate homeland as they cannot live with Hindu in the United India.”

• “Religion and politics are not distinct from each other”

• “India is a continent of Human beings belonging to different religions. To

base a constitution on the conception of homogenous India is to prepare her for
civil war. I, therefore, demand the formation of a consolidated Muslim state in
the best interest of the Muslims of India and Islam. The formation of
consolidated North west Indian state appears to be the final destiny of the
Muslims” Allaha Abad Address

• “I would like to see the Punjab, NWFP, Sind, Balochistan amalgamated into a
single state as a self government within the British empire or without. This is
the final destiny of the Muslims of N.W. India.” Allaha abad Address

• “I have been a staunch advocate of putting an end to the religious distinction

from the country. But now I believe that the protection of separate national
identity is in the best interest of Muslims and Hindus. Since the Muslims are a
separate nation with their separate cultural values and religious trends, and
they want to have a system of their own linking, they should be allowed to live
under such system” Allaha Abad Address