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Chapter - IV



Today we are the citizens of a free and democratic country India, but 50 years back

was India a free country? No, British’s ruled India and a long struggle were carried out to

achieve freedom from India. This Indian freedom struggle could have been a total

impossible dream if it had not been people like Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, and

Netaji Subash Chandra Bose. These people towards the attainment of independence guided

the whole India ably. We call them leaders. A good leader is not only a good commander

but is also able to extract work from his followers and channalize them towards the

attainment of the goal. So not only giving commands but also acceptance of requests also

becomes an essential part of the leadership behaviour. The leader applies his qualities and

skills for achieving the group goals. So we can define, as “Leaders are those who have the

ability to influence the behaviour of others without the use of force”.

Styles of Leadership:

A Style is a patter of behaviour associated with the specific role of the leader, i.e,,

the manager in the organization. Me Gregor (1967) defines ‘style’ as the method of coping

with organizational reality, which evolves out of trial and error and is not deliberately

adopted or eventually recognized by the leader. The predictable ways of coping with the

reality of the work environment, according to him, may be termed as managerial styles. A

major problem in research in the context of leadership behaviour has been the identification

on behaviour categories. Different taxonomies have emerged form the different research

disciplines, and it is difficult to translate from one set of concept into another. It also points

out the difficult of attaching a single style to all leaders. Sometimes, it is hard to tell

whether a leader is a salesman or a bonafied visionary, a promoter or an entrepreneur.

Styles also differ from one culture to another. There are several basic dimensions that

differentiate cultures and hence leadership styles differ. Hyundai and Daewoo have had

much success than their Japanese counterparts and have posed a new threat to the American

business leadership. The Koreans have flexible styles, whereas the Japanese are from a

homogeneous society, so they are less of anything that is not Japanese1.

There are many different ways of leading others. Some styles may be considered to

be the old mainstream ways of leading. Yet the majority as being difficult and not very easy

to learn and apply may view others. However these leadership styles may be what shall be

used as guidelines in the future to measure how good a leader actually is. If one was to

really look at the differences between these styles, they will find that they are totally

different in some respects. The old style wants the employees to conform and not stand out.

Although, one will also find that they are actually very similar in many ways. For example,

the old style says the leader is recognized as a change agent. The new style says that a

transformational leader supports people to engage in a wide variety of personal development

programs. They give power and responsibility to people to make a difference within their

own area of influence. Leaders of transformation are constantly on the look out for people

with the courage to be different; they encourage those with an alternative point of view.

Trend-setting bosses know that when people take control of their own lives they can bring

increased value to organizations through increased effort, insights and innovation. Some of

l.D.P.S. Verma and Kamlesh Jain(2000), Leadership styles of Indian managers. The Indian journal of commerce,
Vol.53, No.4, October- December, 2000, p.37.

these newer styles can include such styles as transformational leadership and transactional


Certain patterns of behaviour or activities become associated with specific roles. The

leadership role is no different Managers in business enterprises, while making decisions,

behave in characteristic ways which are usually termed ‘leadership styles’ the style is a

distinctive but adaptive behaviour of a manager. An administrator, executive or a supervisor

in the environment of his own decision-making and administrative action. It reflects how

the manager or administrator behaves or will behave in an adaptive relationship to an

environment or a situation. This also means that the style. Which a manager adopts at a

time in his social and individual behaviour, is shaped and conditioned by the environments

in which he acts.

In this paragon of leadership style the leader and the followers collaborate, the result

of recognition that they are part of an interdependent system, their destiny is co-determined.

Energy and information flow both down from the leader to the followers and up from the

followers to the leader. If a leader aligns with the followers, positive feedback amplifies the


It is difficult to separate theories of what leadership is and on what does it depend

from the descriptions of behaviour and styles of leaders. However a number of researchers

have concentrated primarily on the behaviour of leaders on the assumption that ability to

lead and willingness to follow are based on leadership styles.

One of the dimensions upon which leadership behaviour has been classified is the

locus of decision making in the group. Some leaders make all or almost all the decisions

regarding the groups activities, this leadership behaviour is typically classified as

‘authoritarian’ Other leaders delegate a great deal of decision making responsibility to group

itself, this type of leadership behaviour is classified as ‘democratic’, in other groups, neither

the leader nor the group makes many decisions. Individual behaviour is left up to the

individual; the leader in essence abdicates his leadership role. This kind of leadership

behaviour is called ‘laissez faire’. Main emphasis, however, has been placed on the two

‘opposites’ the authoritarian and the democratic. The authoritarian leader has been variously

described as directive, production centered, and homothetic. The democratic leader has also

been called participatory, employee centered and idiographic

In India the studies on leadership began in the mid 50s. There are two definite trends

in the studies, the first one are the studies done by Indian researchers following the western

models, ignoring the Indian cultural characteristics and the second are the studies conducted

by the American organizational behavioral scientists visiting management institutes in India

in the 60s and opined on the basis of a limited data. Both the types of studies have their

limitations in the sense that they have presented a lopsided view of leadership of the Indian


The Research studies have been conducted by the behavioral Scientists on leadership

to find out the answer to the question, what makes a leader effective? Is leadership success

due to his personality or, his behavior, or the type of followers he has or the situation in

which he works, or a combination of all these?. These researchers, however, could not give

a satisfactory answer of the question. These researchers have been presented various

theories or approaches on leadership. The understanding of the various theories of

leadership will provide guidelines to judge as how a leader emerges. Leadership styles are

related to the theories of leadership. The styles practiced by the Managers based on the

theories of leadership.

Leadership theories reflect people’s concerns at a particular point of time. There was

a time when autocratic, paternalistic leadership was accepted form. There was another time

when the military style was dominant. Later on, benevolent leadership was valued. Not long

ago, half of the last century, the focus has been on change leadership, action leadership, and

transformational leadership. And during the past decade, because of the abrupt down turn m

the fortunes of leading fortune 500 companies, the manipulation of markets and stock

markets scams in the United States and even in India, there is an upsurge of literature on

value based leadership2.

Classification of Leadership Theories:

Many Authors can classify leadership Theories in to various types. The important

theories can be classified into the following.

1. Trait Theory:

Trait is defined as relatively enduring quality of an individual. The trait approach

seeks to determine ‘what makes a successful leader’ from the leaders own personal

characters. Trait approach leadership studies are quite popular between 1930 and 1950. The

method of study was to select leaders of eminence and characteristics were studied. It was

the hypothesis that the persons having certain traits could be successful leaders. A number

of research studies were conducted during the last 50 years. The cumulative findings of

these studies concluded that some traits increase the likelihood of success as leaders, but

more of the traits guarantee success3.

2. Dharani P Sinha(2004) “Leadership". ‘From vision to execution’ Indian management, May 2004, p73.
3. L.M.Prasad “ Principles and practice of management” Sultan Chand and Sons. Educational Publishers, 2001,

Trait theories of leadership sought personality, social, physical or intellectual traits

those differentiated leaders from non-leaders. Trait theorists refer the people like Mahatma

Gandhi, Indira Gandhi, Margaret Thatcher, Nelson Mandela, and describe in terms of

charismatic, enthusiastic and courageous. Thus trait theories assume that leaders are bom,

not made. The research studies focus on personal traits to characteristics that distinguish the

leaders form the followers and a successful leader from an unsuccessful leader 4. The

characteristics of successful leaders can be presented in the following in Table 4.1.

Table 4.1: Characteristics of successful leaders

Trait/ characteristics Description

Desire for achievement, ambition, high energy, tenacity,
Drive initiative
Honesty and integrity Trustworthy, reliable, open
Desire to exercise influence over others to reach share
Leadership motivation goals
Self confidence Trust in own abilities
Intelligence, ability to integrate and interpret large amount
Cognitive Ability of information
Knowledge of the business Knowledge of industry, relevant technical matters
Creativity Originality
Ability to adapt to needs of followers and requirements of
Flexibility situation
Source: Jerald Greenberg and Robert A Bazron, “ Behavior in Organizations,” Prentice Hall of India, 1999, p501.

Stodgill has presented a review of various research studies. According to him

various trait theories have suggested, these traits in a successful leaders. The following are

the major innate qualities in a successful Leader as follows 5.

1) Physical features 3) Emotional stability

2) Intelligence 4) Human Relation

4. P. Subba Rao “ Personnel and Human Resource Management” Himalaya publishing house, 2001, P307.
5. L.M.Prasad, “ Principles and practice of management” Sultan Chand and Sons. Educational Publishers, 2001,
Pp 636-638
5) Empathy 8) Technical Skills

6) Objectivity 9) Communication Skills

7) Motivating Skills 10) Social Skills

Though all these qualities contribute the success of leadership, but it cannot be

said for certain that the relative contributions of these qualities. Moreover, it is not

necessary that successful leader in equal quantity possesses all these qualities. The list of

qualities may be only suggestive and not comprehensive.

Evaluation of Trait Theory:

The Trait theory is very simple. However, this fails to produce clear-cut result. It

does not consider the whole environment of leadership of which trait can be only one

factor. More over, no generation can be drawn about various traits for leadership, as

there were considerable variations in traits established by various researchers. Jennings

as concluded, 50years of study has failed to produce personality trait or set of qualities

that can be used to discriminate leaders and non-leaders. In brief this approach presents

the following problems:

1. There cannot be generation of traits for a successful leader. This was evident by

various researches conducted on leadership traits.

2. No evidence has been given about the degree of various traits because people

have various traits with different degrees

3. There is problem of measuring traits. Though there are various tests to measure

the personality, traits, however no definite conclusion can be drawn

4. There have been many people with the traits specified for leader but they were not

good leaders.

However, this approach gives indication that leader should have certain personal

characteristics. This helps to management to develop such qualities through training and

development programmes.

2. Behavioral Theory:

This approach emphasizes that strong leadership is the result of effective role

behavior. Leadership is shown by person’s acts more than by his traits. Though trait is

influence acts, the followers also affect these. Goals and the environment in which these

occur. Thus there are four basic elements in this approach such as leaders, followers,

goals, and environment, which affect each other in determining suitable behavior.

Leadership acts may be viewed in two ways. Some acts are functional (favourable) to

leadership and some are dysfunctional (unfavorable). These dysfunctional acts are also

important in leadership because they de-motivate employees to work together. As such a

leader will not act in this way. The dysfunctional acts am inability to accept sub­

ordinates’ ideas, display of emotional immaturity, poor human relations and poor

communications. This approach uses three skills by leaders such as technical, human and

conceptual skills to lead his followers. Technical skills refer to a person’s knowledge and

proficiency; human skills are ability to interact effectively with people and to build

teamwork, conceptual skills deal with the ideas and enables mangers to deal successfully

with abstractions, to set up models and devise plans. Behavior of a manager in a

particular direction will make him good leader while opposite of this would discard him

as a leader. Setting goals, motivating employees for achieving goals, raising the level of

morale, building teamwork effective communication etc are the functional behavior for a

successful leader6 7

Critical Evaluation of Behavioral Theory

The basic difference between the trait approach and behavioral approach is that

former emphasizes some particular trait to the leader while latter emphasizes particular

behavior by the leader. It is true that favourable behavior provides greater satisfaction to

the followers and the person can be recognized as leader. However, this approach suffers

from one weakness i.e., a particular behavior at a time may be effective, while at another

times may not be effective. This means that the time factor becomes a vital element,

which has not been considered here.

3.Situational Approach:

The prime attention in this approach is given to the situation in which leadership

is exercised. Since 1945, much emphasis in leadership research is being given to the

situations that surround the exercise of leadership. For the first time, this approach was

applied in 1920 in armed forces of Germany with the objective to get good Generals

under the different situations. Winston Churchill was treated as the most efficient Prime

Minister during the Second World War. However, he was failed afterwards when

situation changed. Ohio State University research has given four situational variables that

affect performance of leadership. These are 1.

i) The cultural Environment: Culture is a man made social system of belief, faith and

value. Many of lives have a significant influence upon behavior and understating of

employee’s behavior requires the understanding of culture in which he lives. Culture

may interfere with rational production efficiency by requiring actions unnecessary or

6. I bid Pp 638-639
7. I bid Pp 639-640.

unrealistic from a national point of view, but necessary from culture point of view. Thus

leadership should be directed to influence behavior of followers in the context of culture.

ii) Differences between individuals: Human behavior is caused by some combination of

antecedent factors. Besides for any given aspect of behavior, there may be many

contributing factors which affect behavior in different ways such as aptitudes, personality

characteristics, physical characteristics, interest and motivation, age, sex, experience etc.,

within this frame work, individuals in the leadership process may be classified the

leadership process. Some persons may perceive particular leadership style suitable while

other may have different perception.

iii) Differences between Jobs: People are performing different types of jobs in the

organization. Placing of individuals in jobs, which they can perform at a satisfaction level

stems from four different considerations such as economic, legal personal and social.

Different conditions are also influenced leadership behavior differently. It is because of

the fact that demands of job almost inevitable force a leader into certain kinds of

activities. Such requirements do much to set the framework within which leader must


iv) Differences between the organizations: Various organizations differ on the basis of

their size, ownership pattern, objective, complexity, managerial pattern, organization

structure leadership pattern and cultural environment etc., in different types of

organizations, leadership process tend to differ. For example, in military or Government

administration, leadership behavior will be different as compared to business


Critical Analysis of Situational Approach:

The situational theory of leadership gives the analysis how leadership behavior

differs with situational variables. Thus the question, why a manager in particular

situation is successful while in the other situation is unsuccessful, it is answered by this

theory. However, this approach is not free from certain limitations such as this theory

emphasis leadership ability of individual in a given situation, organization factors become

helpful or constraints to great extent to an individual leader in exercising the leadership

and theory does not emphasize the process by which good leaders can be made in the

organization. Thus, it puts a constraint over leadership development process.

4. Path- Goal Theory of Leadership (PGT)

The Path- Goal theory of leadership is usually associated with Martin Evans

(1970) and Robert House (1971) who developed a theory of leadership effectiveness

using a contingency approach based on the expectancy theory of motivation. In effect,

their theory states that leaders can exercise four different kinds of styles- Directive

leadership (giving directions to the subordinates rather than seeking their participation),

supportive leadership (being friendly and approachable to subordinates), participative

leadership (asking for suggestions from subordinates before making decisions) and

achievement-oriented leadership (setting challenging goals and assignments for

subordinates). The path -Goal theory postulates that any of the four styles can be used

effectively by the leader, depending upon situational factors such as subordinate

characteristics (ability, internal-external locus of control), and attributes in the work

setting (task characteristics, formal authority system and the nature of the primary work

groups). If there is a good in between the leadership style and the situational factors in

the work setting, then subordinates will experience job satisfaction, accept and value the

leader as a dispenser of valued rewards, and will engage in motivated behaviours because

they will know that their effort will lead to performance and that performance will lead to

valued rewards

The rationale behind theory is that the leader can help the subordinates to achieve

their goals by providing what is missing in the situation. Employees are helped by the

leader to see the path by which their efforts will lead to performance, and performance to

desired rewards. This leader can do by providing the missing links in the situation. For

instance, if the task is very ambiguous the leader can help the subordinate by providing

grater clarity, through directive leadership; if the task is too repetitious and boring, the

leader can provide socio-emotional support; if the employees have good skills and desire

to contribute to the success of the department, the leader can engage in participative

leadership; and if the employees have a high need for achievement, the leader can engage

in participative leadership; if have a high need for achievement the leader can engage the

employees on to higher performance by giving them more challenges and responsibility,

thus exhibiting an achievement oriented leadership style.8

There is some empirical support that the desired outcomes such as motivated

behaviour and job satisfaction do indeed occur when the leader provides the subordinates

with whatever is missing in the situation—Challenge, support, direction, etc. However,

more empirical research is needed to substantiate the usefulness and validity of the model

and to test the various hypotheses that can be generated there from (Schriesheim and

Denisi, 1981).

8 Umasekaran, Organizational behavior Text and cases leadership and managerial effectiveness, Tata Me Graw-
Hill publishing Ltd, New Delhi, 1996. P 158-159..

5. Fielder’s Contingency Theory:

Social psychologists began the search for situational variables that affect the

leadership roles, skills, behavior and follower’s performance and satisfaction. Numerous

situational variables were identified, but no overall theory pulled it all together until Fred

Fiedler proposed a widely recognized situation-based, or contingency, theoiy for

leadership effectiveness.

Fiedler (1967) developed a model to predict work group effectiveness by taking in

to consideration the 'fit' or match among- (i) The leader's style (task/relationship oriented)

(ii) The leader-member relations (iii) Task-structure and (iv) The position power of the

leaders. Contingency approach of leadership states that management leadership styles

that best contributes to the achievement of organizational goals might vary in different

type of situations or circumstances. Fred Fiedler developed theory of leadership after

having conducted extensive research on leadership for thirty years. This theory is known

as Contingency Theory of leadership. This theory can be presented in the following9

9. Umasekaran, Organizational behavior Text and cases leadership and managerial effectiveness, Tata Me Oraw-
Hill publishing Ltd, New Delhi, 1996, P 157.

Fig. 4.1: Fiedler’s Contingency Styles

Situational characteristics

Leader-member Good Good Good Good Poor Poor Poor Poor

Task-Structure High High Low Low High High Low Low
Position-Power Strong Weak Strong Weak Weak Strong Strong Weak
Y"“ J
High Moderate Low

Control of Leader


Source: Umasekaran Organizational Behavior Text and Cases, Leadership and managerial effectiveness, Tata Me
Grew- Hill, New Delhi, 19%. PI 57.

6. Me Gregor’s Theory X and Theory Y

Theory X and Theory Y are two theories of management, which are based on

antithetical assumptions about human nature and work. Theory ‘X’ the Traditional, work

centered, authoritarian approach, assumes that employees dislike work and must be

coerced by management. Theory Y believes that people can and will enjoy fully

productive work if permitted to participate significantly in decision-making. It is as such

a people centered, democratic, human relations approach 10.

Douglas Me Gregor first enunciated the two theories in 1960 in an attempt to

explain the inadequacies of authoritarian types of management and to devise a better type

on the basis of modem behavioural science and Maslow’s definition of human needs and

10. Lester Robert Bittel, Encyclopedia of professional management, Vol.2, Me Graw- Hill, 1978, Pp 1166-1167.

The implicit assumptions of the managers of an organization will determine its

modus operandi, down to the smallest action. Theory X management assumes:

1) There is no intrinsic satisfaction for people in work.

2) Humans will avoid work as much as possible.

3) Therefore, management must direct, control, coerce, and threaten workers in

order to achieve management goals.

4) The average human seeks to avoid responsibility, lacks ambition or

imagination, and craves direction and above all, security.

On the basis of these assumptions, theory X management, to achieve its goals,

apply external motivating force, or authority, which in turn determines that: 1) locus of

decision will be solely in the nominal head of the organization; 2) the structure of the

organization will be pyramid with authority flowing from the top down; 3) the

supervisor’s main functions are to transmit orders (not to make decisions) and to

emphasize production; 4) the role of the w orker is that of an isolated cog in the machine,

communicating only with his or her supervisors.

Theory Y, at the opposite end of the continuum, assumes:

1) Expenditure of effort in work and play is natural to humans

2) External control and threat are not essential to bring about effort toward

organizational goals to which humans are committed.

3). The satisfaction of individual ego and self- actualisation needs can be direct

products of efforts toward organizational goals.

4) . The average human learns, under proper conditions, not only to accept but also

to seek responsibility.

5) The capacity for creativity is widely distributed in the population

6) Modern industry rarely utilizes the intellectual potentialities of the average

human. Theory Y assumptions thus lead to a participatory organization in

which authority is accepted by workers, not imposed on them. Accordingly,

(i) the locus of the decision may be wide spread, at any level; (ii) the group,

including its supervisors, becomes the primary organizational unit; (iii) the

supervisor deals with groups; (iv) the worker has become a group member

who participates in setting organizational goals and therefore works willingly,

intelligently. In sum, theory X management will rationalize problems by

blaming the nature of its human resources, but a theory participates in setting

organizational goals and therefore works willingly, intelligently. The concepts

of theory X and theory Y have been of great service in defining the limits of

the approaches to organization theory and in focusing attention on their

opposing assumptions. Criticism centres on their extreme and rather sweeping

generalizations. The theories pay insufficient attention to the specific of

interrelationships between particular jobs, to the great variety of conditions

and human individuals. Finally, neither Theory X nor theory Y seems to be

consistently supported by research findings.

Modern Theories of Leadership:

The modem theories of leadership can be classified into two types; they are,

1. Charismatic leadership theory

2. Transformational leadership theory

7. Charismatic Leadership Theory:

The Charismatic concept, charisma, goes as far back as the ancient Greeks and is

cited in the Bible, its modern development is attributed to the work of Robert House.

According to House, the charismatic leaders are characterized by self-confidence,

confidence in subordinates, and high expectations for sub-ordinates, ideological vision,

and use of personal example. Followers of the charismatic leaders identify with the leader

and the mission of the leader, exhibit extreme loyalty to and confidence in leader,

emulate the leader’s values and behavior and derive self-esteem from their relationship

with the leader 11.

Mahatma Gandhi’s characters of self-confidence, ideological vision and personal

example of made him as a charismatic leader. Mr. Dheerubhai Ambani’s character of

self-confidence, Mr. Ramalinga Raju’s (of Satyam Computers) character of confidence in

subordinates and high expectation for subordinates made them charismatic leaders.

Table 4.2.

11. P. Subba Rao “Personnel and Human Resource Management", Himalaya publishing house, 2001, Pp 315-316.

Table 4.2: Key Characteristics of Charismatic Leaders

1. Self-confidence: They have complete confidence in their judgment and ability

2. A vision: This is an idealized goal that proposes a future benefit than the status
quo. The greater the disparity between this idealized goal and the status quo, the
more likely that followers will attribute extraordinary vision to the leader

3. Ability to articulate the vision: They are able to clarify and state the vision in
terms that are understandable to others. This articulation demonstrates on
understanding of the follower’s needs and, hence, acts as a motivating force

4. Strong convictions about the vision: Charismatic leaders are perceived as being
strongly committed, and willing to take high personal risk, incurs high costs, and
engage in self-sacrifice to achieve their vision

5. Behavior that is out of the ordinary: Those with charisma engage in behavior
that is perceived as being novel, unconventional, and counter to norms. When
successful, these behaviors evoke surprise and admiration in followers

6. Perceived as being a change agent: Charismatic leaders are perceived as agents

of radical change rather than as caretakers of the status quo

7. Environment sensitivity: These leaders are able to make realistic assessments of

the Environmental constraints and resource needed to bring about change
(Source: Based on J.A. Conger and R.N.Kanungo, Behavioral Dimensions of Charismatic leadership, in J.A.Conger
and R.N.Kanungo, Charismatic leadership (San Francisco, Jossey- Boss, 1988, P 91.)

Charismatic leaders, thus, lure and motivate the subordinates towards

performance beyond expectations, innovations, creations, and create the work culture

among the followers. Charismatic leaders tend to be portrayed as wonderful heroes.

However there can also be unethical characters associated with these leaders.

8. Transformational Leadership Theory:

Bums (1978) identified two types of leadership - Transactional and

Transformational. Transactional leadership occurs when one person takes the initiative in

making contact with others for the purpose of exchange of something valued; that is, “

leaders approach followers with an eye toward exchanging” (Burns, 1978, 4).

Transformational leadership based on more than the compliance of followers. It involves

shifts in the beliefs, needs, and values of followers. According to Burns, “ the result of

transforming leadership of mutual stimulation and elevation that converts followers into

leaders into moral agents”.

Bass (1985) argued that transactional leaders “ mostly consider how to marginally

improve and maintain the quantity and quality of performance, how to reduce resistance

to particular actions, and implement decisions” (Bass, 1985, Pp27). In contrast,

transformational leaders “ attempt and succeed in raising colleagues, subordinates,

followers, clients, or constituencies to a greater awareness about the issues of

consequence. This heightening of awareness requires a leader with vision, self-

confidence, and inner strength to argue successfully for what he or she sees as right or

good, not for what is popular or is acceptable according to established wisdom of the

time” (Bass, 1985; 17).

In a study carried out by Russ, (Me Neilly and comer, 1996) among sales

managers, it was found that the more a manager display transformational style of

leadership, the higher is the level of performance. In another study carried out by

Dubinsky, (Yammarmo, Jolson and Spangler, 1995) a transactional style of leadership

was preferred for enhancing sales people’s affective and behavioural responses over the

transformational style.

Table 4.3 Characteristics of Transactional and Transformational Leaders

Transactional Leader Transformational Leader

Contingent reward: Contracts Charisma: Provides vision and sense of
exchange of rewards for effort, promises mission, instills pride, gains respect and
rewards for good performance,
recognizes accomplishments.
Management by Exception (active): Inspiration: Communities high
Watches and searches for deviations expectations, uses symbols to focus
from rules and standards, takes efforts, express important purposes in
corrective action. simple ways.
Intellectual Stimulation: Promotes
Management by Exception (Passive):
intelligence, rationality, and careful
Intervenes only if standards are not met.
problem solving.
Laissez - Faire: Abdicates Individual Consideration: Gives
responsibilities, avoids making personal attention, treats each employee
decisions. individually, coaches, and advises.
(Source: BemardM.Boss, "From Transactional to Transformational Leadership: Learning to Share the Vision”,
Organizational Dynamics, Winter 1990,p 22)


Leadership styles axe the patterns of behavriour used by the leader in influencing

the behaviour of his subordinates in the organizational context. The styles practiced by

leader may be positive or negative. These patterns are different from one leader to

another leader. The patterns are also different from manager to manager. Leaders are

followed various styles to influencing the followers to do the work basing on the situation

and attitudes, belief, values of people in the organization. The pattern is also depending

upon the leader's role and his objectives. The patterns, which are followed by leaders also

depends up on the nature of leader and organization structure. Various researchers have

proposed different, leadership styles based on the different theories and these can be

classified as given below 12

Styles based on the behavioural theories.

• Situational Theories

• Modern theories

I. Styles Based on the behavioural theories

• Power orientation

• Leadership as a continuum

• Employee production orientation

• Likert’s management system

• Managerial grid

• Tri- dimensional grid.

II. Styles Based on situational Theories

• Fiedler's contingency model

• Heresy and Blanchard's structural model.

• Path goal model.

III. Styles based modern theories

• Envisioning

• Energizing

• Enabling

i2. P. SubbaRao “Personnel and Human Resource Management”, Himalaya publishing house, 2001, Pp3l5-316.

Styles based on Behavioural Theories:

Power Orientation; Leadership styles are classified into three types based on the power

orientation. The leader to influence the behavior of his subordinates uses these styles.

These can be analyzed as given below:

I. Autocratic Leadership Styles:

An autocratic leader is work-centered or leader-centered. He concentrates all the

authority and all decision-making powers in himself. He structures the complete work

situation for his employees. There is no participation by his subordinates in the decision -

making process; they simply do what they are told to do. Autocratic leader tolerates no

deviation from the orders. Here subordinates fully depend upon him and aware of the

goals of the organization. The leader takes and assumes full responsibility for decision­

making for initiating action, and for directing, motivating and controlling his

subordinates. The Autocratic leader may think that he is only competent and capable and

his subordinates are incapable

Fig. 4.2

Figure 3.1
Autocratic leadership
Source : Rustom $. Davar, The Management Process
(Progressive Corporation Private Ltd., Born bay)

There are three categories of autocratic leaders. They are (1) Hard-boiled

Autocratic (2) Benevolent Autocratic and (3) Manipulative Autocratic.

1. Hard-boiled Autocratic: Leader or Manager follows autocratic leadership styles in a

very strict way. Method of influencing the behaviour of the subordinates is through

negative motivation. Penalties and punishments imposed by the leaders through this


2. Benevolent Autocratic: In this approach, leader or manager who tries to use many of

the techniques of positive leadership, e.g. praise and pats on the back, to secure personal

loyalty for achieving acceptance of his own decisions. Some degree of participation may

be allowed based on the situation. He can be effective in getting efficiency in many

situations. Some people may be willing to work under strong authoritative structure

followed by the leader. Thus this style may be provided satisfaction through the positive


3. ManipuIative Autocratic: Who makes the subordinates feel that they are actually

participating in decision-making even though he might take decisions himself. However,

Manipulative autocratic leadership styles cannot be used for long time to achieve the long

run objectives of the organization..

Advantages of Autocratic Leadership Styles:

• Most of the subordinates may be preferred to work under the strict rules,

regulations and strict discipline. Hence they get satisfaction from this style.

• This style provides strong motivation and rewards to a manager.

Disadvantages of Autocratic Leadership styles:

• Subordinates lack of motivations, frustrations, low morale and conflict develop in

organisation jeopardizing the organisational efficiency.

• Autocratic leadership style cannot help the subordinate to develop the leadership

skills based on the more dependence and less individuality in organisation.

II. Participative Leadership Styles:

This style is also known as Democratic, consultative or ideographic. Participation

is defined as mental and emotional involvement of people to contribute the goals and

share responsibility among the group members. Here the leader tries to lead or guide his

subordinates through persuasion and example instead of fear, status or force. He

encourages participation in decision - making. A participative manager takes decisions

based on the consultation and participation of his subordinates. Suggestions and ideas

given by subordinates, manager can achieve the objectives of the individuals and

organization. There is positive motivation of employees working in the group. Employee

also increases the morale and job satisfaction through the leader's participation approach.

The participation is either real or psuedo . This style can be presented in Figure.

13. Robert l annenbaum and Warrant 11.Schmidt" 1 low to choose a leadership pattern,” Harvard Business Review,
March-April, 1958, Pp 95-101.

Fig: 4.3

Figure 3.2
Democratic Leadership
Source: Rustom S. Davar, The Management Process
(Progressive Corporation Private Ltd., Bombay)

There are various advantages in real participative style of leadership. These are as


• The participative styles is highly motivating technique to employees based on the

preference given for the suggestions and ideas of employees.

• This style also helps to increase the productivity of employees basing on their

wholehearted involvement.

This approach is suitable for organisational success based on the effective

participation, suggestions programmes and multiple management. However this style has

some limitations, which are as follows.

• Some of the employees may not able to understand the complex nature of

organisation, structure and rigid policies etc. Here participation is not meaningful.

Some people in organisation want minimum interaction with their managers or

superiors or leaders. Thus participation techniques are discouraging for them

instead of encouraging.

III. Free Rein:

This style is also called as Laissez-Faire technique. The Laissez-Faire is a French

word meaning “to let things alone”. This style of leadership is based on the let things

take their course attitude. Adam Smith was an advocate of the Laissez-Faire style of

running a nation. He was quoted by saying the term meant “as if by an invisible hand”.

This will help the subordinates to develop their leadership qualities and skills. This style

is not practiced in business organisations and institutions because people cannot be

controlled and manager participation or contribution is almost nil. This style can be

presented in figure.
Fig. 4.4
—.—__—— ------ ■——— .............. ..... -............................... .... —........................................................ ....................... -«

Hgure 3.4
Free-Rein leadership
(Happy Employees Work Harder?)
Source: Rustam S. Davar, The Management Process
(Progressive Corporation Private Ltd., Bombay)

Leadership as a Continuum:

The originators of this theory are Tannebaum and Schmidt. They identified a

broad range of styles on a continuum moving from authoritarian leadership behaviour to

free rein behaviour .In fact these styles all variety of patterns used by leader based on the

autocratic and free rein. This style can be presented in Fig. 4.5.The figure presents a

range of leadership behaviour used by the management. These styles represent the degree

of authority used by leader and degree of freedom enjoyed by his subordinates. The left

side shows that the manager controls people and right side shows that manager has given

full freedom to his subordinates14.

Fig: 4.5

Leadership behaviour Continuum

^Subordinate Centered
Boss-Centered ^ Leadership
Leadership ^

Use of Authority
By the Manager

Area of Freedom
for subordinate

T t T t f
Manager Manager Manager Manager Manager Manager Manager
Makes Sells Presents Presents Presents defines permits
Decision Decision ideas and tentative problems limits tasks sub-
and invites decisions gets group ordinates
announces questions subject suggestions to make to function
it to change makes decision with in
decision limits
defined by

Source: C.B.Mamoria(1999), Personnel Management. Himalaya Publishing House, New Delhi, p.813.

14. C.B.Mamoria(1999). Personnel Management, “ Leadership”, Himalaya publishing house, New Delhi, P 813.

Employee-Production Orientation:

A study was conducted by survey research center at the university of Michigan,

USA. This research was made to study the leadership behavior by locating clusters of

characteristics, which are related to each other and various indicators of effectiveness.

This study identified two concepts such as the employee orientation and production

orientation. This is called Employee production oriented style. The employee orientation

stressed on the relationship aspect of employee’s job. These styles are similar to

democratic styles. On the other hand production orientation emphasized production and

technical aspects of jobs and employees for accomplishing the tasks. This is similar to the

authoritarian style of leadership behavior.

In 1945 study was conducted by Bureau of Business Research at Ohio State

University to identify the various dimensions of leader behavior. This study was

identified two dimensions such as initiative structure and consideration. The research

studies concluded that these two are separate dimensions. Initiative structure refers

patterns, methods and procedures by the leader on the other hand consideration refers

friendship and mutual trust between the leader and members. This is similar to the

participative styles of leadership. This can be presented in figure 4.6.

Fig. 4.6: The Ohio State Leadership Dimensions

High consideration High Structure

And And
Low Structure High consideration
Low Structure High Structure
And And
Low consideration Low consideration
(Source: C.B.Mamoria(l999) Personnel Management,’ Leadership’ Himalaya publishing house,
Mumbai, p 816.)


The managerial grid is a two- dimensional model of the various styles of

leadership. Based on the theory that managers can be simultaneously and to varying

degrees both task and people oriented, the grid permits analysis on a scale of 1 to 9 of the

degree of a leader’s concern for people and for productivity.

Robert R. Blake and Jane S. Mouton developed the well - known managerial grid,

registered, in 1962 in the course of research into leadership. They designed it as an

alternative to the Ohio State University’s quadrant model, which in its turn evolved from

Likert’s linear continuum model of leadership.

Blake and Mouton labeled the vertical axis of their managerial grid concern for

people, the horizontal axis concern for production, and divided into a scale of 9. Five

leadership styles are highlighted in this conception. A 1,1 manager is abdicative,

“impoverished”, concerned neither for people nor production, only for maintaining the

status quo. The 1,9 manager, fairly of not often been called the country' club type, who

shows great concern for people by emphasizing a friendly atmosphere and harmonious

relationships but shows little interest in production. In contrast, the 9,1 manager is a slave

driver, the autocratic task manager. The middle- of - the - road 5,5 manager shows a

balanced concern for people and their morale and concern for production, but the middle-

of- the- road manager also needs to move in the direction of the 9,9 team manager who

evokes high production from people committed to the goals of the organization and

relating to one another in trust and mutual respect.

Blake and Mouton have used the managerial grid both as a tool for the analysis of

a leader’s style and as an aid in setting goals and designing training for the development

of effective managers. They have devised a six- stage training program to enable

managers to move toward 7,7, 8,8, and 9,9 positions. The phases include laboratory-

seminar training, team development; inter group development, organizational goal

setting, goal attainment, and stabilization, all factors to be measured in placing a manager

on the grid.

The research findings of Blake and Mouton, as epitomized in the managerial grid,

have changed the thinking of many theorists and led them to accept the concept that

effective managers can be both hard and soft, both task and people oriented. Many

companies have found the grid to be a practical tool for helping managers to increase

their effectiveness, particularly in redirecting their orientation toward people, in the case

of the 9,1 manager, or toward production, for the 1,9 manager. While the concept of the

grid itself is widely accepted, it has not been established that most effective managers are

indeed at 9,9 although the research of Blake and Mouton reveals that 99.5% of managers

in their seminars do believe that this is the soundest way to manage. (The second most

popular style among these managers is 9,1 and the third is 5,5.) Follow up research 2 to 3

years later in companies using the grid finds managers retaining these opinions to the

same degree. Blake and Mouton themselves, how ever, recommended the situational

approach, using the style that works best in the particular situation15.

15. Lester Robert, Encyclopedia of professional management. Vol.2, Me Graw-Hill, 1978, Pp666-667.

Fig: 4.7 Managerial Grid

1,9 (Democratic)
Thoughtful attention to 9,9 (Team) Work
needs of people for accomplishment is from
satisfying relationships committed people,
leads to a comfortable interdependence through a
friendly organisation common stake in
atmosphere and work organisation purpose leads to
tempo. relationships of trust and
5,5 (Middle-of-the-road)
Adequate organisation
performance is possible
through balancing the
necessity to get out
work while maintaining
morale of people at a
satisfactory level
9,1 (Autocratic)
1,1 (Laissez faire) Efficiency in operations
Exertion of minimum resulting from arranging
effort to get work done is conditions of work in such a
appropriate to sustain way that human elements
organisation membership interfere to a minimum
Source: Lester Robert Bittel, Encyclopedia of professional management, Volume 2, Me
Graw - Mill, 1978. Pp 666 - 667.

Likert’s Management and his associates have studied the patterns and styles of

managers for the decades at University of Michigan, USA. They have developed some

important concepts and approaches to understand the behavior of leadership. He has

presented a continuum of four systems. He has selected seven variables of different

management systems, such as leadership, motivation, communication, interaction

influence, decision-making process, goal setting and control process. Likert’s four

systems may be selected to Autocratic, Benevolent Autocratic, Participative and

Democratic styles. This study has presented in

Fig: 4.8: Likert’s system of management leadership

System 1 System 2
System 3 System 4
Leadership Explorative Benevolent
Participative Democratic
variables Autocratic Autocratic

Substantial but
Confidence not complete
Has no confidence and Complete
and Trust confidence and
confidence and trust in confidence and
confidence in trust, still wishes
subordinates, trust in all matters
subordinates trust to keep control of
such as master
has in servant

Subordinates do Subordinate do
Subordinates feel Subordinates feel
not feel at all not feel very
Subordinate’s rather free to completely free to
free to discuss free to discuss
feeling of discuss things discuss things
things about the things about job
freedom. about the job with about the job with
job with their with their
their superior their superior
superior. superior

Always asks
Seldom gets Sometimes gets
Superiors Usually gets ideas subordinates for
ideas and ideas and
seeking and opinions and ideas and opinions
opinion of opinions of
involvement usually tries to and always tries
subordinates in subordinates in
with make constructive to make
solving job solving
subordinates use of them constructive use
problems problems
of them
Source; Adapted from Rensis Likert, The Human Organization, New York: McGraw-
Hill. 1967, p.4.


W.J.Reddin identified this style. He has presented three dimensions such as task

orientation, relationship orientation and effectiveness. Reddin has integrated the concept

of leadership styles with the situational demand of a specific environment. This style is

used by leaders a combination of task orientation and result orientation. Planning,

organizing and controlling characterize task orientation. Relationship orientation is

characterized by mutual trust, respect for subordinates ideas and suggestions. Leader is

used for basic styles which they represent four basic types of behavior. Each of these

styles has a less effective as well as more effective equivalent. Thus the four basic styles

result into eight styles. These eight styles result from the eight possible combinations of

task orientation, relationship orientation and effectiveness16. This can be presented in 4.9.

Each of these styles has a less effective as well as more effective equivalent.

Fig: 4.9: Tridimensional grid

Source: C.R.Mamoria(1999) Personnel management” leadership" Himalaya publishing house,

Mumbai, p 802.

16. W.J.Reddin. “Managerial Effectiveness" New York. Me Graw- Hill. 1970.

Styles Based on Situational Theories:

Fiedler's Contingency Style: Fiedler has identified leadership styles on two Dimensions

such as task directed and Human relations oriented. Task-directed Styles are primarily

concerned with the achievement of the task performance. Human relations style is

concerned with achieving good interpersonal relations and achieving personal position.

Fiedler used two types of scores to measure the styles adopted by a leader. They are

least preferred co-worker and co-worker is based on liking and disliking of an individuals

and measured on sixteen items such as pleasant-unpleasant, accepting, rejecting, trendy, I

un-trendy and so on. Fiedler also identified three critical dimensions of a leader's most

effective style. They are leader's position power, task structural and leader member

relations. This can be presented in figure 4.10(A).

Fig. 4.10: Fiedler's Contingency Styles

Situational characteristics

Leader-member Good Good Good Good Poor Poor Poor Poor

Task-Structure High High Low Low High High Low [Low
Position-Power Strong Weak Strong Weak Weak Strong Strong [Weak
High Moderate Low

Control of Leader

Leadership Task - Relationship Task-
Style Oriented - Oriented Oriented

Source: Umasekaran, Organizational behavior Text and Cases, Leadership and managerial effectiveness, Tata Me
Graw- Hill, New Delhi, 1996. p 157.

Hersey - Blanchard’s Situational Model:

Paul Hersey and Kennett H. Blanchard have classified the leadership into four

categories based on the combination of relationship behavior and task behavior.

Relationship behavior is socio - emotional support provided by the leader. Task behavior

in the amount of guidance and direction provided the leader. They identified four styles

based on two dimensions, which can be presented in fig 4.10(B).

Fig. 4.11(A): Hersey Blanchard’s Situational Model


High relationship and low High relationship and

Relationship task high task
behaviour Low relationship and low Low relationship and
task high task
Low Low High

Task behavior

Source: P.IIerscy and K.H.Blanchard, Management of Organizational Behavior: Utilizing Human Resources(5Th

ed), Englewood Cliffs, N.J.Printice Hall. 1988.

Combination of leadership styles with maturity:

There are four leadership styles, each being appropriate to specific level of

maturity17. They are selling, Telling, Participating and delegating. The four styles of

leadership is presented in fig III.l 1.

1) Telling style: This is high task, low relationship style. It is effective when

followers are at a very low level of maturity.

2) Selling style: This is high task high relationship style it is effective when

__followers are on the low side of maturity. __ __

17. L.M.Prasad “ Principles and practice of management” Sultan Chand and Sons. Educational Publishers,
2001, Pp 650-652.
3) Participative style: This is low task, high relationship style. It is effective

when followers on the high side of maturity.

4) Delegating style: This is low task, low relationship style. It is effective when

followers are at a very high level of maturity.

Fig. 4.11(B): Hersey - Blanchard’s Situational Style

Source: Pau! Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard, Management of Organisational Behaviour: Utilisation of Human
Resources, Prentice Hall Englewood Cliffs N.J.. 1988.

Path Goal Leadership styles:

Robert House and his association have studied the path Goal styles of leadership

based on the path goal theory was developed Evansin 1957. They have identified the

four styles based on the situation they are directive, Supportive, participative and

achievement orientation. These styles are based on the two situational variables

Subordinates and work environment Characteristics18. These can analysed below various

situational variables and styles have been presented in Exhibit III. 7.

Directive Leadership: Subordinates know exactly what is expected of them, and the

leader gives specific directions. There is no participation by subordinates.

Supportive Leadership: The leaders shows friendly and approachable behaviour to the

employees, he shows his concern for their needs and welfare creates pleasant

organizational climate.

Participative Leadership: The leader makes the decisions with active participation of

the employees, shares information with them and seeks suggestions from them.

Achievement oriented: The leader sets challenging goals for subordinates, seeks

improvement of performance by displaying confidence in the abilities of subordinates.

18. Stephen P. Robbins, “Organizational behavior" Prentice Hall of India, 1999, Pp 316-362.

Table 4.4:

Path Goal Leadership Styles Variables

Leadership Styles Situations in which appropriate

Directive Positive effect on satisfaction and expectancies of

subordinates working on unstructured task.

Supportive Positive effect on satisfaction of subordinates working

on dissatisfying, stressful or frustration task.

Participative Positive effect on satisfaction of subordinates who are

ego-involved with non-repetitive task.
Positive effect on the confidence that the efforts will
Achievement oriented lead to effective performance of subordinates working
on ambiguous and non-repetitive task.
(Source: Uma Sekaran,(1996) “Organisational Behaviour text and cases", Leadership and managergial
effectiveness, Tata McGraw Iiill Publishing Company Ltd., New Delhi.)

Fig. 4.12: Path Goal Leadership Style

(Source: Uma Sekaran,(1996) “Organisational Behaviour text and cases", Leadership and managerial effectiveness,
Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Ltd., New Delhi, p. 159.)

Styles Based on Modern Theories:

Modern leaders generally use high technology and competitive organisations

exhibit inspirational style with vision and perform the work effectively. They do the right

things; these styles are based on the charismatic and transformational theories. These

styles can be classified into three types: they are: 19 Envisioning, Energising and

Enabling. These can be presented as follows.

Envisioning: This style includes creating a picture of the future or desired future state

with which people can identify. Envisaging generates excitement. Thus this style

emphasizes on articulating a compelling vision and setting high goals and expectations.

Energizing: The leader in this style directs the generating of energy, the motivation to act

among the organizational employees. This style is also includes demonstrating personal

excitement and confidence seeking finding and using success

Enabling: The leader helps the followers psychologically to act or perform in the face of

challenging goals, this styles including empowering, expressing personal support and


The Effective Leadership Styles of Indian Managers:

Most of the Indian managers are generally believed autocratic style with limited

degree of participation to their subordinates. Subordinates are closely supervised and

appreciated by the Mangers based on the situations. Sometimes employees are

considered for the participation to maintain the cordial relations and to create positive

motivation to do the work effectively and efficiently various research studies have been

conducted so far as leadership effectiveness. The review of various research studies

failed to give generalized result. The findings are sometimes contradictory which
19. Fred Luthans, “Organizational Behavior'", Me Graw Hill, International education, 1995, Pp 371-372.

indicates the absence of clear-cut managerial behaviour and direction. They reflect a lack

of managerial conviction and values. Since, managerial styles are determined by various

factors such as forces in superiors, subordinates and situations it is unlikely to expect the

uniform leadership style. From this point of view, Indian work organizations all

classified into three types and which all having different features and consequently

followed different styles. They are classified as below.

1. Professionally managed Indian organizations and foreign owned organizations

2. Family managed traditional organizations

3. Public sector organizations

Manager working in family managed traditional organization’s they follow

autocratic style. Today sons and great grandsons of the entrepreneurs are automatically

promoted without having minimum educational background and knowledge etc. These

people are involved by inheritance or management by chromosome with out

consideration to efficiency and suitability are highly centralized in their organizational

structure and authorization in their approach.

Most of the family managed organization are managed by head of the family

members they have attitude of highly paternalistic oriented the same paternalistic attitude

can be developed in influencing their employees in the organizations. At the initial stage,

authoritarian style is more suitable for these organizations. Which are followed this style

has inherited by successors with appreciable change or modification. On the other side,

there are many private sector organized and owned by Indians or multinationals They

have attitude of consideration and participative to encourage their employees The

manager working in private sectors generally used practical participative style or

democratic style. Managers are applied modern technique ensuring their styles to

motivate the employees based on the modern approach of management. Thus there is a

grater participation of employees in such organizations.

The third category organizations are in public sector the present study is also

related to public sector Managers at the different levels and areas. At the initial stage

most of the public sector Civil servants who brought bureaucratic culture with their

people managed organizations. Entire organizational process all governed by

bureaucratic approach, this is against to participative style. Recent years it has been

change to participative approach based on change made by government in the economic

structure, and global competitive world.

The Right Style:

What is the right and appropriate style for Indian manager is a difficult question to

be answered. There are numerous variables, which are to be affected on leadership style.

Thus what is the effective style of manager, may not equally appropriate to others. The

style is followed based on the situations and important variables in the context are

superiors and subordinates. Analysis of different variables through some light upon the

adoption of the right and appropriate style.

Indian Society

Indian Society is consider as traditional one power and authority is an important

characteristic of the society and it is highly considered Indian society is based on three

important aspects such as joint family, caste system, ritualism. In joint family elders are

having the authority and the family members follow responsibilities Respect for power

and authority from the Beginning childhood. Head of the family member exercises the

authority on the entire family members. This respect for authority spreads through every

type of social system including working organizations similarly, caste system is also

emphasized so much which creates conflicts among the different castes besides, there are

many rituals in the Indian society which reduce the anxiety like other given way of doing

things provided by tradition and society. Rituals help the people for smooth functioning

of an organisation and also reduce the tension and anxiety.

There are many changes social attitudes and cultural life of the people based on

the industrialization. Manager has to identify the rituals, which are developed by the

society based on the situations. Thus participative style is more suitable basing on the

changing business environment, and changing situations.

Indian Managers:

There is no uniformity in the attitude, personality, educational qualifications and

experiences of Indian Managers. Most of the top managers are also just literates along

with the fully qualified professional manager. The former group of managers are all self-

developed and self-contained. As such they present very little scope for participation on

the other hand young professions have applied more interdependence and integrated

approach. Hence they are generally followed more democratic approach. The satisfaction

of such managerial class depends up on the degree of responsibility and trust. Based on

the survey some available research data on the value systems of Indian managers,

researcher has been unidentified the following characteristics Most of the Indian

Managers show autocratic style of management2n,

20.A. Chadra Mohan, The Leadership Styles of Indian managers” AndhraPradesh Industrial Portal”, Sep Ist, 2001,

> Indian managers evaluate higher status positions more positively

> Most of the Indian mangers have ethics and morals to accomplish a task

> Indian managers have been feeling powerless to influence political decision­


> Indian mangers have sense of dependence on external environments.

Considering the above different variables, the effective leadership style is

participative. It is to general description to be a practical use in both private and public

Enterprises. The participative leadership style attaches high importance to both work and

people. This style helps in gaining services form a more satisfied and cohesive group In

fact, no manager can perform effectively over an extended period of time without some

degree of employee’s participation. Some times authoritarian leadership style is also

effective in case of firms using mass production technology such as autos, foods and

clothing etc, Here the product is standardized and market for the product also exists. The

leader has to apply unity of command for efficient operation of duties and

Responsibilities of his workers but this is not suitable in all situations. Finally, the

researcher can conclude that most of the profit making public and private enterprises in

our country, have been following the participate leadership styles for better results. Thus

participates style is more effective it is considerable for the success of an enterprise

objectives. Most of the reputed and enlightened company’s have been following

participative style. 21

21. Aruna Vaidyanandhan, ” The Corporate India XT', The Economic Times, June 4, 1999, Pp 1-3.

Most of the highest profits making public and private sector in Indian have been

following participated leadership style. Authoritarian or autocratic style is practiced by

some of the company's based on the situation. They may be only 10 to 20 per cent. Thus

most of the managers, nearly about 90% follow participative style. However it should not

be taken granted in all circumstances. This may be changed based on the future changes

in the work culture and its environment.

* * * * *