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Parts of autocadd window

1. Quick Access Toolbar: 11. View Cube:
2. Ribbon Tabs: 12. WCS.
3. Search: 13. Navigation Bar:
4. External Links: 14. Drawing Area/ Graphics Area:
5. Help: 15. Command Line:
6. Title Bar: 16. Model and Layout Tabs:
7. Application Menu Button (AutoCAD Logo) : 17. Drawing Settings:
8. Ribbons: 18. Additional Settings:
9. File Tabs: 19. Drawing Coordinates:
10. Viewport Controls: 20. Co-ordinates:

21. Ribbon view:

Cadd comands



AutoCAD is a software application developed by Autodesk that enables computer-aided design (CAD) and drafting. The software is
used to produce 2D and 3D drawings. AutoCAD software allows users to conceptualize ideas, produce designs and drawings to the
required levels of technical accuracy, and even perform rapid design calculations and simulations; across a wide range of industries.

The First CAD Software for PCs

AutoCAD has been available on the market since 1982, making it the first CAD system developed for PCs. This means that AutoCAD
has been around longer than Adobe Photoshop or even Microsoft Windows! Before AutoCAD, commercial CAD programs in the
70s ran on mainframe computers or minicomputers, with each user working at a separate graphics terminal. If the designer didn’t
have access to these, they’d go about drawing using an old-school drafting desk and a t-square. Creating new versions of drawings
and performing calculations took days, even weeks. Imagine how much effort it would take to compute technical calculations with
calculators and mathematical tables! What’s worse, the process was fraught with opportunities for error.

The Origins of AutoCAD

The company behind AutoCAD, Autodesk was founded in 1982 by John Walker. He and the other 15 co-founders intended to
develop five different desktop automation applications, hoping that one of the applications would take off. Their flagship product
turned out to be AutoCAD. They launched AutoCAD at the COMDEX trade show in Las Vegas as the first CAD program in the world to
run on a PC. By March 1986, only four years after it was introduced, AutoCAD had become the most widely used design application
worldwide, a position it still holds today.
In its 35 years, AutoCAD has grown substantially. In fact, there has been 31 versions since the first release in December 1982! Over
the years, Autodesk added new features and programs to appeal to different professions. The software supports APIs for
customization and automation, which enabled the creation of vertical products such as AutoCAD Architecture, AutoCAD Electrical
and AutoCAD Civil 3D. In the last five years, Autodesk has also created mobile and cloud-based apps, including AutoCAD 360, Fusion
360, and A360 Viewer. These programs couple design and documentation tools together with the ability to share and collaborate via
the Internet.

AutoCAD’s Applications
AutoCAD was initially created for mechanical engineers, but very quickly extended to encompass a range of fields. In fact, AutoCAD’s
success is largely due to its mass adoption by a wide range of design professionals, including architects, project managers, animators
and engineers.

The main industry in which AutoCAD is used is construction. Autodesk Building Design Suite provides a 3D building design software
portfolio that combines Building Information Modeling (BIM) and CAD tools to help construction engineers design, visualize,
simulate and build more efficiently.
One example of how AutoCAD has successfully helped a project is the construction of the Shanghai Tower. The tower is a vastly
complicated structure and the developers soon realized that traditional building methods, tools and other design software were
incapable of carrying out the project successfully. So, the developers turned to the advanced tools offered by BIM, which allowed
the design team to visualize the tower in 3D and to perfectly capture the twisting structure of the tower.
Using BIM also allowed the team to analyze the design for improved decision-making; to monitor the building energy analysis in
order to create a more environmentally friendly skyscraper; and helped to save building materials. The tower’s owner and developer
credits BIM and AutoCAD for the building’s successful construction. “From a property owner’s perspective, BIM provides an
excellent tool for the design, construction, management and investment control of the entire project.”

It is not just in the construction sector where AutoCAD has seen regular use: the Entertainment Creation suites can produce high
quality entertainment content by using 3D animation software. With an array of specialized creative toolsets integrated to form a
modern, flexible graphic pipeline, the suites allows animators, visual effects artists and modelers to push the boundaries of their
creative abilities, increase their productivity and meet tight deadlines.


It is argued that the beginning of C.A.D. was the development of the SKETCHPAD system at MIT in 1963 by Ivan Sutherland (who
later created a graphics technology company). The distinctive feature of SKETCHPAD was that it allowed the designer to interact with
his computer graphically: the design can be fed into the computer by drawing on a CRT monitor with a light pen. Effectively, it was a
prototype of graphical user interface, an indispensable feature of modern CAD.
The first commercial applications of CAD were in large companies in the automotive and aerospace industries, as well as in
electronics. Only large corporations could afford the computers capable of performing the calculations. Notable company projects
were at GM (Dr. Patrick J. Hanratty) with DAC-1 (Design Augmented by Computer) 1964; Lockheed projects; Bell GRAPHIC 1 and at
Renault (Bézier) – UNISURF 1971 car body design and tooling.

As computers became more affordable, the application areas have gradually expanded. The development of CAD software for
personal desktop computers was the impetus for almost universal application in all areas of construction.

Beginning in the 1980s computer-aided design programs reduced the need of draftsmen significantly, especially in small to mid-sized
companies. Their affordability and ability to run on personal computers also allowed engineers to do their own drafting work,
eliminating the need for entire departments. In today’s world, many students in universities do not learn manual drafting techniques
because they are not required to do so. The days of hand drawing for final drawings are all but over. Universities no longer require
the use of protractors and compasses to create drawings, instead there are several classes that focus on the use of CAD software.

In 1984 Bentley Systems was founded and released MicroStation, a PC implementation of Intergraph’s CAD software and the
following year Micro-Control Systems was founded and released the first 3D wire-frame CAD software for PCs “CADKEY”. Although
PCs and Macs steadily increased in power throughout the 1980s and AutoCAD continued to gain substantial market share in the 2D
CAD software market, despite being ridiculed by the leading CAD software vendors for a lack of processor power and especially the
poor graphics. Parametric Technology Corp. launched the first UNIX workstation 3D CAD software, Pro/Engineer, in 1987.

In the computer hardware market, the “workstation wars” fought between Apollo Computer, Sun Microsystems, SGI, HP, and IBM
reached boiling point in 1987 when Apollo Computer achieved the #3 position after IBM and DEC. In 1989 HP acquired Apollo
Computer to take the #2 position from DEC and by the end of the 1980s, first-generation RISC processors and high-performance
real-time 3D full-color rendering were setting the benchmark in the hardware market.

Current computer-aided design software packages range from 2D vector-based drafting systems to 3D solid and surface modelers.
Modern CAD packages can also frequently allow rotations in three dimensions, allowing viewing of a designed object from any
desired angle, even from the inside looking out. Some CAD software is capable of dynamic mathematical modeling, in which case it
may be marketed as CADD.

CAD is used in the design of tools and machinery and in the drafting and design of all types of buildings, from small residential types
(houses) to the largest commercial and industrial structures (hospitals and factories).

CAD is mainly used for detailed engineering of 3D models and/or 2D drawings of physical components, but it is also used throughout
the engineering process from conceptual design and layout of products, through strength and dynamic analysis of assemblies to
definition of manufacturing methods of components. It can also be used to design objects. Furthermore many CAD applications now
offer advanced rendering and animation capabilities so engineers can better visualize their product designs.

CAD has become an especially important technology within the scope of computer-aided technologies, with benefits such as lower
product development costs and a greatly shortened design cycle. CAD enables designers to layout and develop work on screen, print
it out and save it for future editing, saving time on their drawings.

By 1992 UNIX workstations had redefined CAD and no new CAD software was being sold for use on mainframe or minicomputer

by 1994 the 3D CAD software programs offered by each of the leading vendors were becoming very similar: each had sketching,
constraints management, feature-based solid modeling, history trees, NURBS surfaces and X-Windows user interfaces etc.

Autodesk had steadily ridden the PC wave to become the #1 2D CAD software company with 1992 revenues of $285million (by
comparison EDS-Unigraphics CAD software revenues in 1992 were less than half at ~$130million). Autodesk had originally licensed
the ACIS kernel from Spatial in 1990 and in 1994, Autodesk announced that it had sold the 1,000,000th license of its AutoCAD 2D
CAD software and that it was releasing AutoCAD Release 13, including 3D solid modeling functions based on the ACIS 3D kernel.

3D CAD software had previously taken years and millions of dollars to develop but in principle could now be developed and released
on start-up budgets in less than a year; in 1993 a small CAD software company called SolidWorks started to do exactly that.

The mid-range CAD market had been born and SolidWorks’ perceived success was such that after just 2 years they were acquired by
Dassault Systemes in 1997 for $320million!
Meanwhile Autodesk had become increasingly concerned at the prospect of their much vaunted million-plus 2D CAD software users
being wooed by SolidWorks, SolidEdge and other full-function 3D CAD software programs on Windows from Bentley Systems,
CADKEY and numerous others. In 1996 Autodesk released Mechanical Desktop which was their first full-function 3D solid modeling
CAD software product and which rapidly became the #1 selling 3D CAD software product in the world.

Autodesk released AutoCAD 2000i in mid 2000 which was their first Web enabled CAD software and provided the ability to output
drawings that could be viewed with a Web browser and also enabled some online simple collaboration using Microsoft Net Meeting.

Using “virtual product development” with a digital master 3D assembly of 3D component models replacing clay prototypes, Boeing
had succeeded in reducing product development times in the aerospace industry and now Ford had done the same in the
automotive industry.

Advantages of Using AutoCAD

1. A mid range Software
2. User Friendly
3. Fulfills most of the professional needs of a mechanical engineer
4. Lots of Time saving (but not always)
5. Paperless Environment
6. Ease of Accuracy — e.g. joining of lines head to head is not possible manually with desired accuracy
7. Easy to edit
8. Ease of Repetition / Addition
9. Reproduction of Drawing is easy, rapid and reliable in terms of dimensional accuracy and precision.
10. 2D and 3D production of drawings is very easy.
11. Zoom Command Facility allows us to see the minute details on larger scale view.
12. A facility of Modeling and making Parts library is available.
13. Parent – Child relationship allows multiple editing in single command, means if one part is edited all other linked parts are auto
14. Data handling, data storage and data sorting become very easy in soft form as compared to the conventional Printing and filing.
15. Data transmission to distant and remote areas is very easy and economical via emailing and link sharing.
16. Layers option allows us to hide or show some specific details of a complex assembly drawing for clear understanding.
17. There is no limitation of a Drawing size. You can draw a 2 light years long line through proper scale stetting.
18. Auto scale option is available. Full scale drawings can be formed.
19. Geometrical relationship can make quick mathematical operations easy, e. g. you can make an inscribed circle using dimensions of
the triangle or polygon etc.
20. BOM or BOQ can be produced with accuracy
21. Mass, Area, Volume, Center of Gravity can be calculated
22. Auto Dimensioning – easy, accurate and rapidly done within no time.
23. Dimension Standards are strictly followed
24. Bullion operation is possible.
25. Copy, scale, Move, Stretch, rotate, Pattern commands make the task simple and easy
26. Draw Guiding through Osnap, Ortho etc.
27. Direct and Quick Drawing of Symmetrical objects. e.g circle, ellipse, polygon rectangles and triangles etc.
28. Geometrical Relationships are possible. Like two parallel lines, Tangent lines, perpendicular lines etc.
29. Fixed line thickness throughout the drawing. —– remember that, ”by default, the line thickness of auto Cad is zero”
30. Fill, Hatch, Section lines, Chamfer and fillet commands make the software a blessing as these operations are very difficult in manual
31. Adding Text – Lettering – is a big facility
32. Images can be imported and traced out for digitization of conventional diagrams and drawings.
Disadvantages of Using AutoCAD
1. Expensive equipment is required. like Computer, Plotter, big screen monitor etc.
2. Registered software is expensive and it requires a heavy re-occurring annual fee.
3. Equipment is fragile, can be damaged drastically.
4. Continuous Updating of the equipment and software is needed.
5. Electricity is mandatory for running the equipment which is a big issue for third world countries like Pakistan which is facing a severe
power crises these days.
6. Data storage is also fragile — high probability of data corruption, data loss is a big threat for all soft form data banks. To overcome
this potential disaster, experts suggest “Mirroring of Data” that is storage of data on multi hard drives on multiple locations which
involves a big capital allocation. Some disaster data recovery systems can also be implied to recover the lost data.
7. Piracy and hacking threats are always there when you use internet for data transfer or even storage of data on a computer which is
connected to internet.
8. Special computer Skills are required.
9. Proper Maintenance, supervision and administration is required for computer networking.
Advantages of using AutoCAD
AutoCAD software is the most comprehensive mechanical product design & drafting software that cater to the various needs of the
mechanical engineering companies , It comes with a complete set of powerful drafting and detailing tools for drafting the
professionals .
AutoCAD software saves a huge time , saving time is equal to earn more income by more output , It is a simple enough software
with the real user friendly interface , It is easy to grasp and it can provide you the basic exposure , It is very beneficial in designing
3D , It reduces the time for the new designs , And the products can be created more quickly.
AutoCad software is helpful , It has large set of parts and features that you can choose for your designs , It offers the powerful and
quick dimensions , You can use the simplified tools , you can generate the dimensions to control and expand only the important
variables for manufacturing easily .
AutoCad software is incorporation for International Drafting Standards , Compliance with the industry standards improves the
internal communication and the results in reliable production outputs , It presents easy data swapping , It comes with in-built
industry , standard STEP and IGES formats for the exchanging data between different CAD systems .
AutoCad software comes with the specific drafting tools for generating the standards Industry based geometric dimensions , the
surface texture symbols , the mechanical symbols and the weld symbols , And AutoCAD firm can increase their productivity
manifold .
AutoCad software automatically redraw the geometry to illustrate the dashes and the hidden lines of parts which are blocked by
the other parts in the mechanical design , It enables you to produce very accurate designs , And drawings can be created in 2D or
3D and rotated .
AutoCad software offers the professional look , It has flexibility in design changes , It has auto specification check feature , It has
reduced design times cape , It offers easy reuse of the designs , The costly mistakes in the design or the production can be avoided
, And you can modify the existing ideas that saves the time .
AutoCad software reduced the manufacturing time , The documentation can be printed in various forms for multiple users , It
presents ease of the document reproduction and cloning , And it offers the visualization of the complex technical elements .
AutoCad software offers the quality of the designs , It presents the clarity of the documentation , It is easier to apply the new ideas
, It can be more accurate than hand-drawn designs , It reduces the human error , You can save and edit the ideas , And it makes it
easier and cheaper to modify your design .
AutoCad software reduced the design timescales , Reuse of the designs , The drawing errors can be corrected easily , The drawings
can be sent/received via email in seconds , AndAutoCad software offers rapid prototyping .
AutoCad software helps the designer to automatically check if the design is within the specification , It enables the clients to
view the designs at an earlier stage in the design process , And it helps the clients to check the progress of functional and semi-
functional prototypes .
Disadvantages of using AutoCAD
AutoCad software is not so much suited for 3D as it has fewer options , It can not be used in the complex designs , If you are into
the heavy assembly work don’t rely on this software , It can not be used in Complex Programming , The large amount of memory
and speed is required , Training and equipments are very costly .
AutoCad software has expansive start up costs ( the hardware , the software , and training ) ,It can be very expensive , so , the initial
costs are high , There are free software packages though , The people need to be trained how to use the software that also adds to
the costs , And it requires a PC .
AutoCad software needs the time & the cost of implementing the system , It needs time & cost of training the people to use it , so
, It is very expensive in training , It needs the time & the cost of migrating legacy drawings into AutoCAD format .
AutoCad software consumes large amounts of the computer processing power , It requires high-quality computer hardware that
can be costly , It requires the advanced manufacturing devices which are very expensive , It is not easy for first-time users to learn
the software , In addition to the cost of training personnel .