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TI = TR = TO =
1. Do not use dictionary
2. Read the following passages and answer the questions by choosing the correct answer!


The American Revolution is the only one in modern history which, rather than devouring the intellectuals
who prepared it, carried them to power. Most of the signatories of the Declaration of Independence were
intellectuals. This tradition is ingrained in America, whose greatest statesmen have been intellectuals—
Jefferson and Lincoln, for example. These statesmen performed their political function, but at the same
time they felt a more universal responsibility, and they actively de ned this responsibility. Thanks to them
there is in America a living school of political science. In fact, it is at the moment the only one perfectly
adapted to the emergencies of the contemporary world, and one that can be victoriously opposed to
communism. A European who follows American politics will be struck by the constant reference in the
press and from the platform to this political philosophy, to the historical events through which it was best
expressed, to the great statesmen who were its best representatives.

1. The title that best expresses the ideas of this passage is

a. Fathers of the American Revolution
b. Jefferson and Lincoln—Ideal Statesmen
c. The Basis of American Political Philosophy
d. Democracy vs. Communism
2. According to the passage, intellectuals who pave the way for revolutions are usually
a. honored
b. misunderstood
c. destroyed
d. forgotten
3. Which statement is true according to the passage?
a. America is a land of intellectuals.
b. The signers of the Declaration of Independence were well educated.
c. Jefferson and Lincoln were revolutionaries.
d. Adaptability is a characteristic of American political science.


As in the case of so many words used by the biologist and the physiologist, the word acclimatization
is hard to de ne. With increases in knowledge and understanding, meanings of words change. Originally,
the term acclimatization was taken to mean only the ability of human beings or animals or plants to
accustom themselves to new and strange climatic conditions, primarily altered temperature. A person or a
wolf moves to a hot climate and is uncomfortable there, but after a time is better able to withstand the
heat. But aside from temperature, there are other aspects of climate. A person or an animal may become
adjusted to living at higher altitudes than those it was originally accustomed to. At really high altitudes,
such as that which aviators may be exposed to, the low atmospheric pressure becomes a factor of primary
importance. In changing to a new environment, a person may, therefore, meet new conditions of
temperature or pressure, and in addition may have to contend with different chemical surroundings. On
high mountains, the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere may be relatively small; in crowded cities, a
person may become exposed to relatively high concentrations of carbon dioxide or even carbon monoxide
and in various areas may be exposed to conditions in which the water content of the atmosphere is
extremely high or extremely low. Thus in the case of humans, animals, and even plants, the concept of
acclimatization includes the phenomena of increased toleration of high or low temperature, of altered
pressure, and of changes in the chemical environment.
Let us define acclimatization, therefore, as the process by which an organism or a part of an
organism becomes inured to an environment that is normally unsuitable to it or lethal for it. By and large,
acclimatization is a relatively slow process. The term should not be taken to include relatively rapid
adjustments such as those our sense organs are constantly making. This type of adjustment is commonly
referred to by physiologists as “adaptation.” Thus our touch sense soon becomes accustomed to the
pressure of our clothes and we do not feel them; we soon fail to hear the ticking of a clock; obnoxious
odors after a time fail to make much impression on us, and our eyes in strong light rapidly become
The fundamental fact about acclimatization is that all animals and plants have some capacity to
adjust themselves to changes in their environment. This is one of the most remarkable characteristics of
living organisms, a characteristic for which it is extremely difficult to find explanations.

4. According to the reading selection, all animals and plants

a. have an ability for acclimatization
b. are successful in adjusting themselves to changes in their environments
c. can adjust to natural changes in the environment but not to artificially induced changes
d. that have once acclimatized themselves to an environmental change can acclimatize themselves
more rapidly to subsequent changes
5. It can be inferred from the reading selection that
a. every change in the environment requires acclimatization by living things
b. plants and animals are more alike than they are different
c. biologists and physiologists study essentially the same things
d. as science develops, the connotation of terms may change
6. According to the reading selection, acclimatization
a. is similar to adaptation
b. is more important today than it formerly was
c. involves positive as well as negative adjustment
d. is more difficult to explain with the more complex present-day environment than formerly
7. By inference from the reading selection, which one of the following would not require the process of
a. an ocean fish placed in a lake
b. a skin diver making a deep dive
c. an airplane pilot making a high-altitude light
d. a person going from daylight into a darkened room
8. According to the passage, a major distinction between acclimatization and adaptation is that
a. is more important than adaptation
b. is relatively slow and adaptation is relatively rapid
c. applies to adjustments while adaptation does not apply to adjustments
d. is applicable to all animals and plants and adaptation only to higher animals and man

9. Prejudice is a rigid emotional attitude often based on inadequate data. It is a stereotyped thinking
and includes a tendency to respond negatively toward a certain person or group. It may be, for
example, when someone believes that “all” men or “all” women should act a certain way. It also
is an attitude that may spur hidden or open action against others.
The Pattern of Organization of the paragraph is:
a. statement/example
b. addition
c. contrast
d. cause-effect


10. Arrange these following paragraph into a coherence text!

A The first bridges were simply trees that fell or were placed across water or canyons. The
wood was strong enough to bear the weight of a person or two at a time, but not for carrying
heavy loads. People made bridges by stretching rope cables across an open area. In China and
other places, rope bridges are still used. They’re strong enough to hold people and pack
animals with light loads.
B Another kind of bridge is the cantilever. It has two independent steel or concrete beams, one
extending toward the center of a river from each bank. A third beam is lifted up to connect
the beams. Canada’s Quebec Bridge is one of the world’s longest, spanning 1,800 feet (549
m) across the St. Lawrence River.
C Later, people built arch bridges by wedging together large blocks of stone to form a half
circle. Arch bridges are among the strongest and longest-lasting: Some built more than 1,500
years ago are still being used, Even today, people build arch bridges, but usually from
concrete, wood, or steel. People the world over are moving out of rural areas and into urban
centers nearby and across the world.
D Have you ever thought about how important a bridge is? After all, without bridges, how
would people get across rivers and wide gorges? Bridges are an essential part of our
transportation system for moving people and goods.
E A suspension bridge spans even more space with its roadway hanging from steel cables
supported by massive towers. Each cable can hold thousands of pounds of weight. Probably
the most familiar suspension bridge is California’s Golden Gate, with a main span of 4,200
feet (1,280 m). When completed in 1937, it was the world’s longest, but in 1964, New York’s
Verrazano-Narrows Bridge beat that with a span of 4,260 feet (1,298 m). Then in 1981,
England’s Humber Bridge beat that with a span of 4,626 feet (1,410 m). And since 1998,
Japan’s Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge has held the record, with a span of 1,991 feet (6,529 m). Will
that record be beaten? Stay tuned!

11. What is the main idea of this passage?
a. Bridges are an essential part of our transportation system for moving people and goods.
b. The history and development of bridge
c. Bridges were simply trees that fell or were placed across water or canyons.
d. A suspension bridge spans even more space with its roadway hanging from steel
cables supported by massive towers.
12. What is the meaning of the word bridge as used in the article?
a. the upper bony part of the nose
b. the part of a ship where the captain works
c. card game
d. pathway structure over a river or valley
13. The meaning of still as used in the article is
a. “quiet.”
b. “unmoving.”
c. “calm.”
d. “even now.”
14.What is the meaning of the word beam as used in the article?

a. long piece of heavy wood or metal used in construction

b. width of a ship at its widest part

c. ray of light
d. smile
15. Which of the following words from the last paragraph is a multiple-meaning word?
a. familiar
b. record
c. steel
d. since
16. The word “it” in line 8 refer to?
a. California’s Golden Gate
b. The suspension bridge
c. New York’s Verrazano-Narrows Bridge
d. a main span

17. What sentence that is irrelevant with the topic in this passage?
a. When completed in 1937, it was the world’s longest, but in 1964, New York’s
Verrazano-Narrows Bridge beat that with a span of 4,260 feet (1,298 m).
b. People built arch bridges by wedging together large blocks of stone to form a half circle.
c. Arch bridges are among the strongest and longest-lasting
d. People the world over are moving out of rural areas and into urban centers nearby and
across the world.
18. The paragraph following this passage most probably discusses
a. history of bridges
b. the new bridge span record
c. Canada longest bridge
d. the important of bridges

QUESTION 19 – 27

Another problem for human since the beginnings of agriculture is weeds. Marring
our gardens is one of the milder effects of weeds-any plants that thrive where they are
unwanted. They clog (line) waterways, destroy wildlife habitats, and impede farming.
Their spread eliminates grazing areas and accounts for one-third of all crop loss.
They compete for sunlight, nutrients, and water with useful plants. The global need
for weed control has been answered mainly by the chemical industry. Its herbicides
are effective and sometimes necessary, but some pose serious problems, particularly
if misused.

Toxic compounds threaten animal and public health when they accumulate in food
plants, ground water, and drinking water. They also harm workers
who apply them. In recent years, the chemical industry has introduced several
herbicides that are more ecologically sound. Yet new chemicals alone cannot solve
the world's weed problems. Hence, scientists are exploring the innate weed-killing
powers of living organisms, primarily insects and microorganisms.

The biological agents now in use are harmless to humans and are environmentally
benign. They can be chosen for their ability to attack selected targets and leave crops
and other plants untouched. In contrast,some of the most effective chemicals kill
virtually all the plants they come in contact with, sparing only those that are naturally
resistant or have been genetically modified for resistance. Furthermore, a number of
biological agents can be administered only once, after which no added applications
are needed. Chemicals typically must be used several times per growing season.

19. The paragraph preceding this passage most probably discusses

a. A different human problem in agriculture
b. Where weeds appear
c. One third of crops lost
d. The chemical industry
20.With what topic does this passage primarily deal?
a. The importance of the chemical industry
b. The dangers of toxic chemicals
c. Advantages of biological agents over chemical ones
d. A proposal to ban the use of all herbicides
21.Which of the following terms does the author define in the first paragraph?
a. Grazing areas
b. Weeds
c. Wildlife habitats
d. Nutrients
22. Which of the following statements about the use of chemical agents as
herbicides would the author most likely agree?
a. It should be increased.
b. It has become more dangerous recently.
c. It is safe but inefficient.
d. It is occasionally required.
23. Which of the following is NOT given as an advantage of biological agents over chemical herbicides?
a. They are less likely to destroy desirable plants.
b. They are safer for workers.
c. They are more easily available.
d. They do not have to be used as often.
24. The word "those" in line 21 refers to
a. chemicals
b. targets
c. plants
d. agents
25. According to the passage, biological agents consist mainly of
a. insects and microorganisms
b. useful plants
c. weeds
d. herbicides
26.Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage?
a. A general idea is introduced, and several specific examples are given.
b. A recommendation is analyzed and rejected.
c. A problem is described, and possible solutions are discussed.
d. Two possible causes for a phenomenon are compared.
27. The paragraph following this passage most likely contains information on what?
a. chemical substances usage guide
b. biological agents
c. environmental condition
d. genetically resistant plant

Rearrange these jumble supporting sentences into a logical coherence paragraph

28. Today we use two basic kinds of currency, or money: metal coins and paper

1. In about 1,000 B.C., the Chinese minted the first metal coins.
2 But once people bartered, or traded, for things they needed or wanted
3. So people would trade a bag of gold for a bag of salt!
4. In ancient Africa, salt was really valuable because people in many places didn’t have it, and they
needed it to flavor and preserve their food.
5. Then, about 3,500 years ago, people started using seashells as money.

They had holes in the centers so they could be carried on a string, kind of like a key ring. Later, the
Chinese invented paper money.
a. 1-2-5-4-3
b. 3-4-2-1-5
c. 2-4-3-5-1
d. 5-3-2-1-4

29 As young boys, Wilbur (1867–1912) and Orville (1871–1948) Wright sold homemade mechanical

1. But the gliders didn’t have quite enough lifting power, so the boys went back to the drawing
2.The Wrights’ flying began with gliders.
3.They built a 6-foot (1.8 m) wind tunnel where they tested new wing designs.
4.In their twenties, the boys made bikes, and in their thirties, they built their own flying machines.
5.They tested wind-gliders near Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, where breezes were most favorable.

After building and flying almost 1,000 gliders, they found the right design, then moved on to create a
motor-driven aircraft.

a. 4-2-5-1-3
b. 2-3-5-4-1
c. 5-3-2-4-1
d. 3-5-2-1-4

30. A flu outbreak in 1918–1919 was worldwide.

1. The virus is found mostly in birds, but since 1997, some humans have been infected.
2. Experts say it’s only a matter of time before this, or some other flu, causes another pandemic.
3. One-fifth of the world’s population was infected and 20–40 million people died.
4. So far, only a few hundred people have died from “Bird Flu”.
5. Today people worry about the “Bird Flu.”

So take care of yourself . . . and cover that cough!

a. 3-4-2-1-5
b. 2-4-3-5-1
c. 3-5-1-4-2
d. 1-5-3-2-1

31 A dream is a story a sleeper watches or takes part in.

1) Events in dreams are imaginary, but they’re related to real experiences in the sleeper’s life.
2) No one can recall every dream, but everyone dreams, even though some people may tell you
they don’t.
3) On waking, a sleeper may remember only what happened right before waking up.
4) They really do dream; they just don’t remember any of their dreams!
5) It’s filled with images, sounds, odors, and emotions.

If you spent the day at the beach, you might dream of the ocean that night.

a. 5-3-2-4-1
b. 5-4-3-2-1
c. 1-2-5-4-3
d. 1-3-2-4-5

32 More than 3,500 years ago, South American Indians in Brazil and Peru first grew peanuts.

1) Along with sandy soil, peanuts need plenty of sunshine, water, and four or five months of
warm weather—just what’s available in our southern states.
2) In the 1700s, some Africans brought peanuts to America.
3) Later, people took peanuts from Spain to Africa, where they quickly became a staple.
4) Hundreds of year later, Spanish explorers ate some, then took some back home to plant.
5) They ate some and planted some.

So by 1800, groundnuts were growing all over the South. And today, with about 40,000 peanut
farms, the United States is the world’s third-largest peanut producer.
a. 2-3-5-4-1
b. 2-5-3-1-4
c. 4-3-2-5-1
d. 4-2-3-5-1

33 George Washington Carver is often called “the peanut wizard” because he not only helped to make
peanuts “big business,” he found many different ways to use them.

1) And he looked for ways to use every part of the peanut plant.
2) Born around 1864, Carver worked a lot with plants as he was growing up.
3) In 1914, southern cotton crops were destroyed by insects.
4) When he grew up, he taught about farming and plants in Alabama.
5) The farmers had no income, so Carver convinced them to plant peanuts.

Before long, he’d made 325 different things from ground nuts, including coffee, cheese, ink, glue,
face powder, soap, shampoo, mayonnaise, medicine, hand lotion, rubber, and ice cream!

a. 2-4-3-5-1
b. 2-3-5-1-4
c. 2-5-3-4-1
d. 2-1-3-4-5


Read the passages. IF the statements following the passages are valid inferences based on
those passages, mark the items A. If the statements cannot be inferred from the passage,
mark those items B.

A legend is a popular type of folk tale. In some ways, legends resemble myths, another type of folk tale.
But myths describe events from antiquity and usually deal with religious subjects, such as the birth of a
god. Legends tell of recognizable people, places and events and often take place in comparatively recent
times. Some legends are based on real persons or events, but many are entirely fictional. The legends of
the superhuman accomplishments of Paul Bunyan and Pecos Bill are imaginary, while the legends about
Washington and Lincoln are mostly exaggerations of real qualities those two presidents had. All societies
have legends. Most legends began as stories about the heroes of a particular region, occupation, or ethnic
group. For example, John Henry was a legendary hero of black Americans, and Casey Jones of railroad
workers. Over time, however, these figures have become national heroes.

______ 34. Both legends and myths can be classified as folk tales.
______ 35. Myths generally take place in comparatively recent times.
______ 36. The stories of Paul Bunyan and Pecos Bill are not true, but they are based on actual people.
______ 37. Legends about Washington and Lincoln are not entirely fictional.
______ 38. John Henry and Casey Jones are today well-known only by small groups of people.


Fill in the blank with the correct marker.

(A) in addition (F) in other words

(B) while (G) on the other hand
(C) therefore (H) as a result
(D) similar to (I) likewise
(E) in contrast (J) although

Rural dwellers – ____39____ people who do not live in cities and towns – live close to nature. Urban
dwellers, ____40______ , often live their lives very far from such things as rivers and streams, forests and
mountains. ______41______ villagers spend most of their time outside in the fields, city workers spend
most of their working day in heated or cooled buildings. _____42______, city workers are usually very
narrowly specialized. For example, a computer programmer may not know how to repair his computer if
it breaks down. _____43______, rural workers are normally very widely specialized and can cope with
many different types of work within the community.
QUESTION 44 – 50

The reading passage on the previous page has seven paragraphs A--G. Choose the correct heading
for each paragraph from the list of headings below. Write the correct letter A—F next to the

List of Headings F Convincing the customers

A Using technology to increase safety G A series of difficulties
B Training drivers from abroad H A need for government help
C Making public transport affordable I A badly needed solution
D Linking different forms of public transport J A project cancelled
E An efficient automated system

South-East Asia on Track with Mass Transit Railways

A number of cities, including Toronto and Vancouver, are constructing mass transit railways in an
attempt to overcome the inadequate road systems, where simply travelling five blocks can take over
an hour. In this article we take a look at this form of transport in three South-East Asian cities:
Bangkok, Kuala Lumpur and Singapore

A Bangkok is a thriving city with a population of six million and a further two million who travel into the
city every day. Well-known for the terrible daily traffic jams, the Thai government desperately needed,
a transport system that would reduce pressure on the already busy roads. In 1992, city administrators
embarked upon the Sky Train project, notable for several reasons.

B First of all the government was reluctant to invest public funds in the huge project (around $1.7
billion), so private investment had to be found. In the end, a conglomerate including Siemens and the
Italian-Thai Construction Company won the contract but in 1997, when the Asian economic crisis hit,
the whole enterprise nearly collapsed when nervous investors wanted to pull the plug. A second major
issue was the actual construction, which was taking place in the middle of the road and, whilst
accidents were rare, a taxi driver was killed when a beam fell from one of the viaducts. Construction
was stopped for two months and stricter safety rules were implemented. A further difficulty-involved
personnel who all had to be trained from scratch.

C Yet despite all these problems, the Sky Train opened ahead of schedule. Now though, there is a further
challenge for the operators: persuading the people to use the system. Compared to the buses, tickets
are not particularly cheap. In order to pay the debt, the operators need to aim for a minimum of 680,-
000 trips a day which presents a real marketing challenge. And the Sky Train is only the first part of an
ambitious plan: a further 240 kilometres of track, including an underground portion, is already in the

D Private investment in the rail system proved to be an unsuccessful approach for Malaysia, whose
government was forced to take over the finances of Kuala Lumpur's mass transit system in
2001.Afthough construction had already been completed, severe financial problems hit the companies
responsible for the transit system. Now, the government has arranged a $5.5 billion bond to buy the
assets, which will then be leased back to the companies.

E The Light Rail Transit (LRT) system has 24 stations and is a combination of tunnel and elevated track,
designed to avoid impacting on existing roads. At present, around 10,000 people ride the train daily,
but the target figure is 30,000. Safety and automation feature heavily: the trains are driverless, the
signaling is fully automated and it is able to provide a service level of 90 seconds between trains
during peak hours. In terms of safety, passengers can communicate directly with the control centre
from two-way phones and every platform has emergency buttons and CCTV cameras. There is even an
`intrusion detection system' which can detect when passengers get too close to the moving trains or
tracks. As well as extending the system, the government is looking at introducing an integrated
ticketing system for buses and LRT as well as merging six competing bus services.

F Adding to Singapore's existing Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) is the new North East Line: a $2.6 billion,
20-kilometre underground system which was opened in,2003 by the state's Land Transport Authority.
The line, including the stations, is fully automatic. It can carry 40,000 people per hour in each
direction without anyone operating the trains or ,opening the • doors at the station. Like the Malaysian
system, an operating time of 90 seconds can be achieved during peak times, although currently, trains
reach the stations every three minutes.
G A concept that is being explored is the use of 'multi-modal' stations: These would incorporate bus
stations, MRT interchange stations, residential developments and retail space. This would allow total
integration of transport systems as well as ease of transfer and should be in place by 2008. For a small
country like Singapore, encouraging the community to use public transport instead of cars makes
nothing but sense.

44. Paragraph A .................

45. Paragraph B ................

46. Paragraph C ................

47. Paragraph D ...............

48. Paragraph E ...............

49. Paragraph F ...............

50. Paragraph G ..............